**2.2 Unresolved mysteries of the universe**

There are numerous problems confronting the modern cosmology for
which the scientists are seeking solutions. Till today there is no major
breakthrough and solutions to these problems keep the cosmologist guessing new
solutions as the older guess does not seem to work. The major problems which
are haunting scientists are listed below [1]:

When and how did the first star and galaxy form?

Where do ultra high-energy cosmic rays come from?

Why is there more matter than antimatter?

Does the proton decay?

What is the nature of gravity?

Why is time different from other dimensions?

Are there smaller building blocks than quarks?

Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

Is there a unified theory explaining all correlated electron
systems?

Do deeper principles underlie quantum uncertainty and
non-locality?

Where is quantum-gravity that is required to describe the behavior
of early universe?

Maybe it is not possible to formulate the theory of the universe
in a finite number of statements ...

The above list is not yet complete. There are numerous others
which can be listed and are equally intriguing. In fact, the unified theory
[5], for whichEinstein spent 30 years searching,

is still not conceived of. Recently,the mostpopularattemptsby
scientists of the theory of everything are - the loop quantum gravity[6], string
theory [7], and
M-theory [8]. However,
such sincere attempts are not yet
successful. A description of a complete theory is still lacking. In words of
Stephen Hawking, "Up to now, most peoplehave implicitly assumed that there
is an ultimate theory that we will eventually discover. Indeed, I myself have
suggested we might find it quite soon. However, M-theory has made me wonder
whether this is true. Maybe it is not possible to formulate the theory of the
universe in a finite number of statements ... we and our models, are both part
of the universe we are describing. Thus a physical theory is self referencing
like in Godel's theorem. One might therefore expect it to be either inconsistent,
or incomplete. The theories we have so far, are both inconsistent and
incomplete... Some people will be very disappointed if there is not an ultimate
theory that can be formulated as a finite number of principles. I used to
belong to that camp, but I have changed my mind. I'm now glad that our searches
for understanding will never come to an end, and that we will always have the
challenge of new discovery. Without it, we would stagnate. Godel's theorem
ensured there would always be a job for mathematicians. I think M-theory will
do the same for physicists. I'm sure Dirac would have approved [9]."
According to Charles Townes "It is unreasonable to think that we already
know enough about the natural world to be confident about the totality of forces.
" Thus there should not be confusion that we have understood the universe
completely, implying the absence of God [10].

...it would be worthwhile at this stage to look for a paradigm
shift from a logical-mathematical description to a theistic scientific model.

To be further added to the scores of the problems listed above is
the fact that most often in science, we understand in terms of how but not in
terms of why. This indicates that we don't have the absolute understanding of
the facts that we already know. We are forced to think that world as it is and
no explanation can be given further. For example, why is the speed of light
independent of reference frame? What is the science behind this fact, nobody
knows. Similarly, the wave-particle duality of sub-atomic particle remains
unexplained and we have to accept the fact that both the features are present
together and depend on the design of the experiment; that what we are trying to
detect (that feature) gets manifested. The quantum non locality phenomenon also
remains unexplained and we keep guessing the solutions without getting any
edge. Although this does not coerce us to abandon the scientific endeavor, this
certainly leaves a message that we should innovate our way of thinking; there
is a need of paradigm shift. Perhaps we have become conditioned in thinking
this way, trying to brood over the physical reality. Thus it would be
worthwhile at this stage to look for a paradigm shift from a
logical-mathematical description to a theistic scientific model. In this connection
some of the interesting concepts from Vedanta may form the foundation for the
development of a theistic cosmology which can lead to a better synergy between
the vedic and the modern cosmology.