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4. The Theory of Fine Tuning of Universe
Scientists have calculated that an impressive and growing number of conditions are to be fine-tuned in order for the universe, our galaxy, our solar system, and planet to accommodate human life. The fine-tuned universe is the idea that conditions that allow life in the universe can only occur with the tightly restricted values of the universal physical constants, and that small changes in these constants would correspond to a very different universe, not likely conducive to the establishment and development of matter, astronomical structures, or life as it is presently known.
The arguments relating to the fine-tuned universe concept are related to the anthropic principle, which states that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as human beings at this particular time and place in the universe.The premise of the fine-tuned universe assertion is that any small change in the approximately 26 dimensionless fundamental physical constants would make the universe radically different: if, for example, the strong nuclear force were 2%...the anthropic principle... states that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as human beings at this particular time and place in the universe.stronger than it is, diprotons would be stable and hydrogen would fuse into them instead of deuterium and helium. This would drastically alter the physics of stars,and presumably prevent the universe from developing life as it is currently observed on the earth.
Larry Abbott (1991) describes the issue thus: the small value of the cosmological constant is telling us that a remarkably precise and totally unexpected relation exists among all the parameters of the standard model of particle physics, the bare cosmological constant and unknown physics, . Victor Stenger (1997) characterizes the fine-tuned universe concept as capable of being interpreted as a claim of evidence for "divine cosmic plan". As the argument goes, the chance that any initially random set of constants would correspond to the set of values that we find in our universe is very small and the universe is exceedingly unlikely to be the result of mindless chance. Rather, an intelligent, purposeful creator must have arranged the constants to support life", .
Parameter Max. Deviation
Ratio of Electrons: Protons 1:1037
Ratio of Electromagnetic Force: 1:1040
Expansion Rate of Universe 1:1059
Mass of Universe 1:10120
Table 2: Fine tuning of the physical constants of the Universe.
Though there are fine tuning arguments that are naturalistic, the assertion that the universe was designed to be fine-tuned is largely promoted by advocates of intelligent design and other forms of creationism. This apparent fine-tuning of the universe is cited as an evidence for the existence of God or some form of intelligence capable of manipulating the basic physics that governs the universe. It has been argued that the constants of the laws of physics have been finely tuned to a degree not possible through human engineering. Five of the more finely tuned numbers are included in the table below, .These numbers represent the maximum deviation from the accepted values, that would either prevent the universe from existing now, not having matter, or be unsuitable for any form of life. Recent studies have confirmed the fine tuning of the cosmological constant. Recent cosmic microwave background measurement not only demonstrates the existence of the cosmological constant, but the value of the constant. It turns out that the value of the cosmological constant exactly makes up for the lack of matter in the universe, [18- 19].
The ripples in the universe from the original Big Bang event are detectable at one part in 100,000. If this factor were slightly smaller, the universe would exist only as a collection of gas - no planets, no life. If this factor were slightly larger, the universe would consist only of large black holes. Obviously, no life would be possible in such a universe.Another finely tuned constant is the strong nuclear force. The sun burns by fusing hydrogen and higher elements together. When the two hydrogen atoms fuse, 0.7% of the mass of the hydrogen is converted into energy. If the amount of matter converted were slightly smaller—0.6% instead of 0.7%— a proton could not bond to a neutron, and the universe would consist only of hydrogen. With no heavy elements, there would be no rocky planets and no life. If the amount of matter converted were slightly larger—0.8%, fusion would happen so readily and rapidly that no hydrogen would have survived from the Big Bang. Again, there would be no solar systems and no life. The number must lie exactly between 0.6% and 0.8%.