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Misc Biographies


Shri Bakreshwar Pandit  was present with  Shriman Mahaprabhu during  His pastimes in Navadwipa  and after his  accep tance of Sannyasa  he also accompanied  Him  to  Jagannath  Puri.  During  the time of the Lord’s residence in Puri  he continued to  live with Him  there as well.  Shri Bakreswar Pandit took birth in the village of Guptipara near  Triveni.  He was an especially proficient  dancer and kirtaniya and could  dance continously for 72 hours.

When  Shri  Chaitanya Mahaprabhu  began His  pastimes of  congregational chanting  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Shri Hari in Navadwip, Shri Bakreswar Pandit was an important singer and dancer in that assembly. It was  by His  mercy  that  Devananda  Pandit  was  delivered  from the wrath of Mahaprabhu.  He  was  also  present  during  the  Lord’s  journey   to Ramakeli. Devananda  Pandit was,  at one  time, known  as the foremost lecturer  on  the  Bhagavat.  One  day  Shrivas Pandit went to hear his discourse,  and  being   moved  in  ecstatic   love  by  hearing   the Bhagavatam, he began to cry.

A few of the ignorant students of Devananda Pandit, thinking that this was creating a  disturbance, removed Shrivas  Pandit from the  assembly and left him outside.  Though this was done  in front of Devananda  he didn’t  restrain  his  students  from  this  act  of  disregard to the devotee  -  Bhagavat.  There  are  two  types  of  Bhagavat - the book bhagavat and the devotee  bhagavat. For this reason,  Devananda Pandit became implicated in an offense to a great devotee (maha-bhagavat).

When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu came to hear how his dear devotee, Shrivas Pandit, had  been disrespected,  he gave  many instructions concerning the Bhagavat. He told that those who read the book Bhagavat but  don’t offer respects to the  devotee-Bhagavat, are simply offenders,  though they may  read the  Bhagavat for  eons, still  they will  never attain love of  Godhead. The  devotee bhagavata  and the  book bhagavata  are non-different.  In  order  to  understand  the  book bhagavat one must first  sincerely  serve  the  devotee-bhagavata.  Therefore Mahaprabhu neglected Devananda and didn’t bestow His mercy on him.

One evening Bakreswar Pandit came  to perform dancing and chanting  of the Holy Name at the house of one devotee from Kulia, across the  bank of  the  Ganga  from  Nadia.  Receiving this auspicious news Devananda proceeded there,  and upon  seeing the  appearance of  the symtoms  of divine love in the person  of Shri Bakreswar Pandit he  became charmed.  Gradually a great crowd gathered at that place, and Devananda  Pandit, taking a  cane in  his hand,  kept the  crowd in  order so  as not  to obstruct the ecstatic  dancing of Shri  Bakreswar Pandit. In  this way, Bakreswar  Pandit  performed  chanting,  and  dancing for two praharas (six hours), on into the night.

When he  finished dancing  and sat  down, Devananda  came and  offered dandavats  at  the  lotus  feet  of  Shri  Bakreswar Pandit, who became pleased  with  this  service  and  blessed  Devananda  with the words:

“Krishna-bhakti hauk”  - “May  you attain  devotion to  Shri Lord Krishna.” From that day devotion was awakened  in the heart of Devananda by  the mercy of Bakreswar Pandit.

Thereafter when Mahaprabhu came to Nadia to have darsan of his  mother and mother Ganges, he bestowed His mercy on Devananda at Kulia.

“Because you have  served Bakreswar I  have noticed you.  Bakreswar is fully  imbued  with  the  Lord’s  transcendental  energy,  and whoever becomes devoted to him,  attains to the lotus  feet of Shri Krishna.  His heart is the personal abode of  Shri Krishna and as shri Krishna  dances, so Bakreswar  also  dances.  Wherever  one  can  get  the  association of Bakreswar, that place is  the sum total of  all Holy places and  is as good as Shri Vaikuntha.”

Bakreswar  Pandit’s  disciple  was  Gopal  Guru Goswami and Gopal Guru Goswami’s disciple was Shri  Dhyancananda Goswami. In his  Dhyan Candra Paddhati -  Dhyan Candra  Goswami has  written -  “that person who was previously very expert in the  arts of singing and dancing,  the gopi, Tungavidya, is presently  renowned in the  world as Bakreswar  Pandit.  He has appeared on  the fifth day of  the dark fortnight of  the month of Asar and he closed his pastimes  in this world on the sixth day  of the bright fortnight of the month Asar.

While Bakreswar  danced, Mahaprabhu  Himself would  sing and Bakreswar would catch hold of His lotus feet, saying; “O moon-faced one, give me 10,000 gandharvas, and  let them sing  while I dance.  Then I will  be happy.”  Mahaprabhu  answered,  “You  are  one  of  my wings. If I had another (like you) I could fly in the sky.” [C. C. Adi 10.17].

Bakreswar Pandit’s worshippable deity is Shri Shri Radha-kanta, whom  he worshipped in Kasi Misra’s house, which was also the residence of  Shri Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu  (Gambhira).  These   deities  are  still   being worshipped there to this day.



Shri  Swarup  Damodar  is  the   eternal  associate  of  Shri   Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.   His  previous  name  was  Shri  Purusottam  acarya and he resided at Navadwip.

He was always  present with Mahaprabhu.  When Shri Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu exhibited His pastimes of  accepting sannyasa, Swarup Damodara  became like a madman  and, journeying to  Baranasi he also  accepted sannyasa from one sannyasi named  Chaitanyananda. His sannyasa guru  ordered him that, “You  should yourself  study the  Vedanta and  also teach  it to others.”  Shri  Purusottama  acarya  didn’t  accept  the  garments   of sannyasa, but simply gave up his sikha and brahmana thread.  Therefore his name became Swarup (a  brahmacari name). Thereafter, by the  order of his guru, he came to Shri Nilacal, where he again met Mahaprabhu.

Then one day, Swarup Damodar, who was very intimate with  Maha”prabhu, and an ocean of the mellows  of devotion, came to Shri Jagannath  Puri.  His previous name  was Purusottam acarya  and he resided  at Navadwip, at the lotus feet of  Mahaprabhu. Seeing that Mahaprabhu had  accepted sannyasa,  he  became  like  a  madman  and  also accepted sannyasa at Varanasi. [C. C. Mad. 10.102].

Though his scholarship was practically unlimited, he spoke very little with others and preferred to remain alone. Thus very few were aware of his  actual  position.   He  was  complete ly   conversant  with   the understanding of  the mellows  of devotion  to Shri  Krishna and his body was  fully  imbued  with  love  for  Him.  He  was  as though a second Mahaprabhu. Whenever anyone wanted to present to Mahaprabhu some book, verse or song that they had composed, Swarup Damodar would first  hear what they had written before  it could be presented to  Mahaprabhu. If these compositions contained any points which were in contradiction to the  superior  position  of  bhakti,  as concluded in scriptures, then hearing  these  writings  would  not  be  a  source  of transcendental pleasure for  Mahaprabhu. Therefore  Swarup Gosai  would first examine what  had  been  composed  and  if  it  was untainted then it could be presented to Mahaprabhu.

Usually he would recite Shri Gita Govinda, and the writings of Candidas and Vidyapati,  for the  transcendental happi ness  of Mahaprabhu.  In music and singing  he was lika  a Gandhar va and  in knowledge of  the sastras he was like Brhaspati. There was no one to compare with him in talent and  intelligence. He  was extremely  dear to  Shri Advaita  and Nityananda Prabhu and  was the life  and soul of  devotees like Shrivas and others.

When  Shri  Swarup  Damodar  arrived  in  Puri from Kasi ( Baranasi) he recited  this  sloka  in  praise  of  Mahaprabhu: “Oh You, who are the personification  of  mercy  -  Shri  Chaitanya.  That  which very easily causes grief to retreat far away, and which is spotlessly pure;  which causes  the  appearance  of  the  highest  happiness,  and  by   whose appearance disputa tion over the intricacies of scriptural  statements ceases; that which causes the  spirit to become extremely agitated  in ecstatic love,  by a  shower of  grace and  beauty; may that extremely expansive and auspicious mercy by its sweetness and dignity shine  its rays upon me.” (Shri Chaitanya Candrodoy Natak.)

Seeing  that  Swarup  Damodar  was  offering  his  dandavats  to  Him, Mahaprabhu picked him up and as He  embraced him he said, “I saw in  a dream  this  morning  that  you  had  come.  Just as a blind man finds unlimited happiness  by regaining  his eyesight,  so I  am feeling  by regaining your association.”

Swarup Damodar replied: “Prabhu, please forgive me. By leaving You and running off to Baranasi, I made  a great mistake. I don’t have  even a hint of attachment to  your lotus feet, and  I have actually become  a great sinner by leaving you and going to a distant country.  I gave up your associa tion,  but You  didn’t give  me up.  Binding the  rope of mercy around my neck You brought me again to  Your lotus feet.” [C. C.  Mad 10]

Hearing  these  words  of  Swarup  Damodar,  spoken  in such humility, Mahaprabhu again embraced  him and said:  “Krishna is very  kind. He has very mercifully brought us together again.”

Mahaprabhu  kept  Swarup  Damodar  close  to  Him. Whenever Mahaprabhu became  immersed  in  a  particular  ecstatic  emotion, Swarup Damodar would perform  a kirtan  in that  particular mood.  During this period Shri Ray Ramananda  also arrived from  Vidyanagar in South  India. Thus the two of  them, Swarup Damodar  and Ramananda Ray  would enhance the ecstatic moods of Mahaprabhu  by singing different songs  and reciting various poetic verses. During the day, Mahaprabhu would engage in  his pastimes of sankirtan with His  devotees, and at night He  would taste the  mellows  of  the  ecstatic  love  of  Shri  Shri Radha-Krishna in the company of these  two. As Lalita  and Visakha were  very intimate with Shrimati Radharani,  Ray Ramananda  and Swarup  Damodar were  similarly intimate with Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Swarup Damodar’s place  of residence in  Puri was the  “Satasan Math”.  This is located  near Bhaktivinode Thakur’s  “bhakti kutir”, near  the ocean  at  Svarga  Dwar.  Mahaprabhu  entrusted  him to look after and instruct Raghunath Das Goswami.

Swarup Damodar  Goswami disappeared  on the  second day  of the bright fortnight in the month of Asar.


Shri  Sivananda  Sen  was  a  very  intimate  servant  of  Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Just  before the rainy season (Caturmasya)  he would  lead the associates of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu from Bengal to Puri, where  they would go  each year,  to see  the Lord.  All of  the expenses  of this journey were born by him, Sen Sivananda. [C. C. Adi 10.54].

Wealth and opulences are properly  engaged in the sevice of  Shri Hari, the  guru  and  the  Vaishnavas.  Sivananda  Sen  used his property and possessions  in  this  way,  in  the  service  of Shri Gauranga and His devotees. His entire  family, sons and  servants were all  devotees of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

His three sons, Shri Chaitanya Das,  Shri Rama das and Shri Karnapur  das, were extremely  devoted to  Mahaprabhu. His  two nephews,  Shri Ballabh sen and Shri Kanta Sen were also great devotees.

Sen Sivananda used to reside at Kumar hatta, which is presently  known as Halisahir. The location of  his worshipable Deities, Shri Shri  Gour-gopal  is  unknown  at  present.  However,  the  Deities worshipped by Shrinath  Pandit,  the  guru  of  Kavi  Karnapur, are still residing at Kalyani. This is the temple of  Kesto Ray, and is located a  few miles from Chaitanya Doha.

In his Gaur-ganoddesa-dipika, the son of Sivananda, Shri Kavi  Karnapur has written that the gopi in  Brindavan by the name Bira, who  was the messenger of Shrimati  Radharani, is presently  known as Shri  Sivananda Sen.

The devotees would  depart for Puri  one month before  the Ratha-yatra festival and travelling by foot, they would arrive one month later.

One day, the devotees set out  on their trip, as it was  an auspicious day to begin  a journey. At  first they came  to Shri Advaita  Acarya’s house in  Santipur. After  conducting a  festival there  for one  day, Advaita prabhu,  his wife  and son  accompanied the  party to  Mayapur where they would have the darsan of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s mother, Saci mata. She was  somehow or other  passing her days  in great separation from her son.

The  devotees  all  offered  their  obeisances  to her and she in turn offered obeisances  to the  feet of  Advaita Acarya  and his wife Sita Thakurani. Then, while remembering her son, she began to cry.  Advaita Acarya Prabhu and his wife consoled  Saci Mata as best as they  could, and  then,  along  with  the  other  devotees,  they  commenced  their journey.

Though  Lord  Chaitanya  had  ordered  Nityananda  Prabhu  to preach in Bengal, he would also accompany the devotees to see Mahaprabhu.   Also present  were  Shri  Acaryaratna,  Pundarika Vidyanidhi, Shrivas Pandit, along with his  brothers and their  wives, Vasudeva, Govinda,  Madhava Ghosh, Murari Gupta Ojha, Shri Raghava Pandit, Shri Khandavasi Narahari, Shri Gunaraja Khan, etc. Sen  Sivananda would bring his wife  and their sons, and many of the other devotees as well would bring their  wives.  The  Thakuranis  (ladies)  would  prepare  foodstuffs,  which were the favourite  preparations  of  Mahaprabhu.   Sivananda  would  make  the arrangements for everyone’s meal as well as the paying of the tolls at the ferry gates.  Wherever they would  halt for the  night, they would hold a festival of dancing and chanting of the Holy names.

Sivananda Sen knew all the  paths through Orissa. One day  he remained behind at the  ghat to settle  their account with  the toll collector, while the rest  of the party  went ahead. After  walking some distance they sat down to rest underneath a tree. Sivananda, however, was  held up and not able to come right away and thus there was no  arrangements for their meals. Having walked quite some distance that day,  everyone was very hungry. Nityananda began to  abuse his name and was ready  to curse him.

“Where is that Siva? Everyone is  dying of hunger but still he  hasn’t come. No one is arranging any prasadam. Let his son die as well!”

Just then Sivananda arrived.  His wife went to  him with tears in  her eyes, “You didn’t manage any prasadam and now Gosai is very angry.  He has cursed your sons to die.” Sivananda replied, “Now don’t you become crazy. No need to cry needlessly. Just try to get a hold of yourself.”

Consoling his wife he came to where Nityananda Prabhu was and  offered his dandavats. Nityananda, still in angry mood, gave him a good  kick.  Sivananda felt great pleasure to get this mercy from Shripad Nityananda and immediately went to the  house of one Gaudiya Vaishnava  to arrange prasadam and a place to stay  for the devotees. Then he went  to bring Nityananda Prabhu there.

Nityananda  Prabhu  accepted  prasadam  with  the devotees after which Sivananda came,  and offering  his obeisances  at Nityananda  Prabhu’s lotus feet he prayed to him;  “Today in accepting me as your  servant, you punished me fittingly, according  to my offense. But such  is your tenderness that under the pretense of punishment you actually  awarded me such great mercy. Who  within the three worlds can  understand your character?  The dust  of your lotus feet  is very difficult to  obtain even for Lord Brahma, but even such a low, vile wretch as me  received the touch  of these  lotus feet  on his  body. Today  my birth and the heritage of  my forefathers  has become  successful, and  today I have received devotion  to Shri  Krishna, as  well as  the ordinary objects of attainment for human beings - religion, economic development and sense gratification.”

Hearing these words of Sivananda, Nityananda Prabhu became very  happy and he rose up and very lovingly embraced him. [C. C. Ant. 12.31]

One year Sivananda came to  Puri, bringing his son, Chaitanya  Das with him. One day Chaitanya Mahaprabhu asked the child: “What is your name?” To  this  the  child  replied,  “Chaitanya  Das”. Then Mahaprabhu asked Sivananda: “What  kind of  name is  this?” Sivananda:  “As I  received inspiration in my heart, so I have chosen this name.”

One day Sivananda suggested to  his son that he invite  Mahaprabhu for lunch. When  Chaitanya das  made this request, Mahaprabhu  accepted the affectionate invitation offered by the boy. Thus Sivananda along  with his wife prepared many preparations of foodstuffs, feeling very  happy in heart that Mahaprabhu would be taking his lunch at their house that day. When  Mahaprabhu arrived  Sivananda offered  his obeisances,  and after washing Mahaprabhu’s feet he seated Him for lunch. At this point Mahaprabhu told, that today’s invitation has been extended by Chaitanya Das. Then Chaitanya  Das placed in  front of Mahaprabhu  yogurt, limes, ginger, flower  pakoras and  other salty  preparations, arranged  very nicely. Seeing this arrangement Mahaprabhu said: “This boy understands My mind. Therefore today I  am very pleased to accept  his invitation.  [C. C. Ant. 20.180]

Thus Mahaprabhu very happily accepted the prasadam and after finishing, He called Chaitanya das and gave him His remnants.



There is no mention of  Shri Madhu Pandit in Chaitanya  Charitamrita. Only it  is  mentioned  in  Bhakti  Ratnakar that Shri Gopinathji manifested Himself before Him. [B. R. 2.473]

Oh Shrinivas! What more can I say? The Lord reveals Himself to his pure devotee, who then preaches his glories to the world. Who can  describe their  incomprehensible   activities   by   which  the   Lord  becomes subservient to their love. Thus did Shri Brajendra Kumar reveal himself to Paramananda Bhattacarya and Shri  Madhu Pandit, who is the  abode of many wonderful qualities.

“Thus has Shri Gopinathji, who is an ocean of mercy, and who sports  on the enchantingly beautiful banks of Bansibat, become manifested by the grace of Shri Madhu Pandit.” [Sadhan Dipikayam]

Thus Shri Madhu Pandit became the servant of Shri Gopinath, whose bodily luster steals away  the minds of  everyone. Hundreds and  thousands of people  came  running  to  see  Him,  famed  as  He  is  as  sweetness personified. When the soothing sweetness and coolness of his  charming form entered  their hearts  through their  eyes, they  found that  the burning fire of material  existence which had previously  been burning there, was now extinguished.

The Deity of Shri Nanda Dulal which was fashioned from the same sila as Shri Shyamsundar (Khardaha) and Shri Ballabajiv (Ballabhapur), and which was brought from  the Nawab’s palace,  is considered by  some, to have been worshipped previously by Shri Madhu Pandit.

Shri Nanda Dulal is still residing in the village of Saibona, which can be reached by bus from Khardaha. One has to get down at Matarangi Mor, and then proceed by rikshaw to the temple of Shri Nandadulal. The seva-puja is at present being conducted by disciples of Shrila Omkarnath.

When Shrinivas  and his  companions were  preparing to  depart from Shri Brindavan Dham with the bullock cart of books, Madhu Pandit  presented him the flower garland of Shri Gopinathji as his blessing.

Madhu Pandit was the disciple of Shri Gadadhar Pandit.



Shri Mukunda Das, Madhava Das and Shri Narahari Sorkar Thakur were three brothers who lived in the  village of Shri Khanda. Raghunandan  was the son of Shri Mukunda Das. [C. C. Mad 15]

In the house  of Shri Mukunda  Das, who lives  at Shri Khanda,  Lord Shri Gopinath is served with great devotion. One day Mukunda was called out to do some work, and then he instructed his son Raghunandan to worship the deity  and asked  him to  serve the  Lord Gopinath  that day.   He explained to him that this deity is in our family for many generations and thus He has  been worshipped by my  father and his father  and his father on  and on,  in this  way for  many years.  Just as your mother feeds you and I  everyday, so also He  has to be fed  everyday. Having explained to Raghunandan that this is a very big responsibility and he should be  very careful  to give  his full  attention to this service, Mukunda went out.

Raghunandan meanwhile having been instructed by his father,  collected the items for  offering to  Shri Gopinathji and entered  into the deity room.  Raghunandan was at that time barely 5 years old and  therefore, when  he  saw  that  Gopinath  hadn’t  eaten the offering after he had imitated how  his father  offered the  bhoga, he  became very worried.

Ultimately  he  simply  requested  Gopinath  with  tears  in his eyes:

“Please  eat!   Eat!”   Gopinath   became   completely  subjected   by Raghunandan’s simple  request, which  was made  entirely in  love, and thus he stealthily ate up everything without leaving any remnants.

After some time Raghunandan’s father, Mukunda, returned and asked  his son if he had  done as he was told?  When his son  replied “Yes”, then Mukunda asked him to bring some of the prasadam.  Raghunandan replied, “Prasadam? I offered  everything just like  you told me,  and Gopinath ate  everything;  so  what  should  I  bring  you  now?”  Mukunda  was completely  taken  aback.   “This  boy  is  not  naughty and is always accustomed  to  speak  the  truth.  I  doubt  if  he  could have eaten everything. I wonder what actually happened?”

Musing on this matter  in this way for  some time, on another  day his curiosity was so stirred that he again requested Raghunandan to  offer the bhoga to Gopinath  on that day. On  this day however, having  gone out of the house, he again came in by another way and remained  hiding in one  place. Raghunandan  was very  happy to  be able  to serve  Shri Gopinathji  again  and  brought  everything  into  the  deity room. As before,  he  again  very  insistently  persuaded  Gopinath to take his meal. As Gopinath had eaten half of a laddu, he espied Mukunda peering out from his hiding spot. He didn’t  try to cover up the fact that  he had eaten what he had, but neither did he eat anymore. Seeing all this Mukunda was completely immersed in ecstatic love and picked up his son and put him on his lap.  He extolled his virtues in a  voice trembling with ecstasy, all the while torrents of tears of joy falling from  his eyes. Even today, those who  are greatly fortunate can still  see that half-eaten laddu in Gopinatha’s lotus hand. Thus Shri Uddhav das  sings the glories of Raghunandan, who is non different from Madan (Cupid).

Raghunandan was present at  the khetori utsob.   In Krishna lila he  was Kandarpa manjari & in Dwaraka lila  he was  Shri Krishna’s son  Kandarpa.  Raghunandan’s son is Kanai Thakur. His descendents are still  residing at Shri Khanda. Shri Khanda can  be easily reached from Katwa by  bus or train. He was born in the year 1432 sakabda.



“An expert  physician by  the name  Murari Gupta  could cure people of their  disease  of  material  existence.  Along  with  so  many  other Vaishnavas, Advaita  Acarya, Sen  Sivananda, Jagannath  Misra, Nilambar Cakravarti, he also appeared in Sylhet. [C. B. Adi 2.35]

Shrivas Pandit, Candrasekhara Acarya  and Shri Murari Gupta  Thakur were all from Shrihatta. Murari Gupta  came from there to live  in Navadwip, near  the  home  of  Jagannath  Misra.  He  was a few years older than Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Murari  Gupta, Kamalakanta, Shri  Krishnananda, etc.  all used to  study together with  Nimai Pandit. Nimai  used to like  a debate in disputations on logical fallacy but no one could defeat him; rather  he  could  defeat  all  of  them  put  together. Finally being exasperated by  his uncanny  sharpness of  intelligence, Murari  Gupta would resort to slinging mood, until finally they were all pushing one another back and forth as they came to the Ganges to take their bath.

There arose such a  hue and cry at  the ghat that the  ladies couldn’t fill their water pots, the  water having become so muddy.  Neither the brahmanas could properly take their  bath. In this way Shri  Gaursundor would play with his friends on the banks of the Ganges. [C. B. Adi 8]

When they entered  the school of  Ganga Das Pandit,  Nimai immediately became first in the class, having attained the highest marks. Then all of  the  other  students  were  forced  to accept defeat. Murari Gupta however would  neither accept  defeat, nor  would he  engage in  local debate. Therefore Nimai became angry and told him; “You are a  doctor; what is the use  of you studying these  subjects? Your business is  to collect leaves  & creepers  to heal  the sick.  Grammatical science is very abstruse, you won’t  find anything in it  to help you in  dealing with mucus, bila and dyspepsia.”

Hearing this challenge, Murari  was pricked, and became  angry within, but he didn’t exhibit his anger. He simply gazed peacefully at  Nimai.

Nimai’s divine form was so enchanting and the touch of his lotus  soft hands so  pacifying that  no one  became agitated  by his dealings. At that time,  Nimai had  just began  his studies  in grammar.  Therefore Murari began  to discuss  rhetoric with  Him but  still he  could  not defeat him.   Completely astonished,  he thought  to himself,  “Is  it possible that such scholarship is  found in ordinary mortals. He  must be some kind of  divine personage.  Not  one student  in  Navadwip has been able  to defeat  him in  argument.” In  this way   they used   to sometimes argue  together but   they would  go together  in a friendly mood to take bath in mother Ganges. When Mahaprabhu returned from Gaya  and began to manifest symptoms  of ecstatic love, Murari Gupta became  intensely devoted to Him. When  he saw  Mahaprabhu  crying  in  ecstatic  love  at the house of Suklambar Pandit he became struck with wonder.

Shri Murari Gupta used to worship Shri Shri Sita Ram. One day, Mahaprabhu suddenly  arrived  st  Murari  Gupta’s  house.  Roaring in the mood of Varaha deva he picked up a water pot in His teeth, while Murari  Gupta fell down on the floor  to offer his dandavats, being  dumbstruck with wonder at having seen this divine form. Then Mahaprabhu said; “Murari!  Just sing some hymns in my praise.” Then Murari recited some slokas at which Mahaprabhu became very happy and thus addressed him, “Murari!  I am just speaking this truth to you. I am the essence of all scriptures.  I have  come to  engage in  Harinam sankirtan  Myself, as  well as  to induce others also  to chant My  Holy Names. I  cannot tolerate malice towards my devotee. If someone tries to harm my devotee, even if he is my son I  will tear off  his head.   The proof of  this is Narakasur.” After telling Murari so  many secret things about  Himself, Mahaprabhu returned home.

During  the  time   when  Mahaprabhu  exhibited   for  21  hours   His transcendental existence  as the  Supreme Personality  of Godhead,  He was calling His  various devotees and  bestowing various blessings  to them.

He  next  called  Murari:  “Murari!   For  so  many  days you couldn’t recognize  who  I  am?  Just  see  My  divine  form.”  Then Murari saw Mahaprabhu was His most  worshipable Deity, Lord Raghunatha,  His body the colour  of green  grass. Sitting  in the  Birasana, hi beneath His body, and holding a  great bow in His  hand, Lakshman and Janaki  were seated  on  each  side  of  Him.  In  all directions the chiefs of the monkeys were  reciting prayers  and hymns.  Then when  he saw  himself amongst those monkeys in his original form, he fainted straight  away.  Mahaprabhu called him: “Murari! Get up! Just see My divine form.  Have you forgotten who set Ravana’s Lanka on fire? It was you, Hanuman! Get up and gaze  on the form  of Laksmana, who  is the very  embodiment of your life.  Offer your  obeisances to  that one  for whose sadness you cried so much (Sita devi).”

Hearing  Mahaprabhu’s  voice  Murari  regained  his  consciousness and seeing that form again he offered his dandavats again while crying  in ecstatic love. Seeing this divine display of the Lord’s infinite mercy towards Murari, the devotees filled the sky with the sounds of  “Hari!  Hari!”

One  evening,  Mahaprabhu  &  Nityananda  Prabhu  were  sitting in the courtyard of Shrivas Pandit when  Murari Gupta arrived there. First  he offered his obeisances  to Mahaprabhu and  then to Nityananda  Prabhu.  Mahaprabhu told  him; “Murari!  You have  made a  mistake. You offered your obeisances in the opposite order.”  Murari; “Prabhu! As you  have inspired me, so I have done.”  Mahaprabhu; “Allright. Go home  now and later you will  be able to  understand everything.”

Murari Gupta went to his house and after having his meal, lay down  to take rest. That night he saw a dream. In his dream he saw the chief of the Maha-bhagavat;  Lord Nityananda,  his cloth tied up behind  in the fashion of  a wrestler,  proceeding in  front.   Above his  head was a great,  manyheaded  serpent.  In  his  hands  were  a  plow  and club.  Nityananda Prabhu appeared just as Balaram.  Following behind, with  a peacock feather on his head, was Shri Bishwambar. [C. B. Mad.  20.14]

Lord Nityananda is no one  other than  Haladhar, the  manifestation of Anantadeva, and the greatest devotee. Now Murari could understand  who is greater.

Mahaprabhu,  smiling  sweetly  called  him;  “Murari!  Now  have   you understood?  If  you  breach  proper  conduct  then how will it look.” Murari Gupta, in the depth of his dream began to call out “Nityananda!

Nityananda!” with tears in his eyes. His wife then called out  “Krishna!  Krishna!” and woke him up.  Murari Gupta could understand the  greatness of  Nityananda  Prabhu’s  position  now.  It  is  he  who reveals Lord Gauranga. Without his mercy one cannot get the mercy of Lord Chaitanya.

On  another  day,  Murari  Gupta  came  to  Shrivas’s courtyard and saw Mahaprabhu seated  very regally  on a  decorated sitting  place, being served by his various devotees.   Gadadhar was offering pan and  betel nuts which  Mahaprabhu was  chewing very  happily, while  Narahari was fanning Him  with a  camara. Murari  Gupta offered  his obeisances and Prabhu offered him  some of the  remnants of the  chewed betel. Murari placed the betel  in his mouth  and then wiped  his hand on  his head.  Mahaprabhu told him: “Murari! My offal has touched your body!”  Murari replied; “Today my entire body  has become purified.” The prasadam  of the Lord is completely non-material. His self, His name, His prasadam, all are not different.  If anyone thinks that His prasadam has  become offal, by being in contact with His mouth then this is a great aparadh.  The mouths of  ordinary human beings  are considered unclean  but this doesn’t apply to the supremely pure Personality of Godhead.

Having received the  tambula (pan and  betel) prasadam of  Mahaprabhu, Murari became  intoxicated with  love of  Godhead and  arrived at  his house in  this condition.  His devoted  wife, seeing  that her husband had returned home, spread an asana and having seated him, she  brought a plate of prasadam  and placed it before  him. Murari, who was  still in an ecstatic mood, was forming  the rice in his hand into  balls and saying “Eat!  Eat!”  He was then  placing it  on the  ground. His wife could understand what was going on and thus she requested her husband, “Swamin!  That  is  enough,  don’t  give  (Him)  anymore,  now you eat something.”

Thereafter Murari, still under the  influence of ecstatic love, ate  a little and then lay down to take rest. In the morning Mahaprabhu  came to Murari’s house and began to  call him.  Murari called out,  “Krishna!  Krishna!”  and  quickly  got  up  from  bed.   Coming to the door he saw Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and thus offered his obeisances and inquired  what had brought the Lord to his house so early in the morning.  Mahaprabhu replied; “Murari! You forgot already? Last night, all the while saying “Eat! Eat!” you fed Me so much rice with ghee.  If you offer me,  then how can I  refuse?  But  eating rice with  so much ghee  I have gotten indigestion. Now  give me  some medicine.”  Hearing this,  Murari felt very sorry, but  Mahaprabhu immediately told  him, “Murari! By  eating your  nice  rice  I  got  indigestion,  the  medicine for that is your water.” [C. B. Mad.  20.69]

Then seeing a lota of water which was sitting there, Mahaprabhu  began to drink it up. Seeing this Murari exclaimed, “Prabhu! I am a  fallen, low  class  person.  The  water  in  my  house  is  not  fit for You.” (Generally at that time brahmanas would not accept water or foodstuffs from the  houses of  non-brah manas).   The Lord  is known  as bhakta-vatsala,  who  is  very  affectionate  to  His  devotees.  He  accepts foodstuffs in the house of  His devotee, and submissive to  their love for Him, He is  happy to remain in  whatever condition they keep  Him.  Whatever they feed Him, He  accepts very happily. Whatever they  like, He likes. In this way the Lord enacted so many pastimes with His  dear devotee, Hanuman (or Garuda, according to others’ opinion).

One day Murari Gupta began to reflect, “If I can leave my body in  the Lord’s presence  then that  will be  very good.”  For this  purpose he fashioned a large dagger and hid it in his house. But the supreme Lord Shri Chaitanya, who is totally omniscient im”mediately came to his house and called,  “Murari!, I  have so  many pastimes  to complete  in your company. If you go away then how will I go on? I know everything.”

Murari caught hold of the Lord’s  feet  and began  to cry.  Thereafter Mahaprabhu consoled  him and  after explaining  to him  many things He returned to  His own  house. Murari  Gupta was  present with  the Lord during all of his pastimes in Nadiya Nagar.

Every year when the devotees would  go to Puri, Murari Gupta would  go along  with  his  wife  and  they  would  take  many  preparations  of foodstuffs to offer to the Lord.

“This was brought by Vasudeva Datta and this by Murari Gupta! This was brought by Buddhimanta Khan. Just see all these various preparations!” [C. C. Antya lila].

There has  been a  temple constructed  by Gaudiya  Math, in  memory of Murari Gupta Thakur, near Ballal dighi in Shridham Mayapur.



Shri  Surjadas  Sarekhela  was  a  resident  of  Shaligram. He had five brothers  -  Damodar,  Jagannath,  Gauri  das,  Krishna  das and Nrsimha Chaitanya. His father’s name was Shri Kamsari Misra. His mother’s  name, Shri Kamala devi. He received the title “Sarakhela” as he used to  keep the accounts for the king of  Gaur desh. His two daughters were  named Shri Vasudha and Shri Jahnava, who was the youngest.

In Gaur-ganoddesh-dipika it is stated that they are the expansions  of Baruni  and  Revati  in  Brindaban  and Surjadas Sarakhela, whose body effulgence is like the sun, is  an expansion of Kakudmir, the king  of Raivat.  The two Lords Gauranga and Nityananda were very  affectionate to him. Seeing that  his two daughters had  reached the full bloom  of their youth, he began to contemplate their marriage. Thinking in  this way, he fell asleep; and in his dream he saw that in a very happy mood he was presenting his two daughters to Nityananda Prabhu.  Having seen such a wonderful dream, he began to float in an ocean of bliss.

In the morning when he awoke, he told his dream to one brahmana friend of his, “I saw in my  dream that Nityananda Prabhu is none  other than Baladeva. His bodily effulgence was shining in all directions and  his body was decorated with various shining ornaments.  On either side  of him my two daughters appeared as  Baruni and Revati.  Now if  I cannot give my daughters in marriage to Nityananda Prabhu then there will  be no peace for me.” Having confided  in his friend in this way,  he sent him to the house of Shrivas  Pandit in Navadwip.

That brahmana came to Navadwip very quickly and found that  Nityananda Prabhu was  living at  Shrivas Pandit’s  house. The  brahmana explained everything in  detail to  Shrivas Pandit  who later  at the proper time divulged all of this news to Nityananda Prabhu. Lord Nityananda having assured the brahmana  that he would  fulfill the desire  of Surja das, sent him back to  Saligram.  Advaita Acarya  as well as Shrivas  Pandit were very happy to  have heard this news  and urged that the  marriage take place as soon as possible.  The brahmana, in the meantime  having returned to Saligram, delivered this auspicious news to Surja das  who was overjoyed that his dream would now come true.

In the village of Borgachi lived the son of Raja Hari Hora, Shri  Krishna das, who was a very dear devotee of Nityanan da Prabhu. He offered  to bear all of the expenses for  the wedding and to have it  conducted at his house. With this in mind he requested Nityananda Prabhu to  kindly come to his house, and after  bringing him there he began to  make the necessary arrangements  for the  wedding. Shrivas Pandit,  Shri  Advaita Acarya, Shri Candrasekhar, Shri Murari Gupta and many other devotees all arrived and began Harinam  Sankirtan. Surja das Pandit’s  brother, Shri Krishna das soon arrived at Bordachi and then Nityananda Prabhu and  the other devotees accompanied  Him to Saligrama. 

When Surjadas saw that the  devotees along with Nityananda Prabhu  had arrived, in great happiness he came out to greet them and then ushered them into his house where he offered his dandavats to Lord Nityananda.  Surja das fell  down at the  lotus feet of  Lord Nityananda, his  eyes brimming with tears of ecstatic love.  He caught hold of His two lotus feet  and  wanted  to  offer  some  prayers  but  he could not express anything due to being  overcome by ecstatic emotions.  Lord Nityananda smiled sweetly and  embraced him in  great love.   Surjadas was always absorbed in intense happiness. Who can understand his inner self.

Seeing  these  loving  pastimes  of  his  brother,  Gauri das lost his patience and felt great bliss within himself. Then, after  worshipping the two lotus feet of Lord Nityananda, he offered his two daughters in marriage to him.

Thus  the  marriage  ceremony  was  very  auspiciously  performed  and Nityananda Prabhu remained at Salagram with his two newly wedded wives for  a  few  days.  Thereafter  he  came  to  Shri Krishna das’s house at Borgachi, where  he remained  for a  couple of  days. Next  He came to Navadwip. Along with  his two wives  He offered His  obeisances at the feet of Saci Mata. Saci Ma  was extremely pleased to see them  and she showed  a  great  deal  of  affection  to  the  new  brides. The other Vaishnavas also began to show  them great affection.

Then taking  leave of Sacimata,  Nityananda  came to  Advaita Acarya’s house in Santipur.  Shri Sita Thakurani began to float in the ocean  of bliss after seeing Vasudha and Jahnava  devi.  Taking them in her  lap she was very  affectionate to the  new brides.   After remaining there for a few days Nityananda Prabhu came to Uddharon Datta Thakur’s house at Saptagram at his insistent invitation. There they all engaged in  a festival of  sankirtan for  a few  days after  which Nityananda Prabhu came to Khardaha. [Bhakti-Ratnakar 12th Taranga]

After the disappearance of Shri Advaita Acarya, Shri Nityananda  Prabhu, Shrivas Pandit and  various other associates  of Shri Goursundar,  three especially empowered  manifestations of  the compassion  of the  Lord, Mahaprabhu,  namely  Shrinivas  Acarya,  Narottama  Thakur  Mahasoy and Shyamananda  Prabhu  continued  to  flood  the  land  with  Hari   Nam Sankirtan.  Shri  Nityananda  Prabhu’s  sakti  Shri  Jahnava  Mata,  was especially  requested  by  these  three  Acaryas  to be present at the celebrated festival which was conducted by them at Kheturigram,  under the patronage of Narottama Thakur Mahasoy’s cousin, Raja Santosh Datta.  Present  with  her  were  Shri  Krishna das Misra (her uncle),  Mineketan Ramdas, Murari Chaitanya, Jnana das, Shri Paramesvari das, Balarama das, Shri Brindavan das Thakur, and  other dear devotees of Lord  Nityananda Prabhu.

First she came to her uncle  Gauri das Pandit’s temple at Kalna  where she was nicely received by Hrdoy Chaitanya Prabhu. Here she cooked  for the two Lords, Nitai-Gauranga, and in the evening they had a  festival of sankirtan. When she came to Navadvip and realized that she wouldn’t be able to  see Shri Saci  Mata any more,  she was very  sad and cried.  Then Shripati and Shrinidhi came and took her to their house. But  again she was plunged into grief due to the pangs of separation at not being able to see Shrivas Pandit and Malini devi. At Santipur Shri Acyutananda and Gopal tried to  console her in the  absence of Advaita Acarya  and Sita  Thakurani.  

Then she came by way of Kantak Nagar to Teliya Bhudari gram where  Shri Govinda Kaviraj received her with all respect.  The next day the party set out for Kheturi.  When they reached the  banks of the Padma  river they found that Raja Santosh  Datta had already made arrangements  for crossing the river. From the opposite  bank palanquins were waiting to take them to Kheturi.

After presiding over the festival of Kheturi, Ma Jahnava decided to go to Brindavan.  One day  when she  was bathing  in the  Jamuna, a small black hand grabbed the end of her cloth as she was getting out of  the water. When she looked, however, there was no one there. Then Gopinath spoke to her,  “I want to come and  stay with you. When  you’re taking bath in the Ganga one day I’ll come and join you.”

After passing some days in great happiness in Shri Brindaban Dham,  Shri Jahnava Mata set out on the path back to Gaur desh. First she came  to Kheturi, and then to Bhudari  gram where she arranged the  marriage of Bor  Ganga  das  with  Shri  Hemalata,  the  daughter  of  Shri Shyamdas Cakravarti  (brother  of  Bansi  das).  After the marriage, Shri Iswari entrusted the worship of Shyamsunderji to Borganga das. Then she  came to Ekcakra, the  birthplace of her  worshippable Lord. From  there she passed  through  Kantak  Nagar,  Jajigram,  Navadwip,  Ambika   kalna, Saptagram, before finally arriving back at Khardaha.

As she was bathing in the  Ganges one day, something touched her  body in the water. Then she lifted that object out of the water and  beheld the enchanting form  of Shri Gopinathji,  while tears of  love streamed from  her  eyes.  This  Deity  is  at  present being worshipped by the descendant of Ganga devi, the daughter of Nityananda Prabhu, at Jirat, Hugli.  There  is  a  rail  station  at Jirat between Bandel and Kalna station. From  the Jirat  station one  should proceed  by rickshaw  to “Gopinath Tala”.

“Having fallen into the ocean  of material existence I am  com”pletely distraught and filled  with anxiety.  Floating in this ocean,  without any refuge, I am trying to find a shore; but without any success, I am losing all hope  of  ever finding it.    What activity will bring   me there?;  or  what  knowledge  will  bring  me  there?  Conducting some fruitive sacrifices, engaging in some mystic yoga process or conducting austerities - none  of these have  any power or  effect. I am  getting very  weak  and  I  cannot  swim  much  longer.  Now in this extremely dangerous situation,  will no  one come  to save  me?   Alas! To  make matters worse, having caught sight of the crocodile of wordly affairs, I am petrified with  fear and the current  of lust is always  churning the  water.  I  can  barely  keep  my  head above the water, the winds carrying the  results of  activities performed  in previous  lives, is blowing and making the water so choppy. I am losing my mind and now  I am simply crying frantically. I can’t see anyone who can get me out of this  ocean  of  woes.  O  my  dear  Shri  Jahnava  devi,  please  have compassion  on  your  servant  and  bless  me with some of your divine qualities.  Please extend me the rope of your mercy and alleviate this intense pain that I am experiencing.

I have taken shelter  of the boat of  your lotus feet and  I have full faith that you can carry me  across this  ocean. You  are  the  divine energy of Lord Nityananda and the  bestower of  Krishna bhakti.   Please bless me at your feet, which  can bestow all one’s desires.   You have already delivered so many despicable creatures,  now today here is one more destitute and hateful wretch,  come to your lotus feet.”  [Kalyan Kalpataru]



Shri Sita Thakurani,  like Shri Sacimata  is the  eternally  worshipable mother of the universe. She was always intensely absorbed in  parental affection for Shri Gaursundor, and she used to give friendly advice  to Sacimata and Jagannath  Misra as to  how they should  raise their son, Nimai.

Shri  Sita  Thakurani  is  the  incarnation  of  yoga-maya  - Bhagavati Paurnamasi. Her other  expansion (prakash murti)  is her sister,  Shri.  [Gaur-ganoddesa-dipika]

Sita Thakurani gave  the name “Nimai”  to the child  with the idea  in mind that witches and female sorcerers would not be able to harm  Him.  The neem tree is highly antiseptic and evil spirits cannot go near it, so also, with the  name “Nimai”, evil spirits  will not be able  to go near such  a person  with this  name. In  this connection Sitadevi was completely  absorbed  in  parental  affection.  In  comparison  to the mellows of devotional love, the opulences, strength, etc.  of Bhagavan have to admit defeat. In fact, by this affection, in which one forgets the supreme position of the Lord  and considers Him to be an  ordinary human, the Lord obtains great satisfaction. [C. C. Adi 13.111]

At this  time Sita  Thakurani spent  a few  days at  Mayapur and  gave various instructions  to Jagannath  Misra and  Sacidevi regarding  the upbringing  of  the  child.  Jagannath  Misra  and  Sacimata  in  turn presented valuable cloths and other  fineries to Sita devi during  the birth festival of their son.

Besides his house at Santipur,  Advaita Acarya also had another  house at Shridham  Mayapur. After  the birth  of Shri  Gaursundor he  and Sita Thakurani began to spend most of their time at Mayapur.  Shri Saci devi always remained very reverential towards Sitadevi. They were extremely close  friends  and  Sita  Thakurani  would come everyday to Jagannath Misra’s house to  check on the  child. As Nimai  began to grow  up, He increased the pleasure  of the devotees,  like the waxing  moon in the sky increases our happiness by its cooling effect.

A  few  years  later  when  Jagannath  Misra’s  oldest  son (Viswarup) suddenly took sannyasa and left home, Jagannath and Sacidevi, as  well as Nimai,  were very  aggreived. At  that time  Shri Advaita Acarya and Sita devi would especially try to console them and look after Nimai.

When  Shri  Gaursundor  returned  from  Gaya-dhama in a god-intoxicated state  and  began  to  reveal  his  true self, Advaita Acarya and Sita Thakurani came from Santipur and were the first ones to offer  worship at His lotus feet.

One day, Saci  kumar, smiling very  sweetly, entered the  courtyard of Advaita’s temple and  sat down.   Nityananda was present  with Him and Advaita Acarya also sat down to join them. Then the three of them very happily  decided  to   hold  a  sankirtan   festival.  Hearing   their conversation Sita  Thakurani felt  great bliss  and coming  out of the house she very enthusiastically suggested to Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞 how she could assist in the preparations. Seeing her enthusiasm, the ecstatic  bliss of Shri Gaursundor increased that much more and He told her, “Thakurani, please invite many Vaishnavas to your house. Those who are singers  and those who can  expertly play the  mrdanga and other  instruments; each one  should  be  respectfully  invited  to  come  here for a sankirtan festival.”

Then when Shri Gaursundor started in the direction of Brindavan,  after taking sannyasa, Sita Thakurani, like Sacimata herself, was  extremely afflicted and  having fallen  down on  the earth,  remained there  for four  days  as  though  almost  dead.  Bhakti-vatsala, Shri Gaursundor, being bound by his  devotees’ love, was not  able to go to  Brindaban, and instead came to Santipur. Sita Thakurani and Advaita Acarya having gotten to  see him  again also  got back  their life.  Then Sita  devi cooked for and fed Mahaprabhu who had also been fasting for a few days.

Having spoken to her about this, Shri Gaura Ray instructed everyone  to extend invitations to all the Vaishnavas.   Then he told them to  bring mrdanga and kartals  and with the  oil of aguru  and sandalwood paste, to establish a sacred water pot. [This is a process whereby; performing some puja, the presence of a sacred divinity is invoked and established within the water  pot.] He instructed  how the place  where the kirtan would be held, should be carefully cleansed and decorated with  banana trees and flower garlands. He then explained how, in the evening, with flower garlands, sandalwood paste, betel nuts, ghee, honey and yoghurt, the invocation ceremony should be performed.

Hearing  these  nectarean  instructions  of  Mahaprabhu, everyone felt great joy and they immediately began to bring the auspicious  articles by which the whole area became perfumed with a pleasant fragrance  and sweet scent.   Then, the  heavens resounding  with the  transcendental sound vibration of  “Hari! Hari!” the  kirtan began.   Parameswar thus concludes his description of  the sankirtan festival performed  at the house  of  Advaita  Acarya;  himself  floating  in  the bliss of those ecstatic mellows. [Shri Padakalpa taru]

Three sons took birth from  the womb of Sita Thakurani  - Acyutananda, Krishna Misra and Gopala Misra.  They were all followers of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Sita  Thakurani’s father’s  name was  Nrsimha Bhaduri. She had a  sister, Shri,  who was  also married  to Advaita  Acarya. [B. R.  12.1785]

She cooked many preparations for Mahaprabhu, and when all the devotees were in Puri for Rathayatra, Mahaprabhu would be invited to accept His lunch. He  accepted their  loving offerings  as though  one charmed by mantra. She was always very affectionate to Mahaprabhu and treated Him like her own son. Mahaprabhu as well saw her as non-different than his own mother and treated her with the same devotion.



Shri, Bhu and Nila are three of the energies of the supreme personality of Godhead. Shri Vishnupriya¬devi is the manifestation of Krishna’s  “Bhu” sakti. She is also known to be the same as “Satyabhama” in  Krishnalila.  She has appeared with Shri Gaursundor to assist in the distribution  of love of Godhead and His Holy Names.

There lived in Navadwip one  brahmana, Sanatan Misra by name,  who was a  great  devotee  of  Lord  Vishnu.  He  used to maintain many people, providing them with  food and cloth  and he was  renounced as a  great scholar (raja-pandit).

In Dvapara-yuga he was the King Satrajit. As he was a great devotee of Lord  Vishnu,  from  the  fruits  of  his  faithful  worship of Him, he obtained a very  beautiful jewel of  a daughter endowed  with all good qualities, by the  name Shri Vishnupriya.   From her very  childhood she used  to  take  bath  in  the  Ganga  two  or three times a day and in imitation of her elders she would perform various worship  ceremonies, vows and service to  the Deity and Tulasi  devi. When she would  offer her obeisances and Sacimata would in turn bless her saying “Yogya pati hauk.” (May you get a qualified  husband). Saci Mata used to think  to herself that this would make a very fine daughter-in-law.

In the meantime Nimai was married to Lakshmipriya,  who after a  short time passed on to the next world.  Ma Saci was very aggrieved at  this and the days passed on. Then she thought to get her son married again.  All of her relatives and close  friends all felt this would be  a good idea.

Shri Gaursundor didn’t  oppose His mother  and gave his  consent.  Saci mata sent  one of  the servants  to call  Kasinath Pandita, the match-maker.  Receiving her summons, the Pandita immediately came to see  Ma Saci, who brought up the point of Shri Gaursun dar’s marriage. Kasinath Pandit thought this was a very good idea, and urged that the  marriage take  place  as  soon  as  possible.  When  he inquired if she had any suitable bride in  mind, Sacima replied,  “Sanatan Misra’s daughter  - Vishnupriya”.  Kasinatha exclaimed,  “Thakurani! I was also thinking to mention her name.” Saci Ma replied; “But I am very poor. Do you  think he will want to  present his daughter to  us? You please discuss  this matter with him.”

Kasinath  replied,  “Thakurani,  if  Sanatan  Misra  doesn’t  give his daughter to such a  beautiful boy and a  qualified son as your  Nimai, then who will he give her to?” Having spoken these consoling words  he set out for Sanatan Misra’s house.  

Sanatan Misra,  seeing that his daughter  had  attained   marriageable age, was also looking for a suitable bridegroom.  But in Nadiya  there was no one more qualified than Nimai Pandita. He was the most handsome, had  the  best  qualities  and  was  still  quite young.  One would be considered very fortunate indeed to be able to give their daughter  to such a  young man.   Sanatan Misra  was thinking  like this,  but  was feeling shy to mention his plan to anyone.  Simply in his mind he  was praying to the  Lord, “O my  Lord, oh Hari,  If I had  accumulated any pious merits in my previous lifetimes then let the result of those  be that my daughter gets Nimai Pandit as her husband.” Finally he brought up the topic of their daughter’s marriage with his wife. Just then who should appear at the door, but Kasinatha Pandit.

Sanatana Misra  got up  to receive  him and  after having respectfully seated  him  brought  some  sweetmeats  and  water.  As  he thought to himself, “Certainly  he has  some news  of a  suitable bridegroom”, he inquired, “Panditji, what  is the news”?  Smiling  broadly the  Pandit replied, “You  should give  your daughter  in marriage  to Bishwambhar Pandit. After having considered the  matter in every respect, this  is the best  decision. With  this in  mind I  have come  to see you. That excellent  boy  is  the  most  qualified  for  your daughter, and your daughter, being extremely chaste, is the most suitable for him. As Shri Krishna and Rukmini devi are mutually compatible, so are Vishnupriya  and Nimai Pandit.” [C. B. Adi 15.57]

Having received this  proposal, Sanatan Misra  and his wife  felt such joy  that  they  forgot  themselves,  “The all-cognizant supersoul has fulfilled  my  desires.”  Sanatan  Misra  spoke to Kasinatha, “In this regard, what can  I say? If  there is any  good fortune in  my family, then I have a  hope to obtain such  a son-in-law.”  Some of the others present spoke up, “Unless one  is highly fortunate, is it  possible to get such a boy?  If your daughter is  lucky enough then certainly  she will get such a husband.”  Thereafter  Misra Mahodoy discussed various matters in order to finalize the betrothal agreement. Having  arranged everything  suitably,  Kasinatha  returned  to  Saci  Mata’s house and informed  her  of  the  proceedings.  Sacimata  replied,  “The Lord is looking out for me, because I have no one else to.”

Having heard that Nimai Pandit’s  wedding was to take place,  everyone became very jubilant. His disciples began to discuss among themselves, “We’ll all  donate some  things for  Panditji’s wedding.”  Buddhimanta Khan, who was quite  wealthy spoke up, “I  will bear all the  costs of the wedding.” To this Mahaprabhu’s friends Mukunda and Sanjoy replied, “Our dear brother, won’t you even share some of the expenses with  us.  This wedding has to be so  gorgeous, that no prince has ever  seen the likes of it”.

News  spread  throughout  the  whole  of  Navadwip  about the upcoming marriage  of  Nimai  Pandit,  and  gradually  the preparations for the wedding began.  First a  huge canopy  was suspended  above the  actual place where  the marriage  ceremony would  take place.  On the  ground various floral  and other  auspicious designs  were painted  with rice flour and  then the  pavilion was  decorated with  banana trees, water pots,  mango  leaves,  lamps,  paddy,  yogurt  and  other   auspicious articles. All the  Vaishnavas, brahmanas and  other noble and  virtuous gentlemen  who  lived  in  Navadwip  at  that time were invited to the invocation ceremony preceeding the wedding.

On  the  evening  of  that  day  the  musicians began to play on their instruments, while the courtyard of Saci’s house began to till up with relatives and friends.  First  the worship  of the  Lord was performed followed by arati and the offering of foodstuffs,  all conducted  with great pomp and gaity.  Then the preliminary ceremonies to be performed by Shri Gaura  before the wedding  were smoothly executed.   Within the inner apartments of the house, the ladies contributed their efforts to the ceremony by yodelling and blowing conchshells, while the Vaishnavas filled the sky  with the vibrations  of the Lord’s  Holy Names, “Hari!  Hari!”

In all directions an ocean of happiness began to swell, in anticipation of the  Supreme Lord’s  marriage ceremony.  Following this preliminary ceremony sweet preparations of betel nuts and pan leaves were  served, as many  as anyone  wanted. Gaursundara  personally applied sandalwood paste  and  garlanded  with  flower  garlands  all those Vaishnavas and brahmanas who attended the function, and in turn they very  cheerfully offered their blessings.  No one had ever before seen such a  pleasant adhivas ceremony (the function preceeding the major ceremony).  Nadiya nagara began to float in the midst of an ocean of bliss.

On  the  next  day  a  very  vast  arrangement  began to take place in preparation  for  the  actual  wedding  ceremony. In the afternoon Shri Gaursundor put on an excellent dhoti and upper garments and then after first making salutations at the feet of His mother and other Vaishnavas present, He  ascended the  palanquin and  took his  seat within. First they came to the banks of  the Ganges where Shri Gauranga got  down out of the palanquin, to the accom paniment of the playing of  instruments and auspicious shouting of “Jaya!  Jaya!”, which filled up the  sky in all directions, the  party began to  again proceed along  the banks of the Ganga.  Thousands and  thousands of  lamps were  glittering in the evening like  so many  little stars  coming out.  The musicians played their various instruments while some engaged in singing and dancing.

During the Go-dhuli lagna (the time when the cows return home from the pasture and the dust from  their hoofs fills the air),  the bridegroom and his  party entered  the courtyard  of Shri  Sanatan Misra’s  house.  Sanatan  Misra  and  his  wife  presented  various articles of worship before  the  bridegroom,  thus  welcoming  him  and  at  the same time offering their blessings.

Meanwhile the new bride had been decorated with various ornaments  and she was now brought  out of the house  and into the wedding  pavilion.  The   Supreme   Goddess   of   Fortune,   after   seven  times  having circumambulated her  eternal consort,  Shri Gaura  Narayan, offered her entire being at His lotus feet. Shri Gaura Ray, after having seated His eternal consort on his left side, then exchanged flower garlands  with her.

“First of  all the  Goddess of  Fortune, the  Mother of  the Universe, kneeling before the  lotus feet of the Lord,  placed  a flower garland around His neck, thus surrendering herself to Him. Then Shri Gaurcandra, smiling slightly, placed a flower garland around Shri Vishnupriya devi’s neck. Thus  having exchanged  flower garlands  Shri Shri  Laxmi-Narayana began Their divine sports.” [C. B. Adi 15.176]

Shri Sanatan Misra thus having presented his daughter to Shri Gaursundor, with a  large dowry,  became himself  crowned with  success. As Janaka Raja presented  Sitadevi to  Ramacandra,  as  Bhismaka Raja  presented Rukmini to Shri  Krishna, so Sanatan  Misra presented Vishnupriya  devi to Shri Gaurasundara.

After the  wedding ceremony,  the bride  and bridegroom  entered their bridal suite and lay down on a bed of flowers. That night the bliss of Vaikuntha  made  its  appearance  at  the  house of Shri Sanatan Misra.  Practically the entire night the musicians played on their instruments while others sang  and danced. In  the early morning,  Shri Gaursundara and his wife Laxmidevi, got up from their bed, and after having washed Their  hands  and  mouths  they  completed  Their  morning bhajan. Shri Sanatan  Misra,  along  with  his  family  and  relatives,  having had arranged this grand festival, enjoyed such pleasure as is not possible to describe. [C. B. Adi 15.199]

In the afternoon, Shri Gaurasundara along with his new bride, proceeded to His own house, being accompanied by the party of musicians, singers and dancers.  As they  passed through  the town  of Nadiya,  along the banks of the Ganga, the local inhabitants, gazed at the  unprecedented beauty of  Shri Shri Vishnupriya-Gauranga,  and  began  to comment: “This highly fortunate  girl  must  have served  Laxmi and  Parvati for many lifetimes” (in order to get such a husband).  Someone else said: “They look  like Hara-gauri (Lord  Siva  and  Gauri)”  and  some  one   else commented: “I think they must be Laxmi and Shri Hari.” “No they must be Kamadeva (Cupid) and Rati”. While someone else offered: “I think  they look like  Lord Indra  and Saci.”  Another suggested:   “They must  be Ramacandra  and  Sita.”  Like  this  the  pious  ladies of Nadiya made various  remarks  as  the  procession  passed  their  houses.   [C. B.  Adi 15.205].

Even after executing penances and austerities for many lifetimes,  the yogis are still  unqualified to see  the divine pastimes  of the Lord, but the ordinary inhabitants of Nadiya, down to the very lowest,  were able to have darsana of this divine pastime of the Lord - therefore He is called Dinanatha. The  brahmanas and family members  were presented with valuable cloths and all of the dancers, performers  (panegyrists) and beggers who were present  were also presented gifts of  cloths and money by Shri Gaurasun”dara.  Thus they went on their way feeling quite happy. Then  the Lord  Bishwambhar lovingly  embraced Buddhimanta Khan who had born all of the expenses of the wedding.

Hereafter  Shri  Brindaban  das  Thakur  only occassionaly mentions Shri Vishnupriya devi  in Chaitanya  Bhagavat.   When Lord  Chaitanya returned from  Gaya  dham,  Shri  Vishnupriya,  who  had  been  suffering   great separation, became again very  happy. But Mahaprabhu was  a completely changed person. Sacimata thought that perhaps he had become  afflicted with some disease. She worshipped Mother Ganges and Lord Vishnu for the welfare  of  her  child  and  brought  Shri Vishnupriya and sat her down before her husband.  However, Mahaprabhu, even  though looking in  her direction, didn’t  even see  her. He  simply used  to call out “Krishna!  Krishna!”, all the while crying.

Another time His mother brought His meal, and placing the plate before Him, she  also sat  down in  front of  Him.   Meanwhile Vishnupriya was watching everything from within the other room.  Mahaprabhu was always absorbed in various ecstatic moods.   One day He came to hear  of some oppressive behavior of some atheist miscreants and exclaimed, “I  will destroy them!” Sacimata couldn’t understand what was going on and told Vis nupriya to go  and sit next  to Him. Seeing  Vishnupriya Mahaprabhu started to beat her. But  then he regained His external  consciousness and felt embarrassed. [C. B. Mad 2.87].

One day Sacimata and Shri Gaursundor were sitting in the room  talking, while Vishnupriya was quietly sitting outside listening.  Sacimata told Gaursundor,  “Today  in  the  night,  I  saw  a dream in which You and Nityananda were playing with our Deities, Rama and Krishna. As the  four of  You  sat  down  to  take  some  food  and  ultimately you ended up fighting with one another. In this way I saw so many of your  sports!” Gaursundor replied: “Such  a wonderful dream,  Mother! But don’t  tell anyone. Rama  and Krishna  are personally  living in  our house. So many days I saw that  someone is stealing and  eating their prasad. I  used to doubt your daughter-in-law. But now I don’t have this doubt anymore (i.e. Balaram and Krishna are directly eating what is offered to  them).  Sacimata  exclaimed,  “Baba,  You  shouldn’t  speak  like  that”. Then Vishnupriya who was overhearing everything began to laugh.

Another  day,  the  Lord   Visvambhara  was  sitting  with   Laxmidevi (Vishnupriya)  in  His  room.  Laxmidevi  was feeling such happiness in being able to serve her husband  by giving Him tambula (pan and  betel nut) and in this bliss she  wasn’t aware whether it was night  or day.  Whenever Laxmi would stay by Viswambhara’s side,  then Saci would feel very content.  [C. B. Mad 11.65]

The Lord Gaur-Narayan eternally engages in His divine lila with  Laxmi (Vishnupriya) in Nadia. Vishnupriya is supplying Him tambula and chewing that He  feels very  happy.  She, by her  husband’s happiness  forgets whether it is day or night. This is the subject of meditation for  the eternal worshiper of Shri Shri Gaur Vishnupriya.

When Mahaprabhu played the part of Rukmini devi in a drama enacted  at the house of Shri Candrasekhara Acarya, Vishnupriya accompanied Sacimata when she went to see that performance. [C. B. Mad 18.29].

Hereafter,  in  the  descriptions  of  the  Lord’s  acceptance  of the sannyasa order, Shri Vrndavan Das Thakur hasn’t mentioned  Vishnupriya’s name anywhere.  Shrila Krishna  das Kaviraja  Goswami has  only described briefly her marriage  with Shri Gaursundara  in the 8th  chapter of the Adi lila of Chaitanya Charitamrita.

Locana dasa Thakura, however, in  his Chaitanya Mangala, has given  the following narration about the instructions that Mahaprabhu gave to Shri Vishnupriya on the night of  his departure for acceptance of  sannyasa:

“(You can write this down).  Everything that you see in this  universe is completely false;  the only reality  is Bhagavan and  his devotees; everything else is  for nothing (and  this is fit  to be sung).  Sons, husbands & friends;  all of these  family relationships are  false. In the end no one belongs to  anyone else.

Besides the lotus feet of Shri  Krishna, we have no other refuge.   Krishna is the husband (master) of  everyone, and besides Him everything  else is His energy - but no one understands this. Your name is  Vishnupriya; if you  worship Shri  Vishnu, then  your name  has been given substance.  Don’t feel any sorrow needlessly;  I am explaining to you  the genuine Truth.  Just fix your mind at the lotus feet of Shri Krishna”.

Vishnupriya replied: “You are the Supreme controller, therefore  please withdraw your illusory energy. Then Vishnupriya can be cheerful.”  Then Vishnupriya felt  her sadness  and affliction  leave her  and her heart full of ecstasy, she  found herself gazing at  the four armed form  of the Lord. Nevertheless, she couldn’t  give up thinking of the  Lord as her Lord (husband) and falling at the lotus feet of the Lord, she told Him, “I just have one  thing to say - I  have come into this world,  a completely vile and abominable wretch,  but you are my life, my  Lord.  My  worth  is  that  I  am  your  servant.   Now, for what reason am I condemned to become a useless nothing again.”

Then  Mahaprabhu  replied:  “Please  hear  me,  Devi  Vishnupriya. I am telling you  this -  Whenever and  wherever you  think of  Me, I  will immediately come to be with you, please know this to be a firm  fact.” Hearing he order of her Lord, Shri Krishna, Vishnupriya thought to herself - “You are the Supreme, independent  Lord.  Whatever makes  you happy, you should do that. Who will  try to obstruct you? Therefore I have no further reply.”

In the middle of the night, leaving the side of Vishnupriya, Mahaprabhu came before his Mother’s door and offered His salutations to her. Then after revealing some of  His transcendental opulences and  leaving her in a bewildered state, by speaking  some words to her, he crossed  the Ganges by swimming  and set off  in the direction  of Katwa. Shri  Vasu Ghosh Thakur has described the  state of Vishnupriya and Sacimata  when they woke up at the end  of the night: “Vishnupriya, thinking that  Shri Gaursundara was lying by her side, put her hand out to touch Him,  but found  simply  emptiness  beside  her.  Touching  that  empty space, a thunderbolt fell on her head. “Alas! Providence has cheated me.”

Crying  very  piteously  &  without  binding  her  hair,  she  went to Sacimata’s room. Vishnupriya’s crying was rending the very earth itself and the birds,  beasts, creepers and  trees, even the  rocks were also crying. “Oh why is it that, being such a sinful person my life is  not leaving  this  body?”  Falling  down  and  rolling  on the ground, her piteous wail caused her breath to  come in gasps.  Her mouth  dried up and  her  body  was  trembling.  Feeling  such intense separation from Mahaprabhu, sleep renounced the  eyes of Shri Vishnupriya.  If sometimes she might sleep  for a little  while, then she  would lie down  on the ground. Though her bodily radiance could defeat that of gold, now  she appeared very pallid, like a jewel covered with dirt.

Her body was  as thin as  the moon on  the fourteenth day  of the dark fortnight. She would  count the chanting  of Harinama with  the aid of grains of rice, and however much rice would accumulate, that she would cook and offer to Mahaprabhu.   Then a small amount of that  she would accept as prasadam. No  one could understand how  it was that she  was maintaining her life.” [B. R. 4.48]

In the diary  of Murari Gupta  is a description  of the appearance  of Mahaprabhu’s Deity and  Shri Vishnupriya devi’s  worship of that  murti.  Mahaprabhu’s very own expansion, in the form of His Deity, was present before Shri Vishnupriya. He intimated  to her, “Shri Krishna is  present in this form.”  Laxmi devi, as Vishnupriya engaged in the worship of  this Deity.  This  Deity  is  at  present  being  worshiped  in the form of Navadwipa as “Dhameshwar.”

After Mahaprabhu went away from Nadia, Isana Thakura (a servant in the house of Saci mata)  used to  look after Vishnupriya  and Sacimata. Shri Bansibadan Thakur also used to stay with them. Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu received the darsana of Vishnupriya when he went to Navadwipa.



A brahmana  pandit of  the name  Shri Vallabha  Acarya used  to live in Navadwip. He had  a very well  behaved and beautiful  daughter who was just like  Laksmidevi and  whose name  was Laksmipriya.  Thinking that the  time  for  her  marriage  had  arrived he called the match maker, Vanamali Acarya.

Vanamali Acarya considered Nimai Pandit to be the most suitable  match for Vallabha Acarya’s  daughter and so  he came to  see Saci mata.  He spoke to her thusly:  “The time for your  son’s marriage has come  but why is it that  you haven’t thought to  arrange a nice bride  for Him?  There is a  brahmana by the  name Shri Vallabha  Acarya, who is  from a very good  family and  who is  very well  behaved. There  is no  taint whatsoever on his name. He has a daughter who is just like the goddess of fortune  in beauty  and good  qualities. Why  don’t you accept this proposal if you have a mind to.” [C. B. Adi 10.54]

Shri Saci devi  replied, “My son  has no father.  Let Him get  a little older first.  Now he  is absorbed  in studies.”  Vanamali was not very engladdened by Saci mata’s reply and so, in a melancholy mood he  went away. However,  just by  chance, he  happened to  meet Nimai Pandit on the  way.  Nimai  inquired,  “Acarya  Mahasaya,  where  had you gone?” Vanamali replied, “I have just been to your house, to see your mother.  You see, Ballabha  Acarya has a  very nice daughter  and he considered You to  be a  quite suitable  bridegroom in  this respect.   However I didn’t  notice  any  enthusiasm  on  your mother’s part regarding this matter. Therefore  I am  going home  now.” Hearing  this, Nimai Pandit smiled. After  bidding farewell  to the  brahmana He  Himself returned home but kept completely silent.

His mother accosted Him,  “Nimai why are you  so grave today. You  are not speaking?”

Nimai replied, “Why couldn’t you speak nicely with Vanamali  Pandita?” By this Saci Mata  could understand that Nimai  had a desire to  marry that girl. Therefore she sent  someone to call the match  maker again.  This time she addressed him, “Vipra! That which you spoke to me  about yesterday  -  please complete the  arrangements quickly. I  am in full agreement with your proposal.” [C. B. Adi 10.45].

Having  heard  this  latest  development,  Vanamali  went  to Vallabha Acarya’s house. Seeing the cheerful face of Vanamali, Vallabha  Acarya could guess that his work had turned out successfully, and so his  own mind became filled  with joy. Receiving  him with all  due respects he seated him and inquired about the good news.  Vanamali replied,  “Very auspicious  news:  you  can  now  begin  the  arrangements  for   your daughter’s marriage  to Nimai  Pandit. To  get a  boy like  this as  a son-in-law is a matter of great fortune.”

Having heard this happy news the household members of Vallabha  Acarya felt unlimited joy. Shri Ballabha  told Banamali, “If Krishna is  pleased with  me  and  if  Laxmi  devi  and  Gauri  devi are satisfied with my daughter, then such a son-in-law as this might be obtainable.   Please arrange everything as soon as possible.”

“But the only thing is that I am not able to give a proper dowry. I am just a  poor brahmana.  I’ll only  be able  to give  5 haritaki (dried fruits) as  a dowry  along with  my daughter.  You will  have to plead this on my behalf.”

So Banamali came to Saci mata and spoke to her on this point. Sacimata replied,”Since she is a nice girl, we won’t demand any dowry. Whatever he  gives,  we  will  be  satisfied  with  that.” Vanamali returned to Vallabha  Acarya  and  informed  him   that  again  he  had   arranged everything satisfactorily.

Hearing those glad tidings the members of Vallabha Acraya’s house were completely  delighted.  Meanwhile  Sacidevi  informed  Shrivas  Pandit, Advaita Acarya  and the  other well  wishers of  her son about Nimai’s impending marriage. Everyone was very  happy to receive this news  and requested her to complete everything as soon as possible.

Saci Mata then called  the astrologers (Bhat tacharya) and  re”quested them  to  ascertain  when  the  next  favorable  conjunction  of   the constellations  would  take  place.  Vallabha  Acarya  had  also  done likewise so  the two  families discussed  it together  and then  set a date for the wedding.

With the wedding date finalized, Saci Mata, in joyful anticipa”tion of the  event,  now  sent  out  people  to personally invite the family’s friends  and  relatives  to  the  preliminary ceremony, which would be held at  her house  before the  wedding. Having  received the  news of Nimai Pandit’s  marriage, everyone  was very  happy and  began to look forward to the event.

On the morning of the  adhivas ceremony, the professional dancers  and musicians arrived  and by  their music  and dancing  created a festive atmo sphere. Meanwhile  the ceremonial  pavilion was  very nicely  and charmingly constructed, with  banana trees, mango  leaves, decora tive designs painted on  the ground with  rice flour, and  flower garlands.  The  brahmanas  known  as  Bhattacarya  recited various hymns from the Vedas, such as  “Nandi Mukh” sraddha,  as the preliminary  rites. Then the  invocation  ceremony  began  as  Shri Ballabha Acarya arrived with many auspicious articles to present to the bridegroom. These  articles are waved before the bridegroom as  in an aroti ceremony, in order  to convey the blessings of the father upon his future son-in-law. As  the rituals  were  performed  the  musicians  filled  the  air  with   the vibrations  of  their  instruments  while  Sacimata  was  very busy in receiving the  many guests  with sweets  and plates  of pan leaves and betel. In this way the invocation ceremony was completed.

Early the next morning preparations for the wedding ceremony began  as the friends and relatives of Jagannath Misra began to arrive. Sacimata received the ladies by annointing  their heads with oil and  arranging their bath.  After arranging  their hair she placed the  vermilion dot between the eyebrows. Then by presenting them new cloths and offerings of puffed rice,  bananas and sweets,  etc., she satisfied  everyone to the fullest extent. They all felt  as though they were floating in  an ocean of happiness having been welcomed so nicely by Shri Sacimata.

On the morning of the  wedding, Shri Gaursundara, after taking  bath in the Ganges, first performed the  daily worship of Lord Vishnu  and then worshipped his forefathers. In all  directions the sweet sound of  the musicians playing on their instruments  could be heard as the  singers and dancers began their activities. Demigods and Demigoddess from  the heavenly  planets,  having  disguised  themselves  as  ordinary  human beings,  arrived  in  anticipation  of  seeing  the  Lord’s   marriage ceremony.

Meanwhile,  Shri  Vallabhacarya  had  also  completed his duties on the evening of the  preceeding day by  conducting the invocation  ceremony and worshipping his forefathers. At his house also, the air was filled with the  sound of  singing and  dancing, playing  on instruments  and chanting auspicious hymns. During  the go-dhuli lagna Shri  Gaursundara set  out  from  his  house  with  a  huge crowd of friends, relatives, students and musicians,  after first offering  His salutations at  the feet of His mother and the other elders present.  To the accompaniment of  the  musicians  music  and  the  singers  and  dancers,  the party proceeded towards the Ganga.  There, Shri Gaursundara got down from His palanquin  and  offered  His  obeisances  to  Mother Ganges. Then they proceeded  along  the  banks  of  the  Ganges, finally approaching the house  of  Shri  Vallabha  Misra.  Vallabhacaryaji,  seeing  that   the bridegroom’s party had arrived was completely in ecstasy and came  out to greet them. He very  respectfully led his future son-in-law  in the the courtyard  and seated  Him within  the wedding  pavilion. Then  he brought his  daughter, who  had been  decorated very  beautifully with ornaments and tilok markings on her  face, and seated her next to  Shri Gaursundor.

The ladies  all began  to yodel  while the  musicians made the heavens resound with  the sound  of their  instruments. After  Laksmipriya was seated on a  wooden seat, she  was picked up  along with the  seat and caused  to  circumambulate  Shri   Gaursundara  seven  times.   Finally Laksmidevi,  after  having  offered  water  at  the  lotus feet of her husband,  offered  her  obeisances  to  Him.  She  placed a garland of flowers around the neck of her Prabhu, Who, in placing His garland  on her neck, duly accepted her as  His wife. In this way Shri  Shri Laksmi-Narayana were united with auspicious shouts of joy.

Shri  Gaursundara  now  seated  Laksmipriya  on  His  left  side, after performing  the  Mukhcandrika  ritual.  Prabhu,  still in the bloom of youth, was defeating  the beauty of  Cupid himself.   With Laksmi”devi seated on His left side, Their radiant beauty increased manifold,  and the waves  of ecstatic  bliss which  were felt  at that  moment in Shri Ballabh Misra’s house are beyond description. [C. B. Adi 10.102]

It was  late into  the night  when the  ladies completed their various family customs and social rites and rituals. Finally the Supreme  Lord along with His eternal consort Laxmidevi lay down on a bed of  flowers and slept.

In the  early morning  they rose  and completed  their morning duties.  After spending the day at  Vallabha Misra’s house, Shri Gaursundor  set out  for  His  own  house  during  the  go-dhuli lagna. At the time of bidding farewell to his  daughter and son-in-law, Shri  Ballabha Acarya along  with  his  family  members  became com”pletely overwhelmed. The divine couple,  having been  decorated with  sandalwood paste,  flower garlands, ornaments, crowns  and eye shadow,  looked radiant, as  they were seated in the palanquin.

The people along the  path were very pleased  to see the newly  wedded couple and exclaimed, “This young girl must have worshiped  Hara-Gauri for a long time  in order to have  obtained such a handsome  husband.” Admist  the  music  of  the  musicians  and the joyous shouts of those accompanying him,  Shri Gaursundara  entered the  courtyard of  His own house. Saci Mata  along with many  other brahmana ladies  received the couple by offering  aroti and many  auspicious articles. The  house of Sacimata  became  inundated  with  an   ocean  of  happiness  as   the musicians’ music filled the sky.

In  this  way  the  marriage  of  Shri  Gaursundor  was  performed very auspiciously and thus the whole  world became filled with joy.  All of the  guests,  brahmanas,  dancers,  musicians  and  various performers received presents  of money,  cloth and  foodstuffs from  the Lord  as tokens of appreciation and as a means of bidding them farewell.

All of the desires  of Sacimata were thus  fulfilled and she began  to float in an ocean of happiness. Her house was as though filled with  a divine aura and  the scent of  lotus flowers emanat”ing  from the body of Laksmipriya. From  this Sacima could  under stand that the  goddess of  Fortune,  Laksmidevi,  was  personal”ly  present  in  the  body of Laksmipriya.  Sacima  treated  her  with  great  affection,  as though Laksmipriya  was  dearer  to  her  than  her  own life. Laxmipriya was extremely well-behaved  and could  understand by  simple gestures what activities were to be  ac”complished by her. Sometimes  Shri Gaursundor would come and sit next to Laksmipriya when she was in the company  of Sacimata, simply to increase the happiness of His mother.

In  the  mornings,  Laksmi  would  clean  the  Deity  room,  make rice paintings on the floor, pick flowers and Tulasi leaves, and then begin to cook. Every day Mahaprabhu would invite some guests and serve  them in  his  house.  Mahaprabhu,  as  the  instructor  of  religion to the householders, taught  that their  main duty  is to  receive guests  in their house. Those who do not  serve guests are inferior to birds  and beasts. If  due to  one’s previous  bad activities,  he has nothing to offer, then  he can  at least  offer a  grass mat  on the  ground as a sitting place and some water. [C. B.  Adi 14.21]

The  Lord  descends  to  this  world  to disseminate the principles of religion. He  is very  affectionate to  His devotees  and thus  enacts many pastimes for their pleasures. Laksmidevi, as His eternal consort, would act in such a way as to enhance these pastimes. “She was  always engaged  in  the  service  of  Tulasi  and  above and beyond that, her primary  attention  was  the  service  of  Sacimata.   Hearing  of the activities of his wife, Shri Gaursundor remained externally silent  but was very pleased within.” [C.B. Adi 14.43]

After entering the grhastha  ashram, and accepting the  responsibility of maintaining others,  Shri Gaursundara decided  to go to  East Bengal as  a  teacher,  for  the  purpose  of  earning  some  wealth.   After submitting this proposal  to His mother  He instructed His  new bride, “During this  time you  should give  your full  attention to seving My mother.” Thereafter, on an auspicious  day for begining a journey,  He set out for Bangadesh, with a small number of students. Gradually they reached the Padma River, as the news of Nimai Pandit’s arrival  spread far and wide. Being invited to  stay in the houses of various  greatly fortunate householders, he would  hold classes which were  attended by thousands  of  students.  By  obtaining   the  sight  of  His   divine personage, the residents of that land became blessed.

“Even to this day the virtuous  gentlemen and ladies of this land  are so fortunate that they still  sing the glories of the  Lord (Hari-nam-sankirtan).  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Lord  came  here and cast His merciful glance on this land.” [Chaitanya Bhagavat]

In  this  way  the  Lord  of  Vaikuntha  engaged  in  His  pastimes of scholarship while in  the land of  Bangadesh. Meanwhile, in  Navadwip, Laxmipriya had given up eating and sleeping due to intense feelings of separation from Mahaprabhu.  All the family  members tried to  console her but to  no avail. In  name only she  would place a  few morsals of food in her mouth and her  nights were spent simply crying. Unable  to bear separation  from the  Lord of  Vaikuntha, the  Goddess of Fortune relinquished her mortal  frame and went  to join her  eternal consort.  As She is  the Supreme Goddess  of Fortune and  endowed with unlimited opulences, She  is capable  of accomplishing  anything. Giving  up her reflected  form  of  this  world,  she  went  to  join her Lord in her original form.  Her disappearance from this world was not like that of an ordinary human  being, however. For  her, separation from  the Lord was like a dose of strong poison; thus having taken this form, she was bit by the snake  of separation and being  unable to bear the  pain of that poison she gave up her existence in this world. [C.B. Adi 14.104]

Seeing that  Laksmidevi had  left this  world, all  of the  family and friends were plunged into  grief. Sacimata became completely  immersed in sorrow. The all omniscient Lord became aware of everything and thus returned  home  in  the  company  of  many  students  and  with   many possessions earned through His  teaching profession. Arriving home  he came to  know of  Laxmipriya’s deparure  and in  imitation of ordinary mortals he  displayed some  sorrow. Then  He consoled  His mother  and imparted many transcendental instructions to her.

Saci Ma  somehow tried  to restrain  her grief  while Shri  Gaursundara again engaged in His pastimes of scholarship. 



Shri Haridas Thakur appeared in this world in the village of Buron,  in the present district of Sat-kira, which was previously a  sub-division of  Khulna,  Bangladesh.  By  this  great  fortune  that land has been blessed, in that the chanting of the Holy Names of Hari-Nam Sankirtan, became revealed there.  After remaining there  for some time,  he came to the  banks of  Ganga at  Fulia, near  Santipur. Advaita  Acarya was overjoyed to get his association and  roared very loudly.  The two  of them thus began to  float in the waves  of the mellows of  pastimes of Shri Krishna-Govinda. [C. B. Adi 16.18]

Shri Haridas Thakur  is an eternally  liberated associate of  the Lord.  The associates of the Lord  are worshippable wherever they make  their appearance.  Just  as  Garura  appeared  as  a  bird, and Hanuman as a monkey, Haridas Thakur appeared in a family of Yavanas  (Mohammedans).  From his very birth  he was very deeply  devoted to the Holy  Names of Shri Krishna.

When he came to  live by the banks  of the Ganges, Advaita  Acarya was very happy  to get  his association.  The brahmana  residents of Fulia were very pleased  to see how  he worshipped the  Holy Name, and  they used to  come everyday  to have  his darsan.  Gradually word  began to spread of his glories. When the Mohammedan administrator came to  know of  all  this  he  began  to  burn  with  malice and went to the local Mohammedan king to  inform him, “Though  he is Mohammedan,  he behaves as  a  Hindu,  are  therfore  he  should  be  brought here for trial.” Hearing the  words of  that sinful  man, the  local king  who was also very sinful,  had Hari  das Thakur  brought there  immediately. [C. B.  Adi 16.37].

The Mohammedan King told Haridas, “Just give up this chanting and  say the Kalma (prayer of the Mohammedans).”

Haridasa Thakura replied, “The Supreme  Lord is one, though His  names might be different. The Hindu  sastras are the Puranas and  the Muslim sastra is the Koran. Everyone acts  as he is inspired by the  Lord, as also do I. Some yavanas become Hindus and some Hi ndus become yavanas, to worship the Lord. O Maharaja, you can now judge me.”

Hearing these  words the  Kazi replied  that it  would be necessary to punish him. Hearing the decree  of the Kazi, the Muluk  pati addressed Haridasa, “My brother, just follow  your own religion.  Then  you will have nothing to worry about. Otherwise you will have to be punished.”

In reply to this Haridasa Thakura exclaimed, “Even if you cut my  body into pieces, I will never give  up the chanting of Hari nama.”  [C. B.

Adi 6.94]

After hearing these words of Haridasa spoken with great deter”mination, the Kazi declared, “He should  be beaten in twenty two  market places.  If  he  doesn’t  die  after  this,  then  I will know that the learned gentleman speaks the truth.” Thus having heard the words of the  Kazi, the sinful Muluk pati then ordered that Haridasa Thakura be beaten  in twenty¬two market  places. Haridasa  remembered the  Lord by  chanting “Krishna Krishna”,  and in  the happiness  of that  remembrance, he didn’t feel any bodily inconvenience. [C. B. Adi 16.102].

As the demoniac associates of  Hiranyakasipu tried in so many  ways to kill  Shri  Prahlada  Maharaja,  but  were  unsuccessful, similarly the demoniac  Mohammedans,  though  they  tried  to harm Haridasa Thakura, were unable to do  so. Haridasa Thakur was  immersed in the nectar  of the Name and thus gradually  the Mohammedans could understand that  he wasn’t an ordinary person.

Thus  they  humbly  submitted  to  the  Thakura,  “Haridasa!  We   can understand that  you are  a genuine  saintly person.   No one  can  do anything  to  you.  But  the  Mulukpati  won’t understand any of this.  Rather  he  will  have  our  heads.”  Hearing  their  frightened pleas Haridasa’s  external  consciousness  ceased  and  he entered into deep meditation on the Lord’s Holy Name.

Then  the  Mohammedans  carried  his  body  on  their shoulders to the Mulukpati, who surmised that he was dead. Thinking as such he  ordered that his body be thrown in the Ganga. Haridasa’s body floated down the Ganga until he reached Fulia ghat,  where he got out of the  water and began to  loudly chant  Hari Nama.  Seeing the  greatness of  Haridasa Thakura,  the  Mulukpati  became   fearful.   Along  with  the   other Mohammedans he  came there  and begged  Haridas Thakur  to forgive him for his offense.

Considering him to be a holy man, they all offered their  saluta”tions and  thus  were  delivered  from  their offences. Having witnessed the pastimes of the Thakura the devotees were in ecstacy.

Haridasa Thakur used  to chant Hari  Nama in a  hollowed out cave¬like hole at the base  of a tree. This  “cave” still exists near  Fulia, on the banks of the  Ganga.  One can  get there by train  from Santipura.  Within the  roots of  this tree  also lived  a poisonous  snake. Being fearful of this snake the devotees couldn’t remain there for very long and one day they mentioned to  the Thakura about this snake which  was worrying them.   Seeing the distress  of the devotees  Haridasa Thakur called to that snake  and spoke to him,  “My dear sir, if  in fact you are  residing  here,  then  I  am  requesting that you please leave by tomorrow, otherwise I myself will definitely leave here.”

Hearing these words of the Thakura, that snake immediately came out of its  hole  and  after  offering  namaskar  to  the  Thakura,  it  went elsewhere. Seeing this pastime,  the devotees were struck  with wonder and they developed profound and deep devotion for Haridasa Thakura.

One time Haridasa Thakura came  to a village within Jessore  dis¬trict named Harinode gram, which  was predominantly inhabited  by brahmanas.  One  day  during  a  religious  discussion  one  puffed  up   brahmana approached  Haridasa  Thakura  and  remarked,  “O Haridasa! Why do you chant the holy  name loudly? In  the scrip”tures it  is recommended to chant within  the mind.”  In reply  Hari dasa  Thakura told  him, “The birds, beasts and insects cannot chant themselves, but if they get  to hear Hari Nama then they also become delivered. If one chants only  to himself then he delivers only  himself, but if one chants  loudly, the benefit is  a hundred  times greater.  This is  the conclusion  of the scriptures.” [C. B. Adi 16.180]

Hearing  this  objective  statement  of  Haridasa  Thakura that sinful brahmana couldn’t tolerate it and exclaimed, “In Kali yuga sudras will recite the sastras, now I am seeing this with my own eyes.” In  answer to this personal insult delivered by that miscreant brahmana, Haridasa Thakura simply silently walked out of that assembly. Within a few days that  brahmana  contracted  ulcerous  leprosy.  The result of vaishnava aparadha  became  immediately  manifest.  In  Kali yuga, Raksasas take birth in  brahmana families  in order  to give  trouble to the honest, virtuous people.  [C.B. Adi 16.300]

Another time,  Haridasa desired  to have  darsana of  the Vaishnavas of Navadwipa.  Everyone  there  became  overwhelmed  with ecstasy, to see Haridasa. Adwaita Acarya  loved Haridasa as  much as His  own life and he would offer the first prasadam to Haridasa Thakura (which is to  be offered only  to high  class brahmanas)  after performing Pitr-sraddha (worship of his forefathers).

Haridasa Thakura  lived for  some time  at Benapol,  which was  within Jessore district.  Every day  and night  he would  chant three hundred thousand  Holy  Names.  At  the  time,  when  Shri  Chaitanya Mahaprabhu displayed His divine opulences  by manifesting Himself as  the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the courtyard af Shrivasa Pandita’s house, He was calling his dear devotees: “Haridasa!  when those Mohammedans were beating you I was ready to  destroy them with My Sudarsana Cakra,  but as you were praying  for their welfare I  was unable to do  anything.” [C. B. Madhya 10.42]

Therefore I accepted their blows on  My own body. Just see, the  scars are still here  on My body.”  Seeing those marks  Hari-dasa fainted in ecstatic love. Regaining his consciousness he began to praise the Lord of his life, “O Lord Viswambhara, master of the universe, please  have mercy on  this sinner,  who has  fallen at  Your feet.  I have no good qualities and am a  vile wretch, rejected by  all classes of men.  How can I describe Your divine character?” [C. B. Mad 20.58]

Thakura Haridasa  was present  during most  of the  Lord’s pastimes in Nadia, and when the Lord  went to Jagannatha Puri, Haridasa  also went and took up residence there. Everyday, after attending Lord Jagannath’s mongol aroti,  Lord Chaitanya  would come  to see  Haridasa Thakura and would bring him some of  Lord Jagannath’s prasadam. When Shri  Sanatana Goswami and Shri Rupa Goswami  would come from Vrindavana to  Puri they used to stay with Hari¬  dasa Thakura. Haridasa, in order  to maintain the etiquette, would  not go near  Lord Jagannatha’s temple  but would offer  his  obeisances  to  the  Cakra  on  top  of the temple, from a distance.  As  he  was  considered  to  be  a Mohammedan by birth, his presence in the temple would be objectionable to those who were  caste conscious.

Mahamaya  devi  took  initiation  in  the  maha-mantra  from  Haridasa Thakura and  Chaitanya Mahaprabhu  appointed him  as the  acarya of the Holy Name. His departure from this world, in the presence of  Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, is fully described by  Shri Krishna dasa Kaviraja Gosvami  in the Antya-lila of Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita.



Shri  Krishnadasa  Kaviraja  Gosvami   has  described  in  Shri   Chaitanya Charitamrita that the  first sprout of  the desire tree  of devotion was manifested in the person of Shri Madhavendra Puri, and that that sprout developed into a sapling  in the person of  Shri Isvar Puri.   Then, in the  person  of  Shri  Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu,  Who was also the gardener Himself, that sapling become the trunk of a enormous tree, the  desire tree of devotion. [C. C. Adi 9.10-11]

Shri Isvara Puri  appeared in this  world on the  full moon day  of the month of  Jyestha.   He served  his guru,  Shri Madhavendra  Puri, very faithfully, especially during the end  of  Shri Puripada’s life. [C. C.  Antya 8.26]

Shri Isvara Puri, in his travels  to various holy places, once came  to Shridhama Navadwipa,  where he  stayed in  the house  of Shri  Gopinatha Acarya. At that time Shri Nimai Pandita was absorbed in His pastimes of learning. Iswara Puri  entered Nadiya nagara in  disguise and thus  no one could understand who he really was.

“That noble minded  gentleman, was always  absorbed in the  mellows of devotion to Shri Krishna. He was thus extremely dear to Shri Krishna and  he was an ocean  of mercy. No  one, however, could  recognize him by  his dress. By the will  of fate, he came  to Shri Advaita Acarya’s  house.” [C. B. Adi 11]

He came  to where  Shri Advaita  Acarya was  engaged in worshipping Shri Krishna and quietly  sat down there.  By his divine  lustre one Vaishnava cannot remain hidden  from another.   Advaita Acarya began  to look in his direction again and  again.  Finally he  asked him: “Bap! Who  are you? I have a feeling you are a Vaishnava sannyasi.”

Shri Isvara Puri very humbly replied: “I am a low class sudra, come  to view your lotus feet.” Mukunda Datta, who was also present could  also understand that this is a  Vaishnava sannyasi and thus he  contrived to expose him.  In his  sweet voice,  he began  a kirtana  describing Shri Krishna’s pastimes. When  Shri Isvara Puri  heard that kirtan  he at once fell to  the ground,  and the  earth beneath  him became  wet with his tears.  The  devotees  present  were  dumbstruck.  “We  haven’t seen a Vaishnava like this before.”  Advaita Acarya very firmly  embraced him.  Now everyone could understand that this is Madhavendra Puri’s dearmost disciple, Shri Isvar  Puri. Loud shouts  of “Hari! Hari!”  rose up into the air.

Shri Isvara  Puri remained  at Navadwipa  for some  days. One  day when Nimai  Pandita  was  returning  home  from  the school, he happened by chance to  meet Shri  Isvara Puri  on the  way. Shri  Isvara Puri was as though mesmerized  while looking  at the  son of  Saci, and thought to himself, “He has all the indications of being a divine personage,  and appears very grave indeed.” Shrila Isvara Puri inquired, “Oh  Viprabor!  May I know your name?  Where  do you live? What is that manuscript  in Your hand?”  Mahaprabhu very humbly offered His namaskara. Some of his disciples replied, “His  name is Nimai  Pandit.” Exclaiming, “You  are the famous Nimai  Pandita!”  Isvara Puri felt very happy  to meet Him.  Mahaprabhu,  coming  forward  and  bowing  his head, humbly requested, “Shripada, please come with Me to My house and be My guest for lunch.”

Isvara Puri thought to himself, “What a pleasant demeanor He has!”  As though charmed by some mantra he quietly came along with the Pandit to His  house.  Arriving  there,  Mahaprabhu  personally washed his feet, while in the  Deity room, Saci  Mata offered the  various preparations that  she  had  prepared  to  the  Lord.   Then Mahaprabhu served that prasadam  to  Shri  Isvara  Puri  and afterwards accepted his remnants.  Thereafter they sat  in the temple  (Vishnugrha)  and discussed  Krishna-katha, by which they both became filled with ecstatic love.

Shri Iswara Puri thus remained  at Navadwipa for a few  months, staying at the house of Shri  Gopinatha Acarya. Everyday Mahaprabhu would  come to have darsan of his lotus feet and occasionally He would invite  him for lunch. At that time Shrila  Gadadhara Pandita was just a young  boy and Isvara Puri was  very affectionate to him.  He began to teach  him from the book which he had composed - “Shri Krishna Lilamrta”.

One evening when Mahaprabhu had come to offer His obeisances to Isvara Puri, Shrila Puripada spoke  to him, “You are  a great pandita. I  have composed a manuscript about Shri Krishna’s pastimes.  If you would please hear it,  then I  can recite  it before  You, and  You can correct any mistakes that there might be. I will be very pleased if You do this.”

Mahaprabhu replied smilingly, “Whatever  a devotee speaks is  dictated by Shri  Krishna Himself.  If anyone  sees any  fault in  this then he is simply a sinful wretch. Whatever poems he composes, certainly Krishna is very  pleased  by  that.  Krishna  accepts  the mood in which things are offered as the most substantial part of the offering.” To Isvara  Puri these words were like drops of nectar and he could understand that Shri Nimai Pandita was an extraordinary person.  After passing some days in Nadia, Isvara Puri continued his tour of the holy places.

Meanwhile Mahaprabhu was bringing His pastimes of learning to a  close and now desired to reveal His true Self and establish the religion  of the age by  distributing love of  Godhead through the  chanting of His Holy Names. Thus He  came to Gaya, ostensibly  to offer pinda for  His departed father and forefathers.  Shri Isvara Puri was present at  that time at Gaya.

After having  offered pinda  at the  various holy  shrines, he finally came to the place where the  lotus footprints of Shri Vishnu are.  While taking darsana  and hearing  of the  glories of  the shrine Mahaprabhu fainted and fell to the ground. By the arrangement of Providence,  Shri Isvara Puri happened to come to  that spot just then and learned  from Shri  Candrashekar  Acarya  what  had  transpired.  After  a short time Mahaprabhu regained His consciousness,  and seeing Isvara Puri  He got up to offer His obeisances. Shri  Isvara Puri embraced Him and the  two of them were drenched by each others tears of love.

Mahaprabhu addressed Isvara  Puri, “My journey  to Gaya is  successful just by My seeing  your lotus feet. If  one offers Pinda at  this holy place, then  his forefathers  become delivered.  But simply  by seeing you, tens of  millions of forefathers  get liberation. Therefore  your presence is even more auspicious than that of this holy tirtha. All of the holy tirthas pray  for the dust of  your lotus feet. Therefore,  O Puripada, I am praying at your lotus feet to ferry me across the ocean of material existence and to cause me to drink the nectar from Krishna’s lotus feet.”

Shrila Isvara Puri replied, “Please hear me Panditji, I have understood that You are an incarnation of the Supreme Lord. This morning I saw  a very auspicious dream and now that has actually materialized. From the first day I saw you at Navadwipa, I have always thought of You. I  get such pleasure  by seeing  You, as  much pleasure  as I  get by  seeing Krishna.”

Hearing this, Mahaprabhu bowed  his head and smilingly  replied, “This is my great fortune.”

On another day Mahaprabhu approached Shri Isvar Puri and requested that he initiate  Him with  the divine  mantra. “My  mind is  becoming very restless  in  anticipation  of  this initiation.”  Shrila Puripada very blissfully replied, “What to speak of mantras, I am prepared to  offer You my very life.” [C. B. Adi 17.10]

Thereafter  Shrila  Isvara  Puri  initiated  Mahaprabhu with the divine mantra.

One morning Shrila  Isvara Puri came  to where Mahaprabhu  was staying.  Mahaprabhu was  extremely pleased  to see  him and  after offering His obeisances He invited him to stay for lunch. Isvara Puri replied that, “Being able to accept foodstuffs from  Your hand is a matter of  great fortune for  me.” Mahaprabhu  Himself cooked  and then  very carefully served His guru the  prasadam. Afterwards he smeared  sandalwood paste on his body  and put a  garland of flowers  around his neck.  Thus the Supreme Lord  Himself taught  how one  should serve  his guru. Without serving the  great devotees,  it is  not possible  to receive  love of Godhead.  Service to the guru is the door to devotion.

On his  return from  Gaya, Mahaprabhu  came by  way of Kumarhatta, the birthplace of His  guru, and began  to roll on  the ground in  ecstasy there, as the ground became  wet with His tears. Finally  He collected some dust from that holy place and bound it in the corner of his upper garment, saying, “This dust is as dear to me as My life.”  then he set out for  Nawadvipa. The  birthplace of  Shrila Isvara  Puri is  located within the present town of  Halyahor,  which is near the  Kanchra-para rail station, which is on the Sealdah-Krishnanagar line. One should  get down at Kanchra-para station and then proceed by rickshaw to  Chaitanya Doha. Doha means pond, which  is what was created when  many followers of  Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu,  following  in  His footsteps, came here and collected earth from the birthplace of Shrila Isvara Puri.

Thereafter Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa and by the order of His mother came to live at Jagannath Puri.  By this time Isvara Puri had  already left  this  world.  He  sent  two  of  his  disciples  Shri Govinda and Kasisvara brahmacari to serve the Lord at Nilacala.   



As there  is not  much mention  of Shri  Lokanatha Goswami  in Vaishnava literatures,  similarly  there  is  not  much  mention  either  of Shri Bhugarbha  Goswami,  who  was   his  very  close  friend.   Follow ing Mahaprabhu’s  order,  they  both  came  to  live  at Vraja-dham. Their hearts were inseparable.

Shri Bhugarbha Goswami was the  disciple of Shri Gadadhar Pandit.  He in turn had a number of  disciples, namely: Shri Chaitanya Das  (the pujari of Shri Govinda  deva), Shri Mukundananda  Cakravarti, Premi Krishna  das, etc.

In the Sr Chaitanya-charitamrita, it is mentioned that Shri Bhugarbha  das and Shri  Bhagavat das  came to  Brndavan and  took up residence there.  [C. C. Adi 12.81]

In  the  Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika,  Shri  Bhugarbha Gosvami’s identity as Premamanjari in Krishna lila, has been given.

His disappearance is on  the 14th day of  the bright fortnight in  the month of Kartik. His samadhi is near the samadhi of Shri Rupa  Gosvami, within the courtyard of Shri Radha-Damodar temple.

Shrila  Bhugarbha  Gosvami  and  Shrila  Lokanath Goswami were one, only their bodies were different. [Bhakti Ratnakara]



I  worship  Shri  Lokanatha  Prabhu,  the  son  of  Shri Padmanabha, who possessed great wealth of devotion to Shri Shri Radha-vinoda, and always engaged in Their service.

Shrila Loknatha Gosvami was born in the village of Talkhari, within the district  of  Jessore,  Bangladesh,  as  the  son  of  Shri  Padmanabha Bhattacarya and his wife, Shri Sita devi. Thalkhari can be reached from Sonakhali and Khejura.

Shri  Padmanabha  Bhattacarya  was  a  devoted  follower of Shri Adwaita Acarya, who was  very fond of  Shri Padmanabha. The  younger brother of Lokanatha  was  Pragalbha  Bhattacarya.  His  descendants  are   still residing at Talkhari.

From his childhood Lokanath was disinterested in worldly affairs.   He decided to  leave his  home and  came to  Navadwip to  have darsana of Mahaprabhu.  Shri  Gaursundara  very  lovingly  embraced  Lokanatha and instructed him  to go  to Vrindavana  as soon  as possible.   Lokanath could understand that Mahaprabhu would renounce His family life within a few days and he was aggrieved at this.  Mahaprabhu consoled him  and told him that they would meet again in Vrindavana.

“With tears flowing from his  eyes Lokanath offered his obeisances  to Mahaprabhu. The  all-omniscient Lord  lovingly embraced  him and after explaining  some  hidden  truths  to  him,  He instructed him to go to Vrindavana. Thus Lokanatha, after  surrendering his self at  the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu, set out for Vrindavana. [B. R. 1st Taranga]

Lokanatha never returned home.  Being afflicted greatly by  separation from the Lord, he  set out to tour  the holy places, and  then finally came  to  Vrindavana.   Meanwhile  Shri  Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu  accepted sannyasa and then came to  Nilacala. After some time, when  Mahaprabhu set out on  His tour of  South India, Lokanatha,  having received this news also journeyed to the south. Then Mahaprabhu came to  Vrindavana;

Lokanatha followed Him there. But by the time he reached  Vraja-bhumi, Mahaprabhu had already left for Prayaga. Lokanatha was extremely  sad.  Again having missed darsan of his Prabhu, He decided to leave the next morning for Prayaga.

In a dream however, Prabhu came to console Lokanatha and requested him to  stay  at  Vrindavana.  Thus  Lokanatha remained at Vrajadhama, not wanting  to  neglect  the  order  of  Mahaprabhu. He stayed alone, his presence  unknown  to  anyone.  But  after  some  days he met the dear disciples of Mahaprabhu  - Shri Rupa,  Shri Sanatana, Shri  Gopal Bhatta, Shri Bhugarbha,  and others.  They were  all very  affectionate to  one another and it was as though they were of one mind.

Amongst  the  Goswamis,  Lokanatha  was  the  eldest.  He  was  always intensely absorbed in  loving ecstatic mellows.  In Hari-bhakti-vilasa we find this verse:  “I worship Shrimat Kasisvara, Shrimat Lokanath  and Shrimad Krishna das Kaviraj, who have taken shelter at the lotus feet  of Shri Govinda and who are very dear to Shri Vrindavana.”

Lokanatha Goswami used  to visit the  many places of  Krishna’s pastimes within Vrajadhama and  in this way  he was always  absorbed in intense ecstasy. Lokanath came to the banks of Kisori-kunda within the village of Umrao, by the side of Chatrabon, and remained there for a few days.  Lokanatha wanted very much to be able to worship the Deity form of the Lord,  and  Shri  Krishna,  who  is  within  the  heart of everyone, thus presented  a  Deity  form  of  Himself  to  Lokanatha to worship. This Deity’s name is  Radha-Vinoda.  Having  received this Deity,  Lokanath looked up to  see who had  brought Him, but  seeing no one  present he began to reflect on the mystery of His appearance.

Seeing Lokanatha  deep in  thought, Radha-Vinoda  laughed, “Who  would have brought Me here! I have come Myself! I live here on the banks  of Kisori-kunda and this is My village  - Umrao. Now please give me  some thing to eat.”

Lokanatha was  beside himself  with bliss  and being  immersed in that ecstasy, he prepared some foodstuffs and offered them to Radha-Vinoda.  Then he made a bed of flowers and made the Deity lie down to take rest.  He fanned the  Deity with some  leaves and meditated  on massaging the lotus feet  of his  Lord. Having  surrendered his  body, mind and very life itself,  he was  totally absorbed  as though  drinking a  flow of honey-like nectar.

Lokanatha Goswami  had no  permanent abode.  Some Vrajavasi  villagers wanted to build a little hut for him but he wouldn’t agree. He made  a bag for Radha-Vinoda which he  kept around his neck. Rahda-Vinoda  was as  though  a  rare  gem  suspended  on  a  necklace round the neck of Lokanatha. His  activities represented  the crest  jewel of asceticism and the other Goswamis  managed to keep him  in their company only  by great endeavor.

It is very difficult to  describe the character of Lokanatha  Goswami, who was so dear to Mahaprabhu.  When Mahaprabhu and some of the  other Goswamis began their  pastimes of disappearance,  Lokanatha maintained his life only due to the desire of Mahaprabhu.  Shri Lokanatha  Goswami initiated Narottama dasa Thakur  Mahasaya in the divine  mantra. There is  no  mention  anywhere  of  any  other  disciple  of his. It is not possible to describe the care with which Narottama Thakura served  his guru. In the  early morning he  would clean the  place where his  guru passed stool and urine.

Lokanatha Goswami, having become quite advanced in years, entered into his  eternal  pastimes,  while  residing  at Khadir bon (Khoyra gram).  There is a  large lake there  called Shri Yugal-kunda  on the banks  of which his samadhi has been  established.  His worshipable Deities  Shri Shri Radha-Vinoda are at present being worshiped in Jaipur,  Rajasthan.  His puspa-samadhi is within the courtyard of Shri Gokulananda Mandira.

It is said that Shrila Krishna das Kaviraja Goswami approached  Lokanatha Goswami for his blessings and any information that he might be able to supply in  order that  he might  satisfactorily compose  Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita. At that time, Lokanatha forbade Kaviraj Goswami to mention his name or describe anything about him. In order to honor the request of this great Vaishnava, he therefore didn’t write anything about  him.  His disappearance is on the eighth day of the bright fortnight in  the month of Sravon.

Shri Narottama dasa Thakur Mahasaya has prayed at the lotus feet of his guru as follows: “Oh My Lord, Lokanatha! Please keep me at your  feet, and if it pleases you, please let your glance of mercy fall upon me. I have  a  great  longing  that  my  mind’s  desires might be fulfilled.  Wherever one gets the association of Lord Chaitanya, there also he gets the association of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. If you are not merciful to me, then who will be? This time, please fulfill my mind’s desires. In  the three worlds I have  no one other than  you. Please keep me  near your lotus feet, where I might  hear, day and night, your  songs describing the  lila  of  Shri  Shri  Radha  and  Krishna. Without you, the desire of Narottama cannot be fulfilled.”



In his  Laghu-Vaishnava-Tosani, Shri  Jiva Goswami  has mentioned  their family lineage beginning with Shri Sarva, who was a yajur vedi brahmana, Bharadvaja gotriya, from Karnataka. His son was Shri Aniruddha deva who had two sons Shri Rupesvara and Shri Harihar-deva.

There was apparently  some altercation between  the two brothers,  who had different mothers  (Aniruddha deva had  two wives) as  a result of which Shri  Rupesvara along  with his  wife and  eight horses,  came to Paulastya desa, where he was befriended by the ruler of that land, Shri Sekaresvar. Shri Padmanabha deva, the son of Shri Rupesvar was extremely learned in all the Vedas.  He came with his family to live at Naihati, on the banks of the Ganga.  He had eight daughters and five  sons. His five sons, following in the footsteps of their predecessors, were very expert in the study of Vedas. Their names were Purusottama, Jagannatha, Narayana, Murari and Mukundadeva.

Mukundadeva’s son,  Shri Kumara  deva, being  oppressed by  some of the other family members, came to live at Bakla Candradvip. Shri Kumaradeva had many sons, amongst whom Shri Amar (Sanatana), Shri Santosh (Shri Rupa) and Shri Vallabha (Anupama) were great  devotees.

Shri Sanatana was born in the Christian year 1488 (Sakabda 1410).   He, along with his brothers, began his studies from their maternal uncle’s house, in a small village, Sakurma, near the capital of Gaura-desa.

The Badsa Hassain Shah, having heard of their profound scholarship and intelligence, decided  to engage  the two  brothers as  his ministers.  Though  they  were  unwilling,  the  order  of  the Badsa could not be entirely neglected. Thus they came to live at Ramakeli, the capital of Gaura-desa at that time, and were presented much wealth by the  Badsa.  Many brahmanas and pandits from distant lands would stay with Rupa and Sanatana whenever they would come  to Ramkeli,  specially, those  from Karnataka and Navadwipa. There is still a house near the Ganga, called Bhattabati, which is said to have been their residence.

They had many  instructors and professors.  In rhetoric their  teacher was  Shri  Vidyabhusanapada.  They  were  trained  in philosophy by the brother of Sarvabhyuma Bhattacarya, Shri Vidyavacaspati, as well as Shri Paramananda Bhattacarya,  Shri Rampada  Bhadrapada.   Their names  have been  mentioned  in  the  commentary  of  the  tenth  canto  of Shrimad Bhagavatam.

These three brothers were  from childhood endowed with  great devotion to the Lord.  In memory  of Shri Vrindavana, near their residence  they planted  many  auspicious  trees  such  as Tamal, Kadamba, Juthika and Tulasi. In  the midst  of these  gardens constructed  Shyama-kunda and Radha-kunda.  In  these  auspicious  surroundings they always remained absorbed in service to Shri Madana Mohana. Having heard something about the famous Nimai Pandita they became very anxious to have His darsana, and always meditated on when they might get such a chance.

One morning, Sanatana Goswami, saw  a dream in which one  brahmana was presenting the  Shrimad Bhagavatam  to him.  Suddenly he  woke up,  but seeing that no one  was there, he felt  sad.  Later on, in the morning after he had finished his  bath and performance of puja,  one brahmana came to his  house and presented  him with the  Bhagavata, instructing him to study it  very thoroughly.  Having received it in this way,  he was beside  himself with bliss,  and  from that  day, considering  the Bhagavata to be the essence  of all scriptures, he began  its thorough study.

“My only constant companion, my only friend, guru, wealth, that  which has delivered me, my great fortune and the source of my good luck, the form through  which I  taste pleasure,  my obeisances  to you,  Shrimad Bhagavatam.” [Shri Krishna-lila stava].

When the  brothers learned  that Nimai  Pandita, the  life and soul of Nadia, had accepted  sannyasa and gone  to stay at  Puri, they fainted dead away, having lost hope of getting His darsana. They were a little pacified only after a celestial voice informed them that they would be able to see the Lord, here in Ramakeli itself.

After five years had passed,  Mahaprabhu decided to come to  Bengal to have darsana of his mother and mother Ganga. All of the devotees  were in ecstasy and Saci mata was so overjoyed that she was not even  aware of her own  body. After spending   a few days  with Advaita Acarya  in Santipur, He came to Ramakeli. [C. C. Mad 1.166]

Sakara Mallik (Sanatan) and Dabir Khas (Rupa), along with their brother Shri Ballabha (Anupama), who had a son who was just a small child  (Shri Jiva), they offered salutations at the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu.

After Mahaprabhu  had left  Ramakeli to  return to  Puri, the brothers began to observe some vows and  rituals in order to obtain shelter  at His lotus feet. After sending  the family members to their  residences at Candradwip and Fateyabad, Shri  Rupa and Anupama loaded a  boat with their accumulated  wealth and  left Ramakeli.  Sanatan remained  there alone.  Thereafter,  Rupa  and   Anupama,  having  received  news   of Mahaprabhu’s journey to Vrindavana,  set out to meet Him. Arriving  at Prayaga,  their  desire  was  fulfilled.  At  that  time they informed Mahaprabhu  that  their  brother  had  been  incarcerated at Ramakeli.  Mahaprabhu simply  smiled and  replied that  he would  get his freedom very soon.

Meanwhile, after the successful departure of Rupa and Anupama, Sanatan was  planning  how  he  also  could  make  his  getaway. The Badsa had entrusted Dabir Khas and Sakar Mallik with the main responsibility  of managing the affairs of  his kingdom. When Sanatana  stopped attending his darbar on the  plea of being ill,  he sent his personal  doctor to examine him. The doctor informed him that there was nothing wrong with Sakara Mallik, and  so the Badsa  personally  came  there to find  out what was the matter. The Badsa addressed Sanatana Gosvami, “My  doctor says that you are  perfectly healthy.  All  my affairs depend on  you, but you  are simply  sitting in  your house,  in the  company of these pandits.  Your  brother has also  left.  In  this way my  kingdom will topple. I don’t know what you are trying to do to me.”

Sanatana Gosvami said, “We will no longer be able to assist you in the affairs of your government.You had better find someone else to do it.”

The  Badsa  got  up  in  great  anger and declared, “You brothers have ruined all my plans.” Sanatan replied, “You are the independent  ruler of Gauda.  If you feel anyone has committed any misdeed, then you  can punish him as you see fit.”

The Badsa  had Sanatan  imprisoned.  During  this  time the  Badsa was preparing to go to Orissa to  engage in warfare with the king  of that country, so he requested Sanatana to accompany him.  Sanatana refused, telling him, “As you will naturally try to give pain to the Deities in the temples and the sadhus, I will not be able to accompany you.”

Therefore the Badsa set out for Orissa leaving Sanatana imprisoned. At this time Sanatana  received a letter  from Shri Rupa,  stating that he had depositied  eight hundred  gold coins  with one  grocer.  With the help of this money,  Sanatana should immediately arrange  his release.  The account of his escape and journey to meet Shri Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu in Varanasi is found in C.C., Madhya-lila ch. 20.  After that he  went to Vrndavana.

In a kutir cottage made  from leaves, Sanatana Gosvami lived  for some time at Mahabon, the birth place of Shri Krishna. One day, he was walking along the  banks of  the Yamuna,  going to  beg some  foodstuffs in  a nearby village. Madana Gopaladeva  was playing with some  cowherd boys there, and when he saw  Sanatana Gosvami he came running  towards him, “Baba!  Baba!”. Catching hold of Sanatana’s hand he told him, “I  want to go with you!”

“Lala!”  replied Sanatana, “Why do you want to go with me?”

“I want to stay where you live.”

“If you stay with me, what will you eat?”

“Baba! Whatever you eat.”

“But I only eat some dry capatis and chick peas.”

“Then that is what I will eat.”

“No that won’t be enough for you. You should stay with your mother and father.”

“Na. baba. na. I want to stay with you.”

Sanatan Goswami patiently explained that the boy might feel difficulty if he stayed  with him, and  sent him home.  Then he went  to beg some capatis in the village.

That night, in  a dream, he  saw that boy  again come to  him. Smiling very sweetly, he caught hold of Sanatana’s hand and said, “Baba! I  am coming tomorrow to stay with you. My name is Madana Gopal”. His  dream ended and  he woke  up. Losing  himself in  great ecstasy,  he said to himself, “What  did I see?  Such  a beautiful  boy!” Thinking  of Lord Krishna  he  opened  the  door  to  his  hut  and saw standing outside a beautiful Deity of Gopal. His effulgence shone  in all directions. For a few seconds Sanatana was completely stunned as he gazed upon Gopal’s radiant smile. He expected that the Deity might say  something or come towards him.  Finally, tears of love gliding down his cheeks, Sanatana fell to the ground, offering his dandavats.

Gradually,  he  performed  Gopala’s  abhiseka  (bathed  the Deity) and offered worship to Him. Sanatana’s brother Rupa came there and, seeing the Deity, was deeply moved in ecstatic love. Sanatana kept the  Deity with him in his leaf hut and began to worship Him in great  happiness.  Shrila Rupa Gosvami immediately sent  word of this auspicious event  to Mahaprabhu, at Puri.

According to the different perspectives of vision of various devotees, Krishna’s  pastimes  might  sometimes  be  described  in different ways, putting more or less emphasis on the external events that surround the internal moods and sentiments felt by Krishna and His devotees. In light of this,  it has  been described  in the  Prema-vilas that  the Madana Mohana Deity  resided at  the home  of one  Mathura brahmana,  Damodar Caube by name.  Subsequent to  the period of time during which  He was worshipped by Shri Advaita Acarya, Damodar Caube, his wife Ballabha and their son,  Madan Mohan,  used to  worship the  Deity in  the mood  of parental affection and  friendship. Damodar Caube’s  son used to  play together with  Lord Madana  Gopala.  Sometimes, like naughty brothers, they would slight one another and then complain to the parents.  Their parents would feed them together at the same time and lay them down to rest together.

Sanatana Gosvami used  to sometimes beg  chapatis from Caube’s  house.  When  he  saw  how  the  Deity  was being worshipped he would instruct Damodara’s wife Ballabhadevi  in the rules  and regulations of  proper Deity worship. However, she found all of these rules very difficult to follow. One day when Sanatana saw the Deity Madana Gopala and the  boy Madan  Mohan  eating  their  lunch  together,  he  became moved by the transcendental mood there and  the symptoms of ecstatic  love appeared in his body. Then he told Ballabhadevi that she should worship  Madana Gopala according to the dictates of her heart.

One night Sanatana Gosvami and  Damodar Caube’s wife both had  a dream simultaneously in which Madana Gopala requested to be able to come and live  with  Sanatana  Gosvami.  In  great  happiness Sanatana received Madana Gopala from the  family and Him to  a small hillock near  Surja ghat, where he  constructed a small  hut made of  branches and leaves.  Then he began to serve Madana Gopala, preparing offerings for Him from whatever he obtained by begging.

One day Madana  Gopala refused to  eat, complaining that  there wasn’t even any salt in the chapatis. Sanatana replied, “Today it’s salt  and tomorrow it will be ghee. But I am sorry. I don’t have the time or the inclination to chase  around after rich  men requesting special  items from them”.   Having silently  listened to  this reply  Madana  Mohana didn’t  say  anything  further,  but  rather  arranged that Krishna dasa Kapoor would come that way, as will subsequently be described.

Sanatana Gosvami would beg some  flour from the village and  then with that prepare  capatis for  Madana Gopala.  Sometimes he  would collect some  forest  vegetables,  roots  or  spinach  and  also  prepare some vegetables. If sometimes there  was no ghee or  oil, or salt, then  he would just cook dry capatis. But  he felt very bad about this.  On the other hand, he  could not see an alternative.  Mahaprabhu  had ordered him to  compile Bhakti-sastras  (devotional scriptures)  and the major portion of his  time was devoted  to that. Sometimes  it simply wasn’t possible to find time  to beg some money  with which to purchase  salt and oil.

“Madana Mohana  is the  son of  a Maharaj.  Seeing that  He is  simply eating  dry  capatis  Sanatana  felt  very  sad; Madana Mohana, who is within  the  heart  of  everyone  could understand, ‘Sanatana wants to render greater service to Me.’ Then Madana Mohana Himself desired that His service might be increased.”

Within a few days a wealthy Ksatriya named Shri Krishna dasa Kapoor  came to Mathura to  engage in trade  and business. By  chance, however, his boat became stuck on a sand bar in the Yamuna and by no means could he manage to free it.   By the by, he came  to learn that a sadhu  by the name of Shri Sanatan  Gosvami was living nearby.  In order to seek  the blessings of the  sadhu, Krishna dasa  Kapoor came to  his hermitage and found Sanatana Gosvami engaged in writing.

Sanatana Gosvami’s body  was very lean  and thin from  the practice of great austerities and he was wearing only a kaupin.  Krishna das offered his dandavats and Sanatana Gosvami in turn offered him a grass mat  to sit on. Krishna dasa touched the mat with his hand and sat on the ground.  He appealed to the Gosvami, “Baba! Please bestow your mercy on me.”

Sanatana replied, “I am a beggar. What mercy can I bestow upon you?”

“I simply want your blessings. My boat  is stuck on a sand bar in  the Yamuna, and we can’t free it by any means.”

“I am  completely ignorant  about all  these matters  You can speak to Madana Gopala about it.”

Krishna das offered  his dandavats to  Madana Mohanji and  spoke to Him, “O  Madana  Gopala  Deva!  If,  by  Your  mercy my boat is freed, then whatever profit is realized from the sale of its cargo, I will give to this Gosvami to be engaged in Your service.”

Praying this way,  Kapoor Seth took  leave from Sanatan  Gosvami. That afternoon there was such a downpour of rain that the boat very  easily floated  off  the  sand  bar  and  on  to  Mathura.   Krishna dasa could understand that  this was  the mercy  of Lord  Madana Gopala Deva. His goods were  sold at  a very  handsome profit  and with  this money  he constructed  a  temple  and  kitchen   and  made  all  the   necessary arrangements for the royal  execution of Shri Madana  Gopala’s worship.  Seeing this  arrangement, Sanatana  Gosvami was  very happy  and after some period initiated Krishna dasa Kapoor as his disciple.

Shri Madana Mohana Deva  is presently worshiped at  Karauli, Rajasthan.  When the daugher of the king of Jaipur was offered in marriage to  the king of Karauli, she very  insistently requested that her father  send Lord Madana Mohana with her as a dowry,  as she was very  attached  to Him. Her father was very  reluctant and agreed only after  stipulating one condition:  “Madana Mohana  would be  placed in  a room  with many other Deities.  Whoever she chose while blindfolded could go with  her to Karauli.”

Madana Mohana reassured her by telling  her that she would be able  to recognize Him by  the soft touch  of His arm.  By this stratagem,  she easily recognized Madana Mohana who still resides in Kaurali till this day. There is a direct bus to Karauli from Jaipur. Otherwise, one  can go by train from Mathura to Hindaun and then from there to Karauli  by bus.

One day Sanatana Gosvami came to Radha-kunda to meet Shri Rupa and  Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami.  Upon his arrival  they both got  up to greet him and after  respectfully seating him,  they immersed themselves  in discussion of the nectarean pastimes  of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. At  that time Shrila Rupa Gosvami was composing some hymns in praise of  Shrimati Radharani, collectively known as “Catu uspanjali”.

Sanatan Gosvami,  while reading  these, came  across one verse:  anava gorocana gauri / praba  rendi barambaram / amani stavak vidyoti / veni byalangana fanam.  Here  “byalangana  fanam”  means that the braids of Radharani’s hair appeared  very beautiful like  the hoods of  a snake.  Sanatana Gosvami  reflected, “Is  that a  proper comparison  ‘like the hood of a poisonous snake’?”

At noon Sanatan came to  the banks of Radha-kunda, and  after offering prayers there, he began to take his bath.  Then, on the opposite  bank of the kunda, he noticed some cowherd girls playing under the shade of a large tree. As he watched them from the distance, it appeared that a black snake, hanging  from the tree,  was about to  wrap itself around the neck  and shoulders  of one  of those  cowherd girls. Sensing some danger  he called out to her, “Ohe Lali!  Look out!  There is  a snake just behind you!” But the girls were absorbed in their play and didn’t take notice of him.  So he immediately took  off running to save  them from  the  impending  danger.   Seeing  him  approaching them, Shrimati Radharani  and  Her  friends  began  to  laugh. Then they disappeared.  Sanatana was completely stunned  but then gradually the  understanding came to him that Shri Rupa’s comparison was appropriate.

Coming to the  banks of Pavan Sarovar,  Sanatana Gosvami  entered into some woods there, and giving up food and water, he became absorbed  in intense meditation  on the  lotus feet  of Shri  Shri Radha-Govinda. Shri Krishna, who is within the heart of everyone, could understand that  His devotee was going  without food, so  He came there  in the dress  of a cowherd boy, with a pot of milk in His hand, and stood smiling  before Sanatana Gosvami.  [B.R. 5/1303]

“Baba! I brought some milk for you.”

“Oh Lala! Why have you gone to such trouble for me?”

“I saw you are sitting here for so long without any food.”

“How do you know that I am not eating anything?”

“I come here to pasture  my cows and I watch  you to see what you  are doing. But you never take any food.”

“You should have sent someone else, you are just a small boy. You have suffered some difficulty in bringing this milk here for me.”

“Na, na, Baba. It was no trouble. At home everyone else was busy, so I was happy to be able to come myself.”

Sanatan Gosvami requested the boy to sit down while he transfered  the milk into another container.

“Na Baba! I can’t sit down now. It is almost sunset. I have to milk my cows now. I will come to get the pot tomorrow.”

When Sanatana looked  up there was  no one there.  He could understand Shri  Krishna  Himself  had  brought  him  this  milk. With tears of love streaming down his cheek, he drank the milk.  From that day he gave up fasting and would go to beg some food-stuffs from the Brijabasis.  The Brijabasis also built him a small hut.

One day  Rupa Gosvami  had a  desire to  cook some  sweet rice for his elder brother, Sanatana, but he had none of the necessary ingredients, Shri Radha Thakurani, who fulfills  the desires of her devotees,  could understand everything. Dressing  Herself as a  cowherd girl, she  came there carrying a basket containing rice  and sugar with a pot of  milk in her other hand. “Svamin! Svamin! Please accept this offering  which I have brought”.

Hearing someone calling in such a  sweet voice, he opened the door  of the kutir and saw an  extremely beautiful cowherd girl standing  there with a present of rice, sugar and milk in her hands.

“Lali! What brings you here so early this morning?”

“Svamin, I came to bring you this present.”

“Oh! But you have gone to so much trouble.”

“What trouble? I have come to serve the sadhus.”

Shri Rupa requested  her to sit  down, but she  replied that there  was much work at home, so she couldn’t sit down just now. And then she was gone.  Shri Rupa looked up and saw that there was no one there and  was a little startled. “Now where did she run off to so quickly?”

He prepared the  sweet rice  and  after offering to  Shri Giridhari, he gave the prasadam to Shri Sanatana. Sanatana was in total ecstasy while accepting this prasadam and inquired, “From where did you get the rice and milk?”

Shri Rupa replied, “One cowherd girl brought everything.”

Sanatana asked, “Just like that? Suddenly she brought everything?”

“Yes. This morning  I was thinking  to make some  sweet rice for  you.  Just after that I saw one cowherd girl standing before our kutir  with all the ingredients in her hands.”

As Sanatana  heard this,  tears began  to glide  down his cheeks. “The taste of this sweet  rice is from another  world. Who else could  have brought  such  ingredients but  Shrimati Radha Thakurani herself. Don’t desire like this again.” [B.R. 5.1322]

Everyday Shri Sanatana Gosvami  would circumambulate the fourteen  mile circumference of Govardhan hill. As  he became advanced in years  this became somewhat difficult, but he was not inclined to give up his vow.  Krishna, however could understand that  it was difficult for him,  so He came to him one day dressed as a cowherd boy.

“Baba! You have become old now, so I think it isn’t necessary for  you to circumambulate Govardhan hill anymore.”

“No. Lala! This is my regular vow, my worship.”

“You can renounce this vow in your old age.”

“No Lala. One should never renounce his vows.”

“Baba. I have a very good idea, if you will accept it.”

“If it is acceptable surely I will accept it.”

Then Shri  Krishna presented  him a  stone from  Govardhan hill  with the imprint of  His foot,  a calf’s  foot print  and the  impressions of a stick and flute in it.  “Baba! This is a Govardhan sila.”

“What will I do with this?”

“You  can  circumambulate  this  sila,  and  that  will be the same as circumambulating  Giri Govardhan.”  Saying this much  the cowherd  boy disappeared. Then Sanatana could understand that Giriraja Himself  had presented His  worshippable form  to him  and from  that day  he would circumambulate this sila.

Sometimes Shri Sanatana used  to stay at Mahaban.  One day he saw  some cowherd boys playing on the banks of the Yamuna, and amongst them  was one boy whom he thought was Madana Gopala.

“Is that  my Madana Gopala playing  there?  No  it must  be one of the local village  boys.”  Then on another  day as  he was  passing by the Yamuna, there again he saw that  same boy and thought, “This time  let me wait and see where he goes.” Finally as the evening approached  the boys  finished  playing  and  set  out  for  their  respective  homes.  Following behind that  particular boy, sure  enough, Sanatana saw  him enter the  temple. Then  he could  understand that  Madana Gopala goes every day to the banks of the Jamuna to play with the other boys.

Wherever Shri Sanatana and Shri  Rupa would go throughout Vraja,  in all the  various  villages  the  two  brothers  were  much  adored  by the Brajabasis, who would  feed them milk  and yogurt.  They in turn would see the Vrajavasis as Krishna’s  own family members and respect  them in that  way.  Though  it  was  not  their business to engage in ordinary gossip, with the Brajavasis they would inquire about their well-being, e.g. how many  sons and daughters  they had and  who had been  married where, what everyone’s various names were, how their cows were  giving milk, how the bulls were working  in the fields,  how the harvest  was going on, who had fallen ill and if they were getting better or not.

In this way Rupa and Sanatana became the life of the villagers and the Brijabasis also became the life of Rupa and Sanatana.

Shri Sanatana  would sometimes  stay at  Cakleswar, near  Govardhan. At that place there were many  mosquitos, which was a great  disturbance.  When he was one day being harassed by these insects, Sanatan remarked, “I  won’t  stay  here  anymore.  It  is  impossible  to concentrate on anything. Neither can I write, nor chant.”

That night, Lord Siva came  to Sanatan and told him,  “Sanatan! Please continue your  service here  in a  happy frame  of mind. From tomorrow there will be no more disturbance from mosquitos.”

After that  there were  no more  mosquitos and  Sanatana continued his bhajan free from disturbance.

Shri  Sanatana  Gosvami  compiled  many  scriptures. These include: Shri Brhat-bhagavatmrta,  Shri  Hari-bhakti-vilas  and its Dig-darsani-tika, Shri Krishna-lilastava (dasam  carit), Shri Bhagavata-tipani,  (commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam) and Brihat-vaishnava-tosani.

Shri Sanatan Gosvami was born - 1488 (Christian) 1410 (Sakabda). At the age of 27 he came to live at Braja where he remained for 43 years.  He thus lived to be 70 years old. His disappearance was on the full  moon day of Asar in the year 1558 (Christian calendar). His name in  Braja-lila is Rati-manjari.  

very day to the banks of the Jamuna to play with the other boys.

Wherever Shri Sanatana and Shri  Rupa would go throughout Vraja,  in all

the  various  villages  the  two  brothers  were  much  adored  by the

Brajabasis, who would feed them milk and yogurt. They in turn would





Shrila  Rupa  Gosvami  was  extremely  dear to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.  Through  him   and  his   elder  brother,   Shri  Sanatan,   Mahaprabhu disseminated His own teachings,  the essential conclusions of  all the scriptures. Amongst the devotees of Mahaprabhu these two were known as His generals.

In the  Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika,  Kavi Karnapura has  written that  Shri Rupa Gosvami was known as Shri Rupa Manjari during Krishna lila.

There is an anecdote  as to how they  came to be the  ministers of the king of Gaudadesa, Hussain Shah Badsa.  Even at a very young age  they had become quite learned in all of the scriptures. The guru  (moulabi) of Hussain  Shah was  supposedly capable  of seeing  into the  future.  Hussain Shah inquired him about the prosperity of his kingdom.

The moulabi replied,  “There are two  extremely learned brahmana  boys who are endowed with all good  qualities. If you appoint them as  your ministers then you will attain a very opulent kingdom.”

Having heard of the glories  of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Shri  Rupa had written  a  letter  to  Him  praying  for  His  darsan.  In  His reply Mahaprabhu explained to  him, “As a  woman who is  attached to another man makes a show of being devoted to her husband, so you should, while being internally attached to the  lotus feet of Shri Krishna,  externally make a show of being engaged in your worldly duties. Krishna will bestow His mercy on you very soon.”

While residing at Ramakeli, Shri Rupa and Shri Sanatana were visited  by many  brahmanas  and  panditas  from  Navadwipa, Karnataka and various other parts of India. They were always careful to receive these guests and serve them  in a befitting  manner. They lived  in a very  opulent surroundings at  Ramakeli. Their  court, which  rivalled that  of Lord Indra, was always  attended by brahmanas,  pandits from many  lands as well as poets, singers, musicians  and dancers. At great expense  they maintained these guests and were  always very careful that no  one was disrespected in  any way.  They were  always engaged  in studying  the sastras  and  could  establish  and  defeat  the  same   philosophical arguments alternatively.

Near their house were solitary  gardens of Kadamba and other  trees in the middle of which were Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda. There they would meditate on the  Vrndavana pastimes of  Shri Shri Radha-Syama  and thus, losing their  patience, a  constant stream  of tears  would flow  from their eyes.  They were  always absorbed  in the  service of Shri Madana Mohana and constantly assuaged their  grief by praying for His  mercy.  Hearing of the pastimes of Shri Gaurasundara at Nadia they were  always meditating when they might get His darsan. [B.R. 1/585].

Rupa Gosvami’s worshipable  Deity in Vrndavana  was Shri Govinda  Deva.  Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had instructed the Gosvamis to re-discover the holy places of Krishna’s pastimes  in Braja and to establish  worship of His Shri vigraha.  One  day Shri  Rupa was  sitting on  the banks of the Jamuna, lamenting that they hadn’t been able to properly carry out His instructions.

It  was  known  to  them  that  Shri  Krishna’s  grandson  Vajranabha had installed a number of Deities  in Braja, among them Hari Deva,  Madana Mohana Deva, Gopinath Deva and Shri  Govinda Deva.  Shri Rupa had  tried to  locate  these  Deities,  but  to  no  avail. As he was sitting and thinking in this way a very beautiful cowherd boy came along and asked him, “He Swamin! Why do you look so sad?”

Hearing the boy’s  cheerful voice, Shri  Rupa’s melancholy reverie  was broken and his heart felt engladdened. He replied that he was  feeling sad because he  hadn’t been able  to follow Mahaprabhu’s  instructions properly. The cowherd  boy told him,  “Swamin! Please come  with me. I know where what you are looking for is.”

Then the boy  brought him to  Gomatila and explained,  “Everyday a cow comes on top  of this hill  and pours down  her milk here.  There is a good chance you will find what you are looking for inside.  Now I have to go.”

Shri Rupa turned to see the cowherd boy off, but found no one  present.  He began to reflect,  “Who was that cowherd  boy and where did  he run off  so  suddenly?”  His  body  thrilled  with ecstatic symptoms as he intently gazed at the Mahayoga Pith (Gomatila), and then went back  to his kutir.  The next  morning he  again came  to Gomatila  and quietly waited. After a little while an exquisitely beautiful Surabhi cow came there  and  poured  milk  down  on  top  of the hill which immediately disappeared inside the earth. Then she sauntered on into the woods.

Now Shri Rupa  was positive that  Shri Govinda Deva  must be within  the earth here. He came very quickly to the village of cowherds nearby and excitedly  told  them  everything  that  had happened. The cowherd men hurriedly gathered  up some  spades and  hatchets and  came running to Gomatila. Digging where Shri Rupa indicated they saw, after removing  a small amount of  earth, the all  enchanting form of  Shri Govinda. They all erupted in shouts of  ecstasy, “Hari! Hari! Shri Govinda  has again manifested Himself.”  Shri Rupa with tears  flowing from his  eyes fell down at the lotus  feet of Shri Govinda  deva to offer his  obeisances, all the while reciting prayers and hymns.

Very quickly the  news spread and  the other Gosvamis,  floating in an ocean of joy, came there also.  Soon an incessant flow of people  from all quarters began to  arrive, carried by waves  of joy.  Lord  Brahma and the other  demigods, having assumed  mortal appearances, mixed  in with the other people  and gazed upon the  body of Shri Govinda.  There was not a lull in the crowd  for even a moment as people continued  to pour in from places unknown.

Shri  Rupa  Gosvami  immediately  sent  word  to  Mahaprabhu  in   Puri concerning  this  auspicious  event.  Shri  Gaurasundara along with His associates couldn’t contain their ecstasy on receiving this happy news.  Meanwhile the brahmanas performed the abhiseka of the Deity and  began to prepare offerings of bhoga  from the milk, yogurt, rice,  flour and vegetables which the villagers were bringing. Mahaprabhu sent Kasisvar Pandit from Puri to assist in worshiping the Deity.  Shri Govinda  Deva is presently  being worshiped  in Jaipur,  Rajasthan, which  is easily reached by bus from Vrindavana. One has to proceed by rickshaw to  Shri Shri Radha-Govinda Mandir from the bus stand. 

Overjoyed that Shri Govindaji and Madan Mohan had re-appeared and  thus the responsibilities  which Mahaprabhu  had given  them were gradually being carried out, Shri Rupa  and Sanatan began to compose  the Bhakti-sastras, in compliance with Mahaprabhu’s further instructions.

After completing Vidagdha-madhava,  Lalita-madhava, and various  other books, Shri Rupa began to work on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu.

One day Shri Vallabhacarya (of the Vishnuswami sampradaya) came to visit Rupa Gosvami.  After offering  him a  seat the  two of  them began  to discuss Krishna-katha.  In the  house  of  their conversation,  Shri Rupa presented the opening verse of Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu to Vallabhacarya to read. After  studying this verse  for some time  Vallabha commented that there were a few mistakes. At this time Shri Jiva, who had arrived from Bengal a few days before, was fanning his uncle Shri Rupa. He  was extremely  learned  in  all  the  sastras  and  was  unsatisfied  with Vallabha’s remark.

When Vallabhacarya went to the Jamuna to take his bath, Shri Jiva  also came there on the pretext of fetching some water. He inquired from the acarya  as  to  what  actually  were  the  mistakes  in  that   verse.  Vallabhacarya, after discussing  some points with  him, was amazed  at the boy’s scholarship.

After a  few days  Vallabha again  came to  Shri Rupa.  After inquiring about the boy scholar, he greatly praised his learning. After Vallabha had gone  to his  residence, Shri  Rupa dalled  Jiva and  spoke to him, “Those whom we respect as our Guru and to whom we offer our obeisances you are ready  to debate with  on an equal  level. This is  not at all polite. What  he spoke  was for  my benefit  but you couldn’t tolerate that. You should return home and  when you can control your mind  then you can come back to Vrindavana.” [B.R. 5.1643]

Hearing  this  decision  of  his  uncle  Shri  Jiva left that place and decided  to  proceed  eastwards.  When  he  came to an old dilapidated temple at Nanda-ghat, he sat down and began to cry. Soon the villagers began to worry: “Such a handsome  young man, but he sits there  crying for so long without taking food.”

After a while, Shri Sanatana Gosvami came by and the villagers informed Sanatana of the boy’s presence at the old temple.  Sanatana went there and saw  his nephew,  who looked  very pale  from not eating. Sanatana picked him up from the  ground and  affectionately asked him  what was the matter. Shri Jiva explained everything that had happened.  Sanatana Gosvami pacified him and, taking his nephew with him, went to see  his brother.

At first Sanatana spoke  with Rupa alone.   When Shri Rupa happened  to mention  Jiva,  Sanatana  explained  everything.  Shri Rupa immediately called  Jiva.  Seeing  his  forlorn  and pale appearance, he gradually nursed him back to health and a happy state of mind. Then he entrusted him with proof reading and  various litratures which he had  composed.  Just as he was very strict with his young nephew, so also he was  very affectionate and loving.  Their relationship was  an ideal example  of how the guru and sisya behave together.

When  Shri  Rupa  had  finished  writing  Lalita-madhava, he gave it to Raghunatha dasa Gosvami to read.  Lalita-madhava  is a description  of Krishna’s  pastimes  after  he  left  Vrindavana  and  is thus full with sentiments  in  the  mood  of  separation.  By  reading this book Dasa Gosvami began to cry day and night, having become completely  absorbed in love in separation to the  point of being ready to leave  his body.  [B.R.5.768]

He became as though deranged in mind from sadness, and he  compeletely lost all patience.  When Shri Rupa requested Shri Dasa Goswami to return the manuscript so that he could correct it, Raghunatha dasa held on to it very tightly, not saying anything, refusing to part with it.

After considering what to do, Shri Rupa composed Dana-keli-kaumudi.  He managed to exhange this manuscript  with  Lalita-madhava.  By  reading Dana-keli-kaumudi, full of narrations of Krishna’s Vrindavana  pastimes, Raghunatha dasa Goswami now became totally absorbed in the ecstacy  of happiness.

On another occasion  the Goswamis were  having a discussion  about the ecstatic feelings of separation  of Radha-Krishna and Their  associates.  Some of  the Vaishnavas  were fainting  to the  ground, while  Shri Rupa Goswami began to breath very heavily. His heart felt as though it  was burning. At one point as he sighed his breath happened to fall on  the body  of  one  devotee  present  there.   Shortly  thereafter  a  boil developed on that devotee’s body  where Shri Rupa’s breath had  touched it. [B.R. 5.1326]

After the  re-appearance of  Shri Govinda,  Madana Mohana  and the Yoga Pith, Shri  Rupa began  to contemplate  where Vrindadevi  might be. One night she  came to  him in  a dream  and said,  “I am  on the banks of Brahma-kunda.  You can have my darsan there.”

The  next  morning,  after  finishing  his  bath  and puja, he came to Brahma-kunda and began to look everywhere. Suddenly he saw a  heavenly damsel whose bodily  effulgence defeated the  luster of gold.  All the directions were illuminated by this glow and the atmosphere created by her  presence  was  very  sweet  and  cooling.  Shri  Rupa  offered his dandavats  and  various  prayers  and  hymns.  In this way, Vrindadevi reappeared in Vrajabhumi.

Shri Gaurasundara established the glories of Shri Vrajadhama through His two generals Shri Rupa and Shri Sanatan Goswamis. Within their hearts He awakened, through oral transmission, the knowledge of what was in  His own heart. “Shri Rupa Goswami has established in this world the mission to fullfill  the desire  of Lord  Chaitanya. When  will he  give me the shelter at his lotus feet?”  [Shrila Narottama dasa Thakura in  his Shri Rupa Pranama].

Shri Rupa Goswami completed many literatures, among them: Shri Hamsaduta Kavya, Shri Uddhava-sandesh, Shri Krishna-janma-tithi-vidhi,  Brhat Radha-Krishna-ganoddesa-dipika, Laghu Radha-Krishna-ganoddesa-dipika, Stavamala, Vidagha-madhava,  Lalita-madhava,  Dana-keli-kaumudi, Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu,  Ujjvala-nilamani,   Prayuktakhyata-manjari,   Mathura-mahima, Padyavali, Nataka-candrika, Laghu-Bhagavatamrta, among others.

Birth: 1493  (Christian calendar),  1415 (Sakabda)  Disapearance: 1564 (Christian calendar), 1486 (Sakabda) Appearance day? Disappearance day:

12th day of the bright fortnight of Sravan. Householder life:  22 yrs.

Braja: 51 yrs. Age: 73  





Shri  Sanatana,  Shri  Rupa  and  Shri  Vallabha were three brothers, all employed in the service of the Badsa Hussain Shah. Amongst the  three, there was only one descendent,  Shri Jiva. Having been rewarded  richly by the Badsa for their sevices, their household life was very opulent.  There was nothing lacking in whatever was necessary for the upbringing of the only son.  The house was illuminated  by the effulgence of  the child’s golden complexion; his eyes  were like the expanded petals  of the lotus; every part of his body was graced with a lusterous, radiant splendor.

When Shri Gaurasundara came to Ramakeli, Shri Jiva was blessed by having darsana of His  worshippable lord, though  he was just  a baby at  the time.  Placing  the  dust  of  His  lotus  feet  on  the child’s head, Mahaprabhu indicated him to be  the future sovereign preceptor of  the Gaudiya sampradaya. Though he was only a child, Shri Jiva kept the form of the Lord, which fascinates all  the world, within his heart. As  he grew up, while eating, lying down, in his dreams, while he was  awake, at all times, he would meditate on that form.

Later on, when  his father and  uncles renounced their  family life in order to be with Mahaprabhu, the  only child, Shri Jiva, was left  with his mother in the family palace at Fateyabad. Lying in her lap,  which was wet with tears  of separation, he gradually  began to grow as  the waxing moon. Seeing that the  mother and the child’s face  were always wet with tears,  their friends also  fell under the  shadow of sadness and  only  with  great  difficulty  managed  to  assuage  their grief.  Whenever Shri Jiva would remember  his father and uncles, or  the lotus feet of Shri Gaura Hari,  he  would lose consiousness  and fall to  the ground.

As he got a little older, Shri Jiva took up the worship of the  Deities of  Shri-Shri  Rama-Krishna.  He  would  carefully decorate Them and offer bhoga and  aroti, serving  Them with  his full  attention. Even in his play,  whatever  games  he  played  were  connected  with  Shri Krishna’s pastimes.

While studying under the local panditas he became proficent in grammar, poetry  and  rhetoric.  Noting  his  great  intellect,  his   teachers commented, “Such brilliance is not often found in a child so young  as this. No doubt he will be a very high-souled, saintly person.”

Even  while  engaged  in  his  studies  Jiva always thought of Shri Shri Nitai-Gauranga. Once he saw in  a dream that Shri Rama-Krishna  had taken the forms of Nitai-Gauranga  and were dancing. [B.R.1.732]  Giving him the dust of Their lotus feet, the Two Lords then disappeared.

Having seen such  a wonderful dream,  Shri Jiva was  consoled somewhat.  Then he began to think, “When will I be able to crawl out of this well of family life and  devote my full time  and energy, my very  self, to serving these two most magnanimous Lords?”  But he was the only son of the family. Only in his  company could his mother forget  somewhat the pangs  of  separation  in  her  heart.  When Shri Jiva learned that his father  had  given  up  his  life  on  the  banks of the Ganga, he was compeletely unsettled.  After that his eyes were never dry. The family members and friends tried to console him but to little avail.   Family life had become the source of his utter sadness.

Someone suggested to Jiva to go to Navadwipa and bathe himself in  the coolness emanating from  the lotus feet  of Lord Nityananda  Prabhu so that his mind and body,  burning with with grief, could  be refreshed.  Thus  Shri  Jiva  set  our  for  Navadwipa  with  a  group of pilgrims.


Nityananda Prabhu, the omniscient Lord, could understand that Shri Jiva was on his  way to Navadwipa.  Therefore He also  left for there  from Khardaha. After  a few  days, Jiva  arrived at  Navadwipa. Seeing  the beauty of that place he was  charmed.  Falling down on the  ground, he offered his dandavats to  Mother Ganges. Inquiring from  the villagers the  directions  to  Mayapura,  he  learned that Nityananda Prabhu was residing at Shrivasa Pandita’s house.  At last arriving there, he  fell down at the  door to offer  his dandavats. Nityananda  Prabhu came out with Shrivasa Pandita and picked him up and embraced him, asking,  “Are you the nephew of Shri Rupa and Shri Sanatana?”

As an answer, Jiva again fell down on the ground at the lotus feet  of Nityananda  Prabhu.  This  time  Nityananda  Prabhu brought him in the house  and  began  to  inquire  after  the  welfare  of  his family at Fateyabad. Then  Shri Jiva  was introduced  to the  devotees present in Navadwipa; he offered  his salutations at  their lotus feet.  Everyone was very happy to meet the nephew  of Shri Rupa and Sanatana. That  day Shri Jiva received the remnants of Nityananda prabhu’s prasadam.

The next day, the  two of them came  to Saci Mata’a house.  Seeing the birthplace of Shri Gaurasundara,  which was filled with  such splendor, Shri Jiva was greatly pacified and  fell down on the ground to  roll in the  dust.  In  the  large  courtyard  the devotees were singing songs praising  the  glories  of  Shri  Krishna  Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu.   Seeing Nityananda  Prabhu,  everyone  stood  up  and then fell down, offering their dandavats at His lotus feet. Then Jiva saw Saci Mata sitting  on the veranda.

Dressed in  white with  silk chadder  around her  shoulders she looked radiant, the white  of her hair  blending with her  white sari. Though her body trembled with old age and was very thin, still the  courtyard was  illuminated  by  her  divine  effulgence.   Forgetting herself in rememberance of Shri Gaursundara, she was sitting with her eyes closed.  Becoming aware  that Nityananda  Prabhu had  arrived, she  covered her head with her sari and called her servant. “Isana! Srpada has arrived.  Please wash His feet.”

After this was done, Nityananda offered namaskar to the mother of  the Supreme Lord and took  His seat. He then  introduced Shri Jiva to  her.  Saci Mata  placed her  hand on  his head  to bless  him, and  Shri Jiva floated in the ocean of happiness. Saci Mata then requested the two of them to honor the Lord’s prasada.  “Take prasada here at your mother’s house today, my child.  I offered there preparations in secret to  Shri Gaurcandra.”

Shri Jiva  spent some  days with  Nityananda Prabhu,  touring the  nine islands of Navadwipa, in order to  have darsana of the holy places  of the Lord’s pastimes there. Then,  as ordered by Nityananda Prabhu,  he set out for  Kasi (Varanasi) .  At Kasi he  studied Vedanta under  Shri Madhusudana  Vacaspati,  a  disciple  of  Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya. The conclusions  of  Vedanta  contained  in  Shrimad-Bhagavatam  that  were expounded by  Shri Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu to  Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya  in Puri  had  been  in  turn  taught  by  the  Bhattacarya to Madhusudana Vacaspati,  who established a tol at Kasi. From him, Shri Jiva mastered the same conclusions.

From  here  Shri  Jiva  set  out  for  Shri Vrindavana where he received shelter at the lotus  feet of his two  uncles. Shri Rupa and  Sanatana.  They were very pleased to see him and received from him all the  news.

Jiva stayed with Shri Rupa,  who began to teach him  Shrimad Bhagavatam.  After initiating him  with the divine mantra,  Rupa engaged him in the service of Shri Shri Radha-Damoda ra. According to Sadhana-dipika,  this Deity of  Damodara was  fashioned by  Rupa Gosvami’s  own hand for his dear disciple  Shri Jiva.  Shri Shri  Radha-Damodara are  presently being worshipped in Jaipur, Rajasthan.

Seeing that Jiva had quickly become conversant with the conclusion of the Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Shri Rupa engaged him in proof-reading his Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. At this time Shri Jiva compiled a commentary on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu called Durgama-sangamani. In the year 1476 (Sakabda) Shri Sanatana Gosvami compiled Shri Vaishnava-tosani, a commentary on the tenth canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, which he gave to Shri Jiva for proof-reading. Under the order of Shri Sanatana, Shri Jiva compiled a commentary on that named Laghu Vaishnava-tosani in the year 1500 (Sakabda).

His writings, along with those of Shri Rupa and Shri Sanatana, Shri Gopal Bhatta, Shri Raghunatha Bhatta, Shri  Raghunath das, Shri Krishna das,  Shri Kasisvar  Pandit,  and  Shri  Madhu  Pandit,  completely captivated the learned men of that time. It was the beginning of a golden age at  Shri Vraja-dhama.

Shri Jiva regurlarly brought water for Shri Rupa and Sanatana’s bath. He massaged their heads with oil, cleaned their ashram, worship the Deity, cooked and corrected manuscripts.

After the disappearance of Shri  Rupa and Sanatana, Shri Jiva  continued the tradition that  they had inaugerated.  Once Shri Jiva  travelled to Agra to debate with the  Rajputs concerning the glories of  Jamuna and Ganga rivers. He established that the Jamuna is more glorious than the Ganga as the Ganga emanates from Krishna’s lotus feet whereas the Jamuna is His own consort. At this the Moghul emperor was very much satisfied and wanted to  present him something.  Shri Jiva replied  that he would accept some blank papers. So  the emperor presented Jiva some  stained paper. (At  that time  paper was  very rare  and most manuscripts were usually composed on leaves.)

There is  also a  legend that  once, when  a moghul  emperor (possibly Akbar) wanted to confer something on the Goswamis of Vrindavana,  they requested a farman  (emperor’s order) that  no living beings  would be killed within Vraja. As  a result of this  no king would come  to hunt there  anymore.  The  disciple  of  Lokanatha  Gosvami, Narottama dasa Thakura  Mahasaya,  Shri  Gopala  Bhatta  Gosvami’s  disciple Shrinivasa Acarya  Prabhu,  and  the  disciple  of  Hrdaya  Chaitanya  Prabhu, Shri Syamananda Prabhu, were greatly  favored by Shrila Jiva  Goswami. Under his tutelage they studied all  the literatures of the Gosvamis.  Later he sent them to preach this knowledge in Bengal.

Shrila  Jiva   Gosvami  composed   many  literatures,   amongst   them: Harinamamrta-vyakarana, Sutra-malika, Rasamrta-sesa, Gopala-virudavali, Shri-Madhava-mahotsava,  Shri-Sankalpa-kalpavrksa,  Brahma-Samhita-tika, Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-tika (Durgama-sangamani), Ujjvala-nilamani-tika (Locana-rocani),  Gopala-campu,   Sat-sandharbha   (Tattva-sandarbha), Bhagavata-sandarbha,  Paramatma-sandarbha,  Krishna-sandarbha,   Bhakti- sandharbha, Priti-sandarbha, Shrimad-Bhagavata-tika  (Krama-sandarbha), Laghu-vaishnava-tosani  (Tenth  Canto  Bhagavatam  commentary),  Sarva-sambadina   (commentary    on    Sat-sandarbha),    Gopala-tapani-tika (Shri-Suhkha-bodhini), Padma-puranastha-yogasara-stotra-tika,  Gayatri-vyakhya-vivrti (A commentary on the Gayatri mantra as described in the Agni  Purana,  chapters  216-217),  Radha-Krishnarcana-candrika,  Dhatu-sangraha, Bhavartha-sucaka-campu.

Birth: 1533  (Christian calendar),  1455 (Sakabdha),  12th day  of the bright  fortnight  in  the  month  of  Bhadra.   Disappearance  : 1540

(Sakabdha), 3rd day of bright fortnight, Pausa Age: 85 years




The all merciful Lord Shri Gaur Hari, as He travelled from village to village throughout the south of India, continued to distribute love of Godhead wherever He went. Hearing the nectarean names of Hari from His lotus mouth, thousands and thousands men and women felt relief from the blazing fire of material existence. Various wretched, miserable and fallen souls lives were completely rejuvenated and thus they became virtuous and happy.

While causing rains  of love of  God to fall  anywhere and everywhere, without consideration of  time or place,  Shri Gaurasundor came  to the holy place  of Shri  Rangaksetra. The  temple of  Shri Ranga  Ksetra was extremely  large,  the  crest  of  the  temple  tower pierced the sky.  Throughout the day and night  hundreds and thousands of pilgrims  were going and  coming to  take darsan  of Lord  Ranganath. The temple hall resounded  with  the  sounds  of  hundreds  and  thousand of brahmanas chanting Vedic hymns.

In the  midst of  this scene  from Vaikuntha,  entered Shri Gaurasundor chanting  the  names  of  Krishna  in  his sweet voice that defeated the voices  of  10  million  gandharvas.   Everyone  in  the temple became dumbstruck, amazed and thrilled with wonder. What unprecedented beauty;

His bodily effulgence makes  molten gold appear lack-lustre.  From His eyes which are  like the full  blown petals of  a lotusflower trickled down tears of ecstatic  love. Every limb, every  part of His body  was filled with  such exquisite  grace that  even the  mind of  cupid gets stolen away. The brahmanas began to consider, “Is this a demigod?  Can such symptoms and emotions be found in human beings?”

Again resounding the halls  with the transcendental vibrations  of Shri Hari’s name, when He came before the Deity and fell down as a tree  is blown down by the  wind, some people thought  that a mountain of  gold was rolling  on the  ground. Shri  Vyenkata Bhatta  seeing this  divine personage became restless with  ecstasy. His heart being  flooded with devotion he got up and began to move the crowds away so that the  Lord could engage in chanting and dancing.

When the Lord had regained His external consiousness after engaging in sankirtan, Vyenkata  Bhatta approached  Him and  took the  dust of His lotus feet.  Mahaprabhu gazed towards him and saying, “Krishna!  Krishna!” embraced him firmly. Shri Vyenkata Bhatta invited Mahaprabhu to come to his house  and having  brought Him  there, very  reverantly washed His lotus feet and along with the other family members, he drank the water.  Shri Bhattaji’s house became filled with joy.

Mahaprabhu came to Ranga Ksetra  in the Christian year 1511.  Vyenkata Bhatta had two brothers, Trimalla Bhatta and Prabodhananda  Sarasvati.  They  all  belonged  to  the  Ramanuja  sampradaya  and  Prabodhananda Sarasvati was a tridandi sannyasi of that order. Vyenkata Bhatta had a son named Gopal, who was then just a child. When the boy came to offer his obeisances at the lotusfeet  of Mahaprabhu picked him up  and very affectionately  seated  him  in  His  lap. Mahaprabhu would call Gopal after He had finished His meal and offer His remnants to the boy.   In this way He prepared him for the positon of Acarya.

After remaining at Vyenkata Bhatta’s  house during the four months  of the  rainy  season  (Caturmasya)  Mahaprabhu  prepared to continue His journey of the South. Vyenkata Bhatta’s  house began to ebb in a  tide of tears  in anticipation  of His  departure. Gopal  fell at His lotus feet in a  dead faint. Therefore  Mahaprabhu remained for  a couple of more days in order to console  the by. He instructed him to  serve his mother and father  and always engage  in chanting Krishna’s  glories and thereafter to come to Brindavan.

Very quickly Gopal became expert  in grammar, poetry and rhetoric  and then began his study of Vedanta. His uncle Prabodhananda, specifically began to instruct him from the devotional scriptures (Bhakti-sastra).

Gopal Bhatta always remained  thinking of the lotusfeet  of Mahaprabhu and when he might  ver he couldn’t leave  his aged mother and  father.  Finally having reached  their final days  they called their  son Gopal and instructed him to go to the lotusfeet of Mahaprabhu in  Brindaban.  Then while meditating  on His lotusfeet  themselves they went  to join Him in His eternal lila.

Thus  Gopal  set  out  for  Brindavan  and  when he arrived there Rupa Gosvami immediately went word to  Mahaprabhu to inform Him of  Gopal’s arrival there.

Mahaprabhu had  previously indicated  to Rupa  and Sanatan  that Gopal Bhatta would one day come there to Brindavan, so upon his arrival they treated him  with the  same care  and affection  they would  their own brother. They immediately became life long companions.

When Mahaprabhu received word that Gopal Bhatta had come to Brindavan, He was  very pleased  and sent  with that  messenger a  wooden sitting plank which He had used along with a pair of His undergarments and one of His cloths. Having received these gifts Gopal Bhatta was in ecstasy and he  worshipped them  as the  prasad of  Mahaprabhu. When  he would worship  his  Deities  he  would  sit  on that wooden plank. This piri (wooden seat) and  Mahaprabhus clothes are  still being worshipped  at Radha-Ramana Mandir.  Gopala Bhatta,  like Rupa  and Sanatana,  had no fixed residence and  would spend the  night in various  kunjas (forest groves).  He  spent  his  time  studying  the scriptures and composing various literatures.

Shri  Gopala  Bhatta  Gosvami  used  to  worship eleven Saligram-silas.  Wherever he would go he would bring them with him in a piece of  cloth tied at the corner.  One time  a rich Seth came to meet Gopala  Bhatta to have his darsana.  Being very impressed with the Gosvami he  wanted to render some service which he presented in the form of some valuable cloths and ornaments.

Gopala Bhatta kept the cloths and ornaments with his silas and thought that, “If I had a Deity then I would be able to decorate Him so nicely with these clothes and ornaments.” In the evening after offering  some bhoga and  arotika to  his salagram  silas, Gopala  Bhatta put them to rest, covering them with a wicker basket.

Late in the night, Gopala Bhatta  took a little rest and then,  in the early morning went to take bath in the Yamuna. Returning from his bath, he uncovered  the salagramas  in order  to wake  Them, and saw amongst Them a Deity of Krishna playing  the flute. There were now eleven  silas and this  Deity.   Floating in  the ocean  of ecstasy,  he fell to the ground  in  order  to  offer  his  dandavats  and then recited various prayers and hymns.

When  Rupa  and  Sanatana  Gosvamis  as  well  as  many other devotees received news of  this miraculous event  they came running  to see the Lord.  Gazing on the Lord’s transcendental form, which bewildered  all the living entities of the  many various planets, they all  bathed Him with their  tears.   This Deity  whom the  Gosvamis named, “Shri Radha-raman Deva” made His  appearance on the full  moon day of Vaisakha  in the year 1542. Except for  Vrindadevi, Shri Radha-Ramanaji is the  only one of  the original  Deities of  Vrindavana who  never left  to go to Jaipur.  He is still being worshipped in Vrindavana near Nidhuban kunj.

Shri  Radha-ramana  Deva,  unlike  other  Deities,  has  very intricate features, including fingernails  and even teeth.  On the back  side of His body parts of the original salagram sila from which He  manifested Himself can be seen.There is a story that the small son of one of  the sevaits was playing with the Deity  once and put a small stick  in one ear of the Deity  and pushed it through  out the other ear.  The stick however, had blood on it, and  that boy died vomiting blood that  very day.

Once Shri Gopala Bhatta went to Haridwar. As he was returning, suddenly a  downpour  started  and  thus  he  took  shelter in the house of one brahmana. This brahmana was very  devoted and he very carefully  began to serve  Shri Gopala  Bhatta, who  thus became  very pleased.  As this brahmana had no children Shri Bhattaji blessed him that he might have a son who would be a devoted follower of Lord Hari. The brahman  replied that, “My first son I will send to you in order to serve you.”

Approximately ten years later when Gopala Bhatta returned from bathing in the Yamuna one day,  he saw a young boy  sittin at the door of  his kutir. When the boy saw the Gosvamiji approaching, he got up and  then fell down to offer his dandavats. Gopala Bhattaji inquired who the boy was,  to  which  he  replied,  “My  home  was  in  Devandyagram within Saharanpur near Haridwar. My father has sent me here to serve you.  My name is Gopinatha.” Then Gopal Bhatta could remember the time when  he went to Haridwar  many years ago.  So this boy  remained with him  and very carefully began to serve him. 

Eventually  he  became  known  as  Shri  Gopinatha Pujari Gosvami as he served Shri  Radha-ramana Deva  through his  life as  a brahmacari. His younger brother  Shri Damodara  dasa, along  with his  family, accepted iniation from Shri Gopinathaji and  also became engaged in the  service of the  Deity. Shri  Damodara dasa’s  three sons  were named Harinatha, Mathuranatha and Harirama.

Shri Gopala Bhatta, in his worship of Shri Radha-ramana would  sometimes see  that  He  had  taken  the  form  of  Shri  Gaurasundara, “Becoming subservient to the love of  Shri Gopala Bhatta, Shri Radha-ramana  would sometimes accept the form of Shri Gausundara.”

Shri Gopala Bhatta was the initiating guru of Shrinivasa Acarya  Prabhu.

He  wrote  many  books  including:   Sat-sandarbha-karika,  Shri-Krishna- vallabha  (Krishna-karnamrta-tika),  Sat-kriya-sara-dipika,  and   Laghu Hari-bhakti-vilasa with Dig-darsini tika. From this work, Shri Sanatana Gosvami  compiled  the  Hari-bhakti-vilasa  now  followed  by  Gaudiya Vaishnavas.

In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, Gopala Bhatta Gosvami’s name in  Vraja-lila has been given as Guna manjari.

His birth was on the day of  the dark fortnight of the month Pausa  in the year 1503 (Christian), 1425 (Saka).

His disappearance was on  the sixth day of  the dark fortnight of  the month of Sravon in the year 1578 (Christian), 1500 (Sakabda).

Age: 75 years





While  Raghunath  Bhatta  was  walking  from  Benarasi to Puri, he was thinking, “I  wonder if  Mahaprabhu will  remember me?  I was  a small child then, and here  at Puri He was  so many devotees, I  doubt if he would remember such a  worthless wretch as me.  And even if He  does I wonder if he will still show the same affection to me as He did at our house in Kasi.” But when he arrived in Puri and was about to offer his dandavats to Mahaprabhu, Shri  Gaurasundor called out, “Raghunath”  and before Raghunath could offer  his obeisances, Mahaprabhu embraced  him very firmly.

Raghunath’s eyes filled with tears of joy and as he cought hold of the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu he spoke to Him,  “Oh most merciful Lord, You still  remember  me.”   Mahaprabhu,  “What  to  speak  of this life! I remember the affection that you and your mother and father have showed to Me life after life. How your mother lovingly fed Me everyday when I stayed at Kasi.”

Then Mahaprabhu introduced  Raghunath to the  other devotees who  were very pleased to meet him. Raghunath conveyed his mother’s and  fathers obeisances and the news of Candrashekara vaidya and the other devotees in Kasi to  Mahaprabhu. Then he  brought out the  various preparations from  his  bag,  which  his  mother  had prepared for Shri Gaurasundor.  Mahaprabhu  was  very  pleased  and  called  Govinda to come and store everything away carefully. 

Raghunath’s  father’s  name  was  Shri  Tapan  Misra. when Nimai Pandit travelled to East Bengal as a  teacher he had met with Tapan  Misra at that time. Though Tapan Misra was a learned scholar and had  discussed the conclusions of the scriptures with many other pandits still he was uncertain as to the actual goal and how to achieve it. One night after having thought on these matters for some time, he saw a dream in which one divine person  was telling him,  “Misra!  Don’t  worry yourself on this subject anymore.  Nimai Pandit is  coming here very  soon. If you can, you should meet Him and He will be able to explain to you  life’s goal and how to attain it.”

“He  is  not  an  ordinary  human  being.  But an incarnation of Nara-Narayana. He has come into this world as a human being to perform  His pastimes  but  He  is  actually  the  cause of the universe.” [C.B Adi 14/123] Saying this much that demigod disappeared.

In the morning after finishing his bath and puja, Tapan Misra set  out to meet Nimai Pandit. Having arrived at the place where he was staying, he saw that  the Pandit was  seated on the  bedstead, the whole  house being illuminated  by His  bodily effulgence.  His eyes  were like the petals of the full blown lotus, His head was covered with curly  hari, on His chest was  a white brahmana thread,  and he was wearing  yellow cloth.  All  around  Him  were  seated  His  disciples  like   various constellations sorrounding the full moon.

Tapan  Misra  paid  his  dandavats  and  with  folded  hands  spoke to Mahaprabhu, “Oh You who  are full of compassion!  I am very lowly  and fallen.  Please  bestow  your  mercy  on  me.”  Mahaprabhu smiled and, seating Tapan  Misra next  to Him,  requested his  introduction. After introducing himself Tapan  Misra inquired about  the goal of  life and how to attain it. 

Mahaprabhu  replied  that,  “In  every  age  the  Supreme Lord advents Himself,  and  for  the  welfare  of  the  living  entities  he  gives instructions how to attain His association. In Satya-yuga the  process was  meditation,  in  Treta-yuga  sacrificial rituals, in Dvapara-yuga worship of the Deity and  in Kali-yuga congregational chanting of  the Holy Name of the Lord - Harinam sankirtan. [C.B. Adi 14/137]

Considering the strengh, prowess and longetivity of the living beings, the Supreme Lord accepted the form of the Acarya and ascertained these various  processes  for  various  ages.  If  anyone  follows any other process than the  authorised one he  achieves no result.  Therefore in the age of  Kali, the essence  of all the  scriptual processes is  the chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord.  Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare / Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama, Rama, Hare, Hare. These are the Holy Names of the Lord and are to be chanted at all times.  By this process you will be able  to understand what is the goal  of life and how to achieve it. There is no difference between these names  and whom they indicate.

There is  no other  way than  Shri Nama-sankirtan.  Giving up all other processes one should always chant the Holy Name of Shri Krishna.

By  the  influence  of  this  mantra  you  will  be able to understand everything about the goal  of life and how  to attain it. Shri  Nama is Himself what we are striving to realise and repeating this Name is the process for realising what the name is. There is no difference between the Holy Name of the Lord and Himself.

Having received these invaluable instructions from Nimai Pandit, Tapan Misra offered his dandavats at  the lotus feet of the Pandit and asked if he might accompany  Him on his return  to Navadwip. To his  request Mahaprabhu replied that  he should immediately  go to Kasi  where they would  again  meet  together  in  the  future.  “At  that  time I will particularly describe all of these transcendental topics regarding the Absolute  Thruth  in  complete  detail.”  Thus  Nimai Pandit began His return journey to  Navadwip while Tapan  Misra set out  for Kasi Dham, accompanied by his wife.

Some  years  thereafter  when  the  Incarnation of Mercy, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was proceeding to Brindavan on the path through the jungles of Jharikhanda by way  of Choto Nagpur, He  arrived at Shri Kasi  Dham.  While Tapan Misra was bathing at Manikarnika ghat, a sannyasi  arrived there and began to make the  heavens resound with the sounds of  “Hari bol! Hari bol!” Tapan Misra was startled to suddenly hear the sound of the Holy  Name. In  the middle  of the  desert, to  hear the  sound of rushing flow of water  is uncommon; so to  hear the Holy Name  of Hari admist so many Mayavadis was not an ordinary occurance.

Then  standing  behind  so  many  sannyasis,  Tapan  Misra sighted one sannyasi, whose effulgence made  everything around Him glow.  He began to think, “Who could that be?” I have heard that Nimai Pandit accepted sannyasa but could that be Him?”  Coming out from the water he  became convinced that it mus be the same Nimai Pandit that he had met with in East Bengal and thus falling at His lotus feet he began to shed  tears of ecstasy. Mahaprabhu  picked him up  and embraced him  in great love and then Tapan Misra very affectionately led Mahaprabhu to his  house.  After so many days they had once again been able to meet together.

Arriving at his  house Tapan Misra  washed Mahaprabhu’s lotus feet and along with his family members  drank that water in great  ecstacy. The pastimes  that  took  place  at  that  time  with Raghunath are nicely described in the ‘Chaitanya charitamrita’.

Mahaprabhu gave  Raghunath Bhatta  His own  neckbeads and  later on  a Tulasi garland of Lord  Jagannath’s , 14 hands  in length, as well  as the betel and pan prasad remnants of Lord Jagannath. [C.C. Ant.13/126]

Unlike the other Gosvamis it is not known if Raghunath Bhatta  Gosvami worshipped  any  particular  Shri  Vigraha  of  the  Lord  or not.  His worshippable  Deity  of  ‘Shrimad-Bhagavatam’  however  is  still being worshipped at ‘Gadadhar Bhatta Pith’ within another Madan Mohan temple which is nearby the Radha-Ballabha Mandir in Brindaban. There is  also a very beautiful painting of  Shri Shri Gaur-Gadadhar here.   Raghunatha Bhatta was the disciple of Shri Gadadhar Pandit.

In the Gaur-Ganoddesa-Dipika it is described that Raghunath Bhatta was Raga  Manjari  in  Krishna  lila.  His  birth  was  in 1427 (Saka), 1505 (Christian) on  the 12th  day of  the bright  fortnight of  Aswin. His disappearance was in 1501 (Saka), 1579 (Christian) on the 10th day  of the bright fortnight of Jyestha.



Raghunatha dasa Gosvami used to reside on the bank of Shri Radha-kunda.  At the time Radha-kunda was just a small pond of water, and  therefore sometimes Raghunatha would  meditate on enlarging  the kund.   Then he would chastise himself  for desiring something  which would require  a large amount of money.

Around this time  one very wealthy  Seth underwent great  austerity by walking  to  Badarikasrama in  the  Himalayas.  Arriving there he very reverently worshiped Shri Badrinarayana and offered much wealth at  His lotus feet. That night as he slept there, he had a dream in which  Shri Badarinarayana instructed  him to  proceed to  Vraja, where  he should present  all  his  wealth  to  Shri  Raghunatha  Dasa  Gosvami, who was residing at  Aritgram.   “If he  declines to  accept it,  then you can mention My name and remind him about renovating Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda.”

That Seth was very happy to have seen such a wonderful dream and after returning to his home he very joyfully set out for Vraja. There he met Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and related  all of these events to  him. Dasa Gosvami  was  somewhat  taken  aback  to  hear  this  news,  but  then immediately gave his consent. Thus Sethji began to work of  re-digging the two kunds.

On the banks  of Radha-kunda, the  five Pandavas were  residing in the form of trees. As the work  was proceeding it was decided that  on the following day these trees  would have to be  cut down, but that  night the five Pandavas appeared in  a dream of Raghunatha dasa  and forbade the cutting of those trees.  Today they are still residing there. When the work of  beautifying the kundas  was complete, the  devotees bliss knew no bounds.   Nearby the kundas,  the kunjas of  the eight  gopies were also constructed. Seeing all this, Raghunatha dasa forgot himself in ecstasy.

Raghunatha dasa Gosvami lived on the banks of Radha-kunda without  any fixed residence, staying under a different tree every night. Sometimes he would stay  on the banks  of the Manasa  Ganga. At that  time these areas were  jungles filled  with ferocious  animals. One  day Sanatana Gosvami  came  to  the  banks  of  Manasa  Ganga to meet Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. Before accepting his noon meal at Gopal Bhatta’s bhajan kutir, he went to take bath at the Pavan ghat of Manasa Ganga. From there  he saw two tigers come to the kund and after drinking some water  saunter off. Just near  that spot Raghunatha  das Gosvami was  sitting under a tree absorbed  in his  bhajana. Sanatana  Gosvami was  startled to see this but even more so when he saw Shri Krishna standing at some  distance observing everything.  He then requested Raghunatha to do his  bhajana within a hut.

On another  occasion, Raghunatha  dasa, who  still hadn’t  bothered to have a kutir constructed, was sitting in the noon day sun absorbed  in his bhajana. Shrimati Radharani happened to pass that way at this  time and, seeing that  the sun was  beating down on  Raghunatha’s head, she stood behind him and held the end  of her sari to shield him from  the suns rays. Then  one of the  Gosvamis came along  and saw this  heart-rending  scene,  while  profuse  perspiration  continued  to flow from Shrimati Radharani’s transcendental body.  This time when he was  again requested to do his bhajan in a kutir, he immediately agreed to comply.

In Vraja, Krishna is served  by Radharani and Candravali, who  each have unlimited maid servants.  According to the  mellows of paramour  love, Shri Raghunatha dasa  Gosvami counted himself  as a maidservant  of the friends of Shrimati Radharani. As Candravali is the chief comperitor of Radharani, Shri dasa Gosvami would never  go to her kunja or talk  with any of the sakhis. Thus he served the servants of Radharani within his mind in this way.

One  Brajabasi  known  as  Shri  dasa  Brijabasi  used to bring Shri das Gosvami a  leafcup of  buttermilk every  day. Drinking  this much only Raghunath dasa would engage in bhajana throughout the day. One day Shri Das Brijabasi went  to Candravali’s kunda,  known as Sakhi-sthali,  to herd his cows. There he saw  a palash tree with very large  leaves, so he collected some leaves to make leafcups. The next day, in one of the new leafcups  he brought  some buttermilk  to das  Gosvami. Raghunatha dasa  accepted  the  leafcup  of  buttermilk and inquired, “Shri dasji, where did you get these nice palash leaves?” Shri dasji replied, “While I was pasturing the cows I came to Sakhi-sthali and found them there.”

Simply hearing   the word ‘Sakhi-sthali’  Raghunatha dasa flew  into a rage and threw the leafcup  of buttermilk away saying, “The  followers of Shrimati Radharani  never accept anything  from that place.”  Seeing the loyal devotion of  Raghunatha dasa  for Shrimati Radharani Shridasji was amazed.

Raghunatha dasa Gosvami used to always serve Shri Shri Radha-Govinda  in his mind. One day in his  meditation he cooked sweet rice and  offered it to Shri  Shri Radha and  Krishna. In great  pleasure they accepted  the offering  and  the  other  sakhis  also  relished  this prasadam. Then Raghunatha himself honored the remnants of their prasadam and in great ecstasy, due to the  pleasure of having been  able to satisfy Shri  Shri Radha-Govinda and Their loving attendants,  he ate a little more  than was his custom.

In the  afternoon Raghunatha  dasa used  to speak  about Shri  Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. However, this day when the devotees came in the  afternoon to hear him speak, they found  that the door to his kutir  was closed.  They waited  for some  time but  when it  appeared that  there was  no movement  inside  they  became  a  little  anxious  and  called   out, “Gosvamiji, are you all right?” Shri dasa Gosvami answered, “My body is not well.”

The devotees became  concerned and immediately  sent word to  Sanatana Gosvami in Mathura. At that time Shri Sanatana Gosvami was staying with Shri Vallabhacarya’s  son Shri  Vithalnathji, who  immediately sent  two physicians to Radha-kunda to examine Shri dasa Gosvami. After  checking his pulse, the doctors concluded that, “due to eating a combination of rice and milk his body is feeling very heavy.”

Hearing  this  diagnosis  everyone  was  struck  eith  wonder.    That Raghunatha dasa  Gosvami, who  subsisted on  only a  little buttermilk each  day,  should  fall  ill  from  eating  too  much  sweet rice was astonsihing, especially because it was eaten only in meditation.

There are various opinions on  Shri Raghunath das Gosvami’s identity in Krishna-lila. Some have ascertained that he was Rasa Manjari, some  that he was Rati Manjari, while still others that he was Bhanumoti.

The Govardhana-sila given by  Shriman Mahaprabhu to Raghunatha  dasa to worship is still worshiped at Shri Gokulananda Mandira, in Vrindavana.

He compiled following books:  Stavavali, Dana-carita, and Mukta-carita, among others.

Birth:   1428 (Sakabda)  Disappearence: 1504  on the  12th day  of the bright fortnight of the month of Asvin.



Shri  Krishnadasa  Kaviraja  Gosvami  was  born  in  a  Nadiya  family of physicians  at  the  village  of  Jhamatpur,  within  the  district of Barddhaman,  near  Naihati.  His  father  was  Shri Bhagiratha, and his mother was Shri Sunanda. He had a younger brother named Syama das.  The deity of Gaura-Nityananda installed  by Shri Kaviraja Gosvami  is still being worshiped  there. It  appears that  his family  line is no more.  More information about the early life of Shri Kaviraja is available  in a book called Ananda-ratnavali.

In Chaitanya-charitamrita,  Adi-lila chapter  five, Shri  Kaviraja relates the cause of his leaving family life:

“Lord Nityananda Prabhu  had a servant  named Shri Minaketana Ramadasa, who was a reservoir of love. At my house there was sankirtana day  and night, and therefore he  visited there, having been  invited. Absorbed in emotional love, he sat in my courtyard, and all the Vaishnavas bowed down at his feet. In a joyful mood of love of God he sometimes climbed upon the  shoulder of  someone offering  obeisances, and  sometimes he struck others with his flute or mildly slapped them. When someone  saw the eyes of Minaketana  Ramadasa, tears would automatically  flow from his own eyes, for a constant  shower of tears flowed from the  eyes of Minaketana Ramadasa.  Sometimes there  were eruptions  of ecstacy like kadamba flowers  on some  parts of  his body,  and sometimes  one limb would be stunned while another would be trembling. Whenever he shouted aloud the name Nityananda, the people around him were filed with great wonder and astonishment.

“One respectable brahmana  named Shri Gunarnava  Misra was serving  the Deity. When Minaketana was seated  in the yard, this brahmana  did not offer him respect. Seeing this, Shri Ramadasa became angry and spoke.

“’Here I find the second  Romaharsana-suta, who did not stand  to show honor when he saw Lord Balarama.’

“After saying this, he danced and sang to his heart’s content, but the brahmana did not become angry, for he was then serving Lord Krishna.  At the end of  the festival Minaketana  Ramadasa went away,  offering his blessings to everyone.  At that time  he had some  controversy with my brother. My brother  had firm faith  in Lord Chaitanya  but only a  dim glimmer of faith in Lord Nityananda.  Knowing this, Shri Ramadasa  felt unhappy in his mind. I then rebuked my brother.

“’These  two  brothers,’  I  told  him,  ‘are  like one body; They are identical manifestations. If  you do not  believe in Lord  Nityananda, you will fall down. If you have faith in one but disrespect the other, your logic is  like the logic  of accepting half  a hen.   It would be better to be an atheist by slighting both brothers than a hypocrite by believing in one  and slighting the  other.’ “Thus Shri  Ramadasa broke his flute in  anger and went  away, and at  that time my  brother fell down.”

That  night,  because  He  was  pleased  with  the  chastisement  that Krishnadasa gave his brother  for offending His dear  devotee Mineketana Ramadasa, Lord Nityananda appeared in his dreams and declared:

Are are krishnadasa, na karaha bhaya, vrndavana yaha, tanha sarva  larya haya “O  my dear  Krishnadasa, do  not be  afraid. Go  to Vrndavana, for there you will attain all things.” [C.C. Adi 5.195]

Thus receiving the mercy of  Lord Nityananda in his dream,  he started for Vrndavana  with a  joyful mind.  The lotus  feet of  the spiritual master of Shri  Kaviraja are none  other than those  of Lord Nityananda Himself.

He  accepted  the  Gosvamis  Shri  Rupa,  Shri  Sanatana,  Shri Jiva, Shri Raghunatha,  Shri  Raghunatha  Bhatta  and  Shri  Gopala  Bhatta  as his instructing spirit ual  masters. From  Shri Lokanatha  Gosvami and  Shri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami he begged permission to write Shri  Chaitanya-charitamrita.  Lokanatha  directed  Shri  Kaviraja  that he desired to be unmentioned  in  his  book;  that  is why, in Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita, hardly a reference about Lokanatha Gosvami is to be found.

Shri  Krishnadasa  Kaviraja  Gosvami  compiled  the following books still extant:  Shri  Govinda-lilamrta,  Krishna-karnamrta  commentary (Saranga-rangada [kangada?] tika) and of course, Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita.

Born:1496 (Christian)

Diappearence: 12th day  bright fortnight month  of Asvin (the  year is not known).



Shri Kasisvara Pandita Gosvami had a temple near Shri Rampura at Catara.  Mahaprabhu sent him to Vrindavana later on in his life.  His  disciple was Shri Govinda Gosai, the pujari of Shri Govinda Deva.

When Shrila Rupa Gosvami discovered  Shri Govinda Deva’s Shri Vigraha  at

Gomati  tila,  he  immediately  sent  word  to  Mahaprabhu  at   Puri. Mahaprabhu  in  turn  requested  Shri   Kasisvara  Pandita  to  go   to Vrindavana. Kasisvara however expressed that “to have to give up  your association will cause my heart  to be split in two.  Therefore please consider how I can honor your request without giving up my life.”

Mahaprabhu could understand  the heart of  Kasisvara and therefore  he gave him a self-manifested Deity of Himself. Mahaprabhu sat down along with this Vigraha and accepted  prasad at which Kasisvara’s faith  was kindled. Mahaprabhu intimated to  him with this Deity  and established him on the right side of Shri Govinda Deva. Then he began to serve Them with great love.



My obeisances  to Shri  Gangadasa Pandita,  who is  the disciple of the husband of Sarasvati, the master of the Vedas.  [C.B.Mad 1.283]

After the  ceremony in  which Shri  Gaursundara was  invested with  the sacred thread,  He took  up his  studies at  home, under the tutorship of his father.  When Shri Jagannatha  Misra saw that  his son was  very eager to be admitted to an academic institutution, his father took him to the house of Shri Ganga dasa Pandita, to get Him admitted into Ganga dasa Pandita’s tol. In Krishna-lila  Ganga dasa Pandita was the  teacher of Balarama and Krishna, Sandipani Muni.

When he saw Jagannatha Misra had come to his house, Ganga dasa got  up to  respectfully  receive  him  and  after  embracing  him,  he   very affectionately  requested  him  to  take  his  seat.  Jagannatha Misra addressed  him,  “I  have  brought  my  son  to you. Please become his teacher  and  instruct  him  how  to  read  and write.” Shri Ganga dasa Pandita replied, “Only unless one is greatly fortunate does he get the chance to instruct a child who is endowed with the symptoms of such  a high-souled  saintly  person.  I  will  teach  him  to  the best of my ability.”

Thus Shri Jagannatha  Misra presented his  son Nimai into  the hands of Ganga dasa Pandita and then returned home.

While looking at his new  disciple, Gangadas became immersed in  great happiness and  kept Nimai  with him  just as  if he  was his  own son.  [C.B. Adi 8.32]

Ganga dasa could undestand by the divine appearance and nature of this boy that he was  not ordinary, and so  he began to carefully  instruct him while treating him just like his own son. The boy Nimai had such a miraculous intellect that after hearing  the sutras only once, he  had completely committed them to the memory. Within a few days he came  to occupy the seat at  the head of the  class. Gradually it came  to pass that sometimes  Nimai would  explain the  sutras even  better than his teacher. Not one amongst hundreds and hundreds of students in the  tol could rival him. Ganga dasa undestood very quickly that Nimai was  his best student.   Whatever pastimes the  Lord enacts He  does so to  the penultimate degree.

Amongst the better students of the Pandit was Shri Kamalakanta,  Murari Gupta, Shri Krishnananda and others, to whom Nimai would pose many tricky questions. Their discussions would usually end up at the bathing  ghat at  the  Ganga  with  loud  arguments  and  eventually pushing and mud slinging. Nimai would  establish one conclusion,  then defeat that  by establishing another, and then establish the original conclusion again with better  arguments.   Seeing his  genius the  other students  were simply struck with wonder and Ganga dasa Pandita was in total ecstasy.

After practising logic and rhetoric  for some days under the  tutelage of Ganga das Pandit, Shri Nimai then opened his own grammar tol by  the order of His guru. His tol was held at the house of Mukunda Sanjoy  in the pavilion where they conducted Durga Puja. Day by day his  students increased and even at such a young age he attained such proficiency in scholarship that everyone including even Ganga dasa Pandita was simply amazed.

While He engaged in His pastimes of learning His mother Saci Mata  was very happy. Eventually the time came  for Him to go to Gaya  under the plea of offering rites for His deceased father. After being  initiated by Shri Isvari  Puri He returned  from there a  changed person. Now  he explained all the sutras in  relationship to Shri Krishna. Besides  that, he knew nothing else.  Finally his students went to Ganga dasa Pandita to inform him of the new developments.

That afternoon  when Nimai  came to  offer his  respects to  his guru, Ganga  dasa  Pandita  very  affectionately  blessed  him  saying, “Bap Visvambhara (Bap is an affectionate term which literally means father, but which is used loosely even by mothers to address their sons),  now hear my words.  The scholarship of brahmanas is not  a matter of small fortune.  On  both  sides  of  your  family Nilambara Cakravarti, your maternal  grandfather,  and  your   father  Jagannath  Misra   weren’t uneducated fools. You are also very qualified to explain ins and  outs of logic.   If by giving  up teaching one  attains devotion, then  why didn’t your father and grandfather give it up? Were they not devotees? 

Considering  all  this,  please  continue  your  studies. By study one becomes a  Vaishnava brahmana.  If a  brahmana becomes  a fool then how will he distinguish between good and bad.  Reflecting on these matters you should  pursue your  studies and  continue to  teach your students nicely. On  my honor  I am  stating this,  that you  might not explain things in a contrary fashion.”

Nimai replied, “By your  mercy, there is not  a soul in Navadwipa  who can defeat me in philosophical debate. Let me see which of these great panditas can  refute the  explanations of  the sutras  that I will now give. I am  going to the  tol to begin  instructing these points  just now.” Hearing these words of Shri Gaurasundor, Ganga dasa was  pleased.  Thus Mahaprabhu took the dust of his lotus feet and went of to the tol.

(Then what happened?)

“What is left for Ganga  dasa to accomplish, who has  most worshipable person in the fourteen worlds as his disciple?”



Shri Raghunatha Bhattacarya resided at Barahanayar. When Mahaprabhu was journeying to Nilacala after  taking sannyasa, He came  to Barahanagar after passing through Kumar Hatta and Panihati.

“Then Mahaprabhu came to Barahanagar, to the house of one brahmana who had  attained  the  limits  of  good  fortune.  This brahmana was very learned in Shrimad-Bhagavatam  and upon seeing  Mahaprabhu he began  to recite various slokas. When Mahaprabhu heard these slokas,  describing the excellence  of the  path of  devotion (Bhakti yoga)  He (Gauranga-Narayana) became  overwhelmed with  ecstaticd love,  saying again  and again, ‘Speak on, speak on.’ Thus Shri Gauranga Raya began to roar very loudly.” [C.B. Ant. 5.110]

Prabhu told him, “I never heard anyone recite the Bhagavata like  this before. Therefore your name should be Bhagavatacarya, and this  should be  your  only  activity  -  to  recite  the  Bhagavata.” Hearing this blessing bestowed by the Lord,  Raghunatha was very pleased and  as he prepared to offer his obeisances to the Lord,  Mahaprabhu caught  hold on him and embraced him very firmly. Mahaprabhu spent the night  there in great happiness.

In Shri Krishna-prema-tarangini, Bhagavatacarya has introduced himself as the disciple of Shri Gadadhara Pandita. “Pandita Gosai’s (Shri Gadadhara Pandita)  glories  are  sung  throughout  the  three worlds. He has so mercifully descended on this mortal soil to deliver numberless  wicked souls. He is the pleasure potency of the Hero of Vaikuntha, Shri  Krishna Chaitanya,  and  is  thus  non-different  from  Him.  He  is  my   most worshipable Losd, my Gurudeva, and  His lotus feet are the  shelter of my body, words and mind.” (‘Shri Krishna-prema-tarangini’)

Shri  Bhagavatacarya  had  just  began  to  compose  ‘Shri  Krishna-prema-tarangini’ when he  first met Shri  Gaurasundara, thus throughout  this work, in many places, extremely beautiful descripitions of  Mahaprabhu can be found. Just north of Calcutta on the banks of the Ganga  within Mali  para  palli,  of Barahanagar,  can be found Shri Bhagavatacarya’s Shripat.  Handwritten  copies  of  his  compositons are still kept very carefully there, as well as many manuscripts of other Vaishnava writers.  In fact  there is  an entire  museum containing  many of  the personal effects of the Pancatattva and Their associates. This place, now known as Pat Bari, is managed by  the followers of Rama dasa Babaji.  It can easily be reached by bus from Shyam bazaar.

Mahaprabhu first  visited Shri  Bhagavatacarya on  the 12th  day of the dark fortnight  of Caitra.  “All glories  to the  source of  the total manifestationsa of  Brahman, Shri  Krishna, who  has variagated pastimes.  All glories to  Lord Jagannatha, the  incarnation of Nilacala  and all glories to Shri  Gauranga the form  of consiousness (Chaitanya).  Listen carefully about the incarnation of Kali-yuga, who inaugerated the yuga dharma of sankirtana, with every step and every word, saying,  ‘Krishna, Krishna, Krishna.’ Know that this name of Krishna who is not Krishna (blackish) but  whose  complexion  is  like  molten  gold,  is  Gauranga  and His appearance  is  a  known  fact  predicted  by the scriptures. With His associates  who  are  His  various  limbs  and  weapons, He enjoys the ecstasy of sankirtan as Lord Gauranga.

All  glories  to  Gaurachandra,  whose  sports  are  fully  imbued with consiousness. He is the life and soul of the devotees, and He  Himself is  an  incarnation  of  His  devotee.  In the company of Shri Advaita, Shrinivasa and Hari  dasa, and with  Nityananda by his  side, he enjoys the pastimes of sankirtan. The Lord of the life of Gadadhara, the Lord of His eternal associates, the  assembled devotees. The master of  the world in the form of His own devotee.” [Shri Krishna-prema-tarangini] 



During Nityananda Prabhu’s  tour of all  the holy places  of India for the purpose of purifying them, by the will of providence, he  happened to  meet  Madhavendra  Puripada  somewhere  in  western  India.   When Nityananda Prabhu saw Madhavendra Puri  he fainted away in a  swoon of ecstatic love  and His  transcendental body  became completely  still.  Similarly,  when  Madhavendra  Puri  gazed  upon Nityananda Prabhu, he completely forgot himself and fainted to the ground.

Shri  Gaurcandra  used  to  repeatedly  remark  that,  in relishing the mellows  of  love  in  devotion,  there  is  no  one  to  compare with Madhavendra Puri.  When the disciples of  Madhavendra Puri, headed  by Isvara Puri,  saw their  spiritual master  and the  Prabhu fallen in a faint  of  ecstatic  love,  they  began  to cry. Gradually, Nityananda Prabhu  and  Madhavendra  got  back  their external consiousness. When their eyes opened and  they again got sight  of one another, they  put their arms around each other’s necks and cried tears of joy. Then they began to  roll in  the sandy  earth carried  by the  waves of ecstatic love, while rending  the sky with  their loud roaring.  As a river  of love began to flow from their eyes, Mother Earth considered herself to be blessed in being flooded by that inundation. With the appearance of the transformations brought by bhava, trembling, tears,  and  standing of the  hairs on  end, it  could be  understood that  their bodies had become a place of pastimes for Chaitanya Gosai.

Nityananda  exclaimed,  “Today  I  have  received  the fruit of all my travels to the holy places. In seeing the feet of Madhavendra Puri,  I have received the treasure of love of God, and thus my life has become blessed.”

Madhavendra Puri continued to embrace Nityananda Prabhu tightly to his chest. He wanted to say something  but his voice was choked up  due to experiencing intense emotions.  Isvara Puri, Brahmananda Puri and  the other disciples of Shri Puripada present, became compeletely  enamoured by Nityananda Prabhu. Some other  pilgrims were present at that  place but due to being devoid of devotion, they couldn’t understand what was going on and  continued to converse  amongst themselves. The  devotees felt some sorrow  to see the  behaviour of those  dullheaded brutes so they retreated into the forest to  be rid of their company. When  they were  alone  together  again,  their  distress  was destroyed and they continued to relish the mellows of Krishna-prema. In this way Nityananda Prabhu and Madhavendra Puri spent some days together in the  happiness of Krishna-katha.

Madhavendra Puri’s love of God was very uncommon. Simpy upon seeing  a dark  raincloud  he  would  fall  down  unconsiouss.  Day and night he imbibed  the  spirituous  liquor  of  Krishna-prema,  and  thus remained intoxicated, sometimes laughing,  sometimes crying, sometimes  raising a tumultuous hue and cry.  Nityananda also behaved just like a madman, falling down on the ground, his body agitated by waves of ecstasy.  As lava belches  forth from  a volcano,  loud laughter  erupted from  his mouth while his whole body, as if in the throes of a great earthquake, trembled violently.

Never  before  having  seen  such  unprecedented  displays of ecstatic emotions,  Madhavendra Puri’s disciples continuously remained  engaged in hari-kirtana.   No one  knew whether  it was  day or  night. Having become completely  absorbed in  the mellows  of Krishna-prema,  the days were passing  though it  seemed to  them that  not even  a moment  had elapsed  yet.   Whatever  was   discussed   between  Madhavendra   and Nityananda is known  only to them  and Shri Krishnacandra.   Who else  is capable of understanding  such subject matter?   Madhavendra Puri  was unable to  give up  Nityananda’s company  and so  he continued to roam about, keeping Nityananda with him.

Madhavendra Puri told his disciples, “Never before anywhere in all  my travels to all the holy places, have I ever seen such love as this.  I could understand that the Supreme Lord is merciful to me when I got  a friend like Nityananda as my  close companion.  Whenever one  gets His association, that place  becomes the sum total of all holy places  and non-different from Vaikuntha itself.   Whoever simply hears about  Him will definitly get  the association of  Shri Krishnacandra.   And whoever bears  even  the  slightest  enmity  towards  Him,  though he may be a devotee,  is  not  dear  to  Krishna.”   In  this  way,  day  and night, Madhavendra praised the attractive qualities of Nityananda Prabhu.

Lord  Nityananda  respected  Madhavendra  Puri  as his guru and always behaved with him in  that relationship. After travelling  together for some days finally  Nityananda Prabhu set  of in the  direction of Setu Bandha while Madhavendra Puri started for Sarayu. Having lost  contact with the external world neither of them was aware of his own body.  In order to maintain body and soul together, they thus remained in  these transcendental states  of consiousness.  If in  external consiousness, they would cease to live. [C.B. Adi 9.158-192]

At the  time of  his departure  from this  world, Madhavendra Puri was completely absorbed in separation  from Krishna and constantly  repeated one sloka.  This verse  is considered  by Gaudiya  Vaishnavas to be the essence of expression of the mood of separation. Quote it here


Among  his  associates  and  disciples  were  Shri  Advaita Acarya, Shri Pundarika  Vidyanidhi,  Shri  Nityananda  Prabhu,  Shri Iswara Puri, Shri Paramananda Puri,  Shri Ranga  Puri, Shri  Ramacandra Puri,  Shri Nrsimha Tirtha, Shri Raghupati Upadhyaya, Shri Sukhananda Puri, among others.

“Madhavendra Puri’s body  is totally imbued  with divine love,  as are his followers as well.  He takes nothing other  than the juice of  the mellows of love for Krishna as his foodstuffs. Thus his body has  become the place of pastimes of Shri Krishna.” [C.B.Adi 9.155]

His worshippable Deity, Gopalji, is presently residing at Nathdwar  in Rajasthan, and is worshipped by the followers of Vallabhacarya.      


Shri Jayadeva Goswami made his appearance at Kendubilvagram within  the district of  Birhum, during  the 11th  century. His  father’s name was Bhojadeva and his mothers name was  Bama devi.  Little is known  about his early life, but  it is said that  he was a Sanskrit  scholar at an early  age  and  was  inclined  towards  spiritual  life.  Some of his contemporaries have described him as “the incarnation of melody.”

Jayadeva  is  also  famous  as  the  great  poet of Gita-govinda.  Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu used to especially relish hearing the Gita-Govinda as well as  the works of  Candidas, Vidyapati, Ramananda  Raya and the Krishna-karnamrta by Bilvamangala Thakura.  Shri Gita-Govinda is full  of intimate pasimes of Shri Shri  Radha-Govinda and is therefore meant  for those who have acquired sufficient spiritual piety.

“For those who relish the remembrance of the pastimes of Shri Hari  and are always  anxious to  hear those  transcendental divine  narrations, these verses, sweet as honey, have been composed by Jayadeva with  the blessings of Mother Saraswati.”

As a young man, Jayadeva  went to Jagannatha Puri after  visiting many holy places.  There he married a girl named Padmavati, who was devoted to the Deity of Lord Jagannatha. Jayadeva also developed deep love for the Lord.   Inspired by  the beauty  of Puri  and Lord  Jagannatha, he composed Gita-Govinda, and it quickly  became the joy of the  Vaishnava community.

At the time, Gajapati Purusottamadeva was the provincial king.  He was openly envious of Jayadeva and soon posed an ill-fated challenge.  The king considered  himself a  master poet,  on a  par with Jayadeva, and composed a work called Abhinava Gita-Govinda. One day, he summoned his advisors and asked them to widely circulate his work, in an attempt to make it more  popular than Jayadeva’s.   The king’s own  men, however, ridiculed his attempt, telling him that it was impossible to compare a lamp to the sun.  Still, the king was relentless.

A  controversy  soon  arose,  and  the  brahmanas (the king’s priests) decided that the matter would  be settled by placing both  manuscripts before the Deity of Lord Jagannatha  for the night.  By morning,  they said, the Lord Himself would decide.  When the devotees went to  greet the Deity  the next  day, they  found Jayadeva’s  Gita-Govinda clasped against the Deity’s chest,  and the king’s manuscript  scattered about the floor.  The decision was clear.

During the time that  he became engaged as  the chief pandita of  Raja Laksman Sena, he resided at Navadvipa on the banks of the Ganga.  Also present were three other panditas whose names he has mentioned in  Shri Gita-Govinda. Shri Umapatidhar, Acarya Shri Govardhan and Kavi Ksamapati, who were his  close friends.   At that time,  Laksmana Sena, aware  of Jayadeva’s  position  as  a  great  Vaishnava,  went to see Jayadeva to request him to  become his minister,  to become the  royal pandita for the whole kingdom.  However, when the king arrived with his  ministers in full regalia, Jayadeva became very angry, as he was a brahmana  and his residence was being intruded by a king.

Jayadeva began to rebuke the king.   “I’m leaving Navadvipa, I  refuse to reside  here any  longer. Because  kings are  always involved in so much worldly activity, my residence has now become polluted. Therefore, I’m leaving.   I’m very offended.”   Then Laksmana Sena,  he paid  his obeisances to Jayadeva and he pleaded, “Please don’t leave my kingdom.  I meant no offense.  It’s true, this royal order is such a  despicable occupation.  We have to be involved in so many undesirable  activities to protect the country, but if you leave our kingdom then it will be a great loss.   You’ve given your  word, I know  you can’t break  it, so please just take your residence across the Ganga.”

At that time Jayadeva was living just near the place where the Mayapur Chandradaya Mandir is  now located.   This is proof  that the original Navadvipa was on  the Chandradaya Mandir  side, because the  king told Jayadeva to take his residence across the river. “At least then you’ll still be in our kingdom. Otherwise, if we lose the association of such a great Vaishnava this will be very inauspicious for everyone.  We want the blessings of the Vaishnavas, and  only for this reason have I  come to you, to request you to use your knowledge for the upliftment of the entire kingdom.”

So Jayadeva, seeing that after criticising the king he did not  become puffed up but instead took a  humble position, realized that he was  a devotee and not  just a materialistic  king who wanted  to exploit him for his own name and fame.  So then Jayadeva said, “Alright, I’ll live across the river.  You can also come and visit me, but don’t come as a king, come in ordinary dress like  a Vaishnava brahmana.  You can  come and see me in secret and we can discuss Krishna-katha.”

In the Gita-Govinda, while writing about the pastimes of Radharani  as She repented  after Krishna  had gone  away, he  became lost in thought.  Not being able to decide whether  or not he should write a  particular verse regarding Krishna becoming the servant of his devotee, he  decided to first take his bath and return to his writing later.  While  taking his bath, Krishna himself personally  appeared in the form of  Jayadeva, took his meal and then wrote down that very verse with his own hand.

Then, while Padmavati  was accepting her  meal Jayadeva returned  from taking his bath  in the Ganga.   Padmavati was completely  startled to see her husband,  and Jayadeva aswell  was very surprised  to see that his wife was  accepting her meal  before him (which  is never done  by Hindu wives).   Finally she  explained that  he had  already taken his bath once, taken his meal and then gone to his room. 

Jayadeva  went  to  his  room  and  saw  the  verse  that  he had been considering whether to write or  not, now composed in golden  letters.  With tears in his eyes and voice choked up he called out to his  wife, “Padmavati! You are so fotunate! You had darsana of the Supreme Lord!”

Lokasvana Sena, devotee-king, built a hut made of leaves at  Campahati for Jayadeva.   Lord Krishna  appeared there  to Jayadeva  and his wife.  Changing the colour to that of the golden campa tree which grew in the area, He revealed His  form of Lord Chaitanya.   He told them He  would soon appear  in Navadvipa  to perform  congregational chanting  before taking sannyasa and  going to Puri,  where He would  relish Jayadeva’s Gita-govinda.  Lord Chaitanya asked them also to go to Puri.

Bhaktivinoda Thakura has commented that even though Shri Gauranga  Deva hadn’t revealed his internal pastimes  at that time, within the  heart of Shri Jayadeva,  Shri Bilvamangala, Shri  Candidas, and Shri  Vidyapati, the  transcendental  mood  of  Mahaprabhu  was awakened even before He Himself actually made His appearance. 

Jayadeva  Goswami  also  composed   a  book  named  Candraloka.    His disappearance is on Pausa Sankranti. His worshippable Deities, Shri Shri Radha-Madhava, are  being worshipped  in the  former temple  of Radha-Govinda just outside the present city of Jaipur.



Shri Candrasekhara Deva or  Candrasekhara Acaryaratna was the  uncle of Mahaprabhu, the  husband of  the sister  of His  mother. According  to Gaur-ganoddesa-dipika, he was one of the nine Nidhis. Along with other residents of Shri Hatta he came to live at Navadwipa, near the house of Jagannath Misra, in anticipation  of the Lord’s appearence,  for which they had all been praying.

Candrasekhara and  his wife  were present  in the  home of  Jagannatha Misra and Sacidevi since the time  of the birth of their child  Nimai, and took part in his upbringing. Sometimes they would take Nimai  with them to their house,  and as they had  no children of their  own, they considered Nimai to be their own son.

After the disappearence of Jagannath Misra, Candrasekhara accepted the responsibility  of  looking  after  the  family. Sacimata would always consult with him before undertaking any important activity. Later  on, Shri   Gaurasundara   used   to   hold   congregational   chanting   at Candrasekhara’s house as well in Shrivasa Pandita’s courtyard.

One day  Shri Gaurasundor  expressed his  desire to  put on  a play  at Candrasekhara’s house. Just before sunset all the devotees gathered at Acaryaratna’s  house.   No  one  had  ever  before  anticipated   such happiness  at  the  prospect  of  witnessing  a  dramatic performance.  Advaita Acarya, Shrivasa Pandita,  Hari dasa Thakura and  Candrasekhara Acaryaratna each appeared in various guises and acted our their  parts on the stage with Shri Gaura Hari.

Sacimata was present along  with Vishnupriya. Shri Gaurasundara  entered the stage, dressed  as Laksmidevi. Everyone  thought that the  goddess Herself had descended from Vaikunthanagar, and thus they were stunned.  Sacimata  inquired,   “Is  this   the  goddess   Laksmidevi  herself?”

Acaryaratna’s  wife  replied,  “Can’t  you  recognise your son Nimai?”

Startled, Sacimata wondered, “That’s my Nimai? No it couldn’t be.”

For  some  days,  Mahaprabhu  enjoyed  this pastime with His devotees, holding dramatic performances, and  this increased the ecstasy  of the inhabitants of Navadwipa.

Candrasekhara was also present during the Lord’s pastime of holding  a torchlit nama sankirtan procession in defiance of the Kazi.

Amongst the thousand  names of Vishnu  recorded in Mahabharata  one is: sannyaskrt samah nistha santi parayanah.  Eventually the time came for the Lord to enact this pastime.  It was as though the ocean  of nectar became severly agitated  by great waves.  The devotees’ hearts  became greatly  afflicted  by  anticipation   of  the  pain  of   separation.  Candrasekhara fell to the ground unconsious. As he regained his senses the  earth  became  soaked  with  his  tears.  Nityananda consoled him saying,  “Candrasekhara,  if  you  want  to witness the further divine transcendental  pastimes  of  the  Lord,  then  try to get the hold of yourself. Prabhu  will remain  by your  side, bound  by your  love for Him.”

Candrasekhara came to the Lord’s house in the evening. Unable to  bear the pangs of impending separation, he broke into tears while gazing at the  serenely  pure  face  of  the  Lord.  Mahaprabhu could understand everything and so  He got up  and embraced Candrasekhara  very firmly.  Candrasekhara asked Him, “Are you going to plunge Nadia into  darkness by  going  away?”  Mahaprabhu  replied,  “Acaryaratna,  just try to be patient. I am eternally  bound by your love  for me. How lovingly  you raised me as a child. Do you think that I will ever be able to make up this debt to you.”

As He spoke, tears welled up in His eyes. Candrasekhara caught hold of Shri Gaurasundara and held Him tightly to his chest. For some time  the two of them silently shed tears. Finally Mahaprabhu said, “My pastimes are  meant  to  deliver  all  living  beings. Even though I may accept sannyasa, I’ll always  remain bound within  the temple of  your heart.  Please  don’t  be  impatient.  You  have  to  perform  the   requisite ceremonies for my acceptance of sannyasa.”

Hearing these words of Mahaprabhu, Candrasekhar was a little consoled.  As per the instructions  of Mahaprabhu, Candrasekhara came  quietly to Keshava Bharati’s asrama. As  his guardian, Candrasekhara, though  his heart  was  splitting  in  two,  performed  the requisite rites. After completing  the   ceremony,  Mahaprabhu   sent  Acaryaratna   back  to Navadwipa.  When  the  devotees  heard  from  Candrasekhara  what  had transpired, they  sent up  a heart-rending  cry. Acaryaratna  tried to console  everyone  and  informed  them  of  Lord’s  future   pastimes.  [C.B.Ant 1.33]

When after wandering in  Radhadesa for three days,  Nityananda managed to bring Mahaprabhu to Santipur, Candrasekhara, Sacimata and the other devotees from Navadwip came there to meet Him.  Then, after passing  a few months in great distress,  they came to Nilacala during  the rainy season to again see the Lord  of their life. When they reached  Atharo Nala, Mahaprabhu came to greet them and presented flower garlands from Lord Jagannatha to Adwaita Acarya, Shrivasa Pandita and  Candrasekhara.  Then He embraced them all while everyone shed tears of ecstasy.

After taking  up their  various residences  there, they  all began  to extend invitations to Mahaprabhu.  The first was from  Sita Thakurani, then  Malinidevi   and  then   Acaryaratna’s  wife,   whom  Mahaprabhu considered as  nondifferent from  his mother.  She herself  had cooked many  preparations  and  those  preparations  which Sacimata had sent, these also she fed Him with great affection. Mahaprabhu told his aunt, “Masima, please offer my obeisances to my mother and inform her that I come to visit her every day. She thinks that she is seeing a dream but I actually come there to take my meal.”

The main branch of Shri Chaitanya Matha was established at Braja Pattan, the home of Candrasekhar, by Shri Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakura.



The  foremost  of  all  the  Vaishnavas  who  reside at Navadwip is Shri Advaita  Acarya,  whose  virtuous  presence  has  made  all the worlds blessed. He is  the most preminent  preceptor in all  fields including knowledge, renunciation and devotion. In explaining Krishna-bhakti he is like unto  Lord Sankara  himself, and  whatever scriptures  that exist within the three worlds he explains in the light of Krishna-bhakti.

With  the  intense  eagerness  he  continually worships Shri Krishna with Tulasi manjaris  and Ganges  water. By  the momentum  of his spiritual force, his  loud shouts  pierce the  coverings of  this universe  and, resounding throughout Vaikuntha, reach the ears of Shri Krishna.  Hearing this  loving  summons  saturated  with  devotion,  Shri  Krishna  advents Himself.

On the seventh day of the  bright fortnight of the month of  Magh, the great  ocean  of  ecstasy  swelled  to  its  limits,  being   forcibly attracted by the moon  of Adwaita, Who appeared  from the womb of  Shri Nabhadevi as  the moon  appears in  the autumn  sky.   His father, Shri Kuvera Pandit floated  in that ocean  of joy. In  great happiness gave many gifts in charity to the brahmanas (who voluntarily accept vows of poverty).

Very quietly he approached the maternity room to get a glimpse of  his newborn son. Then his own face  began to shine by the reflected  light of that moon-like personage. The residents of Nabagram came running to see the  child.   Everyone remarked  that they  had never  seen such a beautiful baby.   What a  pious activities  his father  must have been performed to get such a jewel of a son, and that in his old age.  Thus Ghanasyama sings  about this  occasion.   [B.R.12.1759] The  child was named Mongal and his other name was Kamalaksa.

Advaita Acarya is the combined incarnation of Maha Vishnu and  Sadasiva (who  resides  in  Goloka).  His  two  consorts,  Sita  and  Shri   are manifestations  of  Yoga  Maya.  Once  when Advaita performed worship, whatever  gods  and  demigods  He  used  to  meditate  upon He saw all gathered at Lord Chaitanya’s lotus feet, offering prayers.  Raising  up his two hands, Advaita exclaimed in great ecstasy, “Today all the days of my life have produced a  succesful result, as all my desires  have been fulfilled. My  birth and activities  have finally born  fruit.  I have directly perceived Your two lotus feet, which are  proclaimed throughout the  four Vedas but are unattainable thereby.  Now, by Your causeless mercy, You have revealed Yourself to Me.”

Mahaprabhu replied, “Acarya, now you should perform My worship.” First Advaita Acarya washed the Lord’s two lotus feet with water scented  by flower petals and  then with water  scented with sandalwood.  Then He placed on  His lotus  feet Tulasi  manjari dipped  in sandalwood paste along with arghya - an auspicious offering of rice, durbagrass, yoghurt etc. His  eyes brimming  with tears,  he offered  incense, ghee lamps, flowers, sandalwood paste, and some foodstuffs.

After offering various prayers he loudly proclaimed the Lord’s glories with auspicious shouts. “All glories to the Lord and maintainer of the universe, the Lord of all  that lives. All glories to  Gaurachandra, the ocean of mercy. All glories to the most munificent incarnation of  Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, whose  form is all-enchanting. All  glories to He who is decorated with the ornaments of Shrivatsa and  Kaustubha.  All glories  to He  who has  revealed the  Hare Krishna Maha-mantra. All glories  to  He  who  enjoys  the  pastimes of accepting devotion unto Himself. All glories to Mahaprabhu  who reclines on the bed  of Ananta Sesa.  All glories to  the refuge  of all  living entities.  [C.B.Mad.6.116]

Hearing Advaita’s prayer’s Mahaprabhu  replied, “My dear Acarya,  I am very pleased by your prayers. Now you can ask from me any  benediction you like.” Then Advaita requested  that, “My only request is  that you distribute love  of Krishna  even to  women, labourers  and the  ignorant fools as well.  [C.B. Mad. 6.167]

A  Nrsimha-sila  and  Deities,  fashioned  after  a picture of Shri Shri Madan-Gopal that were worshipped  by Advaita Acarya are  still residing at Santipur  in Madan-Gopal  Para. Santipur  is a  short distance from Krishnanagar by bus.

The place on  the banks of  the Ganga where  Advaita Acarya worshipped Salagram and called out to the Lord to please descend to the world  is known today as Babla.   A temple has been  built in memory of  Advaita Acarya’s pastimes  there. This  place can  be reached  by riksaw  from Santipur.



Shri Isana  Thakura was  a household  servant of  Shri Jagannatha Misra.  After  the  disappearance  of  Misra  Mahasaya,  Isana  accepted   the responsibility of looking after  the household. He respected  Sacimata as his own mother and she in turn was affectionate to him as though he was her son.

All of the  various household duties  such as bringing  water from the Ganges, growing vegetables in the garden, collecting the yearly supply of rice paddy  from the temple, going to the market, receiving  guests and washing their feet and so on were carried out by Isana.

When Nityananda Prabhu came to Sacimata’s house Isana washed His feet.

[C.B. Mad. 1.59]

He would also clean the room after meals.

When Nimai was a small boy,  He was very restless and would  make many capricious  demands  which  Isana  would  eventually have to fullfill.  [B.R. 12.97]

Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞  Nimai,  the  very  life  of  Isana,  wouldn’t go anywhere without him. “Isan was always engaged in Sacimata’s service, and  thus he  is  extremely  fortunate  amongst  the inhabitants of the fourteen planetary  systems.   Sacidevi  was  affectionate  to him.” [Chaitanya-Bhagavat where?]

“I offer my obeisances to Shri Isana Thakura to whom Sacidevi was  very affectionate.” (Vaishnava-vandana/Devakinandana)

After Mahaprabhu took sannyasa,  the entire responsibility of  looking after Sacimata and Vishnupriya fell on the shoulder of Isana. After the disappearence of Sacimata, Vansivadananda looked after Vishnupriya  and Isana Thakura. The  first  time Shrinivasa Acarya went to  Mayapur from Puri  he  had  darsana  of  Vishnupriya,  but  when  the three of them, Shrinivasa,  Narottama  and  Ramacandra  went  to  Mayapura, only Isana Thakura was present.  “They saw Isana sitting alone, his body  shining with  the  effulgence  of  the  sun.  Though  he tried to restrain his emotions, still tears flowed out from his closed eyes.” [B.R. 12.113]

After  offering  their  obeisances,  the  three  companions introduced themselves to  Isana. When  Isana could  undestand that  they were the favorites  of  Mahaprabhu,  he  embraced  them  very   affectionately.  Thereafter, the  three of  them took  the elderly  Isana with them and made a pilgrimage around the nine islands of Navadwipa to have darsana of the places of pastimes of Shri Gaura-sundor. After completing  their parikrama, they  took leave  of Isana,  offering their  prayers at his feet. [B. R. 13.9]

After having spent  some days in  his company, the  pain of separation was  very  acute.  When  the   three  stalwart  devotees  arrived   at Raghunandana Bhavan at Shri Khanda, they were respectfully given seats.  Shortly thereafter the news  arrived from Mayapura that  Isana Thakura had concluded his final pastimes. [B.R. 13/21]



Shri Vasudeva Sarvabhauma  Bhattacarya was the  very dear associate  of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. His birthplace is a few miles from Campahati, which is just near the present town of Navadwipa; it was formely known as Kulia. His father’s name was Maheswara Visarada, and his  brother’s name was Vidya Vacaspati.

Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya was at that time the foremost logician in  all of India. He had travelled to Mithila where he studied logic under Shri Pakkadhar  Misra,  his  guru.  He  was  not  able  to bring any of the manuscripts from which Shri Pakkadhar Misra taught logic, therefore  it was necessary for him to memorize all of the verses in entirety before he could return to Navadwip. After his return, Navadwipa very  quickly became the foremost center for the  study of logic (it was the  Oxford of India).

At that  time the  foremost student  of the  Bhattacarya was Raghunath Siromani,  who wrote a commentary on logic entitled Didhiti.  In order not to damage the pride of this Raghunatha Siromani, Mahaprabhu (Nimai Pandita) threw his own commentary into the river Ganges.

Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya was also a renowned scholar of the Vedanta  of Sankaracarya, which he taught to thousands of his students. Due to the earnest desire of Shri Prataparudra  Deva, the king of Orissa,  he came to Jagannatha Puri to teach the Vedanta.



The ‘King of Elephants’, Gajapati Prataparudra was the King of  Orissa decended in the line of Ganga kings. His capital was at Cuttak. Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika states, “He  who was formerly  the worshiper of  Lord Jagannatha, the king Indrayumna,  is now present at  Shri Prataparudra, who,  endowed  with  the  opulence  of  Indra,  rules  over Utkaladesa (Orissa).”

His father’s name was Shri  Purusottama Deva and his mother’s  name Shri Rupanvika or Shri Padmavati Devi. Shri Purusottama Deva, who  considered himself  to  be  the  servant  of  Lord  Jagannatha,  arranged  fo the observance of Lord Jagannatha’s various festivals and rituals.  During the Ratha Yatra he would personally sweep the ground before the  Ratha with a golden  handled broom. Lord  Jagannatha was so  merciful to Shri Purusottama that He  personally  defeated  the  king  of Kanchi, whose daughter He then presented to Purusottama Deva. From the womb of  this Padmavati Devi Shri Prataparudra took his birth.

After Prataparudra ascended the  throne, he, like his  father, engaged himself in the  service of Lord  Jagannatha. This is  all explained in the book Shri Sarasvati-vilasa.

Kavi  Karnapura  Gosvami  composed  Shri  Chaitanya-candrodaya-nataka in accordance with the  request of King  Prataparudra Deva: “I  have been ordered by Shrimat  Prataparudra to compose  a drama in  glofication of the lotus feet of Shri Hari.”

When Mahaprabhu first came to Puri, Prataparudra had at that time gone to conquer  Vijaya Nagar.  However, when  Mahaprabhu returned  to Puri from Ramakeli, Prataparudra came  there from Cuttack with  the purpose of having His darsana.

Prataparudra begged the devotees to please arrange that he might  have the darsana  of Mahaprabhu.  They advised  him that  he might,  from a concealed place,  have a  view of  the Lord  during His performance of sankirtan in the temple of Lord Jagannatha. At that time  Prataparudra saw that Lord Chaitanya, in the ecstasy of divine madness, was fainting and falling to the ground.  Recovering His consiousness he would  roll in the dust as  His body became wet  with tears from His  eyes and the saliva drooling  from His  mouth. Not  being able  to understand these transcendntal ecstatic symptoms, the  king felt some repulsion  in his mind.

After returning to his palace, that night he saw in a dream that  Lord Jagannatha’s body was covered with dust and from His lotus eyes  water was flowing like the Ganges river.  His body had thus become wet  with those tears and the mucus and saliva drooling from His nose and mouth.

When the king went  to touch the lotus  feet of Lord Jagannatha,  Lord Jagannath exlaimed, “Please,  don’t touch Me!  Your body is  besmeared with camphor and sandalwood paste whereas I am covered with dust. When you saw my ecstatic  dancing you felt repulsed  to see My body  soiled with the dust and  the saliva drooling from  My mouth.” Then the  king saw that in place of Lord Jagannath, Lord Chaitanya was sitting on  the simhasana. His body being similarly covered with the dust, He  laughed as He told the king, “It is  not very deserving of you to be  repulsed by Me for this reason.” [C.B.Antya 5.168-177]

Then the king  could understand that  Lord Chaitanya was  non-different from Lord  Jagannath Himself.  Thus he  fell on  the ground and begged forgiveness for his offense.

The  last  king  of  the  Surya  dynasty  was  Shri Curanga Deva. Seven generations after him appeared Shri Anga Bhimadeva, who constructed the present temple of Lord Jagannath (about 800 years ago). In the seventh generation after him  appeared Shri Kapilendra  Deva (1435-1470 of  the Christian era). His son  was Shri Purusottama Deva  (1470-14979), whose son was Shri Prataparudra (1497-1541).

The four queens  of Maharaja Prataparudra  were Padma, Padmalaya,  Shri Ila  and  Mahila.  He  had  3  sons: Purusottama Jana, Kaluya Deva and Kakhara Deva. He also had one daughter, Shrimati Tukka.

After Shrimati Jahnava Mata had a  Deity of Radharani made and sent  to Vrindavana for  Lord Gopinath,  Purusottama Jana  sent two  Deities of Radharani to Vrindavana, one  for Madanamohana and one  for Govindaji.  When the Deities arrived in Vrindavana by boat, They were unloaded  at Madanamohana Mandira which was on the banks of the Yamuna. That  night the pujari of Madanmohana had a dream in which Madanamohana told  him, “You  all  are  thinking  that  these  two  Deities are Radharani, but actually the smaller one is Radharani and the bigger one is Lalita, so you should put Radharani on My left side and Lalita on My right side.” In this  way, Madanamohana  took both  of those  Deities and Govindaji remained alone.

When word was sent back to Purusottama Jana in Puri he was  perplexed.  That night however, he had a dream in which Radharani told him, “I  am here within  the cakra  of Lord  Jagannatha’s temple.  Everyone thinks that I am Laksmi, but actually I’m  not. I used to live in Vraja  from where one brahmana brought me to  his house at Shri Radhanagar here  in Orissa. His name  was Brhadbhanu and  he was very  affectionate to Me, just as though he  was My father and  I was his daughter.  But when he passed away  I was  brought to  Lord Jagannatha’s  temple by the king.  Anyway, now you should send Me to Vrindavana to be with Govinda.”

When he woke up from this dream Purusottama Jana was very  astonished.

He immediately prepared a retinue to accompany Shrimati to  Vrindavana.  When She arrived in  Vrindavana and stood by  the side of Govinda  the bliss   of   the   inhabitants   of   Vrindavana   knew   no   bounds.  [Sadhama-dipika:  B.R.6.63-113]

The  kingdom  of  Prataparudra  extended  from the present district of Hugli and Medinipura to Guntur district in Madras. Also the major part of Telenganar was under his rule. In 1510, when Maharaja Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne in Vijaya  Nagar, he seriously applied himself  to conquering the southern portion  of Prataparudra’s kingdom. (Well, did he do it or not?)

There  is  no  specific  information  regarding  the  disappearance of Maharaja Prataparudra, though his samadhi is reported to have been  in a village  named Pratap  Pur, which  is located  eleven miles from the capitol of Mayur Bhanj, Baripada. Due to the shifting currents of  the river there however, there is nothing remaining of that samadhi. There are Deities of Mahaprabhu, Jagannatha and Dadhi Ramon. The  appearence festival of Mahaprabhu is celebrated there with great pomp.

Within the area of  the old palace of  the king (Puruna Nahor)  at Bat Sagor  there  are  a  number  of  temples including Radhakantha Matha, Gangamata  Matha,  Govardhana  Matha,  Astasambhur Mandira, Shri Gaura-Nityananda Mandira and Shri Shri Gaura-Gadadhara Mandira.



Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami was the disciple of Shri Vakresvara Pandita. He was an Orissan brahmana. His previous name was Makara Dhuvaja Pandita.  From his very childhood he was in the care of his guru. Mahaprabhu was very affectionate to  him and used  to enjoy a  humorous relation with him. Mahaprabhu would address him as “Guru”.  Thus from his  childhood he retained this title.

During the time of Gopala Guru the temple of Radhakantha was renovated, and  he  installed  Deities  of  Radha  and  Lalita  on  each  side of Radhakanta as well  as Deities of  Shri Shri Nitai  Gaurachandra, in very beautiful dancing posters.

By the influence  of his accociation  of Svarupa Damodara  Gosvami and Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, he  became very expert in worshiping  the Deity with loving devotion. Vakresvara Pandita later took up residence at Kasi Bhavan, after the disappearance of Mahaprabhu. The room  where Mahaprabhu  stayed  is known as Gambhira.  After  the disappearance of Bakreswar Pandit, Gopal Guru took up residence there and he  continued to worship the Deity of Shri Shri Radhakanta within Kasi Misra Bhavan.

One story has it that when Mahaprabhu was going to answer the call  of nature,  he  was   biting  his  tongue   which  was  incessantly   and uncontrolably engaged in chanting the Holy Name. When Gopal saw  this, in his innocence as  a small boy, he  remarked, “Prabhu!  You  are the independent  Supreme  Lord.  But  just  suppose  if one of us ordinary jivas, in following  Your example, happens  to quit his  body while so indisposed. In  the absence  of the  chanting of  Your Holy Name, what will his future be?”

Prabhu replied,  “Gopal! You  have spoken  correctly. From  today your title will be ‘guru’”. The news of this incident spread far and  wide.  Soon  thereafter  Abhirama  Thakur  wanted  to  come  and  offer   his obeisances to  Gopala. [vide:  Abhiram Gosvami].  When Gopala received this news he was terrified and  ran to Mahaprabhu and sat in  His lap.  In  order  to  allay  his  fears,  Prabhu  put  His lotus footprint on Gopala’s forehead which  remained in the  form of tilaka.  Thus he was easily able to withstand the force of Abhirama Thakura’s pranama.

He  compiled  a  book  called  Smarana  Paddhati, which is composed of twenty   four   chapters.   Gopala   Guru   Gosvami’s   disciple   was Dhyanacandra Gosvami who was a very influential acarya. He composed  a book known as Dhyancandra Paddhati.

After Gopal Guru’s  disappearance, as soon  as his transcendntal  body was placed in its samadhi at Swargadwar, the king’s men declared  that since the sevaitship of  Radhakantha Mandira within Kasi  Misra Bhavan had been bestowed upon Dhyanacandra Gosvami without their  permission, they were going to seize the temple, which they did. Thus Dhyanacandra was plunged into an ocean of grief, being doubly distressed. His  guru had just left and he was feeling great separation from him. Now on the top  that  the  king’s  men  had  barred  him  from worshiping Shri Shri Radhakantha, the very service that  had been bestowed upon him  by his guru.

After Ratha Yatra, however, someone went on a pilgrimage to Vrindavana where they  saw Gopala  Guru sitting  underneath a  Pankura tree  near Bansivat. When  Dhyanacandra received  this information  he rushed  to Vrindavana where  he in  fact found  his guru  maharaja. He begged and begged his guru to return to Puri, but Gopala Guru replied, “I already left my body  there. Now I  am in Vrindavana  so why should  I go back there. If you are feeling separation from me then you can have a Deity made of me from a neem tree in the garden of Siddha Bakula. I will  be personally present  in that  murti and  will also  straighten out  the servants of the king.” In this way all of Dhyanacandra’s problems were solved by his guru in the form of this murti.

The murti of Gopala  Guru in Puri is  still being worshiped at  Radha-Kanta Mandir and  another branch of  Radhakanta temple with  a samadhi mandir  and  murti  of  Gopala  Guru  was  founded  near  Vansivat  In Vrindavana. There are also  branches of Radhakanta Mandira  founded by some  followers  of  Gopala  Guru  at:  Vidhuban, Vrindavana;  Kangali Mahaprabhu Math, Vrindavana; Arunananda Kunj, Radhakunda; Kisori Kund, Yavat; Gambhirar  Matha, Koladwipa;  Madhavi devi’s  Gopinatha Mandir, Bentpur.

Narottama dasa Thakura met Gopala  Guru Gosvami at Kasi Misra  Bhavan.


His  disappearence  is  on  the  ninth  day of the bright fortnight of Kartik.



Shri Paramananda Puri took birth  in the province of Trihuta,  which is today comprised  of Majahfarpur,  Dwarbhanga and  Chapra districts. He was the dear disciple of Shri Madhavendra Puri. [C.B.Ant 3/178]

The first  meeting of  Mahaprabhu and  Paramananda Puri  took place in South India  at Rsabha  Parvata. Mahaprabhu  recited many  prayers and hymns  while  taking  darsana  of  Lord  Narayana  at  Rsabha Parvata.  Paramananda Puri was present there at that time for the four months of the  rainy   season  (caturmasya).   Hearing  this   auspicious  news, Mahaprabhu went  to meet him  and offered his obeisances at  his feet.  Paramananda Puri in  turn embraced Him  in great love.  For three days they remained absorbed in talks of Shri Krishna, staying together in Puri Gosai’s room. Paramananda Puri told Mahaprabhu that he would be  going to Purusottama (Puri) and  then on to Gauda  (Bengal) to take bath  in the Ganges.

Mahaprabhu then requested him to  return from there to Nilacala  as He would Himself be going there from Satubandha. Mahaprabhu expressed His desire that the two of  them could reside there together.  “Being kind upon me, please come to  Nilacala.” Saying this He took  permission to leave and set out for the South, feeling very joyful. Then Paramananda Puri began his journey  to Puri. According to  Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, Paramananda Puri was formely Shri Uddhava in Krishna-lila.

Mahaprabhu respected Puri Gosai as  his guru and whenever he  received any invitation  to honor  the Lord’s  prasadam, He  would always  take Paramananda Puri with Him.  Puri Gosvami was in turn very affectionate to Mahaprabhu in  the mood of  parental love. Mahaprabhu  arranged one room and a servant for him  at Kasi Misra Bhavan. Later on  Puri Gosai took up residence at one Math on the western side of Lord Jagannatha’s temple.

One day Lord Chaitanya took Gadadhara Pandit with him and paid a  visit to Paramananda Puri. There at the Matha, one well had been dug but the water  was  not  very  nice.  Therefore  Paramananda Puri was somewhat dissatisfied.  Mahaprabhu,  being  aware  of  everything.    inquired, “Gosaiji, how is the water in your well now?” Puri replied, “This well is very unfortunate. The water is more like mud than water.”

Hearing this  Mahaprabhu was  sad and  therefore He  raised up His two arms and prayed  to Lord Jagannatha,  “Lord Jagannatha, please  bestow this blessing upon Me, that Ganga water will enter into this well.” At that very moment, Ganga-devi accepted the Lord’s order on her head and entered into that well and filled it with her presence.

The devotees could  understand that due  to the Lord’s  prayer, Ganga-devi had made her appearence. They circumbulated that well and offered their  obeisances.  Having  received  this  auspicious news Mahaprabhu immediately  came  there  and,  seeing  the  pristine water, remarked, “Please hear me.  O devotees.   Whoever takes bath  in or drinks  this water will  receive the  same benefit  as one  does by  bathing in  or drinking Ganges water. He will attain pure devotion to Krishna.”

Every day, Puri Gosai would first come to take darsana of  Mahaprabhu, and then  attend to  any other  activities. Mahaprabhu  would in  turn always look after him and  see to his needs. Mahaprabhu  announced, “I am in this world only due  to the affection of Puri Gosvami.  I belong to him and not to any other. He can sell Me anywhere He likes. Whoever simply sees him becomes the object of Shri Krishna’s affection”.

As Puri  Gosai was  the life  and soul  of Mahaprabhu,  Mahaprabhu was similarly the life and soul of Puri Gosai.  [C.B.Ant. 3.237-255]

Puri Gosvamis well  can still be  found at Jagannatha  Puri within one police camp on the way to Lokanatha Mandira.



Shri Acyutananda was the eldest son of Shri Advaita Acarya. He was  born in the year 1428 Sakabda.  He was extremely dear to  Shri Gaurasundara.  When Lord Chaitanya came from Puri to Santipur, Acyutananda was only  8 years old.

“The small son  of Advaita who  was without any  clothes, came to  the lotus feet of Shri Gaurachandra.  Though his body was covered with dust, Prabhu picked  him up  and placed  him in  His lap.  He spoke  to him, ‘Acyuta! Acarya  is my  father. Therefore  you and  I are  brothers.’” [C.B.Ant 1.216]

According  to  Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika  he  is Kartikkeya. According to others he  is Acyuta-gopika.  Advaita Acarya  had three  sons by  Sita devi: Acyutananda, Krishna Misra and Gopala. By his wife Shri Devi he had another three sons: Balarama, Swarupa and Jagadisa.  The three sons of Shri  Devi  were  adverse  to  Mahaprabhu  and  were  smarta mayavadis.  Acyutananda  was  the   disciple  of  Gadadhara   Pandit.  Until   the disappearance of Mahaprabhu, Acyutananda resided at Nilacala. He  used to dance in the kirtana party of his father before the chariot of Lord Jagannatha during the Ratha Yatra.

From his  childhood he  was deeply  devoted to  Mahaprabhu. One time a sannyasi who was a guest at Advaita Acarya’s house inquired, “What  is the  relationship  of  Shri  Chaitanya  with Kesava Bharati?” The acarya replied, “Kesava Bharati is the guru of Shri Chaitanya.”

Acyutananda who was then only a child, overheard this and in an  angry mood approached his father, “When you have said that Lord Chaitanya has a guru, there can  be no other explanation  than that you have  become deluded by the external potency. By his own desire unlimited universes merge into the pores of the body of Chaitanya Gosai. How can you  state that  He  who  is  the  original  source  of  all knowledge can have a spiritual master? You are my father and whatever I know I have learned from you. As you are my siksa guru how is it that now you are speaking something different?” [C.B. Ant 4.161]

Advaita replied, “I think that you  are the father, and I am  the son.

Just to teach me you have appeared as my son.”

Acyutananda  never  married.  He  had  one sister named Nandini. Krishna Misra had  two sons:  Raghunath and  Dola Govinda.  The descendents of Raghunatha still worship the Deity of Madana Gopala in Santipura. Dola Govinda had threee sons who resided at Malda. Acyutananda was  present at the  Kheturi Utsava.  Towards the  end of  his life  he resided  at Santipura.



Sivananda Sen  had three  sons: Shri  Chaitanya dasa,  Shri Rama dasa and Paramananda. The guru of Paramananda was Shri Natha Pandita who was the disciple of Advaita Acarya. In the beginning of Shri Ananda  Vrindavana Campu, Kavi  Karnapura has  offered prayers  to his  Shri Gurudeva, who resided at  Kanca Para,  one and  a half  miles from  Kumar Hatta. His Deity  of  Shri  Krishna  Raya  is  still residing there. The ‘Kesto Ray’ temple can be reached by ricksaw from either Kanca Para railstarion or from Halisahar.

In  his  Gaur-ganoddesa-dipika,  Kavi  Karnapura  states,  “He who was previously known as the gopi Bira and who was the messenger (duti)  of Radharani, has now  become my father,  Sivananda Sen.” After  spending the four months of the rainy season (Caturmasya) with Mahaprabhu,  the devotees were preparing to return to Bengal. At that time,  Mahaprabhu called Sivananda  and told  him, “You  should name  your next son Puri das.”

Having received that benediction, Sivananda very joyfully proceeded on the way back to his home. A few months later a son was born to him and after consulting with an astrologer the boy was named Paramananda dasa.  (What happened to Puri dasa?)

The following year  Sivananda again brought  the devotees, along  with his  wife  and  new  born  son,  to Puri, to see Mahaprabhu. Sivananda induced his son to offer his dandavats at the lotus feet of Prabhu and thus placed him at His lotus feet. The boy  was simply looking at  the lotus feet of  Mahaprabhu, who laughed  gently and placed  His foot in front of the  baby. Then the  child in great  ecstasy, caught hold  of Prabhus foot with both hands, and began to suck on His toe, while  the devotees resounded in joy, “Hari!  Hari!” This boy later became  known as Shri Kavi Karnapura Gosvami.

One day Sivananda brought his son Puri das with him to see Mahaprabhu.  The boy offered his  obeisances at the lotus  feet of Prabhu at  which Prabhu addressed him,  “Puri das! Let  me hear you  recite something.” The boy replied, “Svavasoh kuvaloy maksemaranja namuraso mahendra mani dam vrindavan ramaninam mandanama khilam harir jayati.” (Which means?)

Everyone was astonished that a  seven year old boy, with  no education could recite sanskrit verses. All the devotees remarked that surely he has received  the Lord’s  mercy. Mahaprabhu  was moved  to ecstasy  by hearing this verse and embraced  the boy in great love,  showering His blessings upon  him, “May  you always  be enlivened  in the ecstasy of Krishna’s pastimes.”

Svarupa Damodara remarked “This verse that he has recited is the prime object of satisfation for the  ears of the devotees. Therefore  one of his names  will be  Karnapura.” (But  why?) Thus  the son of Sivananda later became famous as Kavi Karnapur.

He compiled following literatures: Chaitanya-candrodaya-nataka, Ananda- vrindavana-campu,  Chaitanyamrta   Mahakavya,   Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, Radha-Krishna-ganoddesa-dipika,   Shri   Krishna-chika-kaumadi,   Alankara- kaustubha, Arya-sataka.




Shri Saranga Murari Thakura used to reside at Modadrumadwipa Mam gachi, where his Deities of Shri  Shri Radha-Gopinath are still present.  There is also a Bakul tree there which is perhaps existing since the time of Saranga Thakura. There is a local legend concerning this tree. One day when Mahaprabhu  came there,  he noticed  that the  Bakul tree  in the courtyard of Saranga’s temple was  dying. So he asked Saran ga,  “This Bakul tree is dying, so what are you going to do?”

Saranga Thakura replied, “Besides Your  mercy Prabhu, I don’t see  any hope for  this tree.”  Then Mahaprabhu  embraced that  tree, which has remained healthy to this day and is now quite large.

Saranga Thakura had  resolved that he  would not accept  any disciples but Mahaprabhu nevertheless repeatedly requested him to do so. Finally he relented and agreed by saying, “Tomorrow morning the first person I see I will initiate with the divine mantra.”

The next day, in  the early morning, he  went to take his  bath in the Ganges. By change a dead body came and touched his feet as he  entered the water. Picking up this body he said, “Who are you?  Get up.”  From behind Mahaprabhu who was witnessing everything called out,  “Saranga!  Say the mantra in his ear!” Then when Saranga said the mantra into the ear of that dead child, the body became consious. He said, “My name is Murari. I am your servant.  Please bestow your mercy upon me.”

On the day when this boy was to be invested with the sacred thread  he was by chance bitten by  a snake and died. As  he was only a boy,  the custom was not to burn  the body but rather to  place it on a raft  of banana trees and  float it down  the Ganga. When  his parents received the news that their child was alive, they came there to take him home.  However Murari declined to accompany them to his former home. He  told them, “I and will  remain in the service  of he who has  given me life again, for I am indebted to him.”

Vrindavana  dasa  Thakura  has  described  this Murari Chaitanya das as follows:  “There  was  an  external  consiousness  present in Chaitanya dasa’s transcendental  body. He  would enter  into the  forest just to chase tigers. Sometimes he would jump  on the back of a tiger,  who by his influence remained inert. At other  time he would put a phyton  on his lap and play with great  delight. It was by the mercy  of Avadhuta Mahasaya (Nityananda Prabhu) that he was able to play in this way with tigers and  snakes. Shri  Nityananda Raya  is very  affectionate to his servants, and thus by a simple wink of his eye they are able to  enjoy mellows which are not even accessible to Lord Brahma.

“Chaitanya was constantly in  forgetfulness of himself, absorbed  as he was in the  bliss of speaking  his inner thoughts.  Sometimes he would remain in the within the water for 2 or 3 days  without suffering  any bodily  inconveniences.  He  appeared  to  be  almost  insentient  and therefore  his  activities  were  imperceivable.  Such  was the fierce intensity of his immeasurable prowess. How much can I describe of  the interminable transformations of his devotional sentiments?” [C.B. Ant.  5.426-434] The descendants of his family are still residing at Sargram in Barddhaman district.

According  to  Gaur-Ganoddesa-Dipika  Saranga  Thakura  was previously Nandi Mukhi, in Braja lila.

His appearence is on the 14th  day of the dark fortnight of  the month of Asar. His disappearance is on the 13th day of dark fortnight of the month Agrahayon.

The temple  of Saranga  Thakura and  his worshipable  Deities, Shri Shri Radha-Gopinath are  still being  worshipped at  Mamgachi (Jaharnagar), just North of the present town of Navadwip. The worshipable Deities of Vasudeva Datta  Thakur, Shri  Shri Radha-Madan  Gopal are  also residing there. One can go there by riksaw or tram from Navadwip town. By train one  should  go  north  towards  Katwa  and  get down at the 2nd stop, Bhandar tikuri.



Shri Vansivadananda Thakura appeared on the full moon day of the  month of  Caitra.  Within  Kuliya  exist  the  villages, Teghari.  Beciyava, Bedrapara and Cinedanga. The  sons of Shrikar Catto-padhyay  moved from Bilvagram (Patuli)  to Beciyanagram.  Shri Shri  Yudhisthir Cattopadhyay had three sons: Madhava das (Chakari Cattopadhyoy), Shri Hari dasa (Tin Kari) and Shri Krishna Sampati (Dui Kari).

When Mahaprabhu came from  Puri to have darsan  of his mother and  the river Ganges he stayed for seven days in the house of Madhava dasa  at Kulia. At this time he excused Devananda Pandit along with all of  the offences of  everyone else.  Therefore the  place came  to be known as ‘Aparadh Banjan Pat.’

Shri  Vamsi  Thakura  appeared  in  the  home  of Shri Madhava dasa. His mother’s  name  was  Shrimati  Candrakala  Devi.  Vansivadananda is the incarnation of Shri Krishna’s flute.  On the day of his  birth Mahaprabhu was present in the  house of Shri Madhava  das, along with Shri  Advaita Acarya. Madhava  was very  devoted to  Mahaprabhu and  Prabhu was also very affectionate to him and his  son Vansi. Vansi das was present  at Navadwipa when Acarya Prabhu came there.

Vamsi was engaged in the service of Vishnupriya and was the  receptacle of her unlimited  mercy.  One  time Vishnupriya devi  and Vansi Thakura decided to give up taking food and water, there not being any point in maintaining  their  bodies  which  were  so  racked  with  the pain of separation from Mahaprabhu.  Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu,  however, didn’t approve of this and manifested Himself before them. Then He  requested them not to behave so rashly, and then instructed them both to worship His Deity form in order to mitigate their feelings of separation.

After  Vishnupriya’s  disappearance  Vamsivadana  brought this Deity of Mahaprabhu from Mayapura  to Kulia. This  Deity of Mahaprabhu  is very beautiful and is still being worshiped in the present town of Navadwip.  The name of the  temple and Deity is  Dhameswara. It is said  that the name Vansivadananda is carved into  the underneath of the base  of the Deity.

When his descendent, Ramacandra Gosvami came to live at Baghna Para by the mercy of Janhava  Mata, the worship of  the Deity passed into  the hands of the residents of Malancha.

There was a Deity of Gopinath at Kulic worshipped by Vamsi’s ancestors and he personally  installed a Deity of Pranaballabha at their home in Kulia. Where  these Deities  are at  present is  unknown. Vamsi Thakur resided at Bilvagram  for some time  with his relatives  there. He had two sons, Shri Chaitanya dasa and  Shri Nityananda dasa. The two sons  of Chaitanya dasa were  Shri Ramacandra and Shri Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞. Ramacandra was the  adopted  son  and  disciple  of  Jahnava Mata. He established the worship of Shri Shri Kanai Balai at Baghna Para. As he never married the worship passed on to his brother Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞 whose descendants are the resident Gosvamis there.

Shri Vansivadananda was a poet  and composer of songs. He  composed one song about the Lord’s acceptance of sannyasa based on the lamentations of Shri Sacimata  and Shri Vishnupriya.  Some say that  Ramai (Ramacandra Gosvami), the son of Chaitanya dasa (Vansi Thakura’s son) Gosai was  an incarnation of Vansi Thakura.



Shri  Nayanananda  Thakur  is  the  nephew  and  dear  disciple  of Shri Gadadhara  Pandita.  Gadadhar  Pandita’s   younger  brother  was   Shri Vaninatha whose two sons names were Nayanananda and Hrdayananda.   The descendents of Nayanananda are still living at Bharatpur, near  Kandi, within the district of Murshidabad.

It  is  described  in  Prem  Vilasa  that  Gadadhara  Pandita   called Nayanananda to his bedside as he was about to depart from this  world.  He told him,  “I am entrusting  to your care  Shri Gopinathji and  this copy of Bhagavad Gita in which, as I was copying the verses onto  palm leaves, Shriman  Mahaprabhu came  and also  wrote one  verse in his own hand.”

There was also a small Deity of Gopinatha which Gadadhara used to wear around his neck.  Because  he couldn’t bear separation from  the Lord, he  always  kept  this  Deity  aroung  his  neck. This he also gave to Nayanananda who brought both Gopinatha forms to Bharatpur.  There They are still nicely worshiped by the descendents of Nayanananda Thakur. 

Nayanananda is mentioned in  Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita as Misra  Nayana.  His previous name might have  been Dhruvananda. There is a  story that when Shri Shri  Gaura-Gadadhara would perform  kirtan in the  ecstasy of their internal  emotions, Shri  Dhruvanath would  write down  the words simply hearing them for the first  time. Thus he became the object  of their mercy and was bestowed the name Nayanananda.

He  was  present  at  the  Kheturi  Utsava. In Braja-lila he was Nitya manjari.



On his return to Nilacala from Ramakeli (after He decided not to go to Vrindavana), Mahaprabhu  came  from  Shrivasa  Pandita’s house at Kumar Hatta to Raghava Pandita’s house at Panihati. [C.B.Ant. 5.75] Arriving there, Mahaprabhu remarked, “Now that  I am here in Raghava  Pandita’s house, all the fatigue of my journey has completely left me. The  same result that one gets by immersing himself in the Ganges is achieved by coming to Raghava Pandita’s house. Today we will have a festival here.”

In Raghava  Pandita’s house,  Shrimati Radharani  herself cooked.  Thus within a short  time, with Raghava  Pandita’s expert assistance,  many varietes of items  were prepared. After  the bhoga was  offered to the Deity, the two prabhus, Shri Gauranga and Nityananda, sat down to honor the prasadam. “What excellent cooking,”  the Lord declared.  “I  never have eaten such tasteful sak anywhere else.”

Raghava Pandita knew that the  Lord was very fond of  green vegetables and thus he would prepare many varieties of sak. After finishing their meal and washing their hands, the two Lords sat down at which time Shri Gadadhara  dasa  (P.T.  Gadadhara?)  arrived.   He  made  dandavats to Mahaprabhu who in turn showed  His mercy to Gadadhara. Then  Purandara Pandita and Paramesvari dasa Thakura  arrived.  After a little  while, Shri  Raghunatha  Vaidya  came  there.   In  great happiness Mahaprabhu discussed various matters  with all of  them. Gradually many  devotees arrived and a great sankirtana festival began.

Damayanti was Raghava  Pandit’s sister. She  was extremely devoted  to the service of Mahaprabhu.

One  day  Mahaprabhu  told  Raghava,  “My  second  body is Nityananda, whatever He makes me do, I do. Whatever pastimes of mine are secret  I perform through Him.  Later on you  will be able  to undestand all  of this. What  is very  difficult to  obtain even  by the  master of  all mystics,  you  can  very  easily  attain by Nityananda Prabhu’s Name.” Saying this, Mahaprabhu set out  for Varaha Nagar. As he  was leaving, he told Makaradhuraj Kar, “You should serve Raghava Pandit.”

After a few days Nityananda Prabhu arrived at Raghava Bhavan at  which Raghava’s  happiness  soared  to  the  limits.  Raghava  Pandita   was spontaneously  attracted  to  Nityananda  in ecstatic love. Nityananda took up his residence there and Makaradhwaj Kar along with his  family began to  engage in  His service.  By the  order of Nityananda Prabhu, many devotees began  to assemble for  a sankirtan festival.  The great singer Madhava Ghosh arrived along  with his two brothers, Dasu  Ghosh and Govinda Gosh. The three of them were the emperors of song.

Finally  Nityananda  Prabhu  inaugaurated  the  sankirtan  festival by beginning His  ecstatic dancing  and singing.  Soon Raghava  Pandita’s house  became  transformed  into  an  ocean  of  ecstasy.   Eventually Nityananda  sat  down  on  the  bedstead  and  ordered the devotees to perform  His  abhiseka.    Raghava  Pandita   brought  the   necessary paraphanalia  -  sandalwood  paste,   flowers,  lamps,  offerings   of foodstuffs and water.  To the accompaniment  of ecstatic chanting  and dancing, the devotees began to pour water on Nitynanda Prabhu’s head.

Then, after he had put on fresh cloth, they began to smear  sandalwood paste all  over his  body.   A flower  garland of  forest flowers  was placed on  his neck  while Raghava  Pandita held  an umbrella over his head. Two devotees on each side began to fan him with yaktail  whisks.  Thus  all  directions  were  filled  with  an  uproar  produced by the ecstatic emotions of the devotees, which were generated by the  loving glances of Nityananda Prabhu.

At that time Nityananda told  Raghava, “Bring me a garland  of kadamba flowers.” Raghava  Pandita asked,  “Prabhu, where  will I  get kadamba flowers? It isn’t the rainy season now.” Nityananda told him, “Go  and look in the garden.” Raghava Pandita went into to the garden and saw a miraculous sight. On  a lemon tree  were many kadamba  flowers in full blossom. Thus he  became completely subdued  by ecstatic love  and his external sonsciousness receded.  He at once picked all the flowers and strung  a  beautiful  garland.   Bringing  this  garland to Nityananda Prabhu, he placed it on  His shoulders while the devotees  roared with ecstasy. Seeing the glories  of Nityandanda Prabhu, the  devotees were completely transported to the world of utter amazement.

Then  Nityananda   Prabhu  revealed   to  their   eyes  even   further transcendental  pastimes.  At  one  point,  as  all  the devotees were sitting down,  the room  became pervaded  with the  scent of  a flower called Damanak. Nityananda asked them, “Now which flower scent do  you smell?” Everyone replied, “Damanak.”

Nityananda Prabhu  told them,  “I will  explain to  you this  mystery.  Today Chaitanya Gosai  has come here  from Nilacal, being  attracted by your  kirtana.  On  his  transcendental  body  is a garland of damanak flowers, all  picked from  one tree.  Thus this  room has  been filled with the ecstasy  of that scent.  Simply due to  your ecstatic dancing and  chanting,  Mahaprabhu  has  come  here  from  Nilacala.” [C.B.Ant 5/294-297] Hearing His words the devotees became filled with wonder.

“While  eating,  while  lying  down  to  rest,  while  wandering about Nityananda Prabhu spent not a single moment  without the accompaniment of sankirtan.” [C.B. Ant 5/360]



Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhusana was a highly renounced, pure devotee,  who had not even a fraction of  desire for name or fame. He  compiled many literatures in order  to benefit mankind.  However he never  mentioned his birth place or anything about his family background and  therefore the details are not known for sure.

Historians have estimated that he was born sometime in the  eighteenth century, most probably  in Orissa (possibly  near Remuna).   At a very early age, he  finished his studies  of grammar, poetry,  rhetoric and logic and then went on pilgrimage. During this time he spent some time with the Tattvavadis  in South India  and thus became  conversant with the teachings  of Shri  Madhvacarya. He  became a  powerful exponent of this philosophy throughout India.

During his travels he again came to Utkaladesa (Orissa) and met with a grand-disciple of  Shri Rasikananda  Deva,  Shri Radha-Damodara Deva  by name,  with  whom  he  discussed  philosophy.  Shri Radha-Damodara Deva explained the conclusions of Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy as  expounded by Shri Gaursundara and requested  him to consider the unlimited  mercy of  Shri  Chaitanya  Mahaprabhu.  These  talks  penetrated his heart and awakened divine love within.  Thus, after a few days he was  initiated with Radha-Krishna mantra  and began to  study the Sat-sandarbha  of Shri Jiva Gosvami.

In  a  very  short  time  he  became  very  expert in Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy. With the permission and blessings of his guru, he moved to Shri  Vrindavana  Dhama  to  further  study  these  teachings under Shri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura.

Shri Visvanatha  Cakravarti Thakura  was exteremly  pleased to  see the humble and gentle nature and the renunciation and profound mastery  of the Vedas that characterized Baladeva. He carefully instructed him  in acintya-bhedabheda-tattva.  Baladeva   fully  accepted   the   Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy and began to preach it with great vigor.

Around this  time, the  members of  the Shri  sampradaya began to raise some arguments  in the  court of  the king  at Jaipur. They complained that as the Gaudiya Vaishnavas had no commentary on the  Vedanta-sutra, they were not qualified to worship the Deity and therefore the worship should be turned over to the Shri sampradaya. They also objected to the worship of Shrimati Radharani  along with Shri Shri  Govinda-Gopinatha as not being authorised anywhere in the sastras.

The king, Sadacari Raja, was initiated within the Gaudiya  sampradaya.  Thus he quietly sent word to Vrindavana, informing the devotees  there of what had  happened. But at  the same time  the king was  obliged to remove Radharani from  the Deity room  as well as  suspend the Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava pujaris from partaking in the Deity worship. At  that time  Shrila  Viswanath  Cakravartipada  was  very  aged, so it was not possible for him to make the  journey to Jaipur. In his place  he sent his student, Shri Baladeva, who  was fully conversant with the  sastras and thus able to competently face the challenge. 

In a great assembly he posed such forceful arguments to the  followers of Ramanuja that they could not reply to them. He further explained to them, “The originator of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, has accepted Shrimad Bhagavata as the natural commentary on the Vedanta-sutra,  as composed  by Shrila  Vyasadeva Himself.  This is proven in the Sat-sandarbha.”

The scholars in the assembly however, refused to accept anything other than  a  direct  commentary  on  the  sutra. Having no other recourse, Baladeva promised to present them with one.

Feeling very aggrieved, Shri  Baladeva came to Shri  Govindaji’s mandira and after offering his prostrated obeisances, informed Shri Govinda  of everything that had happened. That  night the Lord appeared to  him in a dream and instructed him to write a commentary on the Vedanta-sutra.  “I will dictate to you what to write and therefore no one will be able to refuse to accept it.”

Having seen such a wonderful dream, Baladeva was totally enlivened and felt renewed strengh flow into his heart. Thus he began to write,  and within  a  few  days  copleted  the  commentary  which was titled ‘Shri Govinda Bhasya’.

Vidya rupam  bhusanam me  pradaya kyatim  nitya tena  yo mamudarah Shri Govinda svapna nirdista bhaso radha bandhubandhurangah sa jiyat:  “May He  Who  so  mercifully  and  munificiently  was  kind towards me, and bestowed his favour by  ordering me in a  dream to write down  His own commentary, which  He  would compose, and  which attained such  renown amongst  the  learned  circles  that  they  bestowed upon me the title ‘Vidyabhusana’; may that dear  friend of Shrimati Radharani,  who holds Him dearer than Her  own life, be glorified.  May that Shri Govinda  be glorified.”

Bringing  the  commentary  with  him,  Shri  Baladeva again came to the assembly of the Ramanandi scholars.  After reading the commentary they were simply speechless. Thus the victory of the Gaudiya sampradaya was announced far and wide  and the king, as  well as the other  devotees, began to float in the ocean of bliss. The scholars then bestowed  upon Shri Baladeva the title ‘Vidyabhusana’.

This assembly took place in the  year 1628 Sakabda, at Golta near  the present city of Jaipur.  Baladeva Vidyabhusana installed the  Deity of Vijaya Gopala  there at  Golta Mandira,  but the  whereabouts of  this Deity are at present not known.  From this day the Maharaja of  Jaipur announced that Shri Govinda’s arati  would be performed first and  then the other temples could perform their aratis.

After accepting defeat, the Ramanandi scholars expressed their  desire to  accept  initiation  from  Shri  Baladeva Vidyabhusana.  However, he declined their  request by  stating that  amongst the  four authorized sampradayas,  the  Shri  sampradaya  was  highly  respectable  and  the foremost adherent of dasya-bhakti (devotion in servitorship). If there was any  cause of  loss of  respect to  the sampradaya  this might  be considered an offense.

Returning  from  Jaipur  to  Vrindavana,  Shri  Baladeva  presented the certificate  of  victory  to  Shrila  Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura and narrated all of  the events that  had transpired. All  of the devotees were in great ecstacy to receive this news and Cakravartipada bestowed his  full  blessings  on  Shri  Baladeva.  At  this  time, Shri Baladeva Vidyabhusana began to write a commentary on Shrila Jiva Gosvami’s  Sat-sandarbha.

Shri Jaya and  Shri Vijaya Govinda,  residing at Gokulananda  Mandira in Vrindavana,  were  worshiped  by  Baladeva  Vidyabhusana   personally.  According to the opinion of  some devotees, the Deities of  Syamananda Prabhu, Shri  Shri Radha-Syamasundara,  were installed  by Shri  Baladeva Vidybhusana.

After Shri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura finished his pastimes in  this world, Shri Baladeva Vidyabhusana became the next acarya of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya.

At  the   end  of   Vedanta-syamantaka,  Shri   Baladeva   Vidyabhusana acknowledges his spiritual  master thusly: “I  have been sent  here to Vrindavana by one brahmana guru, Shri Radha-Damodar Deva, to present  a compositon named  Vedanta-syamantaka, composed  by his  mercy for  the pleasure of Shrimati Radharani.”

Shrila Baladeva Vidybhusana became known later as Shri Govinda dasa.  He had two well-known disciples: Shri Vidya dasa and Shri Nandan Misra.

He is the compiler  of the following books:   (Hey there’s a lot  more than  this:  Bhasya-pithaka,  commentaries  on  Gopala  Campu,  Krishna- bhavanamrta, Samsaya-satini, etc.etc.) Shri Govinda-bhasya,  Siddhanta- ratnam,   Sahitya-kaumudi,   Vedanta-syamantaka,    Prameya-ratnavali, Siddhanta-darpana, Kavya-kaustubha, Vyakarana-kaumudi, Pada-kaustubha, Isadi-upanisad bhasya, Gitabhusana-bhasya, Shri Vishnunamasahasra-bhasya, Sanksepa-bhagatamrta-tippani-saranga-rangada,   Tattva-sandarbha-tika, Stava-mala-vibhusana-bhasya,  Nataka-candrika-tika,   Candraloka-tika, Sahitya-kaumudi-tika, Krishna-nandini, Shrimad-Bhagavata-tika,  Vaishnava-nandini, Govinda-bhasya-siksma-tika, Siddhanta-ratna-tika, Stava-mala-tika.



Shrila Visvanatha  Cakravarti Thakura  took birth  approximately in the year 1586  Sakabda, within  the district  of Nadia  in the  village of Deva-gram. His parents  were Rarhi Sreni  (?) brahmanas.   He also had two brothers named Rambhadra and Raghunatha.

His initiating guru was Shriyuta Krishnacarana Cakravarti of  Saiyadabad, Murshidabad, who  was fourth  in the  line from  Shrila Narottama  dasa Thakura,  Shri Cakravarti Thakura resided with his guru for many  years and  composed  many  books  during  that  time.  In  the last verse of Alankara-kaustubha  he  has  written: 

saidabadnivasi shri visvanatha sarmmana

cakravatiti namneyam krta tika subodhini


His studies of  grammar, poetry and  rhetoric were completed  while he still lived at Nadia. There is a story that he defeated one conquering pandit while he himself was  still only a student. From  his childhood he was completely indifferent to household life. In order to keep  him at home, his father had him married at a very young age.  However,  he finally renounced family life and came to live at Shri Vrindavana.  His family members tried to bring him back but were unsuccessful.

Shri Cakravarti  Thakura took  up residence  with Shri  Mukunda das, who lived in Krishna dasa  Kaviraja Gosvami’s bhajana kutir  at Radha-kunda.  There he very  intently studied the books and letters of the  Gosvamis and composed many commentaries on their writings.

He  used  to  worship  a  Deity  named  Golokananda.  Another  name of Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura was Shri Harivallabha dasa.

He composed the  following books:   Shrimad-bhagavata-sarartha-darsini- tika, Shrimad-Bhagavad-gita-savartha-varsini-tika,  Alankara-kaustubha- subodhini-tika, Ananda-Vrindavana-sukhvarthini-tika, Vidagdha-madhava- nataker-tika,   Shri-Krishna-bhavanamrta-maha-kavya,   Swapna-vilasamrta- kavya,   Madhurya-kadambini,   Aiswarya-kadambini;   Stavamrta-lahiri, Camatkara-candrika, Gauranga-lilamrta, Ujjvala-nilamani-tika,  Gopala- tapani-tika,  Shri   Chaitanya-candramrta-tika,   Ksanda-gita-cintamani. (There’s more, too:   Ragavartma-candrika, Stavamrta-lahari,  Smarana- mangala, etc).

His disappearance is on the Vasanta-pancami in the month of Magha.



Shrila  Narottama  dasa  Thakura  Mahasaya  has  sung: “O Acarya Prabhu (Shrinivasa), please  bestow your  mercy upon  me. I  pray that I might also have the association of Ramacandra.”

Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja  was the disciple  of Shrinivasa Acarya  Prabhu and the very  intimate friend of  Narottama dasa Thakura.   His father was Ciranjiva Sena and mother Shri Sunanda. Ciranjiva was originally an inhabitant  of  Kumaranagar  but  after  marrying  the daughter of Shri Damodara Kavi he moved to Shri Khanda.

“Ciranjiva Sena was a pure devotee very much loved by Narahari  Sarkar and the other residents  of Shri Khanda.   He was extremely learned  in all matters and  his wife was  very chaste and  gentle. Her activities were completely transcendental.” [C.C Mad. 11/92]

Shri  Mukunda,  Narahari,  Raghunandana  and  Ciranjiva,  who  were all residents of Shri Khanda, were of one mind and one purpose.  Every year they would come to Nilacala to have darsan of Mahaprabhu and to  chant and dance in  front of Lord  Jagannatha during Ratha  Yatra. Ciranjiva was  from  a  family  of  physicians.   His  two  jewel-like sons were Ramacandra  and Govinda.  Later  they both became disciples of  Acarya Prabhu and came to reside at Teliya Bhudari-gram in Murshidabad.

Ramacandra  was  very  handsome,  intelligent  and  perseverent.   His maternal grandfather, Shri Damodara Kaviraja, was a well-known poet who was a worshiper  of Krishna’s energy  (sakti) and was  initiated in this cult. After their father passed away, the two brothers Ramacandra  and Govinda came to live with  their grandfather, who practiced the  Sakta religion. Being influenced by him, both became inclined to worship the various personified forms of maya, Krishna’s external deluding potency.

At this time  Ramacandra practiced medicine  and was also  quite well-known as an accomplished poet.

After his marriage, Ramcandra was  carried in a palaquin with  his new bride to his home at Kumaranagara. As the procession passed  Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu’s  house at  Jajigram, he  saw the  Acarya seated on the veranda  of  his  house,  discussing  Krishna-katha  with  some  of  his disciples. Simply upon seeing the Acarya he felt a strange new emotion dawn in his heart. It was as  though he was seeing a very dear  friend after long time of separation.  Similarly, Acarya Prabhu, upon  seeing Ramacandra seated in the  palanquin,  immediately inquired from  those who were present with him, “Who is that? What is his name? Which varna (caste) he belong to?  And where does he reside?” [B.R. 8/530]

His associates replied, “He is  great scholar of the name  Ramacandra.  He  is  very  excellent  poet  as  well  as a physician and resides at Kumaranagara.” Hearing this, Acarya Prabhu simply smiled.

Ramacandra  Sena,  still  seated  within  the  palanquin, after seeing Shrinivasa Acarya and hearing his sweet voice, became extremely anxious to meet him. After a short time the procession reached the house where much pomp and  celebration took place.  Everyone was overjoyed  to see the  new  bride,  Ratna  Mala,  and  a  great din and bustle ensued in welcoming her  and her  bridegroom into  their new  home. Ramacandra’s mind however was still back at Jagigram where he had seen that  divine personage. With great  difficulty he somehow  or other passed  the day there, but with the  fall of night he  returned to Gajigram, where  he passed the night in the house of one brahman.

With the approach of morning  he came to Shrinivasa Acarya’s  house and fell down  at the  Acarya’s feet  to offer  his prostrated obeisances.  Shrinivasa Acarya  Prabhu had  similarly been  continuously thinking of Ramacandra  ever  since  he’d  seen  him  the  day before. Upon seeing Ramacandra again, prostrated before him, he picked him up and embraced him in deep ecstasy. Then he told him, “Birth after birth, you are  my most dear friend. In the same way that the Lord caused my meeting with Shri Narottama  dasa Thakura  at Vrindavana,  He has  also re-united me with another dear friend.”

Ramacandra stayed with  Acarya Prabhu and  studied the literatures  of the  six  Gosvamis  under  his  tutorship. Acarya Prabhu was extremely pleased to see his gentle and polite behavior and his deeply spiritual nature. On the next auspicious day he initiated Ramacandra with Radha-Krishna mantra.

After some time, Ramacandra returned to his house. When the Saktas saw he had been initiated into  Vaishnava religion they became very  upset.  Ramacandra, however, was undaunted. With tilaka on his body in  twelve places and a japa mala in his  hand, he sat down in front of  them and began to chant the holy names.  One day, as Ramacandra was proceed ing to his house after having  taken his bath, his Sakta  neighbors called him.

“Kaviraja, without worshiping Lord Siva, how is it that you are  going home? Your grandfather  was a great  devotee of Lord  Siva.  Have  you given up Lord Siva’s worship?”

Ramacandra replied, “Lord Siva and  Brahma are incarnations of two  of the material  modes created  by Shri  Krishna. Shri  Krishna Himself  is the source  of  all  incarnations.  Therefore,  by  worshipping Lord Krishna everyone’s worship is  performed, just as  by watering the  roots of a tree all the  leaves and branches  become nourished. Prahlad,  Dhruva, Vibhisana and others were dear  devotees of Shri Krishna. Therefore  Lord Siva and  Brahma were  naturally favorably  disposed to  them, whereas Ravana, Kumbakarna, Banasura  and other demons  were only devotees  of Lord Siva and not devotees of Lord Krishna. Thus their ultimate end  was to simply be destroyed.

“The sastras say that Lord Brahma was able to create this world due to having  successfully  worshiped  Shri  Vishnu.  Similarly, Lord Siva has become qualified to invoke auspiciousness in this world due to  having received the  foot wash  water of  Lord Vishnu  (Ganges) on  his head.” Having  heard  these  various  statements  from  the  sastras,   those scholars remained speechless. 

Ramacandra became very anxious to  have darsana of Shri Vrindavana  and the Gosvamis there. He  petitioned Shri Raghunandana and  various other Vaishnavas for their  permission which they  readily gave. Thus  on the next day he  set out for  Shri Vrindavana Dhama.  After passing through Gaya, Kasi and Prayaga, he  finally arrived at Mathura. There  he took bath and some rest  at Visramaghat.  After  taking darsana of the  Adi Kesava Temple, he started for Vrindavana.

At this time  his guru, Shrinivasa  Acarya, was present  at Vrindavana.  Ramacandra offered his prostated obeisances  at the lotus feet of  his guru and Shri Jiva Gosvami and  conveyed the good news of the  devotees from Gaudadesa.

As ordered by Shri Jiva Gosvami, Ramacandra took darsana of Shri Govinda, Shri Gopinatha,  Shri Madanamohana  and Shri  Sanatana Gosvami’s samadhi.  Then he offered his respects  to Shri Gopala Bhatta, Shri  Lokanatha and Shri Bhugarbha Gosvami, who were very pleased with him and who  offered him  their  benediction.  Hearing  some  samples  of  his great poetic ability, everyone decided  to present him  with the title  ‘Kaviraja.’ [B.R.9/214]

After  remaining  in  the  Gosvami’s  association  for some days, they finally instructed  him to  return to  Gaudadesa. And  so he returned, visiting Shri Khanda, Jajigram, Khandaha and Kalna on the way.  Finally he came to Shri Mayapura, where he received the blessings of Shri  Isana Thakur.

One time, some smarta brahmanas  made a conspiracy to defame  the name of Shrila Narottama  dasa Thakura Mahasaya.  They were very  upset that though he  was only  a kayastha  by caste,  he accepted  those born in brahmana families as his disciples.  They enlisted Raja Narasimha  and the  conquering  pandita  Shri  Rupanarayana  in  a crusade  to somehow expose Narottama dasa as a fraud. In a large party they made their way to Kheturi, where Shrila Narottama had his headquarters.

Coming  to  know  of  this  conspiracy,  Shri  Ramacandra and Shri Ganga Narayana  Cakravarti  came  forward  to  meet  their  challenge.  They journeyed to Kumarapura where they each set up two small shops in  the market; one a  pan and betel  nut shop and  the other a  store selling clay pots.

When the  party of  smarta brahmanas  arrived at  Kumarapura and  sent their disciples  out to  purchase wares  for cooking  their meals, the students came to those  shops. The ‘shopkeepers’ (actually  Ramacandra and Ganga Narayana in disguise)  spoke to them in Sanskrit  and  began to  raise  a  philosophical  dispute  with  them.  Seeing the profound learning of those two shopkeepers, the students were dumbfounded,  but nevertheless took up  the challenge. After  a short time,  however, it became obvious that they were  no match for these ‘shopkeepers.’  They called for their gurus, who  arrived on the scene with  Raja Narasimha and Rupanarayana. Rupanarayana himself  was drawn into the  debate and was defeated by the Bhagavata-based arguments of Ramacandra and  Ganga Narayana.

When the  king requested  their introduction,  those  two  shopkeepers informed him that they  were two extremely insignificant  disciples of Shrila  Narottama  dasa  Thakura  Mahasaya.  Having  met defeat in this village marketplace,  Rupanarayana and  the smarta  brahmanas were  no longer  interested  in  proceeding  onward  to  Kheturi. Their crusade evaporated  as  they  all  decided  to  return  immediate ly  to their respective homes.

That night, after Raja Narasimha had  returned to his house, he had  a dream in which  Durgadevi told him,  “Narasimha! You have  committed a great offense at the feet of  Narottama dasa Thakura.  As a  result of this Vaishnavaparadha, I will have to  cut you all to pieces with  this chopper. If you want to save yourself, then you had better immediately go and take shelter at Narottama dasa Thakura’s lotus feet.”

When his sleep broke  the king quickly took  his bath and set  out for Kheturi.  Rupanarayana had  a similar dream  and was  also  proceeding towards Kheturi at  the same time.  They met upon  their arrival there and approached the temple of  Shri Gauranga in order to  meet Narottama Thakura.  Thakur  Mahasaya  was  absorbed  in  his bhajana, but when a disciple informed him of the arrival of the two guests, he came out to meet  them.  Simply  by  seeing  his  transcendental form, imbued with Krishna-prema, the two offenders became purified and fell down to  offer their obeisances  at Thakura  Mahasaya’s feet.  Thakura Mahasaya  very humbly presented himself as being a fallen soul. Finally he  initiated them with Radha-Krishna mantra.

Many sinful atheists were delivered by Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja. He was present at the Kheturi festival.  He came to Vrindavana a  second time on the  order of  Shrinivasa and  Narottama, but  this time he couldn’t have darsana of the Gosvamis as  they had all departed this world  for Goloka  Vrindavana.  Feeling  separation   from  them,  he  was   very distressed at heart. Unable to  tolerate that pain, he joined  them in their eternal pastimes there in Vrindavana.

In Vraja-lila his name is Karuna-manjari. His disappearance is on  the third day of the dark fortnight  in the month of Pausa. His  principal disciple was Harirama Acarya. The Deities worshipped by Ramcandra  and Govinda Kaviraja have been brought from Jeliya-Bhudargram to  Bhagavan Gola where  they are  at present  being worshiped  by the followers of Rama dasa Babaji. There is a station at Bhagavan Gola on the  Sealdah-Lal Gola rail line.



Shri Govinda Kaviraja and his brother Ramacandra Kaviraja were the  two sons of  Ciranjiva Sena  and his  wife, Sunanda.  The custom in Bengal used  to  be  that  when  a  lady  became pregnant she would go to her paternal home to have  the baby. So Govinda  Kaviraja was born in  the home of his  maternal grandfather, Shri  Damodara Kaviraja. Because  he stayed within his  mother’s womb for  an exessive period  of time, his mother was made very uncomfortable just before his birth.

A  maidservant  came  to  Shri  Damodara  Kaviraja to inform him of his wife’s distress just  when he was  performing puja. Because  he was so engaged, he could not speak,  but indicated to the maidservant  by eye signals that  she should  show the  devi-yantra to  Sunanda. By seeing this she  would immediately  be able  to give  birth. The  maidservant misundestood his  indication and  instead bathed  the devi-yantra  and then gave that water to Sunanda to drink. In any case she  immediately gave birth without complication.

Soon  after  Govinda’s  birth,  his  father  passed  on.  Thus the two brothers stayed with their grandfather.  As he was a Sakta,  they were also influenced in this way.

Ramacandra  eventually  accepted  the  Vaishnava  religion  but Govinda remained a  staunch Sakta.  Besides talks  of Bhagavati,  he discussed nothing else; besides her puja, he worshipped no one else.

One day Govinda was considering in his mind, “By worshiping  Bhagavati doesn’t one get released from material life?”

Just then he thought he heard Bhagavati-devi say, “Without worshipping Shri Krishna, no one’s distress can be alleviated.”

Thus Govinda began to think of accepting shelter at the lotus feet  of Shri Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu. “Previously, the Vaishnavas, concerned for my eternal welfare, told me about the good quali”ties of my father and how he was very much favored by Shri Gaurasundara. Though I am his son, I have been practically reduced to nothing by my bad fate.”

“Now by the mercy of Bhagavati, I have understood my plight. If I  can accept the shelter of  a bonafide spiritual master  I am sure that  my fate will change. But Acarya Prabhu has gone to Vrindavana.  What will become of me now, I cannot fathom.”

Again he heard a voice saying, “Your desire will be fulfilled. Just be patient.” His  brother Ramacandra  was very  pleased to  hear of these events.

In  the  meantime,  the  disciples  of  Acarya Prabhu were missing his association  very  much,  so  they  decided  to  send  Ramacandra   to Vrindavana  to  bring  him  back.   On  the  way  there  he stopped at Kumaranagar to see  his younger brother.  He assured Govinda  that all his  desires  would  be  fulfilled,  and  requested  him  to  go  from Kumaranagar  to  Teliya  Bhudarigram  and  make  his  residence there.  Govinda did so and constructed a house.

Some  months  thereafter  Acarya  Prabhu  returned to Gaudadesa in the company  of  Narottama  dasa  Thakura  and Syamananda Prabhu. By their presence in Bengal an inundation of harinama-sankirtana began to flood the land.  Soon Acarya  Prabhu arrived  at Bhudari”gram  where Govinda very humbly invited him to come to his house.  There he and the  other residents of Bhudarigram had made grand arrangements to receive him.

Govinda was  very learned  and very  proficient poet.  He composed one drama called Sangita-Madhava. As  well as being an  excellent composer of songs, he  was also an  expert singer. Shri  Jiva Gosvami, Shrinivasa Acarya, Shri Jahnava Mata and  the other Gosvamis were so  pleased with his songs that they bestowed  upon him the title Kaviraj.  He composed many  songs  about  the  various  rasas  of  servitorship, friendship, parenthood and  conjugal love.  They are  beautifully ornamented  with poetic devices such as alliteration,  and are in such simple  language that  yet  carries  such  deep  emotion  that  the  lis teners’ hearts naturally soften in love of Godhead.



Shri Vansivadanananda Thakura had two  sons, Shri Chaitanya dasa and  Shri Nityananda dasa. Shri  Chaitanya dasa’s sons  were named Shri  Ramacandra and Shri Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞. Ramacandra was  a very influential acarya and  is also known as the second Vansivadanananda.

Ramacandra  was  the  adopted  son  of  Shri  Jahnava  Mata. He came to Vrindavana with her and lived there for some years. Then by the  order of  Jahnava  Mata  he  brought  Deities  of  Shri Shri Balarama-Krishna to Gaudadesa. He was  very learned in  the devotional scriptures  and his devotion was firmly rooted in exceptional adherence to sadhana-bhakti.  His glories  spread far  and wide  and many  learned and  aristocratic gentlemen accepted initiation from him.

“One morning as the  sky turned a rosy  hue, Ramcandra was bathing  at the sacred tirta of Praskandan.  At this time two Deities  of Balarama and Krishna floated into his arms.” (Vansi-sikha)

Four miles  from Ambika  Kalna on  the banks  of a  small river  named Baluka there was a dense jungle,  the abode of many ferocious  tigers.  Ramacandra delivered a tiger here, and thus this place has come to  be known as ‘Baghnapara’. He installed his Deities of Shri  Balarama-Krishna (Kanai-Balai) at this place.

He  resided  sometimes  at  Budhari  and sometimes at Radhanagar (near Baghnapara). His younger brother Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞 was initiated by him  and the worship of Shri Kanai-Balai was entrusted to him by Ramacandra.

He composed  the following  literatures: Kanca-manjari,  Samputika and Pasanda-dalan.

There  is  a  story  that  once  Viracandra  Prabhu wanted to test the spiritual merit of his adopted brother Ramai. He sent over a  thousand disciples  known  the  neda-nedis