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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Shrimad Bhagavad Gita > Gita By Acharyas > Gita 13 Prakriti Purusha Vibhaga Yoga

Ch 13. Prakrti-Purusa-Vibhaga Yoga

Yoga Through Understanding the Distinction Between Material Nature and the Enjoyer

This chapter gives deep insight into material nature (prakrti) and the conscious living entity (purusa).Through this discussion Bhagavan bestows tattv-jnana on His surrendeed bhaktas, and thus delivers them from the ocean of the material world. When suddha bhakti arises in the heart, the seconday result is the natural appearance of jnana and vairagya. However, in order to make one's understanding of bhakti-tattva strong and irm, it is still necessary to deliberate upon jnana and vijnana. When a bhakta has attained tattva-jnana, he becomes qualified to attain prema-bhakti.

The Glories of Chapter Thirteen (Mahatmya)

Lord Siva said, ďOh Parvati, please hear the unlimited glories of the Thirteenth Chapter of the Shrimad Bhagavad-gita, by hearing which, you will become very happy.

In the South, there was a very large river of the name Tungabhadra, on the banks of which; there is a very beautiful town of the name Hariharpur. There, the deity of Lord Siva, known by name Harihar, is worshipped. One, who has His darshan, attains auspicious things.

In Hariharpur lived one brahmana by the name of Hari-diksit, who was very learned, and lived a simple, austere life. His wife was called Duracara, by the people. The reason for this was due to her low-class activities. She would always speak to her husband in abusive language, and she had never slept with him. She was always rude to her husbandís friends, and she would keep company with other men, to satisfy her lusty desires. She was also addicted to taking various kinds of intoxicants. Seeing that the town was becoming more and more populated, she constructed a small structure in the forest where she could meet her lovers.

One night, feeling very lusty, and not having been able to find any lover to satisfy her lust, she went out into the forest to her meeting place, to see if any of her lovers were there. Not finding anyone at that place, and burning up with lust, she started to wander in the forest in the hope of finding someone to satisfy her lusty desires. After having wandered for some time, and finding that her body, senses and mind were paining so much, due to not being able to satisfy their lust, she became bewildered and sat down and started to cry.

Hearing the sound of her crying, one hungry tiger, who was sleeping, woke up and reached that place very quickly. Hearing the tiger coming, the lusty woman got up and thinking to herself that surely someone is coming who would satisfy her needs, she all of a sudden saw a tiger arrive in infront of her. He was about to rip her apart with his sharp claws.
At that time, the lusty woman addressed the tiger, ďOh tiger, why have you come here to kill me? First you must tell me this and then you can kill me.Ē That king of animals refrained from killing Durachara, and laughed. Then he related the following story.

ďIn the South there is a river of the name Malapaha. On the bank of which is the town of Muniparna. At that place, there is a famous deity of Lord Siva, known as Panchalinga. In that town I had taken birth in a brahmana family. Although I had taken such a high birth, I was still very greedy, and had no control over my senses. I used to sit on the banks of the river and perform sacrifices for those persons, who were not qualified to partake in such performances. I would also eat from the homes of materialistic persons. I would also collect more funds than necessary in the name of performing sacrifices and worship for the deity, and use the same for my own sense gratification. I would also criticize those brahmanas, who were strictly following the regulative principles, and I would never give charity to anyone. Slowly I became old, my hair turned white, my teeth fell out, my eyes became weak, but even still, I did not lose my lust to collect and hoard more funds. One day, by mistake, I went to the house of some brahmanas, who were very cruel and expert at cheating, to beg some food, when they set the dogs on me. One of those dogs bit my leg and I fell over and very quickly died. After that, I attained this tigerís body, and I am living in this dangerous forest.

Fortunately, I am able to remember my last birth and in this birth I do not attack any devotee, sannyasi or chaste lady. Only those sinful. persons and unchaste woman I take as my food. As you are the most unchaste, and sinful woman, you will definitely become my lunch.Ē

After the tiger had finished his narration, he devoured that sinful woman. Thereafter, the Yamadutas threw her into the hell known as Duyada, which is a lake full of stool, urine and blood. And she had to stay in that filthy place for ten million kalpas. After that, she was thrown into the hell known as Raurava, where she stayed for one hundred manvataras, after which she again took birth on earth as a female candala. Again she lived in the same sinful way as she had previously. Due to her sinful activities, she got leprosy and also tuberculosis. By chance and good fortune, she once went to the holy place of Hariharpur and close to the temple of Jambakadevi (Parvati). She saw the great saint Vasudeva who was always reciting the Thirteenth Chapter of Shrimad Bhagavad-gita. From his mouth she heard that recitation, and becoming attracted, she heard it again and again and by that hearing, she was able to give up that body of a chandala and becoming completely free from the reactions of her past sinful activities. She attained a four-armed form similar to Lord Vishnu, and she was taken to Vaikuntha.

13.1

arjuna uvaca
prakritim purusham caiva / kshetram kshetrajnam eva ca
etad veditum icchami / jnanam jneyan ca keshava

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.1 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/1/en>

arjuna uvaca---Arjuna said; keshava---O Keshava; icchami---I desire; veditum---to understand; etat eva---these specific things; prakritim---nature; ca---and; purusham---the enjoyer; kshetram---the field; ca---and; kshetra-jnam---the knower of the field; jnanam--- knowledge; ca---and; jneyam---the object of knowledge.

Arjuna said: O Keshava, I would like to understand prakriti (nature), purusha (the enjoyer), kshetra (the field), kshetra-jna (the knower of the field), jnana (knowledge), and jneya (the object of knowledge).

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

I pay my obeisances unto bhagavad-bhakti, a portion of which is mercifully situated in processes such as jnana. so as to make them successful. Bhakti-mishra-jnana, or jnana which is mixed with bhakti is described in this third set of six chapters. They also indirectly refer to the supremacy of kevalabhakti. The Thirteenth Chapter specifically deals with the subjects of the body (kshetra), the jivatma and Paramatma (kshetrajna), the sadhana to attain knowledge of them, the purusha (enjoyer) and prakriti (nature).

Bhagavan is attained only by kevala-bhakti. This is described in the second set of six chapters. These chapters also describe three types of worship, such as ahan-graha-upasana. A nishkama-karma-yogi attains moksha by bhakti-mishra-jnana (jnana mixed with bhakti), which was described in brief in the first six chapters. The third set of six chapters now begins. It explains in detail kshetra (the field), kshetra-jna (the knower of the field) and so forth.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Shrimad Bhagavad-gita consists of eighteen chapters, which have been divided into three divisions. The first six chapters describe nishkama-karma-yoga, bhakti-mishra-jnana and topics which are relevant for knowledge of the jivatma and Paramatma. The second set of six chapters explains the glory of kevala-bhakti, deliberates on para and apara bhakti, and describes the glory of Shri Bhagavan's svarupa, as well as the glory of the svarupa of the bhakta. It also explains the speciality and supremacy of bhakti among various processes, and gives details of other similar topics. Tattva-jnana is explained in detail in the third set of six chapters. It was previously described only in brief. The present description is part of a deliberation on prakriti (material nature), purusha (the enjoyer), kshetra (the field) and kshetra-jna (the knower of the field). The most confidential instruction of Shri Gita is finally delivered in the Eighteenth Chapter.

In the first shloka of this chapter, Arjuna is inquiring about the principles such as prakriti, purusha, kshetra, kshetra-jna, jnana and jneya, however, some commentators have purposely omitted this first shloka which raises these questions.

13.2

shri bhagavan uvaca
idam shariram kaunteya / kshetram ity abhidhiyate
etadyo vetti tam prahuh / kshetrajna iti tad-vidah

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.2 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/2/en>

shri bhagavan uvaca---the all-opulent Lord said; kaunteya---O son of Kunti; idam---this; shariram---body; abhidhiyate---is known; iti---as; kshetram---the field; (he) yah---who; vetti---knows; etat--- this; prahuh---describe; tam---that (person); iti---thus; (as) kshetra-jnah---the knower of the field; (by) tat-vidah---persons conversant with that truth.

Shri Bhagavan said: O Kaunteya, this body is known as kshetra (the field), and one who knows this body is called kshetra-jna (the knower of the field), by those endowed with knowledge of kshetra and kshetraj na.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

What is kshetra and who is kshetra-jna? In reply to this question, Shri Bhagavan speaks this shloka beginning with the word idam. This body is the refuge of all sense enjoyment through the medium of the senses and is indeed called kshetra. In other words, it is the origin of the tree of material existence. Those in bondage are covered by the misconception, of "I" and "mine" in relation to their bodies. This is generated by the false ego. They are freed from this misconception however, in the liberated stage. In other words, they remain free from attachment to the body when they are liberated. The jiva situated in either of these stages is known as kshetra-jna. Like a farmer, he alone is kshetra-jna, the knower of his field, and the enjoyer of its fruits.

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.12.23) Shri Bhagavan says:

adanti caikam phalam asya gridhra
grame-cara ekam aranya-vasah
hamsa ya ekam bahu-rupam ijyair
maya-mayam veda sa veda vedam

Those ignorant conditioned souls who are greedy to acquire sense objects experience misery as one of the fruits of this tree of material existence. Places like Svarga are also ultimately miserable. However swan-like mukta-jivas (liberated souls) who live in the tree enjoy another type of fruit, namely the happiness of mukti. which is always blissful. Thus, the one tree of material existence leads to various destinations such as Svarga, Naraka (hell) and mukti. This tree, therefore, is seen to be composed of maya (illusion) and it has multiple forms because it is born from maya shakti. Only those who accept a sad-guru understand this secret, and it is they who actually know kshetra and kshetra-jna.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

After hearing Arjuna's questions, Bhagavan Shri Krishna describes the body of the conditioned jiva which, along with his life air and senses, is the place of enjoyment and is called the kshetra. One who knows this body understands that it is the means of enjoyment for those in the conditioned state, and the means of attaining liberation for those in the stage of moksha. The jiva situated in either of these states is called kshetra jna. However, Shri Baladeva Vidyabhushana says: shariratmavadi tu kshetrajno na / na kshetratvena tat jnanabhavat. "That jiva who identifies himself with this body does not understand the tattva of the body. Therefore, he is not kshetra-jna."

Those who accept this body as their self consider it to be a means of enjoyment only. Intoxicated by the material false ego, they become bound to samsara (material existence). Life after life, their only attainment is misery. On the contrary, those who become free from the materialistic ego while remaining in this body, and who render service to Shri Hari, gradually attain the happiness of moksha. They become successful after attaining the bliss of rendering service to Bhagavan. This has been confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.12.23):

adanti caikam phalam asya gridhra
grame-cara ekam aranya-vasah
hamsa ya ekam bahu-rupam ijyair
maya-mayam veda sa veda vedam

Those attached to family life and who hanker after mundane pleasures, taste only the miserable fruit of bodily enjoyment, while the wise and swan-like sannyasis, who have renounced all material goals, taste only the blissful fruit of transcendental happiness. Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura writes, "Shri Bhagavan says: "O Arjuna! To make you clearly understand bhakti-tattva, which is supremely confidential, I first explained the svarupa of the atma. I then explained the various types of activities (karma) of the baddha-jivas and the svarupa (nature) of nirupadhikabhakti (unalloyed bhakti free from all designations). To realise the highest end, I concluded with a presentation on the three types of abhidheya (means): jnana, karma and bhakti. At present, I am giving a special description of jnana and vairagya based on scientific reasoning. You will become more fixed in nirupadhika bhakti-tattva by hearing this. jnanam parama-guhyam me / yad vijnana-samanvitam

sarahasyam tad-angam ca / grihana gaditam maya
Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.31

While instructing the catuh-shloki to Brahma, I described four subjects: jnana (knowledge), vijnana (realised knowledge), rahasya (confidential or secret topics) and tad-anga (the limbs or various aspects of those confidential topics). The hidden meaning of bhakti-tattva does not manifest in the heart without properly understanding these four essential topics. Therefore, I am giving you the pure intelligence which is needed to understand this rahasya, along with instructions on vijnana. When vishuddha-bhakti arises, causeless knowledge and renunciation appear side by side. These are the two concomitant fruits experienced while engaging in bhakti. O Kaunteya, this body is called kshetra and those who know this kshetra are called kshetra-jna.

13.3

kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi / sarva-kshetreshu bharata
kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam / yat taj jnanam matam mama

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.3 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/3/en>

ca---and; bharata---O scion of Bharata; viddhi---know; mam--- Me; api---also; (to be) kshetra-jnam---the knower of the field; sarva-kshetreshu---within all the fields; (it is) tat---that; jnanam--- knowledge; kshetra-kshetra-jnayoh---of the field and the knower of the field; yat---which; (is actual) jnanam---knowledge; (this is) mama---My; matam---opinion.

O Bharata, know Me alone to be the knower in all kshetras (bodies). This knowledge of the body as kshetra, and the jiva and Ishvara as kshetra-jna, is certainly true knowledge in My opinion.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Thus, the living entity is called kshetra-jna because he has knowledge of kshetra (the body), but Paramatma completely knows all kshetras, more so than the jivas. This shloka, beginning with the word kshetra-jnam, explains His kshetra-jnatva (quality of knowing the kshetra). Shri Bhagavan says, "Know Me, Paramatma, to be kshetra-jna. who is situated as the controller in all kshetras. The jiva is the kshetra-jna only of his individual kshetra, and his knowledge of kshetra is also incomplete. I alone am the perfect and complete knower of all kshetras. Consider this to be My speciality."

What is jnana? Anticipating this question, Shri Bhagavan says, "Knowledge of kshetra (the body) along with kshetra-jna (the jivatma and Paramatma), is indeed called jnana. I accept this as actual knowledge."

Paramatma is the superior of the two purushas, or kshetraj nas. Some persons explain that there is only one atma. This is rejected here, and it also contradicts a later statement of the Gita (15.17).

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Although the word kshetra-jna was used in the previous shloka to indicate the embodied soul or the jiva situated within the body, in the present shloka Shri Bhagavan, who is sarvaantary ami (the indwelling witness in all), sarveshvara (the Lord of all), sarva-niyanta (the Supreme Controller) and Paramatma, explains the perfect kshetra-jna, not the jiva. The essence of Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana's commentary on this shloka is as follows: "The jiva remains situated in this body just as a subject is situated under a king, even though he is kshetra-jna and has knowledge of his own kshetra as a means of enjoyment and liberation. However, I alone am his controller and maintainer, and, thus, I am the perfect kshetra-jna because I know all kshetras. Thus, I remain situated like a king." It is also seen in the smriti:

kshetrani hi sharirani / bijam capi shubhashubhe
tani vetti sa yogatma / tatah kshetra-jna ucyate


The entire body is like a kshetra, and righteous and unrighteous actions are like the seeds of that body in that they are the cause. That yogatma purusha (Paramatma) knows the tattva (essence) of all bodies or kshetras. He is therefore called the perfect kshetra-jna.
Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.3.13) also says:

kshetra-jnaya namas tubhyam / sarvadhyakshaya sakshine
purushayatma-mulaya / mula-prakritaye namah

In his commentary on this shloka, Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura writes: kshetram dehadvayam tattvena janatiti kshetrajno "antaryami---Antaryami knows the tattva of both the subtle and gross bodies and is called kshetra-jna."

Furthermore, Shri Bhagavan says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.17.11): kshetra-jnah sarva bhutanam. "One who knows all living beings is called kshetra-jna."

The import of Shri Krishna's statement is that true knowledge means to have knowledge of kshetra (the body), its knower (the jivatma--- conditioned or liberated) and Paramatma (the original kshetra-jna), who is situated within all. However, Paramatma svarupa is different from the baddha-jivas (kshara) and the mukta jivas (akshara) and superior to them. Therefore, the imaginary conception that the jivatma and Paramatma are one is against the conclusion of shastra. Also the shruti statement, nityo nityanam cetanash cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman, describes Paramatma as being superior to all living, conscious, eternal jivas and their controller and prompter. This conclusion is verified throughout the Gita. Shri Krishna says to Arjuna, "Because you are a jiva, you forget this fact again and again, but as Parameshvara, I never forget it." According to the statement, mamaivamsho jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah, the jiva is an insignificant part of Bhagavan. The jiva is eternally His part, and in no state can he become one with Bhagavan by merging with Him. The statement that brahma Himself has become a jiva due to ignorance and when freed from ignorance, the jiva becomes brahma, is also incorrect from the perspective of reasoning, logic and shastra. Ignorance can never touch parabrahma who remains jnana-svarupa (intrinsically qualified as knowledge) in all states. It is said in the shruti: satyam jnanam anantam brahma. "Parabrahma never falls into ignorance by being overpowered by maya." Thousands of Vedic statements give evidence of this. So in this material body there are two kshetra-jnas: the jivatma and Paramatma. Paramatma is the controller, prompter and imminent witness of the different jivas who are situated in different bodies as localised kshetra-jnas. Paramatma and the jiva can never be one.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "In regard to kshetra (the field) and kshetra-jna (the knower of the field), there are three principles: Ishvara, the jiva and jada (inert matter). Just as there is one kshetra-jna (the jivatma) in each body, know Me, Ishvara, to be the principal kshetra-jna of this entire inert world. By My aishi- shakti (controlling potency) as Paramatma, I am the kshetra-jna of all kshetra-jnas and of the universe. The jnana of those who have understood these three principles by deliberating on kshetra and kshetra-jna is indeed vijnana."

13.3

kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi / sarva-kshetreshu bharata
kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam / yat taj jnanam matam mama

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.3 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/3/en>

ca---and; bharata---O scion of Bharata; viddhi---know; mam--- Me; api---also; (to be) kshetra-jnam---the knower of the field; sarva-kshetreshu---within all the fields; (it is) tat---that; jnanam--- knowledge; kshetra-kshetra-jnayoh---of the field and the knower of the field; yat---which; (is actual) jnanam---knowledge; (this is) mama---My; matam---opinion.

O Bharata, know Me alone to be the knower in all kshetras (bodies). This knowledge of the body as kshetra, and the jiva and Ishvara as kshetra-jna, is certainly true knowledge in My opinion.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Thus, the living entity is called kshetra-jna because he has knowledge of kshetra (the body), but Paramatma completely knows all kshetras, more so than the jivas. This shloka, beginning with the word kshetra-jnam, explains His kshetra-jnatva (quality of knowing the kshetra). Shri Bhagavan says, "Know Me, Paramatma, to be kshetra-jna. who is situated as the controller in all kshetras. The jiva is the kshetra-jna only of his individual kshetra, and his knowledge of kshetra is also incomplete. I alone am the perfect and complete knower of all kshetras. Consider this to be My speciality."

What is jnana? Anticipating this question, Shri Bhagavan says, "Knowledge of kshetra (the body) along with kshetra-jna (the jivatma and Paramatma), is indeed called jnana. I accept this as actual knowledge."

Paramatma is the superior of the two purushas, or kshetraj nas. Some persons explain that there is only one atma. This is rejected here, and it also contradicts a later statement of the Gita (15.17).

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Although the word kshetra-jna was used in the previous shloka to indicate the embodied soul or the jiva situated within the body, in the present shloka Shri Bhagavan, who is sarvaantary ami (the indwelling witness in all), sarveshvara (the Lord of all), sarva-niyanta (the Supreme Controller) and Paramatma, explains the perfect kshetra-jna, not the jiva. The essence of Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana's commentary on this shloka is as follows: "The jiva remains situated in this body just as a subject is situated under a king, even though he is kshetra-jna and has knowledge of his own kshetra as a means of enjoyment and liberation. However, I alone am his controller and maintainer, and, thus, I am the perfect kshetra-jna because I know all kshetras. Thus, I remain situated like a king." It is also seen in the smriti:

kshetrani hi sharirani / bijam capi shubhashubhe
tani vetti sa yogatma / tatah kshetra-jna ucyate

The entire body is like a kshetra, and righteous and unrighteous actions are like the seeds of that body in that they are the cause. That yogatma purusha (Paramatma) knows the tattva (essence) of all bodies or kshetras. He is therefore called the perfect kshetra-jna.
Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.3.13) also says:

kshetra-jnaya namas tubhyam / sarvadhyakshaya sakshine
purushayatma-mulaya / mula-prakritaye namah

In his commentary on this shloka, Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura writes: kshetram dehadvayam tattvena janatiti kshetrajno "antaryami---Antaryami knows the tattva of both the subtle and gross bodies and is called kshetra-jna."

Furthermore, Shri Bhagavan says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.17.11): kshetra-jnah sarva bhutanam. "One who knows all living beings is called kshetra-jna."

The import of Shri Krishna's statement is that true knowledge means to have knowledge of kshetra (the body), its knower (the jivatma--- conditioned or liberated) and Paramatma (the original kshetra-jna), who is situated within all. However, Paramatma svarupa is different from the baddha-jivas (kshara) and the mukta jivas (akshara) and superior to them. Therefore, the imaginary conception that the jivatma and Paramatma are one is against the conclusion of shastra. Also the shruti statement, nityo nityanam cetanash cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman, describes Paramatma as being superior to all living, conscious, eternal jivas and their controller and prompter. This conclusion is verified throughout the Gita. Shri Krishna says to Arjuna, "Because you are a jiva, you forget this fact again and again, but as Parameshvara, I never forget it." According to the statement, mamaivamsho jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah, the jiva is an insignificant part of Bhagavan. The jiva is eternally His part, and in no state can he become one with Bhagavan by merging with Him. The statement that brahma Himself has become a jiva due to ignorance and when freed from ignorance, the jiva becomes brahma, is also incorrect from the perspective of reasoning, logic and shastra. Ignorance can never touch parabrahma who remains jnana-svarupa (intrinsically qualified as knowledge) in all states. It is said in the shruti: satyam jnanam anantam brahma. "Parabrahma never falls into ignorance by being overpowered by maya." Thousands of Vedic statements give evidence of this. So in this material body there are two kshetra-jnas: the jivatma and Paramatma. Paramatma is the controller, prompter and imminent witness of the different jivas who are situated in different bodies as localised kshetra-jnas. Paramatma and the jiva can never be one.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "In regard to kshetra (the field) and kshetra-jna (the knower of the field), there are three principles: Ishvara, the jiva and jada (inert matter). Just as there is one kshetra-jna (the jivatma) in each body, know Me, Ishvara, to be the principal kshetra-jna of this entire inert world. By My aishi- shakti (controlling potency) as Paramatma, I am the kshetra-jna of all kshetra-jnas and of the universe. The jnana of those who have understood these three principles by deliberating on kshetra and kshetra-jna is indeed vijnana."

13.4

tat kshetram yac ca yadrik ca / yad-vikari yatash ca yat
sa ca yo yat prabhavash ca / tat samasena me shrinu

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.4 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/4/en>

shrinu---hear; tat---this; me---from Me; samasena---in brief; yat--- what; tat---that; kshetram---field (is); ca---and; yadrik---what its nature (is); ca---and; yat-vikari---what its transformations (are); yatah---whence; ca---and; yat---for what reason (it is existing); ca---and; sah yah---he who (is the kshetra-jna); ca---and; yatprabh avah---what his influence (is).

Hear from Me a brief description of that kshetra, its characteristics and transformations, why and from whom it has come into existence, and what the svarupa (nature) and influence of the kshetraj na is.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

In this shloka beginning with the words tat kshetram, Shri Bhagavan is beginning to elaborate on the meaning which was previously only spoken of in brief. What is that kshetra or body? It is a combination of five elements (mahabhuta), the life air (prana) and the senses (indriya). "Hear from Me how this kshetra (field consisting of a gross and subtle body) possesses different types of natures, desires and transformations such as enmity and friendship. Hear how it is born from the union of prakriti (material nature) and purusha (the enjoyer), and how it manifests differently in varieties of moving and non-moving forms. That kshetra-jna is the jivatma and also Paramatma." According to the rules of Sanskrit grammar, kshetra-jna is in the neutral gender here because the word kshetra is used in the neutral gender.

13.5

rishibhir bahudha gitam / chandobhir vividhaih prithak
brahma-sutra-padaish caiva / hetumadbhir vinishcitaih

(this knowledge) gitam---has been described in song; bahudha prithak---in several distinct ways; rishibhih---by the sages; vividhaih---through various; chandobhih---Vedic shlokas; ca---and; eva hetumadbhih---with reasonable; vinishcitaih--- and perfectly ascertained conclusions; brahma-sutrapadai h---through the sutras of Vedanta-sutra and Brahmas utra.

This tattva of kshetra and kshetra-jna has been explained in several different ways by the rishis in numerous Vedic literatures, and it is sung with perfect logic and definitive conclusions in the Brahmas utra.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

"Whose description of this subject matter are You going to briefly explain to me?" Anticipating this question from Arjuna, Shri Bhagavan says, .Saints like Vasishtha and others have described this in their Yoga-shastras. Chandobhir means that it is also explained in the Vedas. Moreover, it is described in the Brahma-sutra in sutras (aphorisms) such as, athato brahma-jijnasa. "Therefore one should enquire about brahma. (Brahma-sutra 1.1.1)" Since brahma, the Supreme Absolute Truth, is substantiated by these sutras, they are known as pada (that which gives evidence to establish Him). What is the nature of that brahma? In response to this question, Shri Bhagavan explains, "This specifically addresses the objections of the hetuka-gana (seers who investigate the cause and effect of the universe)." This is evident by deliberating upon the truth of the substantial imports of Brahma-sutra, ikshhate nashabdam, "The Supreme Lord is not indescribable," (Brahma sutra1.1.5) and anandamayo 'bhyasat, "By nature the Supreme Lord is blissful " (Brahma-sutra 1.1.12).

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The tattva of kshetra and its kshetra-jna, as explained by Shri Krishna, is accepted by all philosophers. This siddhanta is clearly established in authoritative shastras such as the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Brahma-sutras. The Vedas are apaurusheya (not created by a conditioned person) so they are accepted by everyone. The essence of the Vedas is called Vedanta (the Upanishads).

Shri Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa, an avatara of Bhagavan, reconciled the seemingly contradictory statements of the Vedas and presented them in the form of sutras known as the Vedantas utra. Statements of the Vedanta-sutras such as ikshate nashabdam (Brahma-sutra 1.1.5) and anandamayo 'bhyasat (Brahma-sutra 1.1.12) confirm this conclusion. "Ikshate nashabdam means that brahma can be seen and experienced only though shastra because He is na ashabdam. This means that He cannot be known (na) other than through words (ashabdam). That is to say, He is knowable only through shabda (words)." This is explained in Brahma-sutra (1.1.3): shastra-yonitvat. "Brahma can be known and experienced through shastra." Brahma is the subject matter established by the Vedas; therefore, He is not beyond shabda (words). How is He experienced? In response to this question, it is further said: anandamayo 'bhyasat' "Paramananda-maya brahma, whose very nature is supreme bliss, can be seen and experienced by the practice of bhakti." These statements establish parabrahma as the perfect or complete kshetra-jna and the jiva who sees or experiences Him, or who performs bhakti to that anandamaya-purusha. as the partial or secondary kshetra-jna. Furthermore, according to Brahmas utra (2.3.16): natma shruter nityatvac ca tabhyah. "The jivas are described as the partial kshetra-jnas." According to Brahmas utra (2.3.39): parat tu tac chruteh. "Parabrahma is accepted as the complete kshetra-jna and is superior to the jivatma."

In this shloka, the chanda (Sanskrit metre) and the literature written by rishis like Vasishtha and others refer to Vedic literature. In the Riju branch of the Vedas it is said: tasmad va etasmad atmana akashah sambhutah ity adina brahma puccham pratishtha ity astenanna-mayam pranamaya-mano maya-vijnanamayananda-mayah panca-purushah pathitas teshv annamayadi-trayam jada-kshetra-svarupam. tato bhinno vijnanamayo jivas tasya bhokteti jiva-kshetrajna-svarupam. tasmac ca bhinnah sarvantara anandamaya itishvara-kshetrajnasvar upam uktam (Taittriya Upanishad 2.1.2).

"There are five purushas: annamaya (only being conscious of food), pranamaya (only being conscious of life), jnanamaya (being conscious of atma-tattva), vijnanamaya (being conscious of practical service to Krishna) and anandamaya (only being conscious of blissful Radha-Krishna seva). The first three (annamaya, pranamaya and jnanamaya) represent the inert kshetra (material body). Different from them is the vijnanamaya-purusha, the jiva- who, as the knower of the kshetra (this material body), is the secondary kshetra-jna. Antaryami, the Supersoul of everyone, is distinct from these two and He is the anandamaya-purusha. This anandamayapuru sha is, indeed, Parameshvara (the Supreme Controller), sarva-niyanta (the regulator of everything), sakshi (the witness) and the original kshetra-jna.

13.6-7

maha-bhutany ahankaro / buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyani dashaikan ca / panca cendriya-gocarah

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.6 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/6/en>

iccha dveshah sukham duhkham / sanghatash cetana dhritih
etat kshetram samasena / sa-vikaram udahritam

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.7 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/7/en>

maha-bhutani---the five great elements; ahankarah---I (am) the doer---, false ego; buddhih---intelligence; avyaktam eva ca---and the unmanifest nature; dasha---the ten; indriyani---senses; ca---and; ekam---the one (mind); panca ca indriya-gocarah---and the five sense objects (headed by sound and touch); iccha---desire; dveshah---hate; sukham---happiness; duhkham---unhappiness; sanghatah---the aggregate of all these (the body); cetana---the functions of the mind for acquiring knowledge; dhritih---patience; (all these) sa-vikaram---together with their transformations; udahritam---are said; samasena---in summary; (to be) etat--- this; kshetram---field.

The five great elements, the false ego, the intelligence, prakriti, the eleven senses, the five sense objects, desire, hatred, happiness, misery, the body, knowledge and patience comprise a brief description of the kshetra, along with its mundane transformations.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Shri Bhagavan is now explaining the nature of the kshetra. Earth, water, fire, air and sky, their cause (the false ego), buddhih (intelligence) in the form of scientific reasonings, mahat-tattva (the cause of the false ego), prakriti (the cause of the mahat-tattva), the ten working and knowledge-acquiring senses, the mind and the five sense objects (such as sound and touch) are all referred to as the twenty-four elements. Desire, envy, happiness, misery, the body as a combination or result of the five mahabhutas (great elements), consciousness as a state of mind in the form of knowledge, forbearance and determination are all functions of the mind, not the soul. Therefore, these characteristics are all part of the kshetra and are also indicative of qualities such as determination. In the shruti it is said that the functions of the mind are desire, determination, doubt, faith, lack of faith, forbearance, detachment, shyness, intellect and fear. These functions exhibit the qualities of kshetra as described above. Etat kshetram savikaram. "This kshetra goes through six types of changes, such as birth and death."

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The constituents of the kshetra are the twenty-four elements consisting of the five mahabhutas (earth, water, fire, air and sky), the false ego, the mahat-tattva and its cause (prakriti), the ten external senses (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, speech, feet, hands, anus and genitals), the one internal sense (the mind), and the five objects of the senses (form, taste, smell, touch and sound). This is concluded from the statements of rishis like Vasishtha, Devala and Asita, from the Vedic mantras and from the Vedanta-sutras. What the kshetra is and why it is known as such, can be understood by analysing these twenty-four elements. Transformations of kshetra are desire, envy, happiness, distress, all the activities of the body which is the interaction of the five material elements, the various states of the mind which are a semblance of the cit function (cid-abhasa) and forbearance. Therefore, it should be understood that they are a part of kshetra. A chart depicting the twenty-four elements is given on the next page.

13.8-12

amanitvam adambhitvam / ahimsa kshantir arjavam
acaryopasanam shaucam / sthairyam atma-vinigrahah

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.8 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/8/en>

indriyartheshu vairagyam / anahankara eva ca
janma-mrityu-jara-vyadhi- / duhkha-doshanudarshanam

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.9 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/9/en>

asaktir anabhishvangah / putra-dara-grihadishu
nityan ca sama-cittatvam / ishtanishtopapattishu

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.10 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/10/en>

mayi cananya-yogena / bhaktir avyabhicarini
vivikta-desha-sevitvam / aratir jana-samsadi

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.11 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/11/en>

adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam / tattva-jnanartha-darshanam
etaj jnanam iti proktam / ajnanam yad ato'nyatha

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.12 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/12/en>

amanitvam---freedom from the desire for honour; adambhitvam---being without pride; ahimsa---non-violence; kshantih---forgiveness; arjavam---simplicity; acarya-upasanam. worship of the sad-guru; shaucam---internal and external cleanliness; sthairyam---steadiness of mind; atma-vinigrahah---control over the body and senses; vairagyam---detachment; indriyaarthe shu---from sense objects such as sound and touch; anahankarah eva ca---and freedom from false ego; anudarshanam. considering repeatedly in the light of the shastra; duhkha-dosha--- inconveniences caused by the sufferings; janma---of birth; mrityu---death; jara---old age; vyadhi---and disease; asaktih--- detachment (from sense pleasures); anabhishvangah---detachment; putra---from sons; dara---wife; griha---home; adishu---etc.; nityam---always; ca sama-cittatvam---having equipoised mind; upapattishu---in the midst of the occurrences; ishta-anishta---of desired and undesired events; avyabhicarini---unfailing; bhaktih---devotional service; ananya-yogena---with exclusive connection; mayi---to Me; ca---and; sevitvam---resorting; vivikta-desha---to solitary places; aratih---being without attachment; jana-samsadi---to the association of people (senseenjoyers); adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam---always hearing about spiritual knowledge; artha-darshanam---investigating the (inner) purpose; (of ) tattva-jnana---the principles of self-realisation; etat---that; iti---which; proktam---I have spoken; (is) jnanam--- knowledge; atah---so; yat---what; anyatha---is otherwise; (is) ajnanam---ignorance.

Having no desire for honour; freedom from pride; non-violence; forbearance; simplicity; service to a qualified guru; purity both internally and externally; steadiness of mind; control of the body and senses; detachment from sense objects; absence of false ego; constantly perceiving the misery of birth, death, old age and disease; detachment from wife, children, home, etc.; not being absorbed in the happiness and misery of others; equanimity in attaining either favourable or unfavourable objects; onepointed, steadfast and unswerving bhakti to Me; a liking for solitude; a distaste for the association of materialistic people; constant deliberation on knowledge of the self and on the purpose of tattva- jnana, that is, moksha.I consider all these to be jnana. Everything else is ignorance.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

In the above five shlokas, Shri Bhagavan is explaining the twenty means (sadhanas) to attain the goal.The first of these is humility. He also explains qualities of the kshetra-jnas. the jivatma and Paramatma, who are to be known separately from the previously mentioned characteristics of kshetra. Eighteen of these qualities are general and apply to both the jnanis and the bhaktas. According to the statement of Bhagavan: mayi cananya-yogena bhaktir avyabhicarini. It is obligatory for devotees to sincerely endeavour in aikantika-bhakti in order to experience Him. The seventeen qualities, beginning with humility, manifest naturally within such devotees who practise avyabhicarini bhakti, chaste devotion. They have no need to make separate endeavours to acquire these qualities. The last two qualities, however, are unique to the jnanis. This is the opinion of the bhakta sampradaya (devotee community).

The meaning of the series of words beginning with amanitvam in this shloka is quite clear. In the smriti- shaucam means internal and external cleanliness. Therein it is said, "Cleanliness is of two types, internal and external. External cleanliness is achieved by the use of earth, water, etc., and the cleanliness of consciousness or bhava is called cleanliness of the mind, the internal sense." The purport of the word atma-vinigrahah is control of the body. To see the miseries of birth, death, etc., means to be constantly aware of them as a source of suffering. Asaktih means to give up attachment to son, family etc., and anabhishvangah means not becoming absorbed in the happiness or misery of others.

Ishtanishtopapattishu means to remain equipoised upon receiving material objects deemed favourable or unfavourable. Mayi means "in Me, in My form as Shyamasundara", and ananya-yogena means bhakti which is not mixed with jnanayoga, tapa-yoga, etc. The word ca (also) indicates pradhani- bhuta bhakti, which is mixed with jnana, etc. The bhaktas only perform the first type of bhakti. ananya-bhakti. Jnanis adopt the second type of bhakti. pradhani-bhuta bhakti. This is the opinion of some bhaktas. Devotees say, "Just as ananyabhakti is the means to attain bhagavat-prema, it also helps to give an experience of Paramatma." The glories of avyabhicarini bhakti (unswerving bhakti) have also been described in this final set of six chapters so as to explain this secret.

Jnanis, however, have a different opinion. They say that ananya-yogena means to see the self everywhere and avyabhicarini means to perform that yoga every day. According to Shripada Madhusudana Sarasvati, the word avyabhicarini means that which cannot be checked by anything. The word adhyatma-jnana refers to the knowledge that is situated in the self. In order to purify the self, it should be practised constantly. Tattva-jnanartha-darshanam means to have a vision (aim) of moksha, which is the prayojana (purpose) of tattva-jnana, to deliberate upon it, and to discuss it, considering it to be one's cherished desire. These twenty are the general means to attain jnana. basic knowledge of the jivatma and Paramatma. Advanced (specific) Paramatma jnana will be explained later. Symptoms of ignorance (ajnana) such as manitva (the desire for honour), are contrary to the above symptoms.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "Humility; lack of false pride; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service to the spiritual master; cleanliness; stability; control of the body and mind; detachment from sense objects; lack of false ego; realisation of the miseries of birth, death, old age and disease; lack of attachment to son, family, etc.; indifference to the happiness and distress of others; evenmindedness under all circumstances; avyabhicarini-bhakti (unalloyed and unswerving bhakti unto Me); residence in a solitary place; no interest in crowded places; firm belief that spiritual knowledge is eternal and deliberation upon moksha as the purpose of tattva-jnana, are all considered by the ignorant to be twenty interactions (transformations) of the kshetra (body). In reality, they comprise knowledge which destroys the effect of the transformations on the kshetra. One attains vishuddha-tattva (the supremely pure Absolute Truth) by taking shelter of them. They are not the transformations of the kshetra; rather, they are the remedies that can destroy the transformations of the kshetra. "Of these twenty, one should adopt ananya-avyabhicarini bhakti unto Me." The other nineteen characteristics are secondary fruits of bhakti. They purify the impure kshetra (body) and ultimately, after destroying the impure kshetra of the jiva. they help him to attain his eternal, perfect kshetra. These nineteen characteristics, which are like the throne of Bhakti-devi, should be understood as true jnana (vijnana). Everything else is ajnana" ignorance."

Ananya-avyabhicarini bhakti is prominent among all types of sadhana. The above qualities naturally manifest upon taking shelter of bhakti. Therefore, pure devotees only accept ananya-bhakti which is the svarupa-lakshana (intrinsic characteristic) of the jiva. The qualities which are known as tatastha-lakshana (marginal characteristics) then manifest concomitantly. This is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.18.12):

yasyasti bhaktir bhagavaty akincana
sarvair gunais tatra samasate surah
harav abhaktasya kuto mahad-guna
manorathenasati dhavato bahih

All the devatas and their exalted qualities, such as jnana and their performance of dharma, always reside in the heart of those who have nishkama-bhakti (selfless devotion) to Shri Bhagavan. On the other hand, how can one who is not a bhakta of Bhagavan possess any of the good qualities of a maha-purusha? Such a person is always hankering for petty worldly sense objects only.

Jnanis practise good qualities such as saintly behaviour, non-violence and control of the mind and ego, but they do not endeavour for ananya-avyabhicarini bhakti to Shri Bhagavan. They only perform bhakti to attain perfection in jnana and mukti. Therefore, it should be understood to be guni-bhuta bhakti (bhakti predominated by jnana and karma), not svarupa-siddha bhakti or shuddha-bhakti. Advaitavadis (impersonalists) fall into this category.

13.13

jneyam yat tat pravakshyami / yaj jnatva 'mritam ashnute
anadimat param brahma / na sat tan nasad ucyate

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.13 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/13/en>

pravakshyami---I shall explain; tat---that; yat---which; jneyam--- is worth knowing; jnatva---understanding; yat---which; ashnute--- one attains; amritam---immortality; brahma---brahma; (is) anadi---without beginning; mat-param---dependent on Me; tat--- that; ucyate---is said; (to be) na---neither; sat---cause; na---nor; asat---effect.

Now I shall explain to you what is jneya (that which is to be known), for by understanding the knowable one attains moksha (immortality). Brahma. who has no beginning and is dependent on Me, lies beyond the cause and effect of this creation.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

The jivatma and Paramatma can be known by practising the various sadhanas mentioned previously. Of the two, Paramatma alone has been indicated by the word sarvagata, meaning the all-pervading brahma. (Note: the word sarvagata is from Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura's original Sanskrit commentary.) This brahma is the worshipable object of the jnanis in His nirvishesha aspect (without attributes), and of the bhaktas in His savishesha aspect (with attributes). Residing within the body, He is known as Paramatma because He is meditated upon in His four-handed form.

First, brahma is explained in this shloka beginning with the word jneyam. "Anadi means without a beginning, and since brahma is My svarupa, He is eternal." Mat-param means "I am the supreme (param) shelter of brahma. As will be said later on, brahmano hi pratishthaham, "I am the foundation or basis of brahma." But what is that brahma? Expecting this question, Shri Bhagavan says that brahma is neither asat nor sat. In other words, He is beyond both cause and effect.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Previously, Shri Bhagavan explained jnana-sadhana (the means of attaining jnana). Now, in the present shloka, He is explaining the knowable para-tattva, which is the sadhya (goal) of that jnana. The jnanis think that the para-tattva is nirvishesha-brahma. They imagine this para-tattva to be bereft of name, form, qualities, activities, associates and so forth, a void that cannot be described by any adjectives such as energetic, variegated or active. Shuddha-bhaktas who take shelter of ananya-avyabhicarini bhakti see parabrahma. para-tattva, the Supreme Absolute Reality, as Shri Krishna, the embodiment of cid-vilasa (transcendental sports), the basis of all aprakrita qualities, energies and mellows, and who is devoid of petty material qualities. Although some places in shruti describe this tattva as nirvishesha, these statements only deny the material features of Shri Bhagavan, not the transcendental qualities. The shastras themselves have illuminated this deep secret:

ya ya shrutir jalpati nirvishesham / sa sabhidhatte sa-vishesham eva
vicara-yoge sati hanta tasam / prayo baliyah sa-vishesham eva
Hayashirsha-pancaratra

Those very same Vedic mantras that first describe that tattva as nirvishesha (without qualities) alternatively establish it as savishesha (with qualities). Both nirvishesha and savishesha are indeed eternal aspects of Bhagavan, but deep deliberation reveals savishesha-tattva to be superior. This is because one experiences only savisheshatattva in the material world, whereas there is no experience of nirvishesha-tattva.

The only knowable object of the nirvishesha-jnanis is indicated in the present shloka by the word mat-param, meaning "sheltered in Me."

brahmano hi pratishthaham / amritasyavyayasya ca
shashvatasya ca dharmasya / sukhasyaikantikasya ca

For I am the shelter of nirvishesha-brahma and the sole refuge of everlasting immortality, eternal dharma and transcendental bliss in the form of prema related with aikantika-bhakti. (Gita 14.27)

This subject will be described in detail in the commentary on the above shloka. Sometimes in shastra, the jiva is also called brahma, but the jiva can never be called parabrahma. because he is different from brahma in every respect. The jiva has atomic consciousness and parabrahma is the infinite conscious entity.

The jiva is sometimes also called brahma because of his partial qualitative similarity of being conscious. Some people suffer from the misconception that the jiva becomes brahma because they do not understand the deep import of the Gita's use of words describing the jiva such as brahma-bhuta (Gita 18.54) and brahma-bhuyaya kalpate (Gita 14.26). This subject will be described in detail in the shloka: brahma-bhutah prasannatma (Gita 18.54).

Both the jivatma and Paramatma are jneyam (knowable), yet one can only attain the understanding that jiva-tattva is dependent on Paramatma by continuous cultivation of devotional service unto Paramatma. The jiva is without beginning and, by constitution, devoted to Bhagavan. He is only partly endowed with the qualities of brahma and he is beyond sat and asat (cause and effect).

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "O Arjuna, I have explained the tattva of kshetra-jna to you. I have explained the nature of kshetra (the body), its transformations, and the process by which one can become free from these transformations. I have also explained that the jivatma and Paramatma are the knowers of this kshetra. Now, please listen as I explain that tattva which is knowable by vijnana (realisation). The knowable, brahma, is without beginning, dependent on Me (mat-param) and beyond both cause and effect. After knowing this knowable principle, one tastes the nectar of My bhakti."

13.14

sarvatah pani-padam tat / sarvato'kshi-shiro-mukham
sarvatah shrutimal loke / sarvam avritya tishthati

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.14 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/14/en>

tat---His (brahma.s); pani---hands; (and) padam---feet; sarvatah---are on all sides; akshi---His eyes; shirah---heads; (and) mukham---faces; sarvatah---are on all sides; shrutimat---that person listens; sarvatah---on all sides; tishthati---He resides; loke--- in the world; avritya---covering; sarvam---everything.

His hands and feet are everywhere. His eyes, heads and faces permeate all the directions and He hears everything. Situated thus, brahma pervades the entire universe.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Will it not contradict the statements of shruti such as, sarvam khalv idam brahma. "All this is brahma." (Chandogya Upanishad 3.14.1) and brahmaivedam sarvam. "Everything is brahma." to say that brahma is distinct from both cause and effect? Anticipating such a question, Shri Bhagavan is explaining that, although by nature brahma is beyond both cause and effect, brahma is both the cause and the effect because the energy and the energetic are non-different. Therefore, He is saying that His hands and feet, etc., are everywhere. This means that brahma has unlimited hands and feet in the form of the hands and feet of every visible entity, extending from Lord Brahma down to a minute ant. Similarly, His eyes, heads, mouths and ears are also everywhere.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

In the previous shloka, brahma was described as being beyond sat and asat (cause and effect). Now, the Vedanta-sutra, shakti-shaktimator abhedah, "The energy and the energetic are non-different," can be quoted in response to one who questions the validity of such shruti statements as, sarvam khalv idam brahma and brahmaivedam sarvam. According to this sutra, although the svarupa of Shri Bhagavan is beyond both cause and effect, the workings of shakti are indeed the work of shaktiman because shakti (energy) and shaktiman (the energetic) are non-different. One can thus, understand that all effects such as this visible world are the svarupa of Bhagavan (non-different from Him), being transformations of shakti.

The present shloka is being spoken to make this point clear. Brahma alone exists, pervading everything through the medium of the hands, feet etc., of all jivas who are subject to Him and situated within Him. Since He is all-pervading He has unlimited hands, eyes, feet and ears. However, the jivatma is neither all-pervading, nor can he have unlimited hands, heads, feet, etc. Paramatma is omnipotent, but the jiva is not. Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "Just as the sun's rays illuminate due to their dependence on the sun, in the same way, brahma-tattva has attained its infinite and all-pervading aspect by depending upon My potency. The existence of brahma, who is the foundation for unlimited jivas beginning from Brahma down to the ant, collectively encompasses unlimited hands, feet, eyes, heads, mouths, ears, etc., and is visible everywhere as His cosmic manifestation."

13.15

sarvendriya-gunabhasam / sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktam sarva-bhric caiva / nirgunam guna-bhoktri ca

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.15 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/15/en>

abhasam---He is the source; sarva-indriya---of all senses; (and) guna---their functions; (yet) sarva-indriya-vivarjitam---He is devoid of mundane senses; asaktam---He is detached; ca---yet; eva---indeed; sarva-bhrit---He is the maintainer of all beings; nirgunam---He is without (material) qualities; ca---yet; gunabhokt ri---He is the enjoyer of divine qualities.

That knowable parabrahma is the source of all senses and their functions, yet He is devoid of mundane senses. Although detached, He is the maintainer of all living beings, and although nirguna, He is the enjoyer of six transcendental qualities.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Moreover, He manifests all the sense objects and the senses. Shruti says: tac cakshushash cakshuh. "He is the eye of the eye," (Kena Upanishad 1.2) and sarvendriyair gunaih. "He manifests the functions of the senses, such as sound." Yet He is sarvendriya-vivarjitam, which means that He has no material senses because He has transcendental senses. Shruti also says: apani-pado javano grahita. "Although He does not have material senses, such as hands and feet, He accepts, moves and sees. (Svetashvatara Upanisad 3.19)"

Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.8) also states: parasya shaktir vividhaiva shruyate svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca. "It is heard that brahma has various types of transcendental energies (para shakti). The shaktis: jnana (knowledge), bala (strength) and kriya (action), are naturally inherent in Him. That famous form of His as described in the shruti is the source of all energy."

He is devoid of attachment to the mundane plane and He maintains everyone in His expansion as Shri Vishnu. He is nirguna, that is, He has a transcendental form which is free from the gunas (such as sattva), and He is guna-bhoktri. beyond the gunas. He is addressed as bhaga because He is the enjoyer of six types of transcendental opulences.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

That brahma is the source of the functions of one's senses as well as the sense objects. It is also seen in shruti: tac cakshushash cakshuh. "He is the eye of the eye. (Kena Upanishad 1.2)" Even though He is devoid of material senses, He has transcendental senses. Shvetashvatara Upanishad (3.9) also states:

apani-pado javano grahita
pashyaty acakshuh sa shrinoty akarnah

Although Bhagavan does not have material hands, feet, etc., He accepts and walks. Even without material eyes and ears, He sees and listens. In other words, He has transcendental hands, feet, eyes, ears, etc.

Therefore, brahma is not nirvishesha, but savishesha. He is devoid of material qualities, yet He is endowed with six types of transcendental opulences and He is the enjoyer of them.

13.16

bahir antash ca bhutanam / acaram caram eva ca
sukshmatvat tad avijneyam / dura-stham cantike ca tat

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.16 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/16/en>

(He is) bahir---outside; ca---and; antah---inside; bhutanam---of all beings; acaram---non-moving; ca eva---and indeed; caram--- moving; sukshmatvat---because He is very subtle; tat---He; avijneyam---is incomprehensible (by the gross senses); tat---He; dura-stham---is situated far away; ca---and; antike---very near.

That Absolute Entity ( parabrahma-tattva) dwells within and without all beings, and because of Him this world of moving and non-moving beings exists. He is very difficult to comprehend, being very subtle. He is simultaneously far away and ever-present.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

He is situated everywhere, both inside and outside all beings and elements of His creation, just as the sky is situated inside and outside the body. He is everything, all beings, both moving and non-moving, because He is the cause of the effect (the creation). Yet He is not the object of direct perception because His form and other attributes are different from material forms and qualities. Therefore, He is millions of miles away for ignorant people, but for those who are enlightened in transcendental knowledge He, as Antaryami, is more near to them than a person living in the same house, being situated in their bodies. He is farther away than the farthest and nearer than the nearest. He is visible in the cave of the heart for those who can see. As it is said in the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.7): durat sudure tad ihantike ca pashyatsv ihaivam nihitam guhayam. "In this world, He is much farther away than the farthest thing, and for those who are observant, He is also seated secretly, very near in the midst of all."

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

All moving and non-moving beings are born from Parameshvara, that supreme tattva. He is situated within the heart of all beings as Antaryami, and He exists outside in His all-pervading aspect as Parameshvara. Because this entire moving and non-moving world is an effect of His energy, He is therefore everything. Although He is described in shruti as, sarvam khalv idam brahma, "All this is brahma," He has a personal form different from all others. Only He is equal to Himself. He is asamorddhva, meaning there is nobody who is equal to Him, what to speak of greater than Him. However, not everyone can know Him because He is very subtle. Only His ananya-bhaktas can know Him by the influence of ananya-bhakti. Therefore, He is very far away as well as very near. He is near to His ananya-bhaktas, and very far away from non-devotees.

tad ejati tan naijati / tad dure tad v antike
tad antar asya sarvasya / tad u sarvasyasya bahyatah

Ishopanishad 5
The Supreme Lord walks, but does not walk, is far away but very near, and He is within everything, yet outside everything.

13.17

avibhaktan ca bhuteshu / vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhuta-bharttri ca taj jneyam / grasishnu prabhavishnu ca

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.17 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/17/en>

ca---although; avibhaktam---He is undivided; ca---yet; sthitam--- He is situated; iva---as if; vibhaktam---divided; bhuteshu---within all beings; tat---He; jneyam---should be known; bhuta-bharttri--- as the sustainer of all beings; ca---as well as; grasishnu---the annihilator; ca---and; prabhavishnu---creator.

Although undivided, He is situated within every being as if divided. Know Him to be the sustainer, annihilator and the creator of all beings.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Situated as the cause in the moving and non-moving living entities, He is undivided or non-different, while as the effect, He is divided or different. Only He, as Shri Narayana, is the sustainer of all beings during the period of maintenance. As Grasishnu, He is the destroyer during the time of annihilation, and at the dawn of creation He is Prabhavishnu, the creator of various effects and forms.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Although He appears differently in all living beings, that parama tattva is situated in one undivided form. This is also stated in shruti: ekah santam bahudha drishyamanam. "He is seen in various forms, although He is one." Smriti also says: eka eva paro vishnuh sarvatrapi na samshayah. "Only one Paramatma, Vishnu, exists everywhere. There is no doubt about this." Just as the same sun appears differently to people in different places, He appears in various forms by His inconceivable potency, even though He is one. Only He exists as the individual Antaryami within the hearts of all jivas, while externally He is all-pervading, the collective purusha.

Parameshvara. He is also the sustainer and the annihilator of all that exists. Taittiriya Upanishad (3.1) says: yato va imani bhutani jayante yena jatani jivanti yat prayanty abhisamvishanti tad vijijnasasva tad brahma. ".You should understand brahma as He from whom all living beings are born, by whose help they live and progress throughout life, and in whom they again enter."

13.18

jyotisham api taj jyotis / tamasah param ucyate
jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam / hridi sarvasya dhishthitam

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.18 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/18/en>

ucyate---it is said; tat---He (is); api---also; jyotih---the illumination; jyotisham---of luminaries; param---transcendental; tamasah---to ignorance; jnanam---knowledge; jneyam---worthy of being known; jnana-gamyam---accessible through knowledge; (and) dhishthitam---situated; hridi---in the heart; sarvasya---of all beings.

He is the source of light in all luminaries. He is transcen-dental to ignorance. He is true knowledge ( jnana), the true object of knowledge ( jneya), and He can be known through jnana ( jnana-gamya). He dwells within the heart of all beings.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

He is even the light that emanates from luminaries such as the moon and sun. This is proven in shruti: suryas tapati tejasendrah. "By His radiance, the sun becomes luminous and distributes heat." The sun, moon, stars, etc., do not appear beautifully radiant before Him, what to speak of fire. Appearing effulgent, they all acquire their glow from His. It is by His effulgence only that they acquire their own unique qualities of illumination. Katha Upanishad (2.2.15) states:

na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam
nema vidyuto bhanti kuto 'yam agnih
tam eva bhantam anu bhati sarvam
tasya bhasha sarvam idam vibhati

The sun, moon, stars or fire cannot illuminate lightning what to speak of that self-effulgent parabrahma. However, it is by that self-effulgent brahma alone that all luminous objects such as the sun give light. In fact, the whole universe exists only because of His existence.

Therefore, He is beyond darkness. It can never touch Him.
Shruti also says, "His complexion is like the colour of the sun and is beyond darkness." His full manifestation in the faculty of pure intelligence is called jnana. He Himself has become modified as form, etc., and is jneya (the knowable) and jnana-gamyam. accessible through knowledge. In other words, He is attainable by the previously described means of jnanas adhana, such as humility. He alone is situated as Paramatma in the hearts of all beings.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Parameshvara, the complete kshetra-jna, is the original illuminator of all luminaries such as the sun, moon and fire.

na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam
nema vidyuto bhanti kuto 'yam agnih
Katha Upanishad 2.2.15

The sun, moon, stars or fire cannot illuminate lightning, what to speak of that self-effulgent parabrahma.

This is also confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.25.42):
mad-bhayad vati vato 'yam / suryas tapati mad-bhayat
varshatindro dahaty agnir / mrityush carati mad-bhayat
The wind blows and the sun shines out of fear of Me.

Furthermore, Katha Upanishad (2.3.3) states:

bhayad asyagnistapati bhayat tapati suryah.

Out of fear of parabrahma, fire burns and the sun heats.
That para-tattva is tamasah param (beyond darkness) and supremely pure, being transcendental to material nature. Shruti also says: aditya-varnam tamasah parastat. "He is beyond prakriti and has a golden effulgence (aditya)." He is knowledge (jnana), the knowable (jneya) and the knower (jnata). Jnana-svarupa: Shruti says He is vijnana ananda-ghanam brahma. "The specific attributes of brahma are that He is jnana-svarupa, intrinsically qualified as knowledge and ghanibhuta ananda-svarupa, the concentrated embodiment of bliss."

Jneya-svarupa: He is jneya-svarupa, the very form of the knowable, therefore, He is the shelter of those who desire liberation.

tam ha devam atma-buddhi-prakasham
mumukshur vai sharanam aham prapadye
Shvetashvatara Upanishad 6.18

Being desirous of liberation, I surrender unto the Supreme Lord who illuminates the atma's intelligence.

According to this shruti statement, He is jnana-gamya, approachable by knowledge. Jnata: He is also jnata (the knower) because He is situated in everyone's heart as the witness, the controller and Antaryami. In this regard, one should refer to the shruti-shlokas of Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.6-7): dvasuparna, tam eva viditva and antah-pravishtah shasta. "The atma and Paramatma within the body are compared to two birds who are seated in the same tree." 18

13.19

iti kshetram tatha jnanam / jneyan coktam samasatah
mad-bhakta etad vijnaya / mad-bhavayopapadyate

URL of this page
<http://bhagavad-gita.gaurangapada.com/index.html?page=13.19.htm>

iti---thus; kshetram---the field; jnanam---knowledge; ca tatha--- and also; jneyam---the object of knowledge; uktam---have been spoken of; samasatah---in summary; vijnaya---having fully comprehended; etat---this; mat-bhaktah---My bhakta; upapadyate--- attains; mat-bhavaya---to My nature.

Thus the field, knowledge and the knowable have been described by Me in brief. By understanding these, My bhakta becomes qualified to attain My prema-bhakti.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Here, in the shloka beginning with the word iti. Shri Bhagavan is concluding His statements about knowledge of kshetra, etc., with an explanation about who is qualified for this knowledge and its result. In this chapter, the word kshetra has been explained from the shloka: maha-bhutany ahankaro (Gita 13.6), to adhyatma in Gita 13.12. Jnana has also been described from Gita 13.8, up to adhyatma in Gita 13.12. Jneyah and jnanagamyam have been described from the shloka beginning with jneyam in Gita 13.13, up to the shloka beginning with jyotisham in Gita 13.18. That very same Absolute Reality is known as brahma, Paramatma and Bhagavan. This has been briefly described.

Mad-bhavaya means he attains sayujya-mukti. The word mad-bhakta refers to a jnani who is endowed with bhakti. Or mad-bhakta means "My unalloyed servant (aikantika dasa), who knows .My Prabhu has so much aishvarya,--- becomes qualified to attain My prema." In other words, he becomes qualified to perform prema-bhakti.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

In this shloka, Shri Bhagavan clearly states that karmis, jnanis, yogis, tapasvis and nirvishesha-mayavadis cannot understand the real essence (tattva) of Bhagavad-gita. Only bhaktas of Bhagavan can understand it. This is the deep meaning of the word mad-bhakta. One should first become a bhakta to understand the tattva of jneya (the knowable), jnata (the knower) and jnana (knowledge), as described in the Gita. For this reason, one must practise bhakti (anushilana) by taking shelter of the lotus feet of a sad-guru.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "O Arjuna, I have briefly described these three tattvas: kshetra, jnana and jneya. Vijnana is the jnana of all three tattvas combined. Bhaktas who achieve this jnana attain My unalloyed prema-bhakti. Those non-devotees who merely accept the shelter of useless monistic sampradayas become bereft of real knowledge. Jnana is nothing but the sitting place of Bhakti-devi. It is merely sattva-shuddhi, purification of the jivatma's existence which is sheltered by bhakti." This topic will be further clarified in Chapter Fifteen, wherein purushottama-tattva is described.

13.20

prakritim purushan caiva / viddhyanadi ubhav api
vikaramsh ca gunamsh caiva / viddhi prakriti-sambhavan

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.20 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/20/en>

viddhi---you should understand; eva---clearly; (that) ubhau--- both; prakritim---material nature; ca---and; purusham---the living entity; (are) anadi---without beginning; api---also; viddhi---understand; vikaran---their transformations; ca---and; gunan---the three qualties; eva---indeed; prakriti-sambhavan---arise out of material nature.

Know both prakriti and purusha (the jiva) to be without beginning, and know their transformations and qualities to be born of prakriti.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

After explaining Paramatma, Shri Bhagavan is now explaining the jivatma (the purusha), who is also kshetra-jna. "Why did the relationship between this kshetra-jna and maya (prakriti) occur, and when did it start?"

Expecting this question, Shri Bhagavan answers with this shloka beginning with prakriti. "Prakriti (maya--- material nature) and purusha (the jiva) are both without beginning. That is, their cause has no beginning. Because they are the energy of Me, Ishvara, who am without beginning, they are also without beginning. Know it in this way."

It is also said in Bhagavad-gita (7.4-5):
bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh / kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me / bhinna prakritir ashtadha
apareyam itas tv anyam / prakritim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho / yayedam dharyate jagat

This material nature is divided into eight parts: earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and ego, but it is inferior to another nature of Mine. The jivas are My superior energy. They accept this material world to enjoy the results of their actions (karma). "According to this statement of Mine, because both maya and the jiva are My energy, they are without beginning, and therefore their relationship also is without beginning. But, although they are related to each other, they are in fact different. " Shri Bhagavan therefore says: vikaramsh ca. "The body and the senses," and gunamsh caiva. "the transformations of gunas such as happiness, distress, lamentation and illusion," are born from prakriti (prakriti-sambhutan). The jiva, who is modified in the form of the kshetra, is different from prakriti.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

After Shri Bhagavan explains both the kshetras, the partial kshetra-jna (the jiva), the complete kshetra-jna (Parameshvara), jnana and jneya, He explains the transformations of kshetra such as lust, anger, affection and fear, and how the relationship between the kshetra-jna-jiva and maya has occurred. Both prakriti (maya) and the jiva are without beginning, being the energy of Parameshvara. This means that they are also eternal. Inert prakriti is called apara, and the jiva is called para prakriti.

Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita states in the teachings to Sanatana Gosvami:

jivera ---svarupa--- haya---krishnera ---nitya-dasa. krishnera ---tatastha-shakti. ---bhedabheda-prakasha
Madhya-lila 20.108

suryamshu-kirana--- yena agni-jvala-caya
svabhavika krishnera tina-prakara ---shakti--- haya
Madhya-lila 20.109

krishnera svabhavika tina-shakti-parinati
cicchakti--- jiva-shakti--- ara maya-shakti
Madhya-lila 20.111

krishna bhuli--- sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha
ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha
Madhya-lila 20.117

By his constitutional nature, the jiva is an eternal servant of Krishna. Krishna's tatastha-shakti (marginal potency) transforms into unlimited jivas. Since shakti (energy) and shaktiman (the energetic) are non-different, atomic conscious jivas which are transformations of shakti, are in some respects non-different from Krishna. But they are also eternally different in various ways. Bhagavan is unlimitedly conscious, and the jiva is atomically conscious. Both are non-different from the perspective of consciousness, but Bhagavan is the complete conscious entity (purna cid-vastu) and the jiva is an atomic conscious entity (anucid-vastu). Bhagavan is the master of maya, and the jiva is subject to maya. Bhagavan is the cause of creation, sustenance and destruction, but the jiva is not. The example is given that just as unlimited atoms are visible in the rays coming from the sun, the rays of Krishna's energy produce unlimited atoms in the form of the jivas. Similarly, just as unlimited minute sparks come out of a fire, so unlimited atomic conscious jivas are emanating from Bhagavan.

These are partial examples to explain the relationship between sac-cid-ananda Bhagavan and the atomic conscious jiva. This means that their purpose is to make this reality understood by the principle of shakha-candra-nyaya, showing the moon by first pointing towards the branch of a tree over which the moon is visible. In this material world, no example can fully describe parabrahma, but these examples give a partial understanding.

Krishna is the ultimate limit of para-tattva. His inherent para shakti (transcendental potency) is also known as antaranga- shakti, or cit-shakti. This cit-shakti is Krishna's svabhaviki (naturally inherent) svarupa-shakti and the actions of that shakti, manifest in three ways. When it manifests the conscious creation (cit-jagat), it is called cit-shakti (spiritual creative potency). When it manifests unlimited jivas, it is called jiva- shakti and when it manifests the material universe, it is called maya-shakti. By the will of Bhagavan, the jivas manifest from the jiva-shakti (marginal potency); thus, their constitutional nature is to be eternal servants of Krishna. However, they can come under the influence of maya because they are atomic by nature. The jivas situated in this illusory world have misused their free will. Thus, they have forgotten their own svarupa and Krishna's svarupa, due to their association with maya since time immemorial. Having become trapped in the cycle of birth and death, they are suffering the various types of three-fold miseries. When the jivas who have become bound in this material world attain sadhu-sanga by some great fortune, they can realise their own constitutional nature. Following the process of bhakti, they engage in the service of Bhagavan, by which they become situated in their own svarupa. This conclusion is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.37):

bhayam dvitiyabhiniveshatah syad
ishad apetasya viparyayo 'smritih
tan-mayayato budha abhajet tam
bhaktyaikayesham guru-devatatma

The jiva is the eternal servant of Bhagavan, but by turning his face away from Bhagavan, he has forgotten his own svarupa. Therefore, his eternal svarupa (occupation), service to Krishna, has become covered. By associating with maya, he identifies himself with the body and, subsequently, always fears for the material body, house, etc. He undergoes various types of miseries, being bewildered by Krishna's maya. By some good fortune an intelligent person who takes shelter of ananya-bhakti and performs bhajana to Krishna under the guidance of a sad-guru is able to cross over maya.

Furthermore it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.7.9):
seyam bhagavato maya / yan nayena virudhyate
ishvarasya vimuktasya / karpanyam uta bandhanam

Some conditioned souls maintain that Shri Bhagavan is overcome by illusion and at the same time they proclaim Him to be unconditioned. This opposes all logic. Bhagavan's yogamaya is a special type of shakti that can make the possible impossible, and the impossible possible. This shakti of Bhagavan makes it possible for the jiva to attain liberation from the bondage of the material world, once he has attained the mercy of the ever-liberated (vimukta) Ishvara. It also makes the jiva's bondage to this world possible. This fact cannot be understood merely on the strength of logic. Nor can the influence of Bhagavan's acintya-shakti be understood merely by argument. This acintya-shakti of Bhagavan makes the jiva become deluded by maya, and he cannot realise Bhagavan's mercy.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "I am explaining the result of knowledge of kshetra and kshetra-jna. Three tattvas manifest in the existence of the jiva bound by matter: prakriti, purusha and Paramatma. The kshetra is known as prakriti, the jiva as purusha, and My all-pervading manifestation in both of them as Paramatma. Prakriti and purusha are both without beginning. They exist even before cosmic time (jadiya-kala). In material time, neither of them take birth. Rather, they have become manifest in spiritual time (chinmaya-kala) by My shakti and they co-exist in My supreme existence. Jada-prakriti (material nature) merges into Me and again becomes manifest during creation under the cover of mundane time (jadiya-kala). The jiva is a tattva who emanates from My eternal tatastha-shakti. He has been enveloped by My jada-prakriti--- material potency, because he has become averse to Me. In fact, the jiva is pure, conscious tattva, but because his quality is marginal, he has acquired a usefulness for jada-prakriti. This took place by the arrangement of My transcendental energy. That is, he tends to become affected by material nature. How the conscious jiva became entangled in inert matter cannot be ascertained by human (conditioned) logic and knowledge because My acintya-shakti is not under the influence of your limited human intellect. It is important for you to know this much only: all of the perverted transformations and material modes of the baddhaj iva are born from material nature and are not a part of his sva-dharma (eternal constitution)."

13.21

karya-karana-karttritve / hetuh prakritir ucyate
purushah sukha-duhkhanam / bhoktritve hetur ucyate

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.21 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/21/en>

prakritih---material nature; ucyate---is said to be; hetuh---the cause; karttritve---in the workings; (of) karana---cause; ca---and; karya---effect; (and) purushah---the jiva; ucyate---is said to be; hetuh---the cause; bhoktritve---in the experiencing; sukhadu hkhanam---of happiness and distress.

Prakriti is said to be the source of the workings of material cause and effect, and purusha (the baddhaj iva) is said to be the cause of the experience of material happiness, distress, and so forth.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Now Shri Bhagavan is revealing the jiva's relationship with maya. Karya (effect) refers to the body, karana (cause) refers to the senses, which are the means of happiness and misery, and karttritva (agent), refers to the presiding deities of the senses, the devatas. Due to ignorance, the purusha (baddha-jiva) imposes upon himself the feeling that he is the doer or agent, but in fact, prakriti is the cause of such a feeling in him. It is prakriti alone which transforms into effect in contact with the purusha. The tendency of maya (avidya or ignorance) is to give illusory knowledge to the jiva. However, only the purusha (jiva) is the cause of the experiences of happiness and misery produced by maya. Although karya (effect), karana (cause), karttritva (agency), and bhoktritva (enjoyment) are the characteristics of prakriti (material nature), prakriti predominates over the first three because she herself is predominated by inertness (jada). And due to his conscious nature, purusha (the jiva) predominates over bhokritva (the experience of happiness and distress). Something (an entity or activity) is designated or named according to its predominant aspects. According to this logic, prakriti is said to be the cause of karya (the body), karana (the senses) and karttritva (the devatas). Purusha (the jiva) is said to be the cause of bhoktritva.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Prakriti is the source of mundane karya (effect, the body), karana (cause, the senses), and karttritva (working agency, the presiding deities of the senses), while the baddha-jiva is said to be the cause of bhoktritva. the experience of mundane happiness and misery. Here one should clearly understand that the shuddha-jiva (the jiva in his pure state) is not the enjoyer of material happiness, nor does he experience distress. However, because the jiva is born from the tatastha-shakti, when he identifies himself with the body, which is generated by contact with maya, an ego develops whereby he experiences material happiness and distress.

In this regard, Lord Kapiladeva says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.26.8):

karya-karana-karttritve / karanam prakritim viduh
bhoktritve sukha-duhkhanam / purusham prakriteh param

O Mother! Those who are tattva-vit accept prakriti (material nature) to be the cause of karya (the body), karana (the senses) and karttritva (the presiding deities of the senses, the devatas). Through his pure ego, the kuta-stha atma (the soul in his constitutional position) is related to Paramatma as His eternal servant, and therefore Paramatma dominates the jiva's existence. Thus, the kuta-stha atma is above all material designations and unchanged by the effects of prakriti. Prakriti predominates because the baddha-jiva strongly identifies himself with the body, which is born from the transformation of prakriti. Therefore, panditas say that prakriti is the cause of karttritva (the agency, the presiding deities of the senses), but in terms of experiencing the results of karma such as happiness and distress, the purusha (tatastha-shakti), who is different from prakriti, is said to be the cause. Although both karttritva and bhoktritva are under one ego (of the baddha-jiva), prakriti is the dominant factor in them because the body and so forth are the effect of inert matter. The experience of happiness and distress is not possible without consciousness; therefore, purusha (the baddha-jiva), who is under the control of prakriti. is the dominant factor here. However, it should also be understood that the karttritva (agency) of both prakriti and purusha (the jiva) is under the control of the karttritva of Ishvara. Both maya as well as the jiva are under Ishvara's control.

13.22

purushah prakriti-stho hi / bhunkte prakriti-jan gunan
karanam guna-sango'sya / sad-asad-yoni-janmasu

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.22 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/22/en>

hi---indeed; purushah---the jiva; prakriti-sthah---situated in material nature; bhunkte---enjoys; gunan---the sense objects; prakritij an---born of material nature; (in) guna-sangah---association with the modes; (is) karanam---the cause; asya---of his; janmasu---entering births; sat-asat-yoni---in higher or lower species.

Becoming situated in the prakriti, the purusha ( jiva) enjoys the sense objects born of prakriti. The cause of his birth in higher and lower species is due to his association with the modes of nature.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

The jiva considers the qualities of prakriti such as karttritva (the presiding deities of the senses) and bhoktritva (the experience of happiness and distress) to be his own because of false knowledge born of ignorance since time immemorial. This is the reason for his bondage to the material world. The jiva is situated within the body, which is the effect of prakriti, and he is fully absorbed in identifying the body as his own self. Due to his false ego, he considers aspects of the mind such as lamentation, delusion and misery, which are prakritij an (generated by the modes of prakriti), to be his own and suffers because of them. This is all because of guna-sanga, association with the modes of material nature. This means that his identification with the body, which is made of the gunas, is an assumption based on ignorance because the jiva is in fact, free from this association. Where does he enjoy? Expecting this question, Shri Bhagavan says, satishu (sat-asad). "In the species who have higher consciousness such as sadhus and devatas" and, asatishu. "in the species whose consciousness is lower such as animals and birds." He takes birth and experiences happiness and distress according to his good and bad karma.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Having turned their faces away from Krishna, the jivas, who are of a marginal nature, consider the body to be the self. They accept the ego of being the doers and the enjoyers of inert (jada) matter. Thus, they become bound to the material world and take birth in various species of life, thereby experiencing happiness and distress. Such jivas. who are deluded by maya. have fallen into the cycle of birth and death. Consequently, they suffer worldly miseries, sometimes taking birth in Svarga, sometimes in Naraka (hell), sometimes as kings and sometimes as subjects, sometimes as brahmanas and sometimes as shudras, and sometimes as worms, asuras, servants or masters. Sometimes they are happy, and sometimes distressed. The consciousness of the jiva is atomic and although he is a servant of Bhagavan, he becomes overpowered by maya who is close by. This is because he harbours sensual material desires, which are the result of his aversion to Krishna. Just as the intelligence of a person who is possessed by a hobgoblin or ghost becomes covered, similarly, the intelligence of the jivas overpowered by maya becomes covered.

By the mercy of Bhagavan and His bhaktas, he attains satsa nga and becomes free from maya. Becoming situated in his own svarupa, he enjoys the bliss of seva to Shri Bhagavan. krishna bhuli. sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha

ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha
kabhu svarge uthaya kabhu narake dubaya
dandya-jane raja yena nadite cubaya
Chaitanya-caritamrita Madhya-lila (20.117-118)

Because he has forgotten Shri Krishna, the jiva has been absorbed in his attempts to enjoy the material energy since time immemorial. Therefore, Krishna's maya-shakti awards the jiva the various sufferings of samsara. Sometimes he is elevated to Svarga- loka, and at other times he is thrown in Naraka-loka. This is just like a man who is punished by the king by being tied to a wooden plank and dunked in a river. Sometimes he is immersed till he nearly drowns, and sometimes he is released for a few moments of apparent happiness.

13.23

upadrashtanumanta ca / bhartta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto / dehe'smin purushah parah

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.23 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/23/en>

asmin---in this; dehe---body; uktah---it is said; iti---that; (there is) parah purushah---a superior transcendental enjoyer; parama- atma---the Supersoul; (He is) upadrashta---the witness; ca---and; anumanta---permitter; bhartta---master; bhokta---enjoyer; ca api---and also; maha-ishvarah---the Supreme Controller.

In this body, there exists a superior purusha, the transcen-dental enjoyer. He is Paramatma: the witness, the permitter, the supporter, the maintainer, and also the Supreme Controller.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

After explaining the jivatma, Shri Bhagavan is now explaining Paramatma in this shloka beginning with upadrashta. From the shloka, anadi mat-param brahma (Gita 13.13) to, hridi sarvasya vishthitam (Gita 13.18), Paramatma was explained in both a general and specific manner. One fact in particular should be understood: although Paramatma remains close to the jivatma, He is still separate from him. To clarify this, it is being stated that Paramatma is situated within this body. Para refers to another purusha (enjoyer) within this body. That purusha is Maheshvara (the Supreme Proprietor), or Paramatma. The very word "Paramatma" is evidence that He is superior to the atma. In terms of absolute reality. the word param refers to svamsha (a personal expansion of Krishna). Just to emphasise this, it is said that He is situated separately from the jiva, yet is very close (upa) to him and He is the seer (witness).

Anumanta (the permitter) means that while residing close to the jiva, He is anugrahaka, kind and facilitating. It is said in Gopala-tapani Upanishad (Uttara 97): sakshi cetah kevalo nirgunash ca. "Purusha is sakshi (the witness), cetah (conscious), kevala (exclusive) and nirguna (beyond the modes)." Similarly, bharta means supporter and bhokta means protector.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Paramatma, who is situated as the witness in this body, is different from the jiva. The advaita-vadis (monists) consider the jivatma and Paramatma to be one, but it is clear from this shloka that within each body, Paramatma, who is the witness and permitter, is different from the jivatma. Because He is superior to the jivatma, He is called Paramatma, or the superior atma. This Paramatma is an amsha of an amsha (portion of a portion) of Svayam Bhagavan Shri Krishna. Without His permission, the jivatma can do nothing. There are unlimited jivatmas, and Paramatma is eternally existing within each of them as their friend and supreme well-wisher. Although He lives with the jiva. Paramatma is always the master of both the jiva and maya.

Bhagavan has bestowed an invaluable treasure upon the jiva in the form of independence. By properly utilizing this independence, he can very easily relish the nectar of premamay i seva to Bhagavan in His eternal dhama. But by misusing this independence, he becomes bound by maya and, while suffering from the three-fold miseries, he is trapped in the cycle of birth and death. Therefore, how can a jiva who is overpowered by maya ever be Bhagavan, the master of maya?

Such a conception is illusory and opposed to the conclusions of shastra.

Paramatma is very clearly described in shruti as different from the jivatma: nityo nityanam cetanash cetananam (Shvetashvatara Upanishad 6.13). He is the supreme eternal among all eternals, that is, He is the topmost eternal being and among all conscious beings He is the bestower of consciousness, the original consciousness. Moreover, it is said in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.6) and the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.1):

dva suparna sayuja sakhaya / samanam vriksham parishasvajate
tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty / anashnann anyo 'bhicakashiti

Kshirodakashayi-purusha and the jiva live together in this temporary material world (the body) just like two friends in a pippala tree. One, the jiva, is tasting the fruits of the tree according to his karma, and the other, Paramatma, is the witness. He is not enjoying the fruits, but watching His friend.

Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.11.6) also states:
suparnav etau sadrishau sakhayau
yadricchayaitau krita-nidau ca vrikshe
ekas tayoh khadati pippalannam
anyo niranno 'pi balena bhuyan

Two birds in the form of the jiva and Ishvara have a relationship, being equal in quality, that is consciousness. They are living in the nest (heart) of the tree (the body) by the will of providence. One bird (the jiva) is enjoying the fruits (karma) of that tree (the body). The other bird, Ishvara, is not enjoying the fruits and is ever satisfied in eternal bliss, being happily situated by the strength of His shaktis such as jnana.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes Krishna as saying, "The jiva is My constant companion. He becomes close to Me when he becomes situated purely in his marginal nature. This marginal nature is his independence. The perfection of jaivadharma, the eternal occupation of the jiva--- is to achieve pure love for Me by using his marginal (independent) nature. When the jiva misuses that independent nature, he enters the material field. Even then, I become his companion as Paramatma. Therefore, I alone am the witness, the permitter, the supporter and protector, and Maheshvara, the Supreme Controller of all the jivas' actions. Thus, by the name of Paramatma, I am always present in the body as paramapuru sha. I award the result of whatever karma is performed by the jiva in his conditioned state."

13.24

ya evam vetti purusham / prakritin ca gunaih saha
sarvatha varttamano'pi / na sa bhuyo'bhijayate

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.24 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/24/en>

sah---one; yah---who; vetti---understands; evam---through this process; purusham---paramatma-tattva and jiva-tattva; ca---and; prakritim---material nature (maya); saha---together; gunaih--- with her three modes; na---never; abhijayate---takes his birth; bhuyo---again; sarvatha varttamano---pi---regardless of his present situation.

One who thus understands purusha-tattva, maya with her three modes, and jiva- tattva does not take birth again, regardless of his present situation.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Shri Bhagavan is speaking this shloka beginning with the word ya to explain the result of this jnana. "Although overpowered by sleep and disturbance of mind, those who know purusha (Paramatma), prakriti (the material energy) and jiva-shakti (understood by the word ca) do not take birth again."

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The sadhaka becomes qualified to achieve mukti when he knows bhakti-tattva, jiva-tattva, paramatma-tattva and their mutual relationships. Then, by the mercy of a sad-guru and the Vaishnavas, and by following the path of shuddha-bhakti, he gradually attains the stages of shraddha, nishtha, ruci, asakti, bhava and finally bhagavat-prema, entering the abode of Bhagavan. It is certain that he never fell from bhagavatdh ama and never will. The imaginary conception that the baddha-jivas were first engaged in the service of Bhagavan in His dhama and somehow or other fell into the material world is completely against the conclusion of all shastra. But if this theory is accepted for the sake of argument, the question arises as to the significance (glory) of bhakti and prema if one again falls into the material world, after performing rigorous sadhana to attain Shri Bhagavan's dhama. The examples of King Citraketu and Jaya and Vijaya are not appropriate in this regard because they are bhagavat-parikaras (eternal associates of Bhagavan). They descended into this material world by the will of Bhagavan for the welfare of the jivas and for the nourishment of Shri Bhagavan's lila. It is a grievous offense to consider them to be ordinary conditioned souls. Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura explains this in Madhurya-kadambini. The jiva who attains bhagavaddh ama never becomes bound in this material world, and if he ever does come here, it is as an associate of Bhagavan and by His will. He is not subject to material conditions. Gita (15:6) states:

na tad bhasayate suryo / na shashanko na pavakah
yad gatva na nivartante / tad dhama paramam mama

Neither sun, moon nor fire can illuminate that supreme realm, attaining which surrendered persons do not return to this world. That abode of mine is illuminating and self-effulgent.

13.25

dhyanenatmani pashyanti / kecid atmanam atmana
anye sankhyena yogena / karma-yogena capare

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.25 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/25/en>

kecit---some; pashyanti---see; atmanam---the Supersoul; atmani--- within their heart; atmana---by use of the mind; dhyanena---in meditation; anye---others see Him; sankhyena yogena---through sankhya-yoga; ca apare---and others; karma-yogena---by nishkamakarma- yoga.

By meditating on the Supreme Person, the bhaktas see Him within their hearts. The jnanis try to see Him by sankhya-yoga, the yogis by ashtanga-yoga, and others by the process of nishkama-karma-yoga.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Shri Bhagavan is explaining the various means to attain atma-jnana. knowledge of the self. in this shloka beginning with the word dhyanena and in the next shloka. By dhyana. meditation on Bhagavan, some bhaktas see Him within their hearts. Gita (18.55) bhaktya mam abhijanati, will explain this. "But I am not visible to any other types of worshippers. The jnanis endeavour to see Me by sankhya (the analytical study of conscious and inert matter), the yogis by ashtanga-yoga, and karma-yogis try to see Me by nishkama-karma-yoga." Here, sankhya-yoga, ashtanga-yoga and nishkama-karma-yoga are not the direct causes of receiving darshana of Paramatma. This is because they are all sattvic and Paramatma is gunatita--- beyond the modes. It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.19.1) jnanam ca mayi sannyaset. "One should surrender that jnana to Me." Moreover, Shrimad-Bhagavatam states (11.14.21) bhaktyaham ekaya grahyah. "I am attained only by aikantikabhakti. " It is clear from the above statements of Bhagavan that He is attained only by bhakti which is devoid of jnana.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

In this shloka, Bhagavan Shri Krishna further explains how one can attain vishuddha-atma-jnana (pure knowledge of the self), which was described in the previous shloka. Although shastra mentions various processes such as sankhya-yoga, ashtanga-yoga and nishkama-karma-yoga, one can attain this vishuddha-jnana in a simple and natural way only by bhaktiyoga. In the dialogue between Shri Krishna and Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.14.21), Bhagavan Shri Krishna Himself says: bhaktyaham ekaya grahyah. "I can be attained only by kevala-bhakti." Furthermore, He says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.20.6-8):

yogas trayo maya prokta / nrinam shreyo-vidhitsaya
jnanam karma ca bhaktish ca / nopayo 'nyo 'sti kutracit
nirvinŽanam jnana-yogo / nyasinam iha karmasu
teshv anirviŽŽa-cittanam / karma-yogas tu kaminam
yadricchaya mat-kathadau / jata-shraddhas tu yah puman
na nirviŽŽo nati-sakto / bhakti-yogo 'sya siddhi-dah

For the welfare of human beings, I have described three types of yoga: karma-yoga, jnana-yoga and bhakti-yoga. There is no other way to achieve Me. Those who are completely detached from the material world become eligible for jnana-yoga, but those who are neither too detached from worldliness nor too attached to it, and who, by the will of providence, have faith in hearing about My lilas, are qualified to engage in bhakti. By following the path of bhakti. they attain perfection very quickly.

"Bhakti-yoga is the best of these three types of yoga. In fact, I am only fully attained by bhakti. This is a very deep secret. Na sadhayati mam yogo. (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.14.20). "I am not controlled by sankhya etc." In other words, I do not become pleased by the processes of karma-yoga, jnana-yoga, japa, tapa, yajna, self-study and so forth. I am conquered only by bhakti." This is also said in Gita (6.47):

yoginam api sarvesham / mad-gatenantar-atmana
shraddhavan bhajate yo mam / sa me yuktatamo matah

He who constantly performs My bhajana with full faith, always thinking exclusively of Me within himself, is, in My opinion, the topmost of all yogis.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes KrishŽa as saying, "O Arjuna, with respect to the topmost goal (paramartha), the baddha-jivas are divided into two divisions: bahir-mukha (those averse to spiritual life) and antar-mukha (those inclined to spiritual life). Atheists, agnostics (those who are attached to inert matter), skeptics and moralists are counted among the paramartha-bahir-mukha (those averse to the supreme transcendental goal). An inquisitive and faithful person, a karma-yogi and a bhakta are antar-mukha. Bhaktas are superior because they take shelter of cit which is beyond prakriti, and meditate on Paramatma within the self (atmatattva). The sankhya-yogis who search after Ishvara (the Controller) are the next best. After deliberating on prakriti, which consists of twenty-four elements, they come to know that the twenty-fifth element, the jiva, is a pure conscious entity. They gradually engage in bhakti-yoga to the twenty-sixth element, Bhagavan. The karma-yogis are inferior to them. By the process of nishkama-karma-yoga, they attain the facility to deliberate on and worship Bhagavan."

13.26

anye tv evam ajanantah / shrutvanyebhya upasate
te'pi catitaranty eva / mrityum shruti-parayaŽah

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.26 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/26/en>

tu---but; anye---others; ajanantah---do not know; evam---thus (what was just taught); upasate---who worship; shrutva---after hearing; anyebhyah---from other (acaryas); shruti-parayaŽah--- being devoted to hearing; te---they; api ca---also; atitaranti--- transcend; mrityum---death; eva---this is certain.

Others, however, who do not know this tattva. begin worshipping the Supreme after hearing from various acaryas. By such devotion to hearing, they too can gradually transcend this mortal world. This is certain.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

The word anye means those who hear the katha (topics) related to Bhagavan here and there at different places.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

In this shloka, Shri Bhagavan is explaining a very important process. "There are some people who are not atheists, nor are they skeptical, or mayavadis, or philosophers. Although they are only ordinary people in society, they are quite faithful because they have good past life impressions (samskaras). When they hear bhagavat-katha in sat-sanga and receive instructions from various preachers, they try to worship Me somehow or other. Later, when they have attained the association of shuddha-bhaktas, they receive the opportunity to hear pure hari-katha, and by entering bhakti-tattva, they ultimately achieve Me."

No education about atma-jnana is given in current socalled cultured society, but Bhagavad-Gita and Shrimad- Bhagavatam explain that the process of hearing about atmaj nana is very powerful. Specifically, in recent times, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu placed great emphasis on hearing and chanting hari-nama: Hare KrishŽa, Hare KrishŽa, KrishŽa KrishŽa, Hare Hare / Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. His prime instruction is that by the influence of hearing, chanting and remembering shri-hari-nama and bhagavat-katha, one can very easily attain service to Bhagavan. Four-headed Brahma, Shri Narada Gosvami, Shri Vedavyasa, Shri Shukadeva Gosvami, King Parikshit and Prahlada Maharaja all attained direct darshana of Bhagavan by following this process.

Shrila Haridasa Thakura was one of the associates of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Although he was born in a Yavana family, he used to chant three lakhs (300,000) of Shri Hari's names every day. All types of people, both rich and poor, had great regard for him. Seeing this, Ramacandra Khan, the famous landlord of that area, became envious of him. To defame Haridasa, he lured a beautiful young prostitute by promising her great wealth, and one moonlit night he sent her to Haridasa Thakura. Sitting in a solitary place on the bank of Bhagavati Ganga, Haridasa Thakura, while keeping count of his rounds, loudly and attentively chanted the Hare KrishŽa maha mantra: Hare KrishŽa Hare KrishŽa, KrishŽa KrishŽa, Hare Hare / Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. The Tulasi plant stood on a nearby platform. The prostitute approached him and expressed her mind by her various bodily postures, but this had no influence on Haridasa Thakura. Finally, she openly propositioned him. He replied, "I have taken a vow to chant ten million names of Hari. I will fulfil all your desires within a very short period, when I have completed this number." Hearing this assurance, the prostitute sat nearby for the entire night, waiting for him to complete his chanting. In the morning, she went back to her house out of fear of being seen by other people. The next night, she again came and sat near Haridasa Thakura. He again told her that he was just about to complete his chanting. That night passed like the previous one. When she arrived on the third night, Haridasa Thakura again started chanting loudly. Aho! The effect of hearing hari-nama from the mouth of a shuddha-bhakta was so wonderful that it changed the heart of that prostitute. She fell at his feet crying and asked to be forgiven. Haridasa Thakura was very pleased and said, "I would have gone to another place the very first day you came, but I remained here only for your sake. That your heart has changed is a matter of great pleasure to me. This is the unfailing glory of hearing and chanting harin ama. Now you should fearlessly remain in this ashrama and continuously chant the name of Hari. You should render service to Tulasi devi and Bhagavati Ganga." She followed these instructions and her life changed completely. Even great bhaktas started coming to her ashrama to have darshana of a parama-vaishŽavi. Remaining humble, lowly and without possessions, she performed bhajana of Hari, and went to the abode of Bhagavan within a very short time. In this way, even an ordinary person can attain Bhagavan by hearing and chanting.

13.27

yavat samjayate kincit / sattvam sthavara-jangamam
kshetra-kshetrajna-samyogat / tad viddhi bharatarshabha

Click here to read Shrila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is 13.27 <http://www.bhagavadgitaasitis.com/13/27/en>

bharata-rishabha---O best amongst the lineage of Bharata; viddhi--- understand; tat---this; yavat kincit---whatever; sattvam---beings (exist); (either) jangamam---moving; (or) sthavara---non-moving; samjayate---are produced; samyogat---from the combination; kshetra---of the field; (and) kshetra-jna---the knower of the field.

O best of the Bharatas, know that whatever moving and non-moving beings are born, all are produced from the combination of kshetra and kshetra-jna.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

The same subject matter which was described earlier is being explained in detail until the end of this chapter. Yavat means either low or high, and sattvam means living beings. All are born from the combination of kshetra and kshetra-jna.

13.28

samam sarveshu bhuteshu / tishthantam parameshvaram
vinashyatsv avinashyantam / yah pashyati sa pashyati

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(he) yah---who; pashyati---sees; parama-ishvaram---the Supreme Person; tishthantam---seated; samam---equally; sarveshu---in all; bhuteshu---beings; avinashyantam---imperishable; vinashyatsu--- amongst the perishable; sah---he; (actually) pashyati---sees.

Only one who sees Parameshvara equally in all beings as the imperishable seated within the perishable actually sees.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

To explain how Paramatma is situated in all perishable bodies, Shri Bhagavan is speaking this shloka beginning with the word samam. "Know that Paramatma is dwelling within all perishable bodies. Those who see in this way are real jnanis."

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Those who are jnanis in the real sense simultaneously experience the body, the embodied soul (the atma) and the friend of the atma. Paramatma, by the influence of the association of a tattva-darshi (self-realised) mahatma. On the contrary, those who are bereft of such saintly association are truly ignorant. They can only see the perishable body and consider it to be their self. When the body is destroyed, they think that everything is lost. A jnani, however, experiences the existence of the atma and Paramatma even after the body is destroyed. When one body is destroyed, the atma enters another body along with the senses and subtle body. His friend, Paramatma, also remains situated with the jivatma as the witness. Those who actually understand this are, indeed, jnanis.

13.29

samam pashyan hi sarvatra / samavasthitam ishvaram
na hinasty atmanatmanam / tato yati param gatim

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pashyan---observing; ishvaram---the Lord, Ishvara; samavasthitam--- situated; samam---equally; sarvatra---everywhere; (he) hi---certainly; na hinasti---does not degrade; atmanam---himself; atmana---through his mind; tatah---thus; yati---he goes; param--- to the supreme; gatim---destination.

One who sees Parameshvara dwelling equally everywhere in all beings, does not degrade himself by his mind. Thus he attains the supreme destination.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Atmana means the mind which leads one to degradation. Atmanam means the jiva and na hinasti means it does not lead to degradation. They do not degrade themselves through the degrading mind.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The baddha-jiva is bound by various modes and actions of material nature, and for this reason he is put into various situations. But although Parameshvara is situated in the hearts of different jivas, He exists everywhere equally. Those who understand this finally achieve the supreme destination. On the contrary, those whose minds do not meditate on the opulences, qualities and glories of Bhagavan remain absorbed in sense gratification. Being the killer of their own atma (self), they fall down. This is also described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.20.17) wherein KrishŽa says:

nri-deham adyam su-labham su-durlabham
plavam su-kalpam guru-karŽadharam
mayanukulena nabhasvateritam
puman bhavabdhim na taret sa atma-ha

O Uddhava, this human body is the basis of the attainment of all auspicious results, and although it is very rare, it has been obtained easily. It is like a strong boat in which to cross the ocean of material existence. Simply by accepting the shelter of the guru, who becomes the captain and navigator of this boat, and blown by the favourable winds of remembrance of Me, it is propelled towards its destination. After acquiring this human body, a person who does not endeavour to cross this ocean of material existence, even after getting so much facility, is certainly considered the killer of his own atma.

13.30

prakrityaiva ca karmaŽi / kriyamaŽani sarvashah
yah pashyati tathatmanam / akarttaram sa pashyati

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sah---he; yah---who; pashyati---sees; karmaŽi---activities; kriyamaŽani---performed; ca sarvashah---in every way; prakritya--- by material nature; tatha---and; atmanam---himself; akarttaram--- a non-doer; eva---actually; pashyati---sees.

One who sees that all activites are only performed by prakriti and that the atma is not the doer, actually sees.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Prakrityaiva means that prakriti, transformed into the body and senses, performs all work. The vision of those jivas who think that they are the doers, because they identify the self with the inert body, is not real. They are in ignorance. But one who sees that he is not the doer of action sees properly.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The baddha-jiva is impelled by the actions and modes of prakriti because of the false ego which makes him think that he is the doer of material actions. But in the true sense, he is not the doer. Bhagavan has explained this earlier. Parameshvara is also not the doer although He is situated in the hearts of all beings as Antaryami, He who gives inspiration. What to speak of Parameshvara, even the jivatma in the pure state does not have the ego of being the doer of material actions which are performed by the material senses. Those who know this are really in knowledge. It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.28.15):

shoka-harsha-bhaya-krodha- / lobha-moha-sprihadayah
ahankarasya drishyante / janma-mrityush ca natmanah

O Uddhava, the material ego is the only cause of lamentation, happiness, fear, anger, greed, delusion, desire, birth and death. The pure atma has no connection with them.

It is also seen in the Tantra-bhagavata: ahankarat tu samsaro bhavet jivasya na svatah. "It is only due to material ego that this material existence of birth and death occurs for the jivas. The pure jivas have no relationship with such material ego." However, in the jiva's pure state he has the ego of being krishŽa-dasa, with a human-like spiritual body, name, form, qualities and activities which are all transcendental. He is not formless or without qualities.

13.31

yada bhuta-prithag-bhavam / eka-stham anupashyati
tata eva ca vistaram / brahma sampadyate tada

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yada---when; anupashyati---he sees by following the guidance of previous authorities; prithag-bhavam---the diverse nature; bhuta---of the living beings; (to be) eka-stham---situated in one nature; tatah tada eva ca---then at that very moment; sampadyate---he attains; brahma---to realisation of brahma; vistaram---in a very extensive way (on all sides).

When he sees that the diverse natures of living beings abide in prakriti alone, and understands them all to be born from that same prakriti, he attains realisation of brahma.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Those who truly perceive that, during annihilation. all moving and non-moving beings of various shapes merge into one prakriti, and later, at the time of creation, again manifest from that same prakriti, attain the state of brahma.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Only because a person identifies himself with the body does he see the various forms or bodies of others as devatas, human beings, dogs, cats, shudras, Hindus, Muslims and so on. The cause of this mundane differentiation is ignorance, whereby a person falsely identifies himself with the body. Due to this ignorance, one forgets Bhagavan. When remembrance of Bhagavan appears within him by the influence of the association of shuddha VaishŽavas, all his ignorance is dispelled and his materialistic ideas of differentiation are removed. At that time, he becomes situated in brahma, which is endowed with eight qualities. He perceives everything equally at all times and ultimately he attains para bhakti. Sometimes in the shastra, a jivatma endowed with these eight special qualities has been called brahma or brahma-bhuta. These eight qualities are:

ya atmapahata-papna vijaro vimrityur vishoko vijighitso 'pipasah satya-kamah satya-sankalpah so.nveshtavyah sa vijijnasitavyah One should search for and know the atma who is completely free from: 1) the miseries arising from desires for sense objects, 2) the threefold miseries such as old age, 3) death, 4) lamentation, 5) an enjoying propensity and 6) mundane aspirations. That atma is 7) endowed with favourable desires to serve KrishŽa (satya-kama), and 8) able to attain perfection in whatever he desires (satyasa nkalpa).

This is also explained in Gita (18.54): brahma-bhutah prasannatma. "Ultimately, one who is a brahma-bhutatma achieves para bhakti." The jiva's ultimate objective is to achieve para bhakti. It is improper to say, "Param brahma achieves para bhakti." because para bhakti means to render service to the feet of param brahma.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes KrishŽa as saying: "When a man of true wisdom sees that, during annihilation, all moving and non-moving jivas of various shapes are situated in prakriti only, and that at the time of creation those varieties again manifest from the same prakriti, he becomes free from the tendency to differentiate between material designations. He then realises his real spiritual identity and his relationship with brahma (the Absolute Reality). Now I will explain how the jiva, having acquired this knowledge of qualitative oneness, perceives Paramatma, who is present as the witness."

13.32

anaditvan nirguŽatvat / paramatmayam avyayah
sharira-stho'pi kaunteya / na karoti na lipyate

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kaunteya---O son of Kunti; anaditvat---because He is without beginning; (and) nirguŽatvat---because He is free from the three material modes; ayam---this; avyayah---imperishable; parama- atma---Supreme Soul; api---although; sharira-sthah---situated in the body; na karoti---does not perform karma; (and) na lipyate--- is unaffected (by karma).

O Kaunteya, because He is without beginning ( anadi) and free from the three modes ( nirguŽa), this imperishable Paramatma, though situated in the body, neither performs karma nor becomes entangled in the results of karma.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Shri Bhagavan said in Gita (13.22): karaŽam guŽa-sango 'sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu. "The jivatma and Paramatma equally reside in the body, yet only the jivatma becomes materially conditioned by his implication in the guŽas. Paramatma does not." Someone may raise the question, "How is that?" For this reason, Shri Bhagavan speaks this shloka beginning with the word anaditvan. That which has no cause or origin is anadi. When a word ending in the fifth case (ablative) is used with the word anuttama, it will read paramottama (than whom no one is higher, the supreme). In the same way, here the word anadi means the supreme cause. Since, in the original shloka, anaditvat is used in the fifth case, the meaning is: He is the Supreme Cause. NirguŽatvat means He who is free from the guŽas, or from whom all qualities such as creation emanate. He is that reality. Hence, Paramatma is distinct from the jivatma and is avyaya (imperishable). That is, His knowledge and bliss never diminish. Sharira-stho 'pi means that although He is situated in the body, He does not accept the characteristics of the body, and na karoti means that unlike the jiva, He does not become the doer (the enjoyer), nor does He become implicated by the qualities of the body, the modes of nature.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Being avyaya (imperishable), anadi (beginningless) and nirguŽa (free from the guŽas), Paramatma, unlike the jiva, does not become implicated in the characteristics of the body even though He resides in the body. When the pure jiva attains the state of brahma, which is completely free from material vision (brahma-bhuta), he understands that the complete kshetra-jna, Antaryami, Parameshvara, is not at all tainted by material qualities. He, the jiva, then becomes totally aloof from the qualities of the body also, although he resides within it.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes KrishŽa as saying, "When the jivas have attained brahma realisation, they can understand that Paramatma is avyaya, anadi and nirguŽa. Although He exists in the body along with the jivatma, He does not become implicated in the qualities of the body (the modes of nature) like the baddha-jiva does. Therefore, the jivas who have attained the state of brahma no longer become implicated in material affairs. This is because they take shelter of this knowledge (about the qualities of Paramatma). Hear from Me how the jiva who is not implicated by material qualities deals with this body."

13.33

yatha sarva-gatam saukshmyad / akasham nopalipyate
sarvatravasthito dehe / tathatma nopalipyate

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yatha---as; sarva-gatam---the all-pervading; akasham---sky; saukshmyat---due to its subtle nature; na upalipyate---is untouched (by the things within it); tatha---so; atma---the Supersoul; (although) avasthitah---situated; sarvatra---throughout; dehe---the material body; na upalipyate---is unaffected (by it).

Just as the all-pervading sky does not mix with anything due to its subtle nature, in the same way, the atma, who has attained brahma realisation in the wake of Paramatma, is unaffected by the qualities or faults of the material body, even though he pervades it.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Here, Shri Bhagavan speaks the shloka beginning with the words yatha sarva-gatam--- in which He gives an example. The sky pervades mud and other material objects due to its subtle nature, yet it does not become contaminated or mixed with them. In other words, it remains untouched (asanga) by mud and so forth. Similarly, the brahma-bhuta realised atma, who follows the path of Paramatma, does not become influenced by the qualities and defects related to the body although residing within it.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

The sky remains free from any contaminating association or influence even though it is all-pervasive. Thus, it remains aloof. Similarly, the pure jiva who has attained the state of brahma also does not become influenced by the qualities of the body even though he resides within it. He always remains unaffected.

13.34

yatha prakashayaty ekah / kritsnam lokam imam ravih
kshetram kshetri tatha kritsnam / prakashayati bharata

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bharata---O scion of Bharata; yatha---as; ekah---the one; ravih--- sun; prakashayati---illuminates; imam---this; kritsnam---entire; lokam---universe; tatha---so; kshetri---the Supersoul within the field (of the body); prakashayati---illuminates; kritsnam---the entire; kshetram---field (body).

O Bharata, just as one sun illuminates the whole universe, in the same way, Paramatma illuminates the entire body with consciousness.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

How does an object with the quality of illumination remain unaffected by the qualities of the object it illuminates? To explain this with an example, Shri Bhagavan is speaking this shloka beginning with the word yatha. The sun is the illuminator, yet it is not affected by the qualities of the objects it illuminates. Similarly, kshetri, or Paramatma, does not become affected by the qualities of kshetra (the body). It is also said in Katha Upanishad (2.2.11):

suryo yatha sarva-lokasya cakshur
na lipyate cakshushair bahya-doshaih
ekas tatha sarva-bhutantaratma
na lipyate loka-duhkhena bahyah

The sun, like the eye of all beings, does not become affected by the defects of another's eye or any other external defect. In the same way, the one Paramatma is not subject to the happiness or misery of anybody, even though He is situated in all beings.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

Just as the one sun illuminates the whole universe even though it is situated in the one place, in the same way, the atma, which is situated in one part of the body, illuminates the entire body spreading consciousness throughout. Brahmas utra (2.3.25) also says: guŽad va lokavat. "Although the jivatma is atomic, it pervades the whole body by its quality of consciousness." Here, Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura translates the word kshetri as Paramatma, because Paramatma is the complete kshetra-jna and the jiva is the partial kshetra-jna. The conscious jiva is kshetra-jna of a particular body, but Parameshvara is the complete kshetra-jna of all bodies simultaneously.

13.35

kshetra-kshetrajnayor evam / antaram jnana-cakshusha
bhuta-prakriti-mokshan ca / ye vidur yanti te param

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evam---in this way; te---they; ye---who; viduh---comprehend; jnana-cakshusha---with the eye of knowledge; antaram---the difference between; kshetra-kshetrajnayoh---the field and the knower of the field; ca---and; prakriti-moksham---the liberation from material nature; bhuta---of the living beings; yanti---attain; param---the Lord's supreme abode.

In this way, those with the eye of spiritual knowledge, who become conversant with the difference between kshetra and kshetra-jna and the jiva's means of deliverance from prakriti, attain the supreme abode.

SARARTHA-VARShINI
BY ShRILA VIShVANATHA CAKRAVARTI THAKURA

Now, Shri Bhagavan is concluding this chapter. Those who know kshetra and kshetra-jna, the jivatma and Paramatma, and the process such as dhyana (meditation) by which the living entities achieve moksha from prakriti, attain the supreme destination. Of the two kshetra-jnas, the jivatma becomes bound when he enjoys the qualities (fruits) of kshetra, but he becomes liberated by the appearance of jnana. This is the subject explained in the Thirteenth Chapter.

Thus ends the Bhavanuvada of the Sarartha-VarshiŽi Tika, by Shrila Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura, on the Thirteenth Chapter of Shrimad Bhagavad-gita, which gives pleasure to the bhaktas and is accepted by all saintly persons.

SARARTHA-VARShINI PRAKAShIKA-VRiTTI
BY ShRILA BHAKTIVEDANTA NARAYANA MAHARAJA

In concluding the subject of the kshetra and ksheta-jna. Shri Bhagavan says that an intelligent person should properly understand the distinguishing characteristics of the body and the knowers of the body who are the partial kshetra-jna (the atma), and the friend of the atma (Paramatma), who is the complete kshetra-jna. Those who realise this attain the supreme destination. Initially, faithful people should associate with bhaktas who are tattva-darshis. By hearing highly effectual hari-katha in their association, they can easily attain knowledge of bhagavat-tattva, jiva-tattva, maya-tattva and bhakti-tattva. Then, when their identification with the material body is removed, they attain the supreme destination.

Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura says, "All effects of the material nature constitute kshetra. There are two types of tattva, paramatma-tattva and atma-tattva, and both are kshetra-jna. According to the process described in this chapter, those who understand the difference between kshetra and kshetra-jna with the eye of spiritual knowledge by following the process by which all living entities attain deliverance from mundane activities, very easily understand para-tattva Shri Bhagavan, who is beyond both kshetra and kshetra-jna."

Thus ends the Sarartha-VarshiŽi Prakashika-vritti, by Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta NarayaŽa Maharaja, on the Thirteenh Chapter of Shrimad Bhagavad-gita.