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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Soul Science God Philosophy > Science and Spiritual Quest > Section 4 Towards a New Biology > INTELLIGENT DESIGN, FINE TUNING & EVOLUTION > 2. Evolution Theory

2. Evolution Theory


Biological evolution is the process by which an organism becomes more sophisticated over time and in response to its environment.By the definition of the National Academy of Sciences, "Evolution is a series of changes, some gradual and some sporadic, that accounts for the present form and function of objects, organisms, and natural and designed systems. The general idea of evolution is that the present arises from materials and forms of the past. Although evolution is most commonly associated with the biological theory explaining the process of descent with modification of organisms from common ancestors, evolution also describes changes in the universe, [1]." Eric Chaisson in his book "Universe: An Evolutionary Approach to Astronomy" has postulated eight stage evolution of the whole cosmic manifestation. These stages have been named as particulate evolution, galactic evolution, stellar evolution, planetary evolution, chemical evolution, biological evolution, cultural evolution and future evolution, [2]. In the whole discussion on the theory of evolution, currently the most popular question is how life reached its current state. Biological evolution is the process by which an organism becomes more sophisticated over time and in response to its environment.After the original "Big Bang" Theory, many of its variants have emerged. Starting with Alan Guth in the late 1990's (The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins, 1998), the scientific community has proposed roughly 50 different inflationary universe theory variants. The general idea remains the same i.e. in the beginning there was nothing and then a "singularity" suddenly-


Life Form                                             Millions of Years Since

                                                First Known Appearance



Microbial (prokaryotic cells)                                    3,500

 Complex (eucaryotic cells)                                    2,000

First multicellular animals     670

Shell-bearing animals 540

Vertebrates (simple fishes)  490

Amphibians-   350

Reptiles         310

Mammals      200

Non-human primates 60

Earliest apes  25

Australopithecine      4

ancestors of humans

Modern humans       0.15 (150,000 years)

Table 1. Time Scale of Biological Evolution.appeared and exploded. After the primordial bang, stars and planets slowly evolved. It was thought that the initial explosion produced hydrogen, helium and possibly lithium. These three elements condensed to form the first stars. That's stellar-evolution. The incredible heat and pressure inside of those early stars acted upon the hydrogen and helium, producing many of the chemical elements we observe today. This is chemical-evolution. We've identified 118 chemical elements, from Hydrogen (H) to Ununoctium (Uuo). 90 of the first 92 listed in our periodic table of chemical elements are thought to occur naturally, with the two exceptions being #43 (Technetium or "Tc") and #61 (Promethium or "Pm"). Apparently, they were produced inside stars. When these stars died, these chemical elements were released into space. These elements eventually came together via natural forces, condensed and formed

planets, more stars, and solar systems like our own. This is stellar and planetary evolution.