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Dilemmas over Fossils


What Fossil Record Says about the Origin of Living Things


On Insects:

"The fossil record does not give any information on the origin of insects." - Encyclopaedia Britannica

"There are no fossils known that show what the primitive ancestral insects looked like." - The Insects


On Fish:

"To our knowledge, no 'link' connected this new beast to any previous form of life. The fish just appeared." - Marvels and Mysteries of Our Animal World


On Reptiles Becoming Mammals:

"There is no missing link (that connects) mammals and reptiles." - The Reptiles


On Apes:

"Modern Apes, for instance, seem to have sprung out of nowhere. They have no yesterday, no fossil record." - Science Digest


From Ape to Man:

"No fossil or other physical evidence directly connect man to ape." - Science Digest "The human family does not consist of a solitary line of descent leading from an ape like form to our species." - The New Evolutionary Timetable


Record of the Rocks Contradict Darwin's Theory


The date of origin of modern man according to Darwin is 40,000 years. But the record of the rocks show the origin of modern man several million years ago. Anamolous evidence concerning human remains raises major questions about the evolution theory. According to the conventional speculative view, hominids, or manlike creatures, began to evolve from apelike ancestors in Africa about 4 million years ago. The early hominids from this period (4-2 million years ago) are known as 'australopithecenes', beings with manlike bodies and apelike heads. There is further development of 'australopithecenes' to 'homo habilis', which appeared about 2 million years ago. 'Homo erectus' evolved from 'homo habilis' about 1.5 million years ago and migrated to Europe and Asia.


About 2,00,000 to 3,00,000 years ago, the very first representatives of 'homo sapiens' appear, but these are not quite like modern human beings. From this species, about 100,000 years ago Neanderthal man develops and spreads throughout Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. About 40,000 years ago fully modern man is thought to have evolved in the Near East or Asia. Called homo sapiens sapiens, the new species then enter Europe and replaces Neanderthal man, who disappears from the scene. The rudiments of modern civilisation begin 10,000 years ago.

According to the standard accounts, this whole development took place in the Old World. The only humans ever to have existed in the New World are fully modern men who migrated there from Asia no earlier than 30,000 years ago. This is the standard scenario, yet much evidence has turned up that challenges it. We shall now review some of this evidence and examine how scientists have responded to it.

At Border Cave in South Africa paleontologists have made fossil discoveries. They have concluded, "anatomically modem homo sapiens (homo sapiens sapiens) originated at some as yet uncertain time prior to about 110,000 years before the present" (South African Journal of Science, Vol.74). This differs substantially from the standard version, with its date of 40,000 years ago for the origin of modem man in Asia or the Near East. In 1962, archaeologist Cynthia Irwin-Williams excavated stone artifacts, including spearpoints, representative of a technology usually associated with fully modem (Cro-Magnon) man in Europe at an archaeological site at Valsequillo in Southern Mexico. In 1972 and 1973 a team of dating experts, including geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey, using several independent dating techniques, found that the layers in which the artifacts were found were about 250,000 years old.


The Valsequillo artifacts thus present a far greater challenge to the accepted view of human evolution than the Border Cave finds. The date is twice as old. There are numerous other controversial finds of ancient man in the New World that are conspicuous by their absence from standard accounts. Recent examples include the Calico Hills, California, early man site (500,000 years old), the Flagstaff, Arizona find (100,000 - 170,000 years old) and the Mission Valley find in San Diego, California (100,000 years old). (Jeffrey Goodman: American Genesis, p.l 12).


Fossil Record is the Final Court of Appeal


When we let the fossil record speak, its testimony is not evolution-oriented. Instead, the testimony of the fossil record is creation-oriented. While there was great variety within each kind, these had no links to evolutionary ancestors before them. Nor did they have any evolutionary links to different kinds of living beings that came after them. Zoologist Coffin stated: "To secular scientists, the fossils, evidences of the life of the past, constitute the ultimate and final court of appeal, because the fossil record is the only authentic history of life available to science. If this fossil history does not agree with evolutionary theory and we have seen that it does not what does it teach? It tells us that plants and animals were created in their basic forms. The basic facts of the fossil record support creation, not evolution." Astronomer Carl Sagan candidly acknowledged in his book 'Cosmos': "The fossil evidence could be consistent with the idea of a Great Designer."