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2) Is there any clear, direct evidence that one species changes into another?
No one has seen one species change into another. The fossil record alSo fails t0 give direct evidence ft"" *e gradual Dernf °f one sPecies into another. Species are stable Permanent forms.
Breeding is not Evolution
Evolutionists sometimes claim to have observed or caused the appearance of new species (Ridley' 1982) but their claim the confusion between two different kinds of species, which we may call "breeding species" and "evolution species". "Breeding species" are always very similar in bodily form to the parent species, and the two breeding species are often physically indistinguishable. Breeding produces variations but not new species. Scientists have tried to keep İhanging various animals and plants indefinitely by crossbreeding. They wanted to see. if. in time, they could develop new forms of life. 'On Call' reports, "Breeders usually find that after a few generations, an optimum is reached beyond which further improvement is impossible, and there has been no new species formed. Breeding procedures, therefore, would seem to refute, rather than support evolution."
Genetic mutation produces variations but not new species
Evolutionists say that various changes inside the nucleus of the cell play their part. And foremost among these are the "accidental" changes known as mutations. How do mutations originate? It is thought that most of them occur in the normal process of cell reproduction. But experiments have shown that they also can be caused by external agents such as radiation and chemicals. Mutations are likened to "accidents" in the genetic machinery. But accidents cause harm, not good.
Since the early 1900's scientists have exposed millions of fruit flies to X rays. Mutations never produced anything new. The fruit flies had malformed wings, legs and bodies, and other distortions, but they always remained fruit flies. And when mutated flies were mated with each other, it was found that after a number of generations, some normal fruit flies began to hatch. Genetic mutation in flies produces variations but not new species. Hence, this example of "new species" appearing has nothing to do with evolution, because "evolution species" must necessarily have quite distinct bodily forms (Newell, 1982). The dog family has many varieties, but dogs always remain dogs either by breeding or by mutation. Thus 'Scientific American' also observes, "Living beings are enormously diverse in form, but form is remarkably constant within any given line of descent: pigs remain pigs and oak trees remain oak trees generation after generation."
Suppose we are discussing the species intermediate between a mammal and its supposed ancestor among the fishes. Evolution theory would require a regular progression of bodily form between the fish and the mammal. Therefore when talking about the evolution of species, we are not concerned with mating preferences, but with bodily form. If by breeding we produce dogs of different variety, color or shape they still belong to the same species.