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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Shrimad Bhagavad Gita > Gita Summary > Gita 15 Purushottama Yoga

Title: Chapter 15 Purushottama Yoga

User: Bhushan Nityananda dasa     Date: 2007-06-11 19:39:44


C H A P T E R   F I F T E E N

Summarized & Narrated into Question Answer Form

Based on the Commentary of Shrila Vishvanatha Chakravarti

By Purnachandra dasa prabhu ACBSP

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by writing to Purnacandra dasa, Radha-Krishna Temple, 10 Soho Street, London W1, U.K.





Krishna:  He Partha, it is said that there is an imperishable asvattha tree that has its roots upwards and its branches downwards and whose leaves are the Vedic hymns.  One who knows this tree is the knower of the Vedas.  The branches of this tree extend downward and upward, nourished by the three modes of material nature.  Its tender buds are the objects of the senses.  This tree also has roots going down, and these are bound to the fruitive actions of human society.  Its roots in Brahmaloka extend to this world.




The living beings desire sense enjoyment, and work to obtain it.  This increases their desires and they work even harder to get the varieties of new sense objects offered by the material world.  Therefore a competition develops between the increased material desires and the increased sense objects.  Due to this competition, the material world also increases.  In this way the roots of this tree spread allaround.




The actual form of this tree cannot be perceived in this world.  No one can understand where it begins, where it ends, or where its foundation is.  But with determination one must cut down this strongly rooted tree with the axe of detachment.  One must then take this axe, and sharpen it by discrim- ination.  The axe must be sharp because the mind tends to run again and again to sense gratification.  Thereafter, one must seek that place, from which, having gone, one never returns, and there surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, from whom everything began and from whom everything has extended since time immemorial.




Arjuna:  O Krishna, what are the qualifications of one who goes there and never returns?  What kind of devotees attain this spiritual kingdom?




Krishna:  Those who are free from false prestige, illusion and false association, who understand the eternal, who are done with material lust, who are freed from the dualities of happiness and distress, and who know how to surrender to the Supreme Person, attain that eternal kingdom.




Arjuna:  What is the nature of that place?




Krishna:  That supreme abode of Mine is not illumined by the sun or moon, nor by fire or electricity.  Those who reach it never return to this material world.  That abode is My own form, and is beautiful.  The illuminators of this world cannot give light to that place.  That abode is My very Self, and is the destination of all surrendered souls.  As that abode is Mine, the living beings in this conditioned world are also Mine. They are My eternal fragmental parts, but due to conditioned life they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind.  They pull the mind and senses around with them just like a man whose legs are bound with an iron chain must drag it around wherever he goes.




The living being in the material world carries his different conceptions of life from one body to another, as the air carries aromas.  Thus he takes one kind of body and again quits it to take another.




Arjuna:  Why does he carry his senses with him, Krishna?  What does he do with them?




Krishna:  The soul takes another gross body and obtains a certain kind of ear, eye, tongue, nose and sense of touch which are grouped about the mind.  His purpose is to enjoy the sense objects with these senses.




Arjuna:  Why does one not see this occuring?




Krishna:  The foolish cannot understand how a living entity can quit his body, nor can they understand what kind of body he enjoys under the spell of the modes of nature.  But one whose eyes are trained in knowledge can see all this.




Arjuna:  What can be done about this, Krishna?




Krishna:  I can give them knowledge. By knowledge they will philosophically see.  The endeavouring transcendentalists who are situated in self-realisation can see all this clearly.  But those whose minds are not


developed and who are not situated in self-realization cannot see this taking place, though they may try.




Arjuna:  O Kesava, what is the cause of those with knowledge being able to see and those without knowledge not being able to see?




Krishna:  The person without knowledge has been engaged in material enjoyment from time immemorial.  He is unable to feel the existence of his own soul within his body.  He has not bothered to clean his heart by hearing and chanting, so even if he endeavours the knowledge cannot arise in his impure heart.




Arjuna:  Is there a way that those without knowledge can see You?




Krishna:  The splendor of the sun, which dissipates the darkness of this whole world, comes from Me.  And the splendor of the moon and the splendour of fire are also from Me.  In the morning the sun rises in the east and it


allows the living entities to see the objects which they will enjoy.  The objects of all good activities and bad activities are revealed through the sun, therefore they should understand that the light in the sun is Mine.




All these opulences are coming through My prowess and they should remind the living beings of Me.  I also enter into the earth, which is like a fistful of dust, and hold it together so it can support the living beings.  I become the moon and thereby supply the juice of life to all vegetables.  I am the fire of digestion in the bodies of all beings, and I join with the air of life to digest the four kinds of foodstuff.  I also enter into everyone's heart, and from Me come rememberance, knowledge and forget-fulness.




All these I do for the ignorant beings who want to enjoy this temporary world.  However, for those who want liberation, I am the compiler of Vedanta which explains the purpose of the Vedas.  And I am the object of Vedic knowledge. I am  also the knower of the Vedas.  For it is I, as Vedavyasa, who compile Vedanta.




Arjuna:  You are saying that You are the object of Vedic knowledge, but others have different opinions.




Krishna:  I am Veda-vit, the only knower of the Vedas.  As Vyasadeva, I have given the meaning to Vedic literature.  No other meaning is proper. I am the giver of liberation, the Supreme Controller and the knower of the Vedas.  Therefore one should take shelter of Me.




Arjuna:  Since You are the knower and compiler of the Vedas please explain the real purpose of the Vedas, my Lord.




Krishna:  I will now give you the essence of the Vedas in three verses.  There are two classes of beings, the fallible and the infallible.  In the material world every living entity is fallible, and in the spiritual world every living entity is infallible.  Besides these two, there is the great-est living personality, the Supreme Soul, the imperishable Lord Himself, who has entered the three worlds and is maintaining them.




Because I am transcendental, beyond both the fallible and the infallible, and because I am the greatest, I am celebrated both in the world and in the Vedas as that Supreme Person.  Whoever knows Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, without doubting, is the knower of everything.  He therefore engages himself in full devotional service to Me.


Arjuna:  You have explained this point clearly, still many people argue over who is Supreme.  What is the reason for this?




Krishna:  They are bewildered by My maya.  Even if such persons have studied all the Vedas, if they do not understand that I am the Supreme ---  then they are simply fools.  However, My devotee, even if presented with strong arguements which state that I am not the Supreme, is never bewildered.




My devotee is considered all-knowledgeable even if he has never studied the Vedas because he knows the essence of the Vedas.  Some person may have the name "Asvakarna", but that person doesn't really have a horse's ear.  Do not think I am named Purushotam like that Arjuna.  One who knows Me as truly Purushotama, he is unbewildered.  One must understand this as I have explained it Myself.




One who understands the meaning of these three verses is all knowledgable ---- "sarvavit" --- he knows the topmost purpose of the Vedas and worships Me with all his heart.  This is the most confidential part of the Vedic scriptures that I am revealing.  These three verses are "tri-sloki-sastra".  I have spoken them to you because you are My supreme devotee.  Do not speak them to unqualified people, Arjuna.  However, when a faithful person hears them, he will become realised and his endeavours will know perfection.