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2.2 Unresolved mysteries of the universe
There are numerous problems confronting the modern cosmology for which the scientists are seeking solutions. Till today there is no major breakthrough and solutions to these problems keep the cosmologist guessing new solutions as the older guess does not seem to work. The major problems which are haunting scientists are listed below :
When and how did the first star and galaxy form?
Where do ultra high-energy cosmic rays come from?
Why is there more matter than antimatter?
Does the proton decay?
What is the nature of gravity?
Why is time different from other dimensions?
Are there smaller building blocks than quarks?
Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?
Is there a unified theory explaining all correlated electron systems?
Do deeper principles underlie quantum uncertainty and non-locality?
Where is quantum-gravity that is required to describe the behavior of early universe?
Maybe it is not possible to formulate the theory of the universe in a finite number of statements ...
The above list is not yet complete. There are numerous others which can be listed and are equally intriguing. In fact, the unified theory , for whichEinstein spent 30 years searching,
is still not conceived of. Recently,the mostpopularattemptsby scientists of the theory of everything are - the loop quantum gravity, string theory , and M-theory . However, such sincere attempts are not yet successful. A description of a complete theory is still lacking. In words of Stephen Hawking, "Up to now, most peoplehave implicitly assumed that there is an ultimate theory that we will eventually discover. Indeed, I myself have suggested we might find it quite soon. However, M-theory has made me wonder whether this is true. Maybe it is not possible to formulate the theory of the universe in a finite number of statements ... we and our models, are both part of the universe we are describing. Thus a physical theory is self referencing like in Godel's theorem. One might therefore expect it to be either inconsistent, or incomplete. The theories we have so far, are both inconsistent and incomplete... Some people will be very disappointed if there is not an ultimate theory that can be formulated as a finite number of principles. I used to belong to that camp, but I have changed my mind. I'm now glad that our searches for understanding will never come to an end, and that we will always have the challenge of new discovery. Without it, we would stagnate. Godel's theorem ensured there would always be a job for mathematicians. I think M-theory will do the same for physicists. I'm sure Dirac would have approved ." According to Charles Townes "It is unreasonable to think that we already know enough about the natural world to be confident about the totality of forces. " Thus there should not be confusion that we have understood the universe completely, implying the absence of God .
...it would be worthwhile at this stage to look for a paradigm shift from a logical-mathematical description to a theistic scientific model.
To be further added to the scores of the problems listed above is the fact that most often in science, we understand in terms of how but not in terms of why. This indicates that we don't have the absolute understanding of the facts that we already know. We are forced to think that world as it is and no explanation can be given further. For example, why is the speed of light independent of reference frame? What is the science behind this fact, nobody knows. Similarly, the wave-particle duality of sub-atomic particle remains unexplained and we have to accept the fact that both the features are present together and depend on the design of the experiment; that what we are trying to detect (that feature) gets manifested. The quantum non locality phenomenon also remains unexplained and we keep guessing the solutions without getting any edge. Although this does not coerce us to abandon the scientific endeavor, this certainly leaves a message that we should innovate our way of thinking; there is a need of paradigm shift. Perhaps we have become conditioned in thinking this way, trying to brood over the physical reality. Thus it would be worthwhile at this stage to look for a paradigm shift from a logical-mathematical description to a theistic scientific model. In this connection some of the interesting concepts from Vedanta may form the foundation for the development of a theistic cosmology which can lead to a better synergy between the vedic and the modern cosmology.