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2.4 Multiple arrows of time
Though science has advanced to unlock many mysteries in nature, science is unable to explain the existence of multiple arrows of time in the microscopic world. A few examples are shown below:
a) Higgs boson decay, B meson decay, Neutral kaon decay are different in a time reversed world.
b) From theoretical insights, existence of black holes is more appropriate in a universe rather than white holes.
c) The Universe always expands rather than shrinks.
d) Quantum Mechanical Measurement collapses the wave function.
e) Conscious actions affect the future but not the past and possibilities decrease as time goes on.
The Loschimdt's fluctuation theorem is mathematically expressed as follows :The above equation implies that as the time or system size increases, the probability of observing an entropy production opposite to that dictated by the second law of thermodynamics decreases exponentially. Based on the fluctuation theorem, the entropy of the universe from Boltzmann's statistical mechanics formulations should be higher in the future as well as in the past (Figure 4).However, the actual past of the Universe is hypothesized to be favoring low initial entropy. The low entropy of the Universe in the initial stages of the existence of the Universe is an issue that was not being explained or addressed with confidence from science. Scientific arguments for this case were confined to the statement that there was temporally initial boundary condition of the Universe that accounts for its low entropy.Acknowledging the existence of multiple arrows of time and the influence of time on Universe entropy, many physicists suspect that arrows in the microscopic world are all the time inter-linked and their linkage refer to the existence of undiscovered laws in nature. Furthermore, scientists express their views that the true laws of nature's behavior are yet to be found and search is towards the identification of time asymmetric laws that could account for the low initial entropy of the Universe.