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Advent of Lord Gauranga
Caitanyera-simhera nava-dvipe avatara
simha-griva, simha virya simhera-hunkara
Sei simha vasuk jivera hrdaya-kandare
kalmasa-dvirada nase yanhara hunkare
"Thus the lionlike Lord Chaitanya has appeared in Navadvipa. He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion. May that lion be seated in the core of the heart of every living being. Thus with His resounding roar may He drive away one's elephantine vices."
Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita Adi-Lila, 3.30-31 (1)
The divine appearance of Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is celebrated on the full moon of the month of Phalguna (February-March). This is the most auspicious day for all Gaudiya Vaishnavas. It is the most sacred and special festival to glorify the appearance in this world of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shri Krishna Chaitanya.
According to Shrila Rupa Goswami, the Rasa-Acarya of the Gaudiya Vaishnavas, and many other exalted authorities, Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is one other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna, who incarnates in the form of a devotee, to enjoy rasa.
Shrila Krishna dasa Kaviraja describes in the Shri Chaitanya- charitamrita, that Shri Shri Radha and Krishna are one divine self, or one and the same, but they have taken two bodies. Both Radha and Krishna constantly enjoy each other, and taste the pleasures of divine love.
radha-krishna eka atma dui deha dhari'anyonye vilase rasa asvadana kari
Chaitanya-charitamrita Adi-lila 4.56
To taste this divine mellow, Shri Shri Radha-Krishna have appeared in one body, as Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in Mayapura Dhama.
PREDICTION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU'S APPEARANCE IN THE VEDAS
The appearance of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahapabhu, the Yuga-Avatara is described in the sacred Vedas.
jahnavi-tire navadvipe golokakhye dhamni govindo dvi-bhujo gaurah sarvatma maha-puruso mahatma maha-yogi tri-gunatitah sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kasyatiti. tad ete sloka bhavanti.
In the Shri Chaitanya Upanisad, text 5:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the supreme enjoyer, whose form is transcendental, who is beyond the touch of the three modes of material nature, and who is all pervading Supersoul residing in the-hearts of all living entities, will appear again in the Kali-age. Appearing as the greatest devotee, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will assume a two-armed form of golden complexion in His abode of Goloka Vrindavana manifested on the bank of the Ganga at Navadvipa. He will disseminate pure devotional service in the world. This incarnation of the Lord is described in the following verses." (2)
IN WHAT COLOR WILL THE LORD APPEAR IN THE KALI-YUGA, AND WHAT WILL HE DO?
eko devah sarva-rupi mahatma gauro rakta syamala-sveta-rupah chaitanyatma sa vai chaitanya-saktir bhaktakaro bhakti-do bhakh-vedyah
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of all transcendental potencies, and who may be known only by devotional service, [bhakti vedyah] appears in innumerable transcendental forms. He has appeared in red, white and black complexions, [gauro rakta syamala sveta rupah] and He will also appear in the golden form of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He will assume the role of a perfect devotee [bhakta akarah] and He will teach the conditioned souls the path of pure devotional service [bhakti dah].
Shri Chaitanya Upanisad text 6. (3)
WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE FORM OF LORD CAITANYA AND HOW IS HE UNDERSTOOD?
namo vedanta vedyaya krmaya paramatmane
sarva chaitanya rupaya chaitanyaya namo namah (4)
I offer my respectful obeisances unto Him, who is understood by Vedanta [namo vedanta vedvaval, who is Lord Krishna [Krishnaya], the Supersoul [paramatmane], whose form is fully transcendental and conscious of everything [sarva-chaitanya-rupaya]. We offer our humble obeisances again and again. [Chaitanyaya namah namah]
WHAT IS THE RESULT OF UNDERSTANDING THE DIVINE POSITION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU?
vedanta vedyam purusam puranam
chaitanyatmanam visva-yonim mahantam
tam eva viditva' mrtyum eti
nanyah pantha vidyatetyanaya
"Knowing Him who is the object of knowledge in the Upanisads, the oldest person, the embodiment of consciousness, the source of the universe and the greatest of all, one crosses over death. There is no other path for going there." Shri Chaitanya Upanisad text 8. (5)
WHAT WILL SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU DO IN THIS INCARNATION ?
sva-nama mula-mantrena sarvam hladayati vibhuh (6)
The Supreme powerful [vibhuh] Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya appears in His golden form, and He will fill the universe with bliss [hladayati] by the chanting of His own holy names [sva-nama-mula-mantrena].
WHICH MANTRA WILL THIS YUGA AVATARA CHANT?
sa eva mula-mantra japati harir iti krishna iti rama iti. (7)
Shri Krishna Chaitanya will chant the maha-mantra comprised of the divine names of Hari, Krishna and Rama. i.e., Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare.
Shri Cartanya Upanisad text 10.
IS THERE ANY SPECIFIC REFERENCE IN THE VEDAS AS TO WHEN IN THIS YUGA- AVATARA SRI KRSNA CAITANYA WAS SCHEDULED TO APPEAR?
saptame gaura-varna-visnor ity aena sva-saktya
caikyam etya pratar avatirya saha svaih sva-manum siksayati.
In the Atharva-Veda Purusa-Bodini-Upanisad, it is said:
"In the seventh manvantara, in the beginning of the Kali-Yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will, accompanied by His own associates, descend in a golden form to the earth. He will teach the chanting of His own names." ( 8 )
DOES LORD CAITANYA APPEAR IN EVERY DAY OF LORD BRAHMA?
Just like the original Personality of Godhead, Lord Shri Krishna does appear once in every day of Lord Brahma.
Shrila Prabhupada once explained in Melbourne, Australia, in answer the question of how long it would be before Lord Krishna would come to this planet again in His physical form, that Krishna would come again after 8 billion, 600 milion years.
Devotee: How long do you say it is before Krishna comes to this planet again in His physical form?
Shrila Prabhupada: Now, calculate, I have already given the duration of one day, twelve hours, of Brahma means 4,300,000 years multiplied by one thousand....the eight billion.
Shrila Prabhupada: So Krishna comes after this period In one day, after one day of Brahma, He appears.
Devotee: Shrila Prabhupada, does Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu also appear every day of Brahma?
Shrila Prabhupada: Yes, following Krishna. Krishna comes in the Dvapara-Yuga. There are four sets of yugas: Sattva, Treta, Dvapara, Kali. So Krishna come at the end of Dvapara-Yuga, and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu comes in the Kali-Yuga so almost the same year, same circulation... Similarly, Krishna appears in rotation in this universe after so many years, eight billion years. So next He goes to another universe....(9)
WHEN EXACTLY DOES HE COME IN THE KALI-YUGA, AND WHERE DOES HE SPECIFICALLY APPEAR AND WHAT WILL HE DO?
itotham krta sannyaso'vatarisyami sa-guno nirvedo
niskamo bhu-girvanas tira-atho' lakanandayah kalau
gaura-varno dirghangah sarva-laksana-yukta isvara-
prarthito nija-rasasvado bhakta-rupo misrakhyo
In the Atharva Veda, the Supreme Person says:
I will descend on the earth after the passage of four thousand years in the Kali-Age, [kalau catuh sahasrabdhopari] and before the passsage of five thousand years [panca sahasra abhyantare].
I will come on the earth on the bank of the Ganges, [tira-sthah alakanandayah]. I will be a tall and saintly Brahmana devotee. I will have all the auspicious symptoms of an exalted person [dirghangah sarva-laksana-yuktah].
I will exhibit renunciation. I will have all auspicious signs. I will be a devotee, practicing bhakti yoga. I will taste the rasa of My own devotional service.
tathaham krta sannyaso bhu-girvano 'vatarisye
tire'lakanandayah punah punah isvara-prarthitah sa-
parivaro niralambo nirdhuteh kali-kalmasa-kavalita-
In the Sama Veda, the Supreme Lord says:
I shall come to the earth, accompanied by My associates, in a place by the bank of the Ganges. I will advent to save the people who are afflicted and devoured by the sins of the age of Kali. I will manifest as an avadhuta Brahmana sannyasi.
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PLACE WHERE THE SUPREME LORD APPEARS?
The Chandogya Upanisad describes the place of advent of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya. This is explained by Shrila Sacidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura, in the Sabadvipa Dhama Mahatmya (text 5):
tan-madhye daharam saksan
tatra vesma bhagavatas
tasmin yas tv antarakaso
hy antardvipah sa ucyate (12)
The spiritual city in the shape of a lotus has the abode of Shri Mayapura as its heart. Shridhama Mayapura is the divine abode of Lord Chaitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the middle of Mayapura is the place called Antardvipa.
ARE THERE ANY OTHER RELEVANT SCRIPTURAL REFERENCES IN THE VEDAS DESCRIBING THE APPEARANCE OR QUALITIES OF SRI KRSNA CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU?
The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.7) describes the qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Chaitanya:
tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram
tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam
patim patinam paramam parastad
vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam
"O Supreme Lord, you are the Supreme Mahesvara, the worshipable deity of all the demigods and the Supreme Lord of all Lords. You are the controller of all controllers, the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of everything worshipable." (13)
mahan prabhur vai purusah
sunirmalam imam praptim
isano jyotir avyayah
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Mahaprabhu, who disseminates transcendental enlightenment. Just to be in touch with Him is to be in contact with the indestructible brahmajyoti. "
(Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.12) (14)
Thus it is clearly established from the writings of the great Acaryas of the Gaudiya-parampara, that Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, whose appearance and birthplace were predicted and whose activities were also foretold.
DID THE SRIMAD-BHAGAVATAM, THE FOREMOST OF ALL VEDIC LITERATURES PREDICT THE APPEARANCE OF LORD CAITANYA MARAPRABHU?
In the seventh canto of the Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Prahlada Maharaja directly hints at the hidden nature of the Supreme Lord's appearance. Because the Supreme Lord is also called Tri-Yuga, or one who appears in only three yugas (satya, dvapara, treta), He is sometimes said to appear in a concealed form, in the age of Kali.
channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo'tha sa tvam
(Shrimad Bhagavatam 7.9.38)
ARE THERE ANY MORE DIRECT REFERENCES IN THE SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM, THAN THE ABOVE REFERENCE?
In the tenth canto of the Shrimad Bhagavatam, chapter eight, Gargamuni the family priest of Nanda Maharaja, explains that the young boy Shri Krishna has three colors - white, red and yellow - when He appears in His transcendental form in different ages. In the current incarnation of Krishna, He has appeared ...as black.
asan varnas trayo hy asya grhnatotnvyugam tanuh
suklo raktas tatha pita idanim krmatam gatah
(Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.13) (15)
Shrila Krishna dasa Kaviraja, the celebrated author of the Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita, explains that the three colors of white, red and yellow are the three bodily colors which the Supreme Lord assumes in the ages of Satya, Treta and Kali respectively.
sukla rakta pita-varna—ei tina dyuti
satya-treta-kali-kale dharena shri-pati (16)
The Bhagavatam explains in the conversation between Karabhajana Muni and King Nimi, that in the Dvapara-Yuga, the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish form [Dvapare bhagavan syamah]. He has a yellow dress and carries His own weapons [pita-vasa-nija-ayudhah]. He is beautified with the mark of Shrivatsa and the Kaustubha jewel [Shri vatsa-adibhih ankais ca laksanaih]. This is the actual description of His characteristics [upalaksitah]. (17)
The great sage continues his instruction to King Nimi by saying that people in general in the age of Dvapara-Yuga worshiped the Lord of the Universe [iti dvapara urvisam stuvanti jagad isvaram]. In the age of Kali, they worshipped the Supreme Person by the regulation of the scriptures [tantra vidhana]. (18)
krma varnam tvisakrmam sangopangastra parsadam
yajnaih sankirtana prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah
"In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the holy name of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions." (19)
HOW DOES THIS VERSE REFER TO THE ADVENT OF LORD CAITANYA, SINCE HIS NAME IS NOT DIRECTLY MENTIONED THERE?
Just as the symptoms and characteristics of the various previous incarnations are mentioned in the scriptures, similarly the symptoms of the appearance of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu are described.
Krishna-varnam indicates that He belongs to the category of Krishna. Krishna varnam also means one who constantly repeats and sings the name of Krishna. The main business of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was the chanting of the holy name of Krishna. Thus the words Krishna varnam and Krishna Chaitanya are equivalent.
Shrila Krishna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has elucidated the two meanings of the words Krishna varnam by stating:
Krishna ei dui varna sadayanra mukhe
athava krmake h'nho varne nija sukhe (20)
Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu always sings the two syllables Krs-na [Krishna ei dui varna sada yanra mukhe], or He always relishes great transcendental pleasure while describing Lord Krishna [athava krmake tinho varne nija-sukhe].
IS THERE ANY HINT OR EXPLANATION OF HIS BODILY CHARACTERISTICS?
His bodily complexion is not black [tvisa akrishnam]. Lord Chaitanya appeared in a very light, golden like complexion. His complexion was yellow [akrma-varane kahe pita-varana] (21). Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was very beautiful.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is often described as Gaurasundara. Gaura means fair and Sundara means beautiful. Sometimes He is also called Gauranga or one who has a very fair complexion.
SRILA RUPA GOSWAMI PRABHUPADA'S DESCRlPTION OF THE BODILY COLOR OF SRI CAITANYA MAIIAPRABHU
Shrila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada was one of the chief associates of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He was personally trained by Mahaprabhu Himself in the science of Bhakti both in Puri-Dhama and Prayaga.
He personally witnessed many intimate pastimes of Lord Chaitanya at Jagannatha Puri. In his Stava- Mala, Chaitanya-Astakam, He vividly describes the bodily color of Shriman Mahaprabhu.
kalau yam vidvamsah sphutam
makha vidhibhir utkirtanamayaih (22)
In the age of Kali [kalau], great scholars [vidvamsah] worship Lord Krishna by performing the sankirtan [makha-vidhibhih utkirtanamayaih]. Lord Krishna is now non-blackish [akrma-angam], because of the feelings of ecstatic love of Shrimati Radharani.
This is the actual description of His bodily hue.
Shrila Kaviraja Goswami elucidates the above verse of Rupa Goswami:
pratyaksa tanhara tapta-kancanera dyuti
yanhara chataya nase aNnana tamastati (23)
Anyone can vividly see the golden complexion of Lord Chaitanya [tapta kancanera dyuti]. This beautiful golden color dissipates the darkness of ignorance.
Thus, the meaning of the words 'tvisa akrmam' has been explained by the great acaryas, Shrila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada and Shrila Krishna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami.
DID HE COME WITH ASSOCIATES OR INTIMATE COMPANIONS?
Lord Chaitanya is always accompanied by His associates. His main associates are Lord Nityananda, Advaita Acarya, Shrivasa, Gadadhara, Haridasa Thakura, etc. Whenever Lord Chaitanya was present, they would assemble around Him and engage in Sankirtana. So in the incarnation of Lord Chaitanya He comes with His soldiers and His associates [Chaitanya-Krsnera sainya anga-upange]. (24)
Thousands upon thousands of persons would come and participate in the congregational chanting of the Hare Krishna Maha Mantra.
(sa-anga upa-anga parsadam)
Thus, Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's characteristics and symptoms are described [krishna- varnam], and His bodily color is indicated [tvisa- akrishnam]. This famous verse from the Shrimad- Bhagavatam also indicates that the incarnation for this age would also advent with His associates [sa- anga upanga astra parsadam].
The word anga is defined as a bodily limb [anga sabde amsa] (25) and it is also sometimes called a part. A part of a limb [angera avayana] is defined as a partial part [upanea vyakhyana]. (26)
Krishna dasa Goswami also defines the word anga as referring to a plenary portion. Such divine portions are full of knowlege and bliss [saba cid ananda maya]. (27)
Shri Advaita Prabhu and Shri Nityananda Prabhu are the angas or plenary portions of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu [advaita nityananda-caitanyera dui anga]. They are the angas (limbs) of Shri Chaitanya. The sub-parts of these two limbs are called the upangas or the constituent parts of the two major limbs. (28)
HOW IS THIS YUGA-AVATARA OR INCARNATION OF THE AGE OF KALI-YUGA TO BE WORSHIPPED?
This form of the Personality of Godhead, Shri Chaitanya, is meant to be worshipped by the intelligent class of men [yajanti hi su-medhasah]. The word su means very good and medhasah means one who is intelligent, one who has good brain substance. (29)
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the propounder, also sometimes called the initiator, of the sankirtana movement of congregational chanting of the Divine Name of Krishna [sankirtana pravartaka Shri Krishna Chaitanya]. Anyone who worships Lord Chaitanya through the medium of sankirtana is fortunate [sankirtana yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya] . (30)
Anyone who worships Lord Chaitanya, by making a sacrifice of His life, wealth, time, and intelligence and words is very fortunate and is recognized by the Lord and gets the blessings of Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
HOW DO THE SIX GOSWAMIS EXPLAIN THIS FAMOUS VERSE?
Shrila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada has commented upon verse Krishna varnam tvisakrishnam, in the introduction of his Bhagavata-Sandarbha. He composed the famous verse antah krishnam bahir gauram.
antah krmam bahir gauram
kalau sankirtanadyaih sma
"I take shelter of Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who is outwardly of a fair complexion but is inwardly, Krishna Himself. In this age of Kali, He displays His expansions [His angas and upangas] by performing congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord." (31)
Shrila Prabhupada explains the meaning of the above verse.
"He [Shrila Jiva Goswami ] has placed the verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam quoted in text 52 (krishna varnam tvisakrmam ...) as the auspicious introduction to his Bhagavata-Sandarbha or Sat-Sandarbha. He has composed this text (81), which is, in effect an explanation of the Bhagavatam verse of the same work. The verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam was enunciated by Karabhajana, one of nine great sages, and it is elaborately explained by the Sarva- Samvadini, Jiva Goswami's commentary on his own Sat-Sandarbha. Antah-Krishna refers to one who is always thinking of Krishna. This attitude is a predominant feature of Shrimati Radharani. Even though many devotees always think of Krishna, none can surpass the Gopis, among whom Radharani is the leader in thinking of Krishna. Radharani's Krishna consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Chaitanya accepted the position of Shrimati Radharani to understand Krishna; therefore He was always thinking of Krishna in the same way as Radharani. By thinking of Lord Krishna, He always overlapped Krishna.
Shri Krishna Chaitanya, who was outwardly very fair, with a complexion like molten gold, simultaneously manifested His eternal associates, opulences, expansions and incarnations. He preached the process of chanting Hare Krishna, and those who are under His lotus feet are glorious." (32)
ARE THERE OTHER VERSES FROM THE SRIMAD-BHAGAVATAM WHICH GLORIFY OR INDICATE THE DIVINE APPEARANCE OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU?
Yes, there are two other verses often cited by Shrila Prabhupada and the previous acaryas.
dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham
tirthaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam
bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam
vande maha purusa te caranaravindam
"O protector of those gone to you for refuge! O Supreme Lord! I bow to Your lotus feet Which are always fit to be meditated upon without the least restrictions of time and place, which destroy all impediments like, karma, jnana, yoga to the practice of unalloyed devotion to you, Which are the wish wielders, and holy because of their being the resort of the holy river Ganga, Which are ever being extolled by Siva and Brahma, Which are the fittest sanctuary to be sought after by all, Which destroy the acutest distress of their servants and Which are the ship to cross this ocean of wordliness." (33)
dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agam-aranyam
maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad
vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam (34)
We offer our respects and humble obeisances unto the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, [vande maha purusa te carana aravindam] Who left his household life, [tyaktva sudustyajya] leaving His adorable consort, who is worshipped even by the demigods. He went to the forest [yad agad aranyam] to deliver the fallen souls, who are under the influence of the material energy [maya-mrgam].
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has a very young and beautiful wife, Shri Lakshmi Devi, and His mother, Shri Sacidevi, was very affectionate. At the age of 24 years old, He took the order of sannyasa and left home to go and preach.
By examining His characteristics, the great Acaryas have pointed out that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is described in those verses of the Bhagavatam.
DO OTHER MAJOR VEDIC LITERATURES ALSO DESCRIBE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADVENT OF SRI CAITANYA?
Krishna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has cited a verse from the Maha-Bharata (Dana-Dharma, Vishnu- Sahasra-Nazna Stotra) to point out the divine characteristics of Shriman Mahaprabhu's appearance.
suvarna varna hemango
sannyasa krt-chamah santo
nistha santi parayanah (35)
In His early activities Lord Chaitanya comes as a householder. He has a golden complexion [suvarna varnah]. His limbs are very beautiful [vara-anga] and are smeared with sandalwood pulp [candana- angadi]. He has the appearance of molten gold [hema-anga].
The Supreme Lord Chaitanya accepts the renounced order of life [sannyasa-krt]. He is fully sense-controlled or equipoised [sama], and is completely peaceful [santa]. He is completely fixed in the chanting of the holy name of Lord Krishna, [nistha]. He is the highest abode of devotion and transcendental peace. He silences the mayavadi impersonalists [nistha santi parayanah].
Shrila Prabhupada has explained that Shripada Baladeva Vidyabhusana has written a Gaudiya Vaishnava commentary on the Vishnu-Sahasra-Nama, called the namartha sudhabhidha, in which he has explained the meaning of the relevant verses from the Sahasra-Nama.
Note: The above verse cited from the Shri Chaitanya- Charitamrita (CC Adi-Lila 3.49) is actually cited from 2 different verses of the Vishnu-Sahasra-Nama.
The first part of the text, 'suvarna varna hemango varangas candangadi' is from text 79 of the Vishnu-Sahasra-Nama (suvarna varna hemango varangas candanangadi-viraha visamah sunyo ghrtasir acalas calah.)
The second part of the text cited in the Chaitanya-Charitamrita (sannyasa-krt samah santo nistha santi parayanah) is from text 62 of the Vishnu- Sahasra-Nama. The full text  is trisama samagah sama nirvanam bhesajam bhisak—sannyasa krt chamah santo nistha sanah parayanam.
In this famous commentary he states that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is supported by evidence from the Vedic Upanisads. The sanskrit words suvarna-varna indicate one who has gold-like complexion. The vedic text to support this point is:
yada pasya pasyate rukma-varnam
kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim (36)
The words rukma-varnam kartaram isam refer to the Supreme Person [Shri Chaitanya] who has a complexion like molten gold.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD CAITANYA'S
BODILY FEATURES ACCORDING TO SOME OF THE GREAT DEVOTEES PRESENT AT THE TIME?
Shrila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, one of the foremost disciples of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Jagannatha Puri, composed an entire series of prayers describing in detail the various features of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, called Shri Gauranga-Prati- Anga-Varnanakhya-Stava-Rajah, or the King of Prayers, proclaiming the glory of each limb of Shri Gauranga. Let us carefully present a few of these divine gems.
Lord Chaitanya's bodily luster.
Shrila Sarvabhauma Bhaffacarya has described the complexion of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's body.
tapta hema dyutim vande
I worship Lord Krishna, the spiritual master of the universe, who appears in the age of Kali with a luster like molten gold. His body is beautiful and tall. He is like molten gold, and He is the delight of the son of Sacidevi. (37)
Shrila Prabodhananda Sarasvati Thakura also describes Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's golden complexion.
ananda lilamaya vigrahaya
"O Lord Chaitanyacandra, O Lord whose form is full of blissful pastimes, O Lord whose complexion is as splendid as gold..." (38 )
Shrila Krishna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami similarly describes Lord Chaitanya.
tapta hema sama kanti prakanda sarira
"...the luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold..." (39)
Prabodhananda Sarasvati also further describes Shri Chaitanya's golden complexion.
svayam devo yatra-kanaka-gaurah karunaya (40)
His complexion is as fair as molten gold.
Shri Chaitanya's beautiful hair.
"His lovely curling locks are interwoven with creepers of glistening pearls..."
Shri Chaitanya's shoulders and chest.
Prabhodananda Sarasvati Thakura describes the shoulders of Mahaprabhu.
"May Lord Chaitanya, whose shoulders are like a lion..."(42)
Shrila Krishna dasa Kaviraja Goswami also points out the nature of Shri Chaitanya's shoulders and voice.
simha griva simha-virya simhera hunkara
"He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion." (43)
Shri Chaitanya's arms.
His arms reach all the way to his knees.
ajanulambita bhuMau kanaka vadatau (45)
Their arms ( Lord Chaitanya and Lord Nityananda ) reach all the way to their knees.
"....His two arms, glittering with bracelets and bangles, extend down to His knees." (46)
Shri Chaitanya's face.
His beautiful eyes are just like reddish lotus flowers. They are most beautiful, just like lakes of Krishna Prema. His nose is arched and is resplendent just like the sesame flower.
His cheeks are round and they shine brilliantly. He wears jewelled earrings. He has a peacock feather placed near His left ear.
His lips are tender and very lustrous. They resemble reddish blossoming flowers. He reveals his pearl-like teeth out His kindness.
DESCRIPTION OF LORD CAITANYA'S FUTURE ADVENT IN OTHER VEDIC AND PURANIC LITERATURES
Prediction of His advent as a sannyasi.
aham eva kvacid brahman
sannyasa asramam ashritah
hari bhaktim grahayami
kalau papa-hatan naran (50)
In the Upa-Puranas, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Shri Krishna speaks to Shrila Vyasadeva:
O Brahmana, I occasionally take the Sannyasa Asrama [sannyasa asrama ashritah] in an attempt to bring the fallen people of Kali Yuga to take up the path of Bhakti or devotional service to Lord Krishna [hari bhaktim grahayami].
Prediction of His advent in the form of a brahmana.
aham eva dvija-srestho
lokam raksami sarvada (51)
In the Adi-Purana and in the Narada Purana, the Supreme Person says:
I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee [aham eva dvija-srestho] and I shall hide my factual identity [prachanna vigrahah]. I shall deliver all the worlds [lokam raksami sarvada].
Prediction of His actual time of incarnation.
janma prathama sandhyayam
bhavisyati dvijalaye (52)
In the Kurma-Purana, it is stated:
The Supreme Person will appear in the first part of the age of Kali [janma prathama sandhyayam]. He will appear in the home of a Brahmana [bhavisyati dvijalaye], to save the embodied conditioned souls [uddharaya tanu-bhrtam] burning in the troubles of Kali-Yuga.
Description of the purpose of Shri Chaitanya's incarnation.
janma prathama sandhyayam
karisyami dvijatisu (53)
In the Garuda-Purana, the Supreme Person says:
In the first part [prathama sandhya] of the age of Kali, I will come among the brahmanas [karisyami dvijatisu] to save the fallen souls,[paritranaya tanu- bhrtam] who are being burned by the troubles of the age of Kali [kalina dahyamananam].
Prediction of the name of His mother and the actual name of His future birthplace.
aham purno bhavisyami
bhavisyami saci sutah (54)
In the Garuda-Purana, the Supreme Lord says:
I will take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci sutah], in Navadvipa-Mayapura [mayapure navadvipe]. I will come in my complete spiritual form in the first part of Kali-Yuga.
Prediction of the name of His future first wife and His future assumption of the sannyasa order.
kaleh prathama sandhyayam
lakshmi- kanto bhavisyati
sannyasi gaura-vigrahah (55)
In the same Garuda-Purana, it is Also stated:
In the first part of Kali-Yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a gold-like form. First He will become the husband of Lakshmi [Shrimati Lakshmi Devi, Lord Chaitanya's first wife]. Then He will become a sannyasi, near Lord Jagannatha who will appear in a divine wooden form.
Prediction of the bodily color of Shri Chaitanya and the nature of His future activities.
paribhavan rameti namakrtih
gopalan paripalayan vraja-pure
bharam haran dvapare
kali-yuge chaitanya-nama prabhuh
In the Nrsimha-Purana, it is said:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead who in the Satya-Yuga appeared as a half-man, half-lion to cure a terrible disease that had ravaged the daityas, and who in the Treta-Yuga appeared as a person named Rama [Lord Ramacandra], a person who defeated the ten- headed Demon Ravana, and who in the Dvapara- Yuga removed the earth's burden, and protected the Gopa [cowherd men] people of Vraja-pura, will appear again in the Kali-Yuga. His form will be golden, He will delight in chanting the Lord's holy names, and His name will be Chaitanya." (56)
Prediction of the future advent of Shri Chaitanya by His direct name.
chaitanya vapur aste vai
In the Padma-Purana, it is said:
The Supreme Personality, Janardana, who is the object of the yogis' meditation [yogi-cintyo- janardanah], who saves the devotees from various sufferings, and who is the master of all yogic practices [yogesvarah], who is always full of divine transcendental ecstasy and bliss [sandra-ananda- atmakah], will advent in His own divine form of Shri Chaitanya [Chaitanya-vapah].
Description of the tune and place Shri Chaitanya's future advent.
bhavisyami saci-sutah (58)
In the Padma-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself states:
I shall appear on this earth [mahi-tale] in the first part of Kali-Yuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam] in a beautiful place on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi-tate ramye]. I shall have a golden form [gaurangah], and I shall take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci-sutah].
Prediction of the purpose of Shri Chaitanya's advents.
aham eva kalau vipra
lokan raksami sarvada (59)
In the Narada-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
O Vipra, in the age of Kali, I will come disguised [nityam prachanna vigraha] as a devotee [bhagavad- bhakta-rupena] and I will save all the worlds [lokan raksami sarvada].
Prediction of His mother's name and the nature of His specific preaching method [sankirtana].
divija bhuvi jayadhvam
jayadhvam bhakta rupinah
kalau sankirtana rambhe
bhavisyami saci-sutah (60)
The Supreme Personality of Godhead states in the Narada-Purana:
O Divija (demigods), please come and advent as devotees on this earth [bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam] in the age of Kali-Yuga. I will incarnate as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci-sutah] to inaugurate the congregational chanting of the name of Krishna [kalau sankirtana arambhe].
Prediction of the revelation of Shri Chaitanya's form.
kaleh prathama sandhyayam
bhavisyami saci-sutah (61)
In the Brahma-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
I will reveal my eternal golden form [gaurangotham mahi-tale] in the first part of Kali- Yuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam]. I will advent on the earth on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi- tate bhumni].
Prediction of the future sannyasi role and ecstasy of Shri Chaitanya.
sarve mama eva draksyanti
kalau sannyasa-rupinam (62)
In the Bhavisya-Purana, the Supreme Lord says:
O austere sage, you should know that in the age of Bali, everyone will see my transcendental form as a sannyasi [kalau sannyasa rupinam]. I will be exhibiting symptoms of ecstasy like shedding tears of bliss and hairs standing in ecstasy [anandasru-kala-roma- harsa-purnam].
Prediction of the color of Shri Chaitanya and the nature of His future associates.
prasantatma lamba-kanthas gaurangas ca suravrtah (63)
In the Agni-Purana, it is said:
The Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a golden form [gaura-anga], full of peace [prasantatma], and a beautiful long neck [lamba-kanthah]. He will be surrounded by many saintly devotees [sura-avrtah].
Note: This is an indirect prediction of the future advent of the members of the Panca-Tattva.
Prediction of the characteristics of Shri Chaitanya.
mundo gaurah su-dirghangas
bhavisyami kalau-yuge (64)
In the Matsya-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
In the age of Kali, I shall advent [bhavisyami kalau yuge] where the three rivers meet [tri-srotas- tira-sambhavah]. I shall have a shaven head [mundah]. I shall have a golden complexion [gaurah]. I will be very kind and always chant the holy name of Krishna [dayaloh kirtana-grahi].
Prediction of the name of the river where Shri Chaitanya will take his birth and other characteristics.
bhavisyami kalau yuge (65)
In the Vayu-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead states:
In the age of Kali-Yuga, I shall come [bhavisyami kalau yuge] in a place on the bank of the Ganges [ganga-tira-samudbhavah]. I will be very pure [suddhah], have a fair complexion [gaurah], and be very tall [su-dirghangah] and chant the holy names of Krishna.
Prediction that the Supreme Lord will leave Goloka and corne in a golden form.
golokam ca parityajya
In the Markandeya-Purana, the Supreme of Godhead declares:
"In the Kali-Yuga, I will leave Goloka and, to save the people of the world, I will become the handsome and playful Lord Gaurange." (66)
Prediction of one of the purpose of Shri Chaitanya's appearance.
aham eva dvija-srestho
lokan raksami sarvada (67)
In the Varaha-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:
I shall come as the best of the brahmanas [aham eva dvija-srestha]. I will exhibit many pastimes [lila- pracurya-vigrahah] in the form of a devotee [bhagavad-bhakta-rupena]. I shall deliver the people of the world [lokan raksami sarvada].
Prediction of the name of the mother of Shri Chaitanya and His future role as the deliverer of the darkness of Kali-Yuga.
sarvan acara varjitan
sacigarbhe ca sambhuya
tarayisyami narada (67)
In the Vamana-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:
O Narada Muni, I will take birth in the womb of Saci [saci-garbhe ca sambhuya]. I shall save the people, who will give up all proper good conduct [sarvan acara varyitan], from the terrible darkness of the age of Kali-Yuga [kali-ghora-tamas-channan].
Prediction of the future advent of Shri Chaitanya, His birthtime, His mother, His birthcity, His name and His mission.
tatra dvija-kulam prapto
tena lokasya nistaras
tat kurudhvam mamajnaya
dharitri bhavita cabhir
mayaiva dvija-dehina (68)
In the Vayu-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:
I shall advent in the month of Phalguna, when the star Phalguni is conjoined with the full moon. I shall incarnate in a golden complexion in the womb of Saci and Purandara Misra.
I will be born in the city of Navadvipa,on the Ganges's shore, in a Brahmana's family. I shall take the renounced order of life [sannyasa] and show kindness to the people in general and engage them in Bhakti. I will be known as Shri Krishna Chaitanya.
All of you should follow My order and deliver the people of the world. I shall appear as a Brahmana. I shall make this earth fearless.
Prediction of Shri Chaitanya's birthcity, the name of the river close to His birthsite, the name of His rnother, His close associates and their divine roles in His lila, His divine reason for incarnating as well as different narnes by which Shri Chaitanya will be known.
sa eva bhagavan krmo
srsty-adau sa jagannatho
gaura asin mahesvari
aprakasyam idam guhyam
na prakasyam bahir mukhe
bhaktam bhakti-pradam svayam
na jnasyanto bahir-mokhah
striyo ye purusah priyah
gopa dvadasa balakah
a viharisyami tair aham
kale nastam bhakti-patham
sthapayisyamy aham punah
gacchantu bhuvi te putrah
kurvantu te mamajnaya
prabhur gauro gaura-harir
In the Ananta-Samhita, it is said:
"To show mercy to the people and give them devotional service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a Brahmana's home in Navadvipa by the Ganges's shore. The Supreme Person, Shri Krishna Himself, who is the life of Shrimati Radharani, and is the Lord of the universe in creation, rnaintenance, and annihilation, appears as Gaura, O Mahesvari. (69 ).
In Kali-Yuga, I will descend to the earth with My associates. In Navadvipa, which is surrounded by the Ganges, I will take birth in Saci-devi 's womb.
They who are bewildered by My illusory potency will not understand the great secret of the appearance in this world of Me in My personal form, in My form as the incarnation of devotion, in My form as the incarnation of a devotee, in My form bearing the name of a devotee, in My form as a devotee, and in My form as the giver of devotional service.
This secret is not to be revealed to them. Only the saintly, pure, renounced devotees, diligently engaged in My devotional service, will be able to understand Me in these five forms.
My dear male and female associates, headed by Shridama and Subala, who came to this world at the time of My advent as Lord Krishna, will come again during the Kali-Yuga.
The Gopas will become the sixty-four mahantas and the twelve gopalas. To establish the truth of religion, I will enjoy many pastimes with them.
In this way I will again reveal the path of devotional service, which has been destroyed in the course of time. My sons should also descend to the earth, assume the forms of devotees, and, by My order, also work to re-establish the principles of true religion.
At this time My names will be: Krishna Chaitanya, Gauranga, Gaurachandra, Sacisuta, Mahaprabhu, Gaura and Gaurahari. Chanting these names will bring devotion to Me." (70)
According to the authoritative statements of the great purva-acaryas [previous authorized bona fide spiritual masters] such as Shrila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada, Shrila Sanatana Goswami, Shrila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada, Shrila Krishna dasa Kaviraja Goswami, Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakura, and His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the foremost representative of all the Acaryas in the Gaudiya Sampradaya, and many other great Acaryas and pure devotees, Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Yuga-Avatara, and the incarnation of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna combined who has come to taste the transcendental bliss experienced by Shrimati Radharani. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This transcendental conclusion is supported by the statements of the Vedas, the Shrimad- Bhagavatam, various puranas, the Maha-Bharata, various Samhitas, Tantras and Pancaratric texts.
sankirtana-pravartaka shri krma-chaitanya
sankirtana-yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya
"Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya is the initiator of sankirtana [congregational chanting of the holy name of Lord Krishna]. One who worships Him through sankirtana is fortunate indeed "(7/)
vintala-kamala-vaktrah pakva-bi nbadharosthas
tila-kusu na-su-nasah katnbu-kanthah su-dirghah
sphuratu hrdaya-madhye gaura-candro-natendrah
"His face is flawless like a blooming lotus and His lips are red as ripe as bimba fruits. His nose is as beautiful as the sesame flower and his neck is like a three- ringed conch. He is very tall and His rod-like arms make artistic movements while He dances. His navel is very deep. May my Lord Gaura Candra, the king of dancers, reveal Himself in the core of My heart." ( 72)
Caitanyera-Simhera --- References
Chaitanya-Charitamrita Adi-Lila 3.30-31. by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta
(2) Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu predicted in scripture. text 1. By Shriman Kusakratha Dasa. The Krishna Institute, La, Ca. 1992.
(3) ibid. SCM predicted... text 2.
(4) Sanskrit cited from the Chaitanya Upanisad. text 7.
(5) Shri Chaitanya-Upanisad. text 8. By HH Rohini Kumara Swami- Vaishnava Research Institute, Berkeley, Ca. 1984.
(6 ) Sanskrit cited from Chaitanya Upanisad. text 9.
(7 ) Sanskrit cited from Chaitanya Upanisad. text 11.
(8) ibid as in # 2. text 7.
(9) Conversations with Shrila Prabhupada, Melbourne Australia. 22nd May 1975. BBT 1991.
(10) SCM predicted... text 8.
(11) Sanskrit text cited from the Sama Veda. Quoted in SCM predicted... text 9.
(12)Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya- text5 (Chandogya Upanisad) by Shriman Kusakratha dasa. The Krishna Institute, La, Ca.1989.
(13) Svetasvatara Upalusad citation as given in the Shri Chaitanya-Charitamrita purports of HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada-CC Adi-Lila 2.22. BBT La, Ca. 1974.
(15) Sanskrit text cited from the SB 10.8.13, as cited in the CC Adi-Lila 3.36.
(16) Bengali text cited from the CCAdi-Lila 3.37.
(17) Sanskrit text cited from the SB 11.5.27. cited from the CC Adi-Lila 3.39.
(18) Sanskrit text cited from the SB 11.5.31. as cited in the CC Adi-Lila 3.51.
(19) Sanskrit text cited from the SB 11.5.32. as cited in the CC Adi-Lila 3.52. Translation by HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, BBT La, Ca.1974.
(20) Bengali text cited from the CC Adi-Lila 3.54.
(21) Bengali text cited from the CC Adi-Lila 3.57.
(22) Sanskrit text from the Stavamala (text 63), as cited in the CC Adi-Lila 3.58.
(23) Bengali text cited from the CC Adi-Lila 3.59.
(24) Bengali excerpt cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.65.
(25) Bengali excerpt cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.71.
(26) Bengali excerpt cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.68.
(27) Bengali excerpt cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.71.
(28) Bengali excerpt cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.72.
(29) Sanskrit text cited from SB 11.5.32.
(30) Sanskrit text cited from SB 11.3.81, and cited in CC Adi-Lila 3.81 BBT La, Ca. 1974
(31) Bhagavata-Sandarbha of Shrila Jiva Goswami text 2. cited from the CC Adi-Lila 3.81. BBT La, Ca 1974.
(33) The Divine Name by Raghava Chaitanya Dasa. 1954. Bombay, India. # 601. page 436. Citation from SB 11.5.33. also cited by HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada- CC Adi-Lila 2.22 purports.
(34) SB 11.5.34. also cited in CC Adi-Lila 2.22 purports, as in #(33).
(35)Maha-Bharata-Dana-Dharma-Vishnu-Sahasra- Nama-Stotra. as cited in CC Adi-Lila 3.49.
(36) Cited from the Mundaka-Uparusad 3.1.3. As cited in the CC Adi-Lila 2.22 and CC Adi-Lila 3.49 [Bhaktivedanta purports].
(37) Shri Gauranga-Mahima-Shri Gauranga-Praty- Anga-Varnanakhya-Stava-Rajah by Shri Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya-Text 4-Gaura Vani Press-Krishna- Balarama Dasa- Union City-Ga. 1992.
(38) Shri Chaitanya-Candramrta by Shrila Prabodhananda Saraswati Prabhupada. text 11. The Krishna Institute by Shriman Kusakratha Dasa. La, Ca, 1986.
(39) CC Adi-Lila 3.41 HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada- BBT La, Ca. 1974.
(40) Sanskrit text cited from the Shri Chaitanya- Candramxta text 71
(41) Shri Gauranga-Praty-Anga-Vs khya-stava Raja- Text 5- as in (# 37)
(42) Shri Chaitanya-Candramrta text 13. as in (# 38 ).
(43) CC Adi-Lila 3.30. as in (# 39).
(44) Bengali text cited from CC Adi-Lila 3.44.
(45) Bengali text cited from Shri Chaitanya-Bhagavata Adi-Khanda .1.1.
(46) Shri Gauranga-Prati-Anga-Varnanakhya-Stava- Rajah- text 12- as in (#37).
(47) ibid-text 7.
(48) ibid-text 8.
(49) ibid-text 9.
(50) Sanskrit text cited from an Upa-Purana as cited in CC Adi-Lila 3 83.
(51) SCM predicted in the scriptures-text 22-Adi- Purana and the Narada-Purana.
(52) ibid...text 23-Kurma-Purana.
(53) ibid...text 24-Garuda-Purana.
(54) ibid...text 25-Garuda-Purana.
(55) ibid...text 26—Garuda Purana.
(56) SCM predicted...text 30—Citation from Nrsimha- Purana English translation. As in (#2).
(57) SCM predicted...text 31-Padma Purana.
(58) ibid-text 32 Padma-Purana.
(59) ibid-text 33 Narada-Purana.
(60) ibid-text 34 Narada-Purana.
(61) SCM predicted... text 35 Brahma-Purana.
(62) ibid... text 36 Bhavisya-Purana.
(63) ibid... text 37 Agni-Purana.
(64) ibid....text 39 Matsya-Purana.
(65) ibid... text 40 Vayu-Purana.
(66) ibid. . . text 41 Markandeya-Purana. The Krishna Institute. La, Ca. 1992.
(67) ibid... text 43 Vamana-Purana.
(68) ibid ...texts 45 16-47-48- Vayu-Purana.
(69) CC Adi-Lila, 2.22. LDurport] BBT La, Ca. 1974.
(70) SCM predicted... texts 50-51-52-53-54-55-56- 57-58-citingfrom Ananta-Samhita.
(71)CCAdi-Lila 3.77 BBTLa,Ca.1974.
(72) Susloka-Satakam -59- Shri Gauranga Mahima- Gaura-Vani Press, Union City, Ga. 1992.
Reprinted with permission from Krishna Prema Vani magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, March, 1995. Copyright Hari Nama Mission, Badger, California.