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1) Imperfect Senses
The first problem we face when trying to get accurate information about the external world is that our senses have physiological limits, or 'thresholds of perception'.
Eyes: We can see only a tiny fraction of the total electromagnetic spectrum. An electromagnetic wave can range from one quadrillionth of a meter up to 100 million metres in length. And of this, we can see only the waves that are 400 to 700 millimicrons long. Anything outside this thin band is invisible to us. Similarly, even if we draw 10000 lines within 0.1 mm, we will be able to see only a single line
Ears: Human hearing extends from 20 Hz upto 20,000 Hz . We are deaf to any vibration above or below this range. That's why when you blow a dog's whistle, all the street dogs will come running to you on hearing it, although you cannot hear any sound at all!
So our senses are imperfect. But what about scientific instruments? Nobel-Prize-winning physicist Eugene Wigner points out, "Even if we photograph the stars, we must eventually 'take in' by our senses what the photograph shows. Furthermore without our senses, we could not handle a photographic camera. Clearly all knowledge comes to us ultimately through our senses." So even if amplified/refined by instruments, any knowledge based on sense perception is no more perfect than our imperfect senses.