Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > SG Translated and Main Scriptures > Navadvipa in the Vedas

Navadvipa Dhama in the Vedas

Compiled and Translated by His Holiness
Bhaktiratna Sadhu Swami Gaurangapada



shri-navadvipa mahatmyam, vidvadbhir yat samiritam;

prabhupada sarasvati, vinoda arpayamy aham.


“This book, a collection from various revealed  scriptures and acaryas on the glories of Lord Gauranga’s Shri Navadvipa-dhama, is dedicated with utmost  humility unto the three great senapati-bhaktas of Lord Gauranga Mahaprabhu: His Divine Grace Shri Shrimad A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; his eternal spiritual master and gaura-vani-shri-murti, His Divine Grace Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Prabhupada; and gaura-sakti-svarupa Shri Shrimad Saccidananda Thakura Bhaktivinoda. I hope that they will be satisfied by this humble effort of an insignificant soul and bless me with eternal residence and service to Lord Nitai-Gauranga in Shri Navadvipa-dhama.”




The Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krishna, the origin of the spiritual and material creation and the source of innumerable incarnations-like Rama, Nrisimha, Vishnu, Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Vamana, and so on-out of His supreme causeless mercy personally appeared 516 years ago (on February 18, 1486) in the Nadia district of West Bengal, as the transcendental son of Shri Jagannatha Misra and Shrimati Sacidevi. With His complete potencies as Lord Shri Krishna, along with His own transcendental abode of Shri Navadvipa, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu descended specifically for the deliverance of the fallen souls of this most degraded age of Kali. It is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam that in Satya-yuga the Lord appears with a white complexion, in Treta-yuga His complexion is red, and and in Dvapara-yuga His complexion is black (krishna). And in Kali-yuga He appears with a yellow complexion, the color of molten gold. Thus Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is also known as Gaurasundara (“golden moon”) and the Golden Avatara. Lord Balarama, the Lord’s elder brother appeared as Lord Shri Nityananda Prabhu.


But the conditioned souls of Kali-yuga are so unfortunate, ill-fated, and covered by the illusory energy that very few of them have even heard about the incarnation of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, what to speak of His transcendental abode Navadvipa. Even among the handful of people who know about Him, most consider Him simply a great saint, prophet, or seer. In the words of Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura:


cinite na pare keha prabhu apanara,

ya’ sabara lagiya haila avatara.


“Even among those for the deliverance of whom Lord Chaitanya personally descended, very few recognize Him as their own worshipable Lord.”


Because Lord Chaitanya has appeared to deliver all the movable and immovable living entities in this age of Kali, which lasts 432,000 years, how can the people even hope to be delivered unless they have tangible information about His incarnation and abode? This is our question to all the intelligent people of this world: What could be a greater misfortune than the present situation, in which the general populace has not even the slightest bit of information about the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Kali-yuga, as Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Navadvipa (130 km north of Calcutta, India)? Thus, due to this most hapless condition of humanity-arising from a lack of knowledge and understanding of the philosophical truths regarding the actual position, pastimes, and abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who specifically descended to rescue the most sinful living entities from the fearful cycle of birth and death-the entire human society is suffering greatly and is on a suicidal course. This ever-increasingly miserable situation of human society during this age of Kali can at once be permanently eradicated simply by the widescale acceptance of Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Shri Navadvipa as the topmost holy place during this age of Kali. Acceptance of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as Lord Krishna Himself, our supreme father and the cause of all causes, and His abode as our supreme destination, is not to be done on the basis of blind faith, but by accepting the authority of our mother, the Vedas.

                   This compilation of verses from the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Samhitas, Tantras, Yamalas, Upa-puranas, Yoga-vasishtha, Navadvipa-sataka, other bhakti-smriti-sastras, and the like, clearly establishes that Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s abode of Navadvipa is the topmost holy place in Kali-yuga. Hence this book fills a great need, by illuminating the mass of people as to the real philosophical truth about Shri Navadvipa, the  eternal abode of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, which unfortunately has thus far remained unknown, for the simple reason that it is the most confidential part of the Vedas.

                   The Lord is sometimes known as Triyugi, “He who appears openly in three yugas (namely Satya, Treta, and Dvapara).” But He also appears in Kali-yuga in a covered incarnation, in the form of His own devotee, as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In this incarnation the Lord personally teaches by His own example how to worship Himself, Krishna. Thus He becomes His own devotee to practically demonstrate the process of devotional service for our benefit. But according to His desire, this incarnation along with His abode have been described in theVedas only in a very concealed and  confidential manner, so as not to obstruct His mission during His presence on this planet. Had people openly known then that He was God during His time, He would not have been able to freely perform His pastimes as His own devotee, and thus teach us bhakti-yoga by His own example.


Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura most wonderfully glorifies Navadvipa in his classic work Shri Navadvipa-dhama-mahatmya, Parikrama-khanda:


Chapter 1: General Glorification


                   All glories to Lord Chaitanya, the moon of Navadvipa and son of mother Saci! All glories to Nityananda Raya, the avadhuta! All glories to Shri Advaita Prabhu, the Supreme Lord (the incarnation of Sadasiva and Maha-Vishnu combined)! All glories to Shri Gadadhara (the incarnation of Shrimati Radharani) and Shrivasa Pandita (the incarnation of Shrila Narada Muni)! All glories to Navadvipa-dhama, the essence of all dhamas! And all glories to the residents of Navadvipa, the eternal associates of Gauranga!

                   Offering obeisances to the feet of all the devotees, I will now briefly describe Shri Navadvipa-dhama. Even the demigods headed by Lord Brahma do not know the unlimited glories of Navadvipa-mandala, so who can possibly describe that dhama fully? Since the thousand-mouthed Sesha cannot describe it completely, how can I, an insignificant living entity, do so? Even Lord Siva can find no end to the unlimited glories of Navadvipa-dhama. Nevertheless, the desire of Shri Chaitanya is powerful, and according to His wish the devotees have given me an order. Therefore, by the mercy of the devotees, I hereby describe the glories of Nadia.

                   There is one other topic I would like to mention. As it is a confidential matter, I hesitate to disclose it. But, on the other hand, I cannot resist telling it, for Lord Chaitanya instructed His devotees to publicize the glories of His pastimes and abode after His disappearance. Though Shri Chaitanya is the most concealed of all avataras, I know well that He is all in all. But because His confidential activities are described ambiguously in scripture, the nondevotees are unable to realize them. For a long time Mayadevi kept hidden the confidential scriptures that describe Lord Chaitanya’s pastimes. These topics are described in both the unmanifest scriptures, which were scattered here and there, as well as in the manifest scriptures. Maya kept all these scriptures hidden from view by covering the eyes of the scholars.

          After Gauranga completed His pastimes on earth, however, His obedient servant Mayadevi, understood the desire of the Lord. She lifted the veil of illusion from the eyes of the living entities and revealed the true nature of Shri Gauranga within this material universe. Thus the hidden meaning in the scriptures became easily revealed, and the arguments inhibiting understanding Lord Chaitanya were dispelled. It was the all-merciful Nityananda Prabhu who revealed the truth about Gauranga in the hearts of the living entities. On His command, Maya pulled away the covering so that the pure devotee scholars could receive this precious treasure of the scriptures.

                   If one remains doubtful in spite of the scriptural evidence, he is most unfortunate and useless. Why should he continue living? When Nityananda Prabhu distributed the mercy, the fortunate living entities accepted and reached the perfection of happiness. Everyone should know the symptoms of the unfortunate living entity as well; it is he who is overconfident of the power of his own intelligence. Such a person rejects the mercy of the Lord, and by the force of false logic he falls repeatedly into the pit of illusion.

                   “Come, spirit souls of Kali-yuga! Give up this hypocrisy and just accept the pure ecstatic love of Shri Gauranga!” In this way Nityananda Prabhu would call out again and again. But still the unfortunate living entities did not accept.

                   Now let us consider carefully why these people do not accept such wonderful love of God. In pursuit of happiness, living entities in the material world follow various processes, such as logic or mystic yoga. And, in quest of happiness, some give up the material world and go to the forest, while kings constantly wage wars amongst themselves. Desiring happiness, others run after women and wealth, while others take to arts and sciences. In pursuit of happiness, others reject happiness and learn to tolerate the miseries of life, and still others simply drown themselves in the ocean.

                   Raising His lotus hands in the air, Lord Nityananda exclaims, “Come, living entities! Give up the troubles of karma and jnana. Since you are endeavoring for happiness, I will give you happiness without asking anything in exchange. In this happiness there is no trouble, loss, or pain. Just chant the name of Gauranga and dance without anxiety. There’s nothing equal to the happiness that I am giving. That happiness is pure, eternal ecstasy-beyond all illusion!”

                   In this way, Nityananda Prabhu begged everyone to take pure ecstatic love. Still, unfortunate persons, influenced by previous sinful activities, did not even want it. But if such persons chant even once the names of Gauranga and Nitai, the effects of unlimited sinful activities are destroyed. Listen, everyone, to one more confidential topic. The most suitable thing for the souls of Kali-yuga is this treasure of gauranga-lila. Gaurahari is the combined form of Radha and Krishna, who eternally enjoy pastimes in Vrindavana along with the sakhis. The truth of Radha and Krishna’s eternal pastimes and the glories of Vraja-dhama are known by everyone through the scriptures. And the unlimited glories of Krishna’s name and abode are known through the scriptures by people all over the universe. But still, actually obtaining krishna-prema is not achieved by the common people. Let us contemplate the reason why.

                   Herein lies the secret of secrets which the living entities bound by Maya cannot discern. One who does not attain love of God after worshiping Krishna birth after birth has certainly committed heaps of offenses. For only by chanting Krishna’s name without offenses can one attain incessant krishna-prema.

                   Shri Chaitanya's incarnation, however, is most uncommon. By His mercy, a serious person, though filled with offenses, can quickly obtain love of God. When someone calls out the names of Nitai and Chaitanya, krishna-prema comes looking for him. Offenses do not hinder his progress, and he soon sheds tears of ecstasy out of pure love of God. By the mercy of Lord Chaitanya, all the offenses quickly flee away, the heart becomes pure, and love of God fully blossoms. Because people in Kali-yuga commit unlimited offenses, which are difficult to check, there can be no means of deliverance other than Gauranga’s name. Therefore, in Kali-yuga, I see no alternative to Shri Gauranga. This is also the proclamation of the scriptures.

                   As Shri Gaurachandra appeared in Navadvipa, it is therefore the crest jewel of all holy places. Offenders are the object of punishment at other holy pilgrimage places, but in Navadvipa-dhama they are purified. The example is the two brothers Jagai and Madhai, who committed great offenses yet still received Nitai and Gaura. What to speak of other places, at Vrindavana the offenders are punished. But a person who has committed hundreds of offenses can easily receive the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu and overcome those offenses in Navadvipa-dhama. For this reason, sages endlessly praise Navadvipa of Gaura-mandala.

                   He who lives in Navadvipa-dhama is very fortunate, for he achieves attraction for Krishna. He who happens to go there becomes freed from all offenses. What one attains by travelling to all the holy places is attained just by remembering Navadvipa. In this way the scriptures sing. He who sees Navadvipa-dhama gets ecstatic love of Krishna birth after birth. Even one who goes to Navadvipa desiring to gain material comforts through pious activities will not take another birth. The sastras say that one who walks around Navadvipa attains the fruit of millions of asvamedha-yajnas at every step. And one who lives in Navadvipa and chants his mantra finds that the mantra becomes conscious very soon and easily liberates him from maya. What yogis obtain after ten years at other tirthas is obtained in three nights at Navadvipa.

                   That liberation attained by Brahman realization at other holy places is obtained simply by bathing in the Ganges at Navadvipa. Thus, all types of liberation-salokya, sarupya, sarshti, samipya, and nirvana-can be obtained in Navadvipa without speculative practice. Falling at the feet of the pure devotees in Navadvipa, Bhukti and Mukti (personified material enjoyment and liberation) remain there as obedient servants. Not caring for their blessings, the devotees kick them away, but still they do not leave the devotee’s feet. The fruits obtained by staying one hundred years at the seven holy cities can be attained by staying one night in Navadvipa-dhama.

                   In conclusion, Navadvipa is the topmost tirtha. Taking shelter of it, the living entities can cross over Kali-yuga. At this place, taraka, the name of Rama, which gives liberation, and paraka, the name of Krishna, which gives prema, always serve the residents of the dhama. Aspiring for the shade of the lotus feet of Nitai and Jahnava, Bhaktivinoda thus sings in bliss.


Chapter Two: Measurement and Form of the Dhaam


                   All glories to Lord Chaitanya, the moon of Navadvipa and son of mother Saci! All glories to Nityananda Raya, the avadhuta! All glories to Navadvipa-dhama, the essence of all spiritual abodes! Who has the ability to describe the truth of Navadvipa?

                   Navadvipa-dhama within Gaura-mandala is served by the Ganges and situated in eternal splendor. This Gaura-mandala is 168 miles in circumference, with the Ganges running through the center. Gaura-mandala takes the form of a 100-petaled lotus with the most beautiful Navadvipa in the center. The circumference of the central stamen of the flower, or Antardvipa, is 10 miles, and the circumference of the 8-petaled flower, or Navadvipa, is 32 miles. Outside this are the 100 petals of Gaura-mandala, whose circumference measures 168 miles. According to the scriptures, the diameter of Gaura-mandala is 56 miles and the radius 28 miles. The center point, situated within Navadvipa, is Yogapitha, the sacred spiritual abode where the Lord advented.

                   The whole of Gaura-mandala is cintamani, or touchstone, yielding all desires. The dhama is full of knowledge and bliss and is completely spiritual. The water, the land, the trees, and everything in the dhama is spiritual, unlike the dull matter of this material world. Always present in the dhama are Krishna’s three spiritual energies: sandhini, samvit, and hladini. Krishna’s original energy, svarupa-sakti, manifests in these three divisions. Of these, the sandhini energy, which supports all existence, finds its perfect function in manifesting the eternal dhama. In that position, the dhama acts eternally as the base or support for the Lord’s appearance and activities. All this is the action of the inconceivable energy of the Lord, which is anti-material and completely transcendental.

                   One who sees in the dhama only the activities of material nature is a conditioned soul under the influence of ignorance and illusion. When a person’s vision is covered by a cloud, he may think that the sun is covered, but actually the sun can never be covered by a cloud. In the same way, only persons whose vision is covered by the cloud of illusion see the transcendental form of Gaura-mandala as a transformation of the material energy.

                   Whoever gets the mercy of Lord Nityananda Balarama, the master of the sandhini potency, can see that blissful dhama as fully spiritual. The holy rivers such as the Ganges and Yamuna, as well as the seven holy cities headed by Prayaga, are all situated in various places within Navadvipa-dhama. One who is fortunate can see that this pure realm, Gaura-mandala, is directly the spiritual world.

                   Following the order of the Lord, Maya, the shadow of the Lord’s svarupa-sakti, spreads her influence of illusion. She covers the eyes of those living entities who have turned away from the Lord; thus they are unable to see the glories of the spiritual dhama.

                   Those persons who always reside in Gaura-mandala are the most fortunate in the world. The demigods in the heavenly planets see them as having beautiful four-handed forms of blackish complexion. Within the sixteen krosas (32 miles) of Navadvipa-dhama, the numerous residents, who are golden in complexion, constantly engage in congregational chanting of the Lord’s holy names. Brahma and other demigods come from outer space and worship them in various ways.

                   Lord Brahma prays, “When will I become so fortunate to take birth as a blade of grass in Navadvipa-dhama? Then I will receive the dust from the feet of the devotees who are engaged in serving the lotus feet of Shri Gauranga. Alas, Lord Chaitanya has cheated me, for He has placed me in charge of the management of the universe. When will the knots of my karma be cut? When will my mind be purified, as I give up false pride? And when will the illusion that I am the supreme authority cease, as I become a pure servant under the shelter of Gauranga’s lotus feet?”

                   The devas, rishis, and Rudras always reside in different parts of Navadvipa. Although they are engaged in austerities for a long time, still they do not get Nityananda’s mercy. As long as bodily consciousness is not given up and humility does not awaken within, one cannot obtain the treasure of Shri Chaitanya’s and Shri Nityananda’s mercy, no matter what efforts one makes, even if he be Siva or Brahma. All this will be explained later. O brother, just hear with faith and attention.

                   In these spiritual topics, one should avoid mundane logic and arguments, which are useless and inauspicious. The transcendental pastimes of Shri Chaitanya are a deep ocean, whereas the process of mundane logic is simply troublesome, like the sheath covering the banana flower. Whoever wants to cross the ocean of material existence by logic and argument will simply toil in vain. He will receive nothing. But by giving up false arguments and taking the guidance of sadhu and sastra, one will soon receive Shri Chaitanya. For on the order of Nityananda Prabhu, the sruti (Vedas), smriti (Puranas), and tantra-sastras are continuously singing the glories of Navadvipa-dhama [some of the verses are given below]. By reading these scriptures and accepting the words of the devotees, one will realize the truth of Navadvipa-dhama.

                   In Kali-yuga, all holy places are extremely weak; only Navadvipa is supremely strong. However, by the Lord’s desire this tirtha was invisible for a long time and its glories lay unrevealed. When the influence of Kali-yuga increased, naturally the holy places lost their power.

                   At that time, desiring the good fortune of all living entities, the Supreme Lord thought, “Upon diagnosing a disease, a doctor prescribes an appropriate medicine. Accordingly, a strong medicine is given for a severe disease. Now that Kali-yuga has become terrible and the disease is serious, there will be no relief without a strong medicine. If I do not reveal My most confidential dhama, name, and form, all of which I have been holding secret for so long, how will the living entities ever recover? The living entities are My servants and I am their Lord. If I do not help them, they will never be delivered.”

                   Saying this, Lord Chaitanya appeared on earth with His name, dhama, and associates. The Lord promised that He would always deliver the living entities from the troubles of material existence.

                   Gauranga said, “Without considering who is fit and who is unfit, in this incarnation I will freely distribute the treasure of love of Krishna which is rarely attained by even Lord Brahma. I will see how Kali can destroy these living entities! I will manifest Navadvipa-dhama and break the poison teeth of Kali by performing congregational chanting of the holy names of Krishna. As long as My name is sung, Kali will be controlled.”

                   Saying this, Gaurahari appeared in the beginning of Kali-yuga in Navadvipa by His own internal spiritual potency. Withdrawing the covering of illusion, Gaurachandra revealed His eternal pastimes in Gaura-mandala.

                   I see no one in Kali-yuga more unfortunate than that lamentable, wretched person who does not worship such a merciful Lord as Shri Chaitanya, or who rejects such an inconceivable dhama as Navadvipa. Therefore, give up all other desires and attractions and simply fix your mind on Navadvipa-dhama. Aspiring for the shade of the lotus feet of Nitai and Jahnava, Bhaktivinoda reveals these truths.


Chapter Three: The Procedure for Parikrama of the Dhaam


                   All glories to Lord Chaitanya, the moon of Navadvipa and son of mother Saci! All glories to Nityananda Raya, the avadhuta! All glories to Shri Advaita Prabhu! All glories to Gadadhara and Shrivasa Pandita! All glories to Navadvipa-dhama, the essence of all dhamas, which advented along with Gaurachandra. Now hear, brothers, as I describe the places within the sixteen krosas of Navadvipa-dhama.

                   Sixteen rivers eternally exist within the sixteen-krosa area of Navadvipa. On the eastern bank of the main Ganges there are four islands, and on the western bank five. The different tributaries of the Ganges surround these islands and give the dhama its splendor. The main Ganges always flows in the middle, while other pious rivers flow in various tributaries. Near the Ganges flows the beautiful Yamuna, and the Sarasvati flows within another river. East of the Yamuna are the long streams of the Tamraparni, the Kritamala, and the Brahmaputra. The Sarayu, Narmada, Sindhu, Kaveri, Gomati, and Godavari flow swiftly throughout the breadth of Navadvipa. All these rivers intersect to form the nine different islands of Navadvipa.

                   Following the desires of the Lord, sometimes the streams dry up, and then again by His wish they flow with water. By the Lord’s wish sometimes places become covered with water, and by His wish they again become visible. In this way the dhama endlessly enacts its lila, but the same dhama remains always manifest to the fortunate living entity. If within his heart a devotee’s desire is acute, then all the islands and rivers will be visible. By devotion, the dhama is sometimes visible in dreams, meditation, or to the naked eye.

                   The island which lies at the junction of the Ganges and Yamuna is known in the sastras as Antardvipa. Within Antardvipa lies the holy sanctuary of Mayapur, where Lord Chaitanya appeared. Know, devotees, that Mahavana, in the center of Goloka, is none other than Mayapur of Navadvipa.

                   Svetadvipa, Vaikuntha, Goloka, and Vrindavana reside in Navadvipa at all times. By the order of Gaurachandra, the seven holy cities-Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya (Haridvara), Kasi, Kanci, Avanti (Ujjain), and Dvaraka-are always present in their own places within Navadvipa. The city of Maya, at Gangadvara, has its original form as Mayapur in Navadvipa-dhama. The glories of this particular place are profusely sung in the scriptures.

                   That person who once visits Mayapur is easily freed from the bondage of maya. One who walks throughout Mayapur is freed from the influence of maya and the repetition of birth.

                   North of Mayapur lies Simantadvipa. Sadhus and sastra have explained the rules of parikrama. After having darsana of Mayapur in Antardvipa, learned devotees go to Simantadvipa. Next one should go south of Mayapur to Godrumadvipa. Then one should joyfully go to Madhyadvipa. After seeing these four islands on the east bank, one should reverently cross the Ganges. Having walked around Koladvipa at leisure, then take darsana of Ritudvipa. After seeing the most beautiful Jahnudvipa, go see Modadrumadvipa and then Rudradvipa. Then again cross the Ganges and walk back to Mayapur. There, respectfully enter the temple of Jagannatha Misra and Sacidevi and take darsana of the Lord. This is the timeless procedure for performing parikrama. One who follows this practice will obtain unlimited happiness.


                   Everyone considers that the best time for parikrama is from the tithi of Makara-saptami up to the full moon (total 9 days), or purnima, of Phalguna (February-March). After finishing parikrama, fortunate persons take darsana at Mayapur on the most auspicious appearance day of Lord Chaitanya. Nitai and Chaitanya bestow Their mercy and the shade of Their lotus feet on those persons, who thus attain the qualification to execute devotional service.


                   I have only briefy described the rules for parikrama. Now I will describe everything in detail. Therefore, please listen. Whoever walks around the 168 miles of Gaura-mandala will quickly obtain the treasure of Gaura-prema. Desiring to obtain the shade of the lotus feet of Jahnava and Nitai, Bhaktivinoda reveals these truths.


Chapter 17: Jiva Gosvami’s Questions And The Answers


                   Jiva asked (after completing the nine-day Navadvipa-dhama-parikrama under the direction of Lord Nityananda), “The Lord’s order is supreme. Accepting that order, I must indeed go to Vrindavana. But I have a few questions to ask. O Lord, for the benefit of Your servant, please answer. You say that Navadvipa and Vrindavana are nondifferent. If that is so, why should one make the effort to go to Vrindavana at all?”

                   After hearing Jiva’s question, Nityananda Prabhu answered, “This is a deep topic, so listen carefully. But as long as the Lord’s pastimes are manifest, see that the materialists do not come to know of this.

                   “Navadvipa and Vrindavana are one principle; one is neither less than nor greater than the other. Vrindavana is the receptacle of rasa, the goal of the living entities, but one who is not qualified cannot receive that nectar. Therefore, that same dhama has mercifully become Navadvipa, where the living entities can attain qualification for that nectar. In other words, Radha and Krishna’s pastimes are the highest of all transcendental mellows, thus one has no immediate right to them.

                   “After many lifetimes of austerity one reaches the stage of knowledge. When that knowledge matures, one inquires about this rasa. But there are always many obstacles, so to obtain the great treasure of this nectar is very rare indeed. Therefore, anyone and everyone who goes to Vrindavana does not get that rasa. Rather, because of offenses that sweet nectar turns sour.

                   “In this terrible age of Kali, offenses are continuous, the body is short-lived, and there are many troubles, so even if one wants Vrindavana-rasa, it is not attainable. The only way to get that rasa is by the mercy of Krishna.

                   “Radha and Krishna have given that mercy to the living entities by manifesting Vrindavana in the form of Navadvipa, and by incarnating in the womb of Saci in a combined form as Gaurahari. In that form They have given the process to qualify for Vraja-rasa. Even the initial presence of offenses does not bar one from quickly attaining the goal of prema.

                   “If one lives in Navadvipa and takes shelter of the holy name, his offenses will be destroyed and the qualification for the rasa will appear. Love of Krishna will soon shine within his heart and topics of Radha-Krishna will prevail. In this way, by achieving Gauranga’s mercy, the living entity attains Vrindavana, the holy abode of Radha’s and Krishna’s nectarean pastimes.

                  As this is a confidential topic, do not discuss it openly. Actually, there is absolutely no difference between Navadvipa and Vrindavana. Now you are qualified to take shelter of the place where Radha and Krishna's rasa is fully manifested, so you should go to Vrindavana. In a strict sense, there is no need to go to Vraja-dhama, for upon attaining qualification that Vraja-dhama appears here in Navadvipa. Still you should go to Vraja, for that is the Lord’s order. For living entities it is always proper to first take shelter of Navadvipa to obtain the qualification for relishing the rasa of Vraja. Then one may live in Vrindavana, the place for actually acquiring that rasa, and there he will enjoy those transcendental mellows. When you get the mercy of Navadvipa, you will easily attain Vrindavana.”

                   Hearing Nityananda Prabhu’s conclusions, Jiva caught His lotus feet in ecstatic bliss and said, “I have one more question. Please listen. Many people live in Navadvipa, but why they are still unable to attain krishna-bhakti? As they are staying in this dhama, how do offenses remain in them? This has been disturbing me. O Lord, You are the abode of the universe, yet You remain eternally free from material contamination. Please tell me how the devotees will be freed from this doubt?” Desiring the shade of the lotus feet of Nitai and Jahnava, this low and worthless Bhaktivinoda speaks these topics.


Chapter 18: Removal of Shrila Jiva Gosvami’s Doubts


                   After hearing Shri Jiva’s question, Nityananda Raya spoke this profound truth amongst the assembled devotees, “Listen, Jiva. Both Vrindavana and Navadvipa are the shelter of countless blissful devotees. Purified living entities who have crossed over the material nature live here as Krishna’s associates. This dhama is an eternally pure spiritual abode, where material nature and time are conquered. In this abode, the land and time are eternally full of bliss and completely opposite to the material world. You should know that the houses, doors, rivers, streams, forests, and courtyards are all completely spiritual and intensely attractive.

                   “That blissful place, transcendental to material nature, rests on Krishna’s inconceivable and supremely magnanimous sandhini energy. By that energy the dhama has descended here in Nadia, for Krishna’s real desire is to deliver the living entities. Materialistic persons cannot enter the dhama, nor is there any material influence here. Maya has eternally covered the dhama with a film of dull matter. Persons who have no relationship with Krishna Chaitanya simply live on top of that covering, blind to the real truth. Though one is thinking, ‘I am in Navadvipa,’ Praudha Maya happily keeps him far away from the dhama. But if by some great fortune one receives the association of a pure devotee, that relationship (sambandha) with Shri Chaitanya will be established.

                   “This topic of sambandha is a deep thing, O son of Vallabha, a treasure that the conditioned souls cannot easily understand. Even if one calls out the name of Shri Krishna Chaitanya with seeming affection, if that relationship is not established in his heart, he simply remains in the material realm. Such a person resides on top of the dhama’s illusory covering and never attains pure bhakti. That person is the dharmadhvaji, or the hypocritically devout-who is especially duplicitous, who has no humility and is full of pride, yet still thinks he is fully qualified.

                             “By the devotees’ mercy, even such a person can give up his pride and perform devotional activities. One should think himself lower than a blade of grass and more tolerant than a tree. He should not desire respect for himself, but should expertly offer respect to others. When one possesses these four qualities and sings the glories of Lord Krishna, his relationship with Lord Shri Chaitanya manifests within his heart.

                   “Now, there are five relationships one may have with Krishna: santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya. By first worshiping Gauranga in the mood of santa and dasya, the devotee attains Krishna’s service in the other rasas. According to his relationship with the Lord, the devotee’s eternally perfect mood spontaneously manifests in the course of his devotional service.

                   “Whoever makes a distinction between Gauranga and Krishna is contemptible and will never attain a relationship with Krishna. But in the association of devotees, one who possesses the qualities beginning with humility will first worship Gauranga in dasya, or the servitude relationship. This dasya-rasa is the highest mood in the worship of Gauranga. It is in that mood that the devotees call Shri Gauranga ‘Mahaprabhu.’

                  One who  is qualified in madhurya-rasa worships Gauranga in the form of Radha and Krishna. As Radha and Krishna have combined in one form as My Gauranga Raya, Their pastimes do not appear to be manifest in His form. When the worship of Gauranga in dasya-rasa reaches full maturity in the heart of the living entity, madhurya-rasa naturally develops in his heart. At that time one's worship of Gaurahari qualifies him to worship Radha and Krishna in Vrindavana. Gauranga then drowns the devotee in the nectar of Radha and Krishna's eternal pastimes, which the devotee enters as he attains Vrindavana.


                   “The materialist, who is blind to spiritual life, cannot see the deep relationship between Navadvipa and Vraja, which are simultaneously one and different. Know for certain that this same relationship exists between Gaura and Krishna, who are also simultaneously one and different. Gauranga, however, is worshiped in madhurya-rasa in the form of Radha and Krishna.”


[From Shri Navadvipa Mahatmya, translated by Bhanu Swami and Pundarika Vidyanidhi Dasa. Translation of Shri Navadvipa dhama-mahatmya of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura (the classic book on the glories of  Shri Navadvipa-dhama and Lord Gauranga) with the original Bengali verses will be done by His Holiness Shrila Bhaktiratna Sadhu Maharaja in the near future.]




Though the dhama is always transcendentally situated, it appears geographically about 130 km north  of Calcutta (West Bengal, India), next to the River Ganges. Across the Ganges from Navadvipa city on the eastern side is Mayapura. Historically Navadvipa was the capital of Bengal in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Before Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s appearance this place was known as Nadia, and after the Lord’s advent it became known as Navadvipa. Over a million pilgrims visit Navadvipa every year.


It is also stated in the Urdhvamnaya Tantra:


dhanye kalau sampravishte, gaura-lila manorama;

prakata bhavita hy etat, vyaktam tada bhavishyati.


“The advent of the Age of Kali is most auspicious because in the near future the philosophical truths and beautiful pastimes of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and His abode will be most openly and widely established and broadcasted.”


Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Himself predicted that His holy names will spread all over the world in the Chaitanya-bhagavata (Antya 4.126):


prithivite ache yata nagaradi-grama;

sarvatra pracara haibe mora nama.


“My Name will be broadcasted and glorified in all various towns, villages, cities, countries and continents of the world.”


These Names are Gauranga, Gaura, Gaurahari, Shri Krishna Chaitanya, Nimai, Shri Nityananda or Nitai etc. alongwith the Hare Krishna maha-mantra and the names of Lord Krishna.


It is also predicted by Shrila Nityananda Prabhu in Shri Navadvipa-dhama-mahatmya that:


adbhuta mandira ei haibe prakasa;

gaurangera nitya-seva haibe vikasha.


“Very soon, a most wonderful and superexcellent temple will manifest in Shri Mayapura, Navadvipa-dhama. From this temple, the eternal service to Lord Gauranga will spread and  expand throughout the world .”


Bhaktivinoda Thakura in Samalocana, Sajjana Tosani 4/3:


shri chaitanya-lila sakala bhashaya likhita haoya prayojaniya.


“It it very urgently required to translate and publish the books about the pastimes and abode of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu into all the languages of the world.


ati alpa dinera madhyei mahaprabhu sarva desa

vyapi haiya eka matra upasya-tattva haitechen.


“This is so urgently necessary because in a very short time, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu will become the sole object of worship or the Supreme Worshippable Lord in all the villages, towns, and cities of the world. If these books about His pastimes are available in various languages, people can read and hear them regularly and thus constantly increase and nourish their faith in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.”


                   Thus from the above quotes it is clear that this very important book fulfills the desire of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Himself. Compilation of the verses contained herein was possible by revelation of the relevant scriptures, by the causeless mercy and desire of none other than the Supreme Personality of Servitor Godhead Lord Shri Nityananda Balarama, and by His great devotees Shrila Thakura Bhaktivinoda, Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada, and Shrila Prabhupada. Thus we hope that readers will take the subject matter of this book very seriously, and read it repeatedly, to fully understand the position of Shri Navadvipa-dhama and thus take full shelter of the dhama. On the other hand, if in spite of reading such overwhelming scriptural evidence about Shri Navadvipa-dhama, a most unfortunate person remains averse to the process of surrender unto the dhama, and does not develop faith in Navadvipa, then such a person is doomed to perpetually revolve throughout 8.4 million species of life in the cycle of birth and death. And according to Thakura Bhaktivinoda, “There is no good reason for  such a person to continue living, not even in this present human form of life.”

                   After Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu returned to His transcendental abode, His eternal associates the six Gosvamis of Vrindavana, fully knowing His mind, on the basis of the Vedic literatures emphatically established Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His Navadvipa-dhama as the ultimate destination. Indeed it is the duty of every living entity in Kali-yuga, if he desires his real self-interest, to accept this ultimate conclusion and thus worship Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s abode of Navadvipa with full faith through the congregational chanting of Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare; and the holy names of Lord Gauranga and Lord Nityananda.

                   The publication of this book is thus a humble contribution towards the fulfillment of the above prediction from the Urdhvamnaya Tantra and all previous acaryas. The publication of this book will hasten the advent of the already overdue Golden Age (next 10,000 years in Kali-yuga), as predicted in the Vedic literatures like the Brahma-vaivarta Purana.

                   Once having understood the philosophical truth about the actual position of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Shri Navadvipa-dhama, readers of this book will naturally become eager to hear about the glorious Navadvipa pastimes of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Nityananda Prabhu (the original spiritual master), in order to increasingly enrich their understanding of the Lord and thus attain eternal residence in His eternal spiritual abode of Navadvipa at the end of their life. To fulfill this demand, we are trying to publish in as many languages as possible a highly affordable edition of Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata, the most authorized and accessible biography for the common man on Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, written in A.D. 1538 by Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura, none other than the incarnation of Vyasadeva.


Navadvipa-vasa-abhilashi-Navadvipa-vasi dasanudasa,

Tridandi Svami Bhaktiratna Sadhu.


Completed on April 5, 2002, the most auspicious occasion of the Appearance Day celebrations of Shrila Shrivasa Thakura, the incarnation of Shrila Narada Muni in Gaura-lila and an eternal resident of Shri Navadvipa-dhama. Lord Chaitanya constantly performs His sankirtana pastimes in his home in Navadvipa.


(I) Sruti & Smriti Shastras repeatedly describe

Shri Navadvipa Dhaam




In the Atharva Veda (Third Kanda, Brahma-vibhaga), the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself says:


 ito ’ham krita-sannyaso ’vatarishyami sa-guno nirvedo nishkamo bhu-girbanas tira-stho ’lakanandayah* kalau catuh-sahasrabdhopari panca-sahasrabhyantare gaura-varno dirghangah sarva-lakshana-yukta isvara-prarthito nija-rasasvado bhakta-rupo misrakhyo vidita-yogah syam


“Towards the end of the period between 4000 to 5000 years in Kali-yuga, I will descend on the earth as a golden-complexioned saintly brahmana in a place by the Ganges’ shore (*Navadvipa) and later become the crest-jewel of all sannyasis, exhibiting all My transcendental qualities, including supreme renunciation and complete detachment from material desires. I will display all the thirty-two bodily symptoms of a great personality, with My arms extending to my knees. I will become My own devotee, very advanced in bhakti-yoga, and will teach the worship of Lord Krishna (Myself) by the chanting of My own holy names, relishing the mellows of My own devotional service. At that time, only My most confidential devotees will be able to understand Me.”





tathaham krita-sannyaso bhu-girbano ’vatarirye tire ’lakanandayah* punah punar isvara-prarthitah sa-parivaro niralambo nirdhuteh kali-kalmasa-kavalita-janavalambanaya


In the Sama Veda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself says: “To rescue the helpless people who are being devoured by the sins of Kali-yuga, I will descend to the earth in a saintly brahmana family residing on the shores of the Ganges (*Navadvipa), accompanied by My eternal associates. I will then become an avadhuta sannyasi and will teach everyone the process of worshiping Me by the incessant chanting of My own holy names.”


Chandogya Upanishad


In Chandogya Upanishad (8.1.1), Navadvipa is described as the city of Brahmapura:


harih om, atha yad idam asmin brahmapure daharam pundarikam vesma daharo ’smin antarakasas tasmin yad-antas tad anveshtavyam tad vava vijijnasitavyam iti.


“Hari! Om! In the very heart of this spiritual city (Brahmapura) is a lotus abode (vesma). The internal part of that abode should be sought. This is the part everyone should desire to understand.”


[The verse is further explained by Thakura Bhaktivinoda in the Navadvipa-dhama-mahatmya, Pramana-khanda as follows:


atra brahma-puram nama, pundarikam yad ucyate;

tad evashta-dalam padma-sannibham puram adbhutam.


“In Chandogya Upanishad that place is described as a transcendental spiritual city (Brahmapura) surrounded by a wonderful eight-petal lotus flower, each petal of which represents an island.


tan-madhye daharam sakshat mayapuram itiryate.

tatra vesma bhagavatas chaitanyasya paratmanah.

tasmin yas tv antarakaso hy antar-dvipah sa ucyate.


“In the center of that eight-petalled-lotus city is the ninth island, the whorl of the lotus, called Antardvipa. And in the heart of Antardvipa is Shridhama Mayapur (Yogapitha), which is directly the abode of Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.]


 Purusha Bodhiny Upanishad


saptame gaura-varna-vishnor ity anena sva-saktya caikyam

etya prante pratar avatirya saha dvaih svam anusikshayati.


In the Purusha-bodhini Upanishad-Atharva-veda, 6th Prapathaka it is said: “In the seventh manvantara (Vaivasvata Manu), the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Gaura-Vishnu will accept a golden complexion due to attaining oneness with His pleasure potency Shrimati Radhika and descend on this earth with all His multifarious potencies in the beginning of the Kali-yuga of the twenty-eighth catur-yuga, accompanied by His own eternal associates to teach the chanting of His own holy names in the form of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra.”


Gopala Tapany Upanishad


hiranmayam saumya-tanum sva bhaktayabhaya-pradam;

dhyayen manasi mam nityam venu-shringa dharam tu va.


In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad,  Uttara-vibhaga 63,  it is said:

“Let my mind constantly meditate on the most gentle, grave and pure Supreme Personality of Godhead (Lord Chaitanya) who has a complexion of molten gold, who carries a bamboo rod (sannyasa rod) and who bestows fearlessness upon His devotees.”

 Krishna Upanishad


sa eva bhagavan yuge turiye ’pi brahma-kule jayamanah sarva upanishadah uddidirshuh sarvani dharma-sastrani vistarayishnuh sarvan api janan santarayishnuh sarvan api vaishnavan dharman vijrimbhayan sarvan api pashandan nicakhana.


In the Krishna Upanishad it is said: “In Kali-yuga (the fourth yuga), the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krishna Himself will appear in a brahmana family with the purpose of  teaching the message of all the 108 Upanishads and expanding the conclusions of all the dharma-sastras. He will deliver all the living entities in the universe from the cycle of birth and death by manifesting the pure principles of Vaishnava dharma and He will simultaneously subdue all the atheists and offenders.”


Mundaka Upanishad


yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam

kartaram isam purusham brahma-yonim;

tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya

niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti. [1]


In the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.3) it is said: “One who is fortunate enough to see that actual object of our vision, the golden-colored Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord Gaura who is the ultimate doer, controller and enjoyer of everything and the source of the brahmajyoti (or one who has descended in a brahmana family), immediately becomes the most learned person, free from all material peity, sin, contamination and designations and effortlessly attains the supreme liberation of entering the abode of the Lord.”


hiranmaye pare kose, virajam brahma nishkalam;

tac chubhram jyotisham jyotis, tad yad atma-vido viduh.[2]


“They who actually know the self, know that the supremely effulgent Personality of Godhead Lord Gauranga, the source of all other splendors, resides in a pure, splendid and transcendental realm (Navadvipa) which appears golden due to being illuminated by His own golden bodily complexion.”


sa evaitat paramam brahma-dhama

yatra visvam nihitam bhati subhram;

upasate purusham ye hy akamas

te sukram etad ativartanti dhirah. [3]


“The sober persons who becoming free for all material desires, worship that golden Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who resides in His topmost effulgent spiritual abode (Navadvipa), easily cross over this material world of repeated birth and death.


Shri Chaitanya Upanishad-Atharva-veda


In the Atharva Veda-Shri Chaitanya Upanishad it is said:


atha pippaladah samit-panir bhagavantam brahmanam upasanno. bhagavan me subham kim atra cakshasveti. [1]


Carrying firewood in his hands, Pippalada humbly approached his supremely powerful father, Lord Brahma, and asked: “O my Lord, please instruct me on how I may attain an auspicious life.”


sa hovaca. bhuya eva tapasa brahmacaryena

sasvad ramasva mano vaseti. [2]


Lord Brahma replied: “Be satisfied by always remaining celibate and performing austerities and very carefully control the activities of the mind.”


sa tatha bhutva  bhuya enam upasadyaha. bhagavan kalau papac channah prajah katham mucyerann iti. [3]


Pippalada followed these instructions, and after having become pure in his own heart and mind, he again approached his father and asked: “O my Lord, please tell me how the living entities in Kali-yuga, who are completely covered by sin, may be delivered.”


ko va devata ko va mantro bruhiti. [4]


“Which form of the Lord should be the object of their worship, and what mantra should they chant in order to become delivered? Kindly inform me.”


sa hovaca rahasyam te vadishyami jahnavi-tire navadvipe* golokakhye dhamni govindo dvi-bhujo gaurah sarvatma maha-purusho mahatma maha-yogi tri-gunatitah sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kasyatiti tad ete sloka bhavanti. [5]


Lord Brahma replied: “Listen carefully, for I shall give you a very confidential description of what will happen in the Kali-yuga. The Supreme Personality of Godhead Govinda, who is the all-pervading Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living entities; who is the Supreme Absolute Truth, the master of all mystics, and the supreme enjoyer; who is beyond the touch of the three modes of material nature; and whose form is transcendental; will appear again in the Kali age. Appearing as His own greatest devotee, the Lord will assume a two-armed form with a golden complexion, in His abode of Goloka Vrindavana manifested on the bank of the Ganges at Navadvipa,* West Bengal. He will disseminate pure devotional service throughout the entire world. I will now describe this incarnation of the Lord in the following verses.”


eko devah sarva-rupi mahatma

gauro rakta-syamalah-sveta-rupah;

chaitanyatma sa vai chaitanya-saktir

bhaktakaro bhakti-do bhakti-vedyah. [6]


“The one Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears in innumerable transcendental forms, is the master of all transcendental potencies. That same Lord who previously appeared with white, red, and black complexions, will appear as Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Kali-yuga in a golden form. He will assume the role of a perfect devotee and He will freely distribute pure devotional service to the conditioned souls. But He will be known only by those who are surrendered to Him.”


namo vedanta-vedyaya,  krishnaya paramatmane;

sarva-chaitanya-rupaya, chaitanyaya namo namah. [7]      


“I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Shri Krishna, the all-pervading Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living entities, who is understood by the study of Vedanta philosophy. He appears as Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the supremely conscious person.”


vedanta-vedyam purusham puranam

chaitanyatmanam visva-yonim mahantam;

tam eva viditvati-mrityum eti

nanyah pantha vidyate ’yanaya. [8]        


“One who understands that Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known by the study of Vedanta philosophy, who is the original cause of unlimited universes, and who is the oldest, the original person, crosses beyond this world of birth and death. This is the proper understanding about Lord Chaitanya, and aside from this there is no other way for one to achieve liberation.”



sva-nama-mula-mantrena, sarvam hladayati vibhuh.[9]      


“Appearing in this golden form, the unlimited and all-powerful Supreme Lord will fill the entire universe with transcendental bliss by the congregational chanting of the maha-mantra which consists of His own holy names.”


dve sakti parame tasya, hladini samvid eva ca iti. [10]       


“In this way the Supreme Lord will manifest two of His transcendental potencies-His hladini-sakti (the potency of transcendental bliss) and samvit-sakti (the potency of transcendental knowledge).”


sa eva mula-mantram japati, harir iti krishna iti rama iti. [11]        


“The Supreme Lord (who will appear in Kali-yuga as Lord Gauranga) will chant a mantra consisting of His own names Hari, Krishna, and Rama (i.e. the maha-mantra: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare).


harati hridaya-granthim vasana-rupam iti harih. krishih smarane tac ca nas  tad-ubhaya-melanam iti krishnah. ramayati sarvam iti rama ananda-rupah. atra sloko bhavati. [12]        


“These three seed names of the maha-mantra of the Supreme Lord (Hari, Krishna, and Rama) may be explained in the following way: {1} ‘Hari’ means He who removes (harati) the knot of material desire in the hearts of the living entities;  {2} ‘Krishna’ is composed of the two syllables ‘krish’ and ‘na’. 'Krish' means He who attracts the minds of all living entities, and ‘na’ means the supreme transcendental pleasure; and {3} ‘Rama’ means He who is the personification of all transcendental bliss.


mantro guhyah paramo bhakti-vedyah. [13]       


“The maha-mantra is the topmost and most confidential of all mantras. It can only be understood when one engages in the pure devotional service of the Supreme Lord.


namany ashtav-ashta ca sobhanani,  tani nityam ye japanti dhiras. te vai mayam atitaranti, nanyah paramam-mantram

 parama-rahasyam nityam avartayati. [14]             


“Those who seriously desire to make progress in spiritual life should continually chant these sixteen beautiful names (maha-mantra) of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and in this way they will cross beyond the bondage of the illusory energy in this material world. There is no other mantra which is as powerful as this supremely great and most confidential of all mantras, which has directly descended from the spiritual world.”


chaitanya eva sankarshano vasudevah, parameshthi rudrah sarko brihaspatih sarve devah sarvani bhutani, sthavarani carani ca, yat kincit sad-asat-karanam sarvam. tad atra slokah. [15]              



“Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead who appears as Lord Sankarshana and Lord Vasudeva. He is the original father of Lord Brahma, Siva, Indra, Brihaspati, all the demigods, and all moving and non-moving living entities. He is the original cause of all that is temporary and all that is eternal. Nothing exists separately from Him, and therefore He is everything. He is furthur described in the following verses.”


yat kincid asad bhunkte,  ksharam tat karyam ucyate. [16]            


“The material world (kshara) which the living entities (souls) try to enjoy, is the illusory and temporary manifested effect.”


sat karanam param jivas, tad aksharam itiritam. [17]              


“The living entities (akshara) are eternal infinitesimal parts of the Lord and thus transcendental to this material world.”


ksharaksharabhyam paramah,  sa eva purushottamah;

chaitanyakhyam param tattvam,  sarva-karana-karanam. [18]             


“The Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, however, is superior to both the temporary material energy (effect) and the eternal living entities (cause). He is the Supreme Person, the Absolute Truth and the original cause of all causes. He is thus the cause of both the living entities and the material world.”


ya enam rasayati bhajati dhyayati, sa papmanam tarati, sa puto bhavati, sa tattvam janati, sa tarati sokam,

gatis tasyaste nanyasyeti. [19]


“One who cultivates a relationship with the Supreme Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and in this way always worships and remembers Him with devotion becomes free from all sins and completely pure. Easily understanding the truth about the Lord and becoming free from all material lamentation, such a devotee attains the supreme goal of life, which is unattainable by those averse to Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Thus ends the Caitanyopanishad.”


Shri Ananta Samhita


In Shri Ananta-samhita, it is said:


svarnadi-tiram ashritya, navadvipe* dvijalaye;

sampradatum bhakti-yogam, lokasyanugrahaya ca.


“To show causeless mercy to all the living entities and to award them devotional service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a brahmana’s home in Navadvipa*, by the Ganges’ shore.”


Shri Garga Samhita


In the Shri Garga-samhita, it is said:


maya-tirthe* ca yah snatva, mayam sampujya manavah;

sarvam manoratha-praptim, prapnuyan natra samsayah.


“Those who bathe in the Ganges at Mayapura* and worship the external potency of Lord Gauranga, known as Praudha Maya, there, will attain the fulfillment of all their desires. Of this there is no doubt.”


Garuda Purana


 aham purno bhavishyami, yuga-sandhau viseshatah;

mayapure navadvipe*, bhavishyami saci-sutah. [1]


In the Garuda Purana, the Supreme Lord Himself declares, “At the beginning of Kali-yuga, in My original spiritual form, which is the source of all incarnations, I will descend as the transcendental son of Shrimati Sacidevi, in Navadvipa-Mayapura*.”


(2) sadhavah kali-kale tu, tyaktvanya-tirtha-sevanam;

vrindaranye ’thava kshetre, nava-khande* vasanti va. [2]


“In the age of Kali the devotees will abandon the service of other holy places and live in either Navadvipa, Vrindavana, or Jagannatha Puri.”


Skanda Purana


(1) mayapurim* samashritya, kalau ye mam upasate;

sarva-papa-vinirmuktas, te yanti paramam gatim.


In the Skanda Purana the Lord says:, “They who in the age of Kali take full shelter of Shri Mayapura* and worship Me, become completely free from all sins and attain the supreme destination.”


(2) yat tirtham vartate shriman, navadvipe* vibhagasah;

tat-tirtha-mahima tatra, sata-koti-gunam kalau.


“In the age of Kali, the glories of all the other holy places in the universe are present hundreds and millions of times over in Navadvipa*.”


(3) yatha cintamaneh sangat, dhatu-mulyam pravardhate;

gaura-sangat tatha tirtha-mahatmyam parivardhate.


“As a metal’s value increases (becomes gold) with a cintamani-jewel’s touch, so the glory of any holy place increases with Lord Gaura’s touch.”


(4) godrumakhye* hareh sthane, vasanti ye narottamah;

sarva-papa-vinirmuktas, te yanti paramam padam.


In the Skanda Purana of Godruma-mahamtmya, it is said: “Those who reside in Lord Gaurahari’s abode named Godruma become the most exalted among human beings. Being completely freed from all sins, they attain the supreme abode.”

Padma Purana


kaleh prathama-sandhyayam, gaurango ’ham mahi-tale;

bhagirathi-tate* ramye, bhavishyami saci-sutah.


In the Padma Purana, the Supreme Lord affirms: “In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, I will appear on the earth as Gauranga, in a beautiful place by the shore of the Ganges (*Navadvipa). I will become the son of Sacidevi and My complexion will be golden.”

Brahma Purana


kaleh prathama-sandhyayam, gaurango ’ham mahi-tale;

bhagirathi-tate* bhumni, bhavishyami sanatanah.


In the Brahma Purana, the Supreme Lord Himself declares: “In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, I will appear on the earth as Gauranga, in a beautiful place by the shore of the Ganges (*Navadvipa). I will descend in My original eternal form and My complexion will be golden.”


Matsya Purana


mundo gaurah su-dirghangas, tri-srotas-tira-sambhavah*;

dayaluh kirtana-grahi, bhavishyami kalau yuge.


In the Matsya Purana, the Supreme Lord declares: “In the Kali-yuga I will appear in a place (*Navadvipa) where the three (Ganga, Yamuna, and Sarasvati) rivers meet. I will be fair, with a shaven head, and will have five large bodily parts (nose, arms, chin, eyes, and knees). I will be very merciful and enchanted by the chanting of My own holy names-Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare.”


Vishnu Purana


bharatasyasya varshasya nava bhedan nisamayah;

indradvipah kaserus ca, tamraparnau gabhastiman.


nagadvipas tatha saumyo, gandharvastha varuna;

ayam tu navamas* tesham, dvipah sagara sambhritah.


yojananam sahashrantu, dvipoh ayam dakshinottaram.


In the Vishnu Purana (2.3.6-7) it stated:  “Please hear about the nine islands of Bharata-varsha, known as Indradvipa, Kaseru, Tamraparna, Gabhastiman, Nagadvipa, Saumya, Gandharva, Varuna, and the ninth, Navadvipa*, which is situated near the ocean in the midst of the other eight islands. Navadvipa extends 1,000 yojanas from north to south.”


Shrimad Bhagavata Mahapurana


 krishna-varnam tvishakrishnam, sangopangastra-parshadam;

yajnaih sankirtana-prayair, yajanti hi su-medhasah. [1]


In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32) Karabhajana Muni speaks to Videharaja Nimi: “In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead (Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu), who constantly sings the name of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish (but is like molten gold), He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons, and confidential companions.”


Commentary by Shrila Jiva Gosvami in the Tattva-sandarbha on the above verse is explained as follows:


                   This verse was spoken by Karabhajana Rishi in response to a question Maharaja Nimi posed concerning the Lord’s color, name, and mode of worship in the various yugas. In this verse Karabhajana Rishi describes the Lord’s incarnation in Kali-yuga, and in so doing he indirectly reveals that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is Lord Shri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krishna-varnam indicates one who describes the pastimes of Lord Krishna to others or who always chants “Krishna, Krishna.” Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu certainly meets this criterion for being krishna-varna. Varnam also means “class” or “category.” So krishna-varnam may also indicate one who is in the same class as Krishna. Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is krishna-varna in this sense because He is nondifferent from Lord Shri Krishna. Varna also means “letter” or “word,” and thus krishna-varnam also indicates one whose name has the word Krishna in it-in this case Shri Krishna Chaitanya.

                   Other meanings of varna are “fame,” “form,” “outward appearance,” “quality,” and “ritual.” One may apply all these meanings to the phrase krishna-varnam and thus understand it to indicate Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. For example, krishna-varnam may indicate one whose fame is like Krishna’s or whose form is like Krishna’s.

                   In Sarva-samvadini, a supplementary commentary to Shri Shat-sandarbha by Shrila Jiva Gosvami himself, he explains that Lord Chaitanya is referred to as krishna-varna because people were reminded of Lord Shri Krishna just by seeing Him. Another reason is that although Shri Chaitanya displayed a golden complexion to the common man, to His intimate associates He sometimes appeared blackish. Finally, krishna-varna also means one who is blackish like Krishna, but in the case of Lord Chaitanya, krishna-varna must refer to His inner complexion. The compound word tvishakrishnam may be broken as tvisha akrishnam, giving the meaning “whose bodily hue is not blackish.”

                   In the Bhagavad-gita (7.25) Lord Krishna says, naham prakasah sarvasya yoga-maya-samavritah: “Because the veil of Yogamaya covers Me, I am not manifest to everyone as I am.” This declaration specifically applies to the Lord’s appearance in Kali-yuga as Shri Krishna Chaitanya. Prahlada Maharaja also refers to Lord Chaitanya when he says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.38), channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo ’tha sa tvam: “O Lord, Your incarnation in Kali-yuga is hidden, or confidential, and therefore you are called Tri-yuga, one who incarnates in three yugas [namely Satya, Treta, and Dvapara].” Here the word channa (“covered”) also signifies that Lord Chaitanya is Lord Krishna covered by the mood and complexion of Shri Radhika. The Naradiya Purana (5.47) also foretells the Lord’s appearance as a devotee:


aham eva kalau vipra nityam pracchanna-vigrahah;

bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan rakshami sarvada.


“The Lord said: ‘Concealing My real identity, O vipra [Markandeya Rishi], I appear in Kali-yuga in the garb of a devotee and always protect My devotees.’”


                   Tvishakrishnam may also be broken up as tvisha krishnam, meaning “one whose complexion is blackish.” Although Lord Chaitanya’s complexion was golden, He is Lord Krishna Himself, and thus the words tvisha krishnam indicate His original form as Lord Krishna, which He revealed only to certain devotees, such as Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.

                   Sangopangastra-parsadam means “with His limbs, ornaments, weapons, and associates.” According to Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Lord Chaitanya’s limbs are Lord Nityananda Prabhu and Advaita Acarya, His ornaments are Shrivasa Thakura, Shrila Haridasa Thakura, and others, His weapons are the holy names, which dispel ignorance, and His associates are Gadadhara, Govinda, and the many other devotees who stayed with Him in Jagannatha Puri.

                   Sangopangastra-parsadam may also refer to Lord Chaitanya’s form as Shri Krishna, which He showed to His intimate devotees. This form has beautiful limbs decorated with ornaments (such as the Kaustubha gem), which act like weapons by attracting one’s mind toward Lord Krishna and thus killing one’s demoniac mentality. The Lord’s ornaments are also associates of His, since they are living persons and are His devotees.

                   The words yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi su-medhasah convey the following meaning: The Vedas recommend many processes for worshiping the Supreme Lord, but in Kali-yuga the wise worship Him by chanting His holy names congregationally. Lord Chaitanya inaugurated this process and is thus called the father of the sankirtana movement.

                   Su-medhasah means “people of fine intelligence.” The implication is that less intelligent people will worship the Lord in other ways and that outright fools will oppose the sankirtana movement. Sankirtana is very dear to Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He Himself was always absorbed in performing sankirtana, and He enjoined everyone to participate, declaring it the universal remedy for all the defects of Kali-yuga. Sukadeva Gosvami confirms this in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.3.51, 52):


kaler dosha-nidhe rajann asti hy eko mahan gunah;

kirtanad eva krishnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet.


krite yad dhyayato vishnum tretayam yajato makhaih;

dvapare paricaryayam kalau tad dhari-kirtanat.


“My dear king, although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: Simply by chanting the names of Krishna one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom. Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Vishnu, in Treta-yuga by performing sacrifices, and in Dvapara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra.”  (Commentary ends.)





- February 18, 1486-His birth in Shri Mayapura, Navadvipa

-August, 1486 (age 6 months)-Ceremony of giving first grains, and ceremony of  offering coins and the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (in which He chose the Bhagavatam)

-1494 (age 8)-He begins His schooling under Ganga Dasa Pandita

-1496 (age 10)-He becomes a scholar; His brother Vishvarupa takes sannyasa

-1500 (age 14)-He marries Shrimati Lakshmi-Priya

-1502 (age 16)-He starts His own school, teaching Sanskrit grammer

-1503 (age 17)-He travels to Gaya and accepts initiation from Shrila Isvara Puri

-1509 (age 23)-He propagates the sankirtana movement;                            He delivers Chand Kazi -1510 (age 24)-He formally accepts the renounced order of               sannyasa

-February 1510 (age 25)-He travels to Puri, Orissa; He                       visits the Deity Sakshi-Gopala

-March 1510-He meets with Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya and                 converts him to Vaishnavism

-April 1510-He continues toward South India; He meets                      Ramananda Raya

-August-November 1510-He spends Chaturmasya in                           Ranga-kshetra

-June 1511 (age 26)-He returns to Jagannatha Puri

-October 1514 (age 28)-He travels to Bengal and meets                     Rupa and Sanatana   Gosvamis

-June  1515 (age 29)-Returns to Puri via Santipura; He                       starts for Shri Vrindavana

-June 1516 (age 30)-He returns to Puri, remaining there for                 His final 17  years (to 1533)

-1516-1522-He inspires active preaching work while based                            in Puri

-March 1517 (age 31)-Shri Rupa Gosvami arrives from                       Vrndavana; then Shri Sanatana Goswami

-July 1517-Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami  is freed from family                duties and comes to Puri also

-March 1518 (age 32)-Shri Sanatana is sent Vrndavana

-1520 (age 34)-The passing away of Shri Haridasa Thakura

-1532 (age 46)-Mahaprabhu’s distressful separation from                             Lord Krishna  increases markedly

-1533 (age 47 1/2 )-His Disappearance Pastime in the                        temple of Tota Gopinatha.



daksha uvaca

suddham sva-dhamny uparatakhila-buddhy-avastham

cin-matram ekam abhayam pratishidhya mayam*;

tishthams tayaiva purushatvam upetya tasyam

aste bhavan aparisuddha ivatma-tantrah. [2]


In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (4.7.26) Daksha prays to the Lord as follows: “O supremely independent Lord! You manifest your pure, transcendental and fearless form in Your own abode known as Shri Mayapura*.”


 asan varnas trayo hy asya, grihnato ’nuyugam tanuh;

suklo raktas tatha pita*, idanim krishnatam gatah. [3]


In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.13) Shri Gargamuni tells Nanda Maharaja: “Your son Krishna appears as an incarnation in every millennium. In the past, He assumed three different colors-white, red and yellow*-and now He has appeared in a blackish color.”


ittham nri-tiryag-rishi-deva jhashavatarair

lokan vibhavayasi hamsi jagat-pratipan;

dharmam maha-purusha pasi yuganuvrittam

channah* kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo 'tha sa tvam. [4]


In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.38) Shri Prahlada Maharaja states:

“My Lord, You kill all the enemies of the world in Your multifarious incarnations in the families of men, animals, demigods, rishis, aquatics and so on. Thus You illuminate the worlds with transcendental knowledge. In the Age of Kali, O Mahapurusha, You sometimes appear in a covered incarnation*. Therefore You are known as Tri-yuga [One whose lila-avataras appears in only three yugas].”


Vayu Purana


svarnadi-tiram asthaya, *navadvipa-janalayah;

tatra dvija-kulam prapto, bhavishyami janalaye.


“I will take birth in a brahmana family in Shri Navadvipa* and reside there by the Ganges’ shore.”


Krishna Yamala


aham purno bhavishyami, yuga-sandhau viseshatah;

mayapure navadvipe*, varam ekam saci-sutah.


In the Krisna-yamala, the Supreme Lord confirms: “During the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, I will descend in My most complete and original form in Mayapura, which is in the heart of Navadvipa*, as the divine son of Sacidevi.”


Brahma Yamala


athavaham dharadhame, bhutva mad-bhakta-rupa-dhrik;

mayayam* ca bhavishyami, kalau sankirtanagame.


In the Brahma-yamala, the Supreme Lord declares: “Sometimes I personally appear on the surface of the earth in the garb of My own devotee. In this form, in Kali-yuga I appear in this form in Shri Mayapura*, to inaugurate the hari-nama-sankirtana movement.”


Brihad Brahma Yamala


kalau purnanandas tri-bhuvana-jayi gaura-sutanur

navadvipe* jatah suradhuni-samipe naraharih

dadat papibhyah samstutam api harer nama sukritam

taritva papabdhim bhuvi vijayate shri-gauracandrabhidhah.


In ancient times, in the Brihad-brahma-yamala Tantra, it was said: “All glories to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shri Gaurachandra, who appears in Kali-yuga as the personification of complete bliss.  His beautiful form with golden complexion is glorified throughout the three worlds. He appeared in Shri Navadvipa,* which is on the banks of the Ganges. He delivered the most fallen people of the world from the ocean of sins by freely distributing to them the treasure of the most sacred and glorious names of Lord Hari.”


vande gauravataram kali-mala-mathanam shri-navadvipa-vasam*

kanthe malam dadhanam sruti-yuga-vilasat-svarna-samsakta-gandam

keyurangada-divya-ratna-ghatitam bahu-dvaye bibhratam

bhaktebhyo dadatam malapaharanam-namapi sarvam hareh.


“I offer my repeated obeisances to the Gaura-avatara, who destroys the unlimited impurities of Kali-yuga, who resides in Shri Navadvipa,* who wears an exquisite garland around His neck, whose cheeks are beautified by glistening golden earrings, whose arms are adorned with splendid jeweled keyura and angada armlets, and who awards His devotees the holy names of Lord Hari, which destroy all the impurities in their hearts.”


Mukti Sankalini Tantra


kurukshetram krite tirtham, tretayam pushkaram smritam;

dvapare naimisharanyam, nava-khandam* kalau kila.


In the Mukti-sankalini Tantra it is said: “In Satya-yuga, Kurukshetra was the most important holy place; in Treta-yuga, Pushkara was the most important holy place; Naimisharanya was the important holy place in Dvapara-yuga; and in Kali-yuga, Navadvipa* is the most important holy place (because the Lord personally appears here in Kali-yuga).”


Irdhvamnaya Tantra


avataram imam kritva, jiva-nistara-hetuna;

kalau mayapurim* gatva, bhavishyami saci-sutah. [1]


In the Irdhvamnaya-tantra, the Supreme Lord declares: “For the deliverance of the conditioned souls in Kali-yuga, I will incarnate in Shridhama Mayapura* as the son of Shrimati Sacidevi.”


‘klim gauraya namah’ iti, sarva lokeshu pujitah;

maya-ramananga-bijaih, vag-bijena ca pujitah.


shadaksharah kirtito ’yam, mantra-rajah sura-drumah. [2]


In the Irdhvamnaya-tantra, Shrila Vyasadeva describes the six-syllable Gaura Gayatri-mantra to Shrila Narada:


“This gaura-mantra (klim gauraya namah) is worshipped by all the people in the world by using the bija-mantras of Maya, Rama, Ananga and Sarasvati. I have chanted to you this six-syllable Gaura-mantra (klim gauraya namah), which is like a desire tree because it fulfills all our desires and grants us pure love for Krishna.”


Kapila Tantra


jambudvipe kalau ghore, mayapure* dvijalaye;

janitva parshadaih sardham, kirtanam prakatishyati. [1]


In the Kapila Tantra, the Supreme Lord declares: “In the horrible Kali-yuga, I will descend in a brahmana’s home in Mayapura*, in Jambudvipa. Assisted by My eternal associates, I will manifest the hari-nama-sankirtana movement.”


kvacit sapi krishnam aha, shrinu mad-vacanam priya;

bhavata ca sahaikatmyam, icchami bhavitum prabho. [2]


In the Kapila Tantra, Ninth Patala it is said: “Then Shrimati Radharani said to Lord Krisna: ‘O my beloved Lord, please hear My words. I intensely desire to become one with You.


mama bhavanvitam rupam, hridayahlada-karanam;

parasparanga-madhya-stham, krida-kautuka-mangalam. [3]


“‘Please show Me a form which is the personification of My love for You, which is greatly delightful to My heart, which is manifested by the transcendental union and Our two transcendental bodies and which is filled with auspicious and blissful pastimes.


paraspara-svabhavadhyam rupam ekam pradarsaya;

srutva tu preyasi-vakyam parama-priti-sucakam. [4]


“‘Please show Me that form which is enriched by Our two natures.’ In this way Lord Krisna heard these words which were spoken by His beloved with intense love.


svecchayasid yatha purvam, utsahena jagad-guruh;

premalingana-yogena, hy acintya-sakti-yogatah. [5]


“Hearing this, the master of the universe Lord Krisna enthusiastically embraced Her. Then, by the arrangement of His inconceivable potency, . . .


radha-bhava-kanti-yuktam, murtim ekam prakasayan;

svapne tu darsayam asa, radhikayai svayam prabhuh. [6]


 . . . Their two divine forms merged into one single splendid golden form of Krisna (Gauranga) endowed with the sentiment, love and golden complexion of His greatest devotee Shrimati Radharani. This form was shown by Lord Krishna to Shrimati Radhika in a dreamlike trance.”


Purport by Shrila Bhaktiratna Sadhu Maharaja:


From the above verses it is very clear that Lord Radha-Krishna have combined as Lord Gauranga. Thus the four-syllable Gaura-gopala mantra (or Gauranga-mantra) is gau-ra-an-ga which is absolutely non-different from the four syllables of ra-dha krish-na. This was constantly chanted by Shrila Sivananda Sena as explained in Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Antya -lila 2.31:

 ‘gaura-gopala mantra’ tomara cari akshara;

avisvasa chada, yei kariyacha antara”


Nakula Brahmacari told Sivananda Sena, “You are chanting the Gaura-gopala mantra, composed of four syllables (which is your ishta-mantra). Now please give up the doubts that have resided within you.”


Purport by Shrila Prabhupada:


Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains the Gaura-gopala mantra in his Amrita-pravaha-bhashya. Worshipers of Shri Gaurasundara accept the four syllables gau-ra-an-ga as the Gaura mantra, but pure worshipers of Radha and Krishna accept the four syllables ra-dha krish-na as the Gaura-gopala mantra. However, Vaishnavas consider Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu nondifferent from Radha-Krishna (shri-krishna-chaitanya radha-krishna nahe anya). Therefore one who chants the mantra “gauranga” and one who chants the names of Radha and Krishna are on the same level.


Purport by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amrita-pravaha-bhashya:


gaura-gopala-mantra-gauravadi gana ‘gauranga’-name chatura-akshara gaura-mantra ke uddesya karena; kevala krishnavadi gana ei ‘gaura-gopala-mantra’ sabde radhakrishnera chatura-akshara-mantrake uddesya karena.


“The following is the explanation of the Gaura-gopala mantra. The followers of Lord Gaura accept ‘Gauranga’ as the four-syllable mantra and the followers of only Krishna accept ‘Radha-Krishna’ as the Gaura-gopala mantra. The followers of both Lord Gaura and Lord Krishna accept either one of them as the Gaura-gopala mantra understanding that They are non-different from each other.”


In Shri Chaitanya-mangala Sutra-khanda Verse 527 by Shrila Locana Dasa Thakura, the four-syllable Gauranga-mantra is described as the mantra through which Lord Gauranga is worshipped in Goloka Vrindavana, the topmost Vaikuntha planet in the spiritual world:


hema-gaura kalevara, mantra cari-akshara;

sahaja vaikuntha-natha syama.



“The Lord sits on a golden bejewelled throne. He posseses a complexion millions of times more brilliant than the colour of molten gold. He is worshipped by all His devotees with the four-syllable mantra, Gauranga.”


The most exalted Babaji instructed Vrajanatha in the following way in Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura’s Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 17, regarding the destination of the worship of Lord Gaura and Lord Krishna:


          “Krishna and Gaura-kisora are not different. They are both shelters of the feature of sweetness (madhurya-rasa). They do have one difference. Madhurya-rasa (the Lord’s sweetness) has two features: 1. madhurya (sweetness), and 2. audarya (mercy). When sweetness is prominent, Lord Krishna is manifested. When mercy is prominent, Lord Gauranga is manifested. The topmost spiritual world of Vrindavana is divided into two abodes: 1. the abode of Lord Krishna, and 2. the abode of Lord Gaura. The eternally perfect and eternally liberated souls who have sweetness first and mercy second reside in Lord Krishna’s abode. They are Lord Krishna’s associates. The eternally perfect and eternally liberated souls who have mercy first and sweetness second reside in Lord Gaura’s abode. They are Lord Gaura’s associates. Some souls manifest two forms and reside in both abodes simultaneously. Other souls manifest only one form and are present in one of the abodes and not in the other. Souls who during the time of sadhana, worship only Lord Gaura, at the time of attaining perfection go to Lord Gaura’s transcendental abode and eternally serve Him there. Souls who during the time of sadhana worship only Lord Krishna, at the time of attaining perfection go to Lord Krishna’s transcendental abode and serve Him there. Souls who during the time of sadhana worship both Lord Krishna and Lord Gaura, at the time of attaining perfection manifest two spiritual forms and go to both Lord Krishna’s abode and Lord Gaura’s abode, and in their two forms serve the two Lord’s simultaneously in both places. This truth: that Lord Gaura and Lord Krishna are simultaneously one and different from each other, is a very confidential secret.”


          Most of the acaryas in the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Parampara of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu serve both the Lords in both their abodes. Thus by serving these exalted acaryas through the parampara system by executing their instructions and mission, the spiritual aspirant can achieve the association and service of both the Lords in both their abodes in two spiritual bodies. (Purport ends)


Visvasara Tantra


gangayah dakshine bhage, navadvipe* manorame;

kali-papa-vinasaya, saci-garbhe sanatani.


In the Visvasara Tantra, Lord Siva said to Candi: “O eternal goddess, in order to destroy the sins of Kali-yuga, I will appear in the womb of Sacidevi, in the most beautiful Navadvipa*, which is on the southern shore of the Ganges.”


Kularnava Tantra


tatah kale ca samprapte, kalau ko ’pi maha-nidhi;

hari-nama-prakasaya, ganga-tire* janishyati.


In the Kularnava Tantra,  Lord Siva said to Parvati:  “At the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is a great treasure-house of transcendental qualities, will take birth by the Ganges’ shore (*Navadvipa) in order to manifest the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra.”


Yoga Vasishtha


kaleh prathama-sandhyayam, gaurango ’sau mahi-tale;

bhagirathi-tate* ramye, bhavishyati sanatanah.


In the Yoga-vasishtha it is said: “In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Gauranga will appear on this earth in His eternal golden form, on the beautiful banks of the Ganges (*Navadvipa).”




suvarna-varno hemango, varangas candanangadi;

sannyasa-kric chamah santo, nishtha-santi-parayanah.


In the Vishnu-sahasra-nama-stotra,  Dana-dharma  149.92, 75 Mahabharata  it is said:


“In His early pastimes He appears as a householder with a golden complexion. His limbs are beautiful, and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like molten gold. In His later pastimes He accepts the sannyasa order, and He is equipoised and peaceful. He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalist nondevotees.”


Smritis  about the golden age in Kali-yuga (10,000 years) brought by Lord Chaitanya  (1486 AD to 11486 AD)


Brahma Vaivarta Purana


bhagirathy uvaca

he natha ramana sreshtha, yasi golokam uttamam;

asmakam ka gatis catra, bhavishyati kalau yuge. [1]


In the Brahma-vaivarta Purana, mother Ganges petitions  Lord Krishna: “O protector, supreme enjoyer, after Your departure for the supreme abode, Goloka, what will be my condition in the degraded age of Kali?”


shri bhagavan  uvaca

kaleh panca sahasrani, varshani tishtha bhutale;

papani papino yanti, tubhyam dasyanti snanatah. [2]


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: “On the earth 5,000 years of Kali will be very sinful and sinners will come and deposit their sins in you by bathing.


man-mantropasaka sparsad, bhasmi bhutani tat kshanat;

bhavishyanti darsanac ca, snana deva hi jahnavi. [3]


“Thereafter simply by the sight or touch of One who will worship Me by My mantra*, all those sins will be burnt at once.


(*Here Lord Krishna is indicating His own concealed incarnation in the form of Lord Chaitanya in Kali-yuga, when He will appear as His own upasaka for the purpose of teaching devotional service to everyone by the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. The Lord will appear in Navadvipa on the bank of the Ganga and destroy all the sin accumulated in the Ganga by taking bath and sporting in Her waters with His eternal associates for 24 years.)


harer namani yatraiva, puranani bhavanti hi;

tatra gatva savadhanam, abhih sarddham ca sroshyasi. [4]


“Everywhere there will be chanting of the name of Hari and reading of the Bhagavata Purana. At that time you can also go to such a place and attentively hear My glorification.


purana sravanac caiva, harer namanukirtanat;

bhasmi bhutani papani, brahma-hatyadikani ca. [5]


“All sinful reactions including the killing of a brahmana can be completely nulified simply by hearing the Bhagavata Purana and the continuous and devoted chanting of the names of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra following in the footsteps of the great devotees (who are the followers of the ultimate mantra-upasaka  Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu).


bhasmi bhutani tanyeva, vaishnavalinganena ca;

trinani sushka kasthani, dahanti pavako yatha. [6]


“Just as dry grass or wood is consumed by fire, simply by the embrace of these Vaishnavas (followers of Lord Lord Gauranga) all sins of the living entities will be burnt.


tathapi vaishnava loke, papani papinamapi;

prithivyam yani tirthani, punyanyapi ca jahnavi. [7]


“O Ganges (Jahnavi), the whole planet will become a most auspicious pilgrimage sight by the presence of these Vaishnavas, even though it had been very sinful in the past 5000 years.


mad bhaktanam sarireshu, santi puteshu santatam;

mad bhakta pada rajasa, sadah puta vasundhara. [8]


“In the body of My devotees, there is extraordinary potency to purify everything. Thus even Mother Earth will become purified by the dust of the feet of My devotees.


sadyah putani tirthani, sadyah putam jagat tatha;

man mantropasaka vipra, ye mad ucchishta bhojinah. [9]


“As My devotees will purify the whole world, they will purify even the pilgrimage sites. Those intelligent learned followers of the worshipper of My maha-mantra (Lord Chaitanya), will only partake of My remnants (prasadam) and thus purify everything.


mam eva nityam dhyayante, te mat pranadhikah priyah;

tad upasparsa matrena, puto vayusca pavakah. [10]


“Those who meditate on Me constantly by the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra and My Names (like Gauranga, Nityananda etc.), are more dear to Me than My very life. Even the air and fire (which are already purifiers) will become pure simply even by their indirect touch.


kaler dasa-sahasrani, mad bhaktah santi bhutale;

eka varna bhavishyanti, mad bhakteshu gateshu ca. [11]


“For 10,000 years of Kali (which will be the Golden Age brought by the Lord in the form of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu), such devotees of Mine will fill the whole planet. After the departure of My devotees, all of those who will remain will be like outcastes.


mad bhakta sunya prithivi, kali grasta bhavishyati;

eta smin namtare tatra, krishna dehad vinirgatah. [12]


“After these 10,000* years, completely devoid of My devotees, the earth will be shackled again by Kali’s strong influence (as described in the 12th Canto of the Bhagavata Purana).” Saying this, Lord Krishna departed.


(*Kali-yuga total duration is 432,000 years. So after 5,000 years of sinful degradation and the next 10,000 years of the Golden Age of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as described above, the balance 417,000 years of Kali-yuga will be the most sinful period for the earth planet due to the complete domination by the personality of Kali. At the end, i.e. 427,000 years from now, the Lord will appear on a white horse in his partial incarnation of Kalki to annihilate the demons and restablish the Satya-yuga.)


[There are many other verses from Shri Garga-samhita, Padma Purana, Vishnu Purana, Varaha Purana, Linga Purana, Brahma Purana, Mahabharata, and so on, which describe the glories of specific holy places in Navadvipa. These were not included herein, so that this book would not become voluminous. Please read the book ‘The Lord of Kali-Yuga’ for several other quotes from the scriptures about the incarnation of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.]


(II) Sastras glorify Shri Navadvipa-dhama


Shri Ananta Samhita


In Shri Ananta-samhita, Part 2, chapter 3 (verses 5-19 and 38-41), Lord Siva describes to Parvati:


shri-mahadevá uvaca

(1) shrinu gauri pravakshyami, sarva-papa-pranasanam

navadvipasya mahatmyam, sa-prema-bhakti-dam nrinam


“O Gauri, please hear attentively and I will speak the great glories of Shridhama Navadvipa, which completely destroy all sins and award Krishna’s pure loving devotional service to all living entities.


(2) yatha vrindavanam dhama, shri-krishnasya kripa-nidheh;

navadvipas tatha kante, satyam satyam vadamy aham.


“The glories of Navadvipa are exactly the same as the glories of Vrindavana, the trancendental abode of Lord Krishna, who is an ocean of mercy. O beloved, I speak the truth.


(3) yadvad vrindavane ramye, shri-krishno radhaya saha;

reme bhaktananda-karas, tadvad dvipe nave sada.


“Lord Krishna, who delights the devotees by enjoying pastimes with Shri Radha in the most beautiful Vrindavana-dhama, also eternally enjoys with Shri Radha in Shri Navadvipa-dhama.


(4) ganga-yamunayor madhye, dvipah parama-sobhanah;

yasya smarana-matrena, shri-radha-krishnayo ratih.


“In the middle of both the Ganges and Yamuna is an exquistely beautiful island of Navadvipa. Simply by remembering it one attains pure love for Shri Shri Radha and Krishna.


(5) yadi tirtha-sahasrani, paryatanti narah kshitau;

navadvipam vina devi, na radham krishnam apnuyat.


“O goddess, people travel to thousands of holy places in this world will not attain Shri Shri Radha and Krishna if they do not also travel to visit Navadvipa.


(6) dvipasyasyaika-dese ca, tirthani sakalani ca;

rishayo munayo devas, tatha siddhasramani ca.


(7) vedah sashtrani sarvani, mantradini mahesvari;

vasanti satatam durge, shri-radha-krishna-tushtaye.


“O Durga, at a certain place on this transcendental island all holy places, all sages, saints, and demigods, all ashrams of perfected beings, all Vedic scriptures, and all Vedic mantras constantly reside for the satisfaction of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna.


(8) asvamedha-sahasrani, vajapeyadhikani ca;

nana-vidhani karmani, kritva bhaktya muhur muhuh.


(9) yat phalam labhate martyo, yogabhyasena yat phalam;

navadvipasya smaranat, tesham koti-gunam labhet;

kim punah darsanam casya, phalam vakshyami parvati.


“The result a human being attains by performing thousands of asvamedha-yajnas, as well as vajapeya-yajnas, and or many other pious rituals, repeatedly and constantly with great devotion, or by diligently practicing yoga for a very long time, is attained millions of times over by simply remembering Navadvipa only once. O Parvati, how then will I be able to describe the result attained by directly seeing Navadvipa?


(10) sakrid yadi navadvipam, samsmareyur naradhamah;

sadhavas te tadaiva syuh, satyam satyam hi parvati.


“If the lowest among men faithfully remember Navadvipa for just a single moment, they immediately become great saints. O Parvati, this is the truth, this is the truth.


(11) tesham dine dine bhaktir, vardhate natra samsayah;

tesham pada-rajah-puta, sapta-dvipa vasundhara.


“Every day their devotion increases; of this there is no doubt. The whole earth with its seven continents becomes purified simply by the dust of their feet.


(12) ye vasanti navadvipe, manavah gaura-devatah;

na ca te manava-jneya, shri-gaurasya ca parshadah.


“Those human beings who reside in Navadvipa and accept Lord Gaura as their worshipable Lord should not be considered as ordinary human beings. They are the transcendental associates of Lord Gaura.


(13) tesham smarana-matrena, maha-patakino ’pi ca;

satyam sudhanti vai durge, kim punar darsanadibhih.


“O Durga, simply by remembering them, the greatest sinners are purified. How much more blessed are those who directly see them or associate with them!.


(14) navadvipasyá mahatmyam, pancabhir vadanair aham;

kim varnayami nanantah, sahasrair vadanair alam.


“Even Lord Ananta, with His thousands of mouths, is not able to properly glorify Navadvipa. So how can I do so with only five mouths?



(15) dhama-sarasya krishnasya, vrindaranyasya sailaje;

arohanasya sopanam, navadvipam vidur budhah.


“O Parvati, the learned and wise know that Navadvipa is a staircase leading to Vrindavana, the topmost abode of Lord Krishna.


(16) navadvipe ca sa krishna, adaya hridaye svayam;

gajendra-gamanam radham, sada ramayate muda.


“Lord Krishna will appear in Navadvipa. Taking the mood of Shrimati Radha to His heart, Lord Krishna will constantly and blissfully relish Her love for Him. At that time, His movements will be more graceful than those of the best of elephants.


(17) navadvipe tu tah sakhyo, bhakta-rupa-dharah priye;

ekangam shri-gaura-harim, sevante satatam muda.


“O beloved, assuming the forms of male devotees, the gopis and other associates will also appear in Navadvipa. With great happiness they will constantly serve Lord Gaurahari, who is Radha and Krishna combined in a single form.


(18) ya eva radhika-krishnah, sa eva gaura-vigrahah;

yac ca vrindavanam devi, navadvipam ca tat subham.


“O goddess, know for sure that Radha and Krishna will combine to become the single golden form of Lord Gaura, and Vrindavana will become the beautiful and auspicious Navadvipa.


(19) vrindavane navadvipe, bheda-buddhis ca yo narah;

tam eva radhika-krishne, shri-gaurange paratmani.


(20) mac-chala-pata-nirbhinna-dehah so ’pi naradhamah;

pacyate narake ghore, yavad ahuta-samplavam.


“With my trident I will cut into pieces anyone who thinks that Vrindavana and Navadvipa are different, or that Radha-Krishna and Lord Gauranga are different, or that Lord Gauranga is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person is most degraded and will burn in a terrible hell until the time of the universal devastation.


(21) yahi turnam navadvipam, bhaja gauram kripa-nidhim,

yadi vrindavane ramye, shri-radha-krishna-sannidhau;

dasatvam durlabham loke, bhakti-saram yam icchasi.


“Lord Hari said to Anantadeva: ‘If you desire the most rare essence of all kinds of pure devotional service, i.e., the direct service to Shri Shri Radha-Krishna in the beautiful abode of Vrindavana, then go at once to Navadvipa and worship Lord Gaura, who is an ocean of causeless mercy.’


(22) tatra gatva navadvipe, naga-rajo dridha-vratah;

pujayam asa gaurangam, api varshayutam priye.


“O beloved, the king of serpents, Ananta, then went to Navadvipa. Following strict vows with great determination, He worshipped Lord Gauranga for ten thousand years.


(23) tatah prasanno bhagavan, shri-gauro jagad-isvarah;

darisayam asa svam rupam, anantaya mahatmane.


“Greatly pleased, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and master of all universes revealed His transcendental golden form to His great devotee Ananta.


(24) ayam eva navadvipo, vrindavana-samo ’nagha;

anugrahaya jivanam, radhaya nirmitah pura.


“Lord Gauranga then said to Ananta: ‘O sinless one, Navadvipa is equal to Vrindavana in all respects. To show mercy to the living entities Shri Radha created it long ago.


(25) yatha mama priya radha, tatha vrindavanam mahat;

tadvad ayam navadvipa, iti satyam vadamy aham.


“‘As Radha is dear to Me, so the great Vrindavana and Navadvipa are also dear to Me. I speak to You the truth.


(26) vrindavane yathananta, vasami radhaya saha;

radhaya militango ‘’ham, tathaivasmin sada vase.


“‘O Ananta, as I reside in Vrindavana with Shri Radha, so also do I stay eternally in Navadvipa, in My transcendental form embraced by Shri Radha.


(27) yatha vrindavanam tyaktva, gacchami na ca kutracit;

tatha deva navadvipam, na tyajami kadacana.


“‘O Anantadeva, as I do not leave Vrindavana to go to any other place, so also do I never give up Navadvipa to go anywhere else.’”


Irdhvamnaya Tantra


In the Irdhvamnaya-tantra, Lord Siva declares to Parvati:


(1) aprakritam navadvipam, cin-mayam cid-viseshanam;

jadatitam param dhama, brahma-puram sanatanam.


(2) vadanti srutayah sakshad, daharam sarva-sundaram;

nava-sankhyas tatha dvipa, vartante padma-pushpa-vat.


“The Vedas directly glorify Navadvipa as completely spiritual, with no material tinge, full of knowledge, beyond dull and inert matter, the topmost eternal transcendental abode, and an all-beautiful lotus flower. The nine islands of Navadvipa are just like the parts of that great lotus flower.


(3) shrinu devi pravakshyami, nava-khanda-svarupakam;

yatra vai rajate nityam, shri-gaurasundaro harih.


“O goddess, please listen attentively as I describe the nature and form of these nine islands where Lord Gaurasundara eternally shines with great splendor.


(4) antardvipas tatha devi, simantadvipa-samjnakah;

godrumadvipa-samjno ’nyo, madhyadvipas tatha parah.


(5) ganga-purva-tate ramye, devi dvipa-catushtayam,

koladvipa-ritudvipo, jahnudvipah, suresvari;

modadrumas tatharudrah, pancaite pascime tate.


“O goddess, on the beautiful eastern shore of the Ganges are the four islands Antardvipa, Simantadvipa, Godrumadvipa, and Madhyadvipa. On the western shore are the five islands Koladvipa, Ritudvipa, Jahnudvipa, Modrumadvipa, and Rudradvipa.


(6) ganga ca yamuna caiva, godavari sarasvati;

narmada sindhuh kaveri, tamraparni payasvini.


(7) kritamala tatha bhima, gomati ca drishadvati,

sarvah punya-jala nadyah, vartante ’tra yatha-yatham;

navadvipo maha-devi, tabhih sarvaih parivaritah.


“O great goddess, Navadvipa is surrounded by the pure and sacred waters of the Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Sarasvati, Narmada, Sindhu, Kaveri, Tamraparni, Payasvini, Kritamala, Bhima, Gomati, Drishadvati, and all other holy rivers.


(8) ayodhya mathura maya, kasi kanci hy avantika,

dvaravati kurukshetram, pushkaro naimisham vanam;

vartante ’tra navadvipe, nitye dhamni mahesvari.


“O goddess, Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kasi, Kanci, Avantika, Dvaraka, Kurukshetra, Pushkara, and Naimisharanya are all eternally present in the transcendental abode of Navadvipa.


(9) bhagirathy-alakananda, mandakini tathapara,

bhogavatiti gangaya, asti dhara-catushtayam;

navadvipasya paridhis, catvari yojanani ca.


“Bhagirathi, Alakananda, Mandakini, and Bhogavati are the four streams of the Ganges that surround Navadvipa for thirty-two miles.


(10) prithivyam yani tirthani, rasayam divi va priye;

tani sarvani tishthanti, navadvipe suresvari.


“O dear goddess, all the holy places on the earth and in the upper and lower planetary systems are present in Navadvipa.


(11) naham vasami kailase, na tvam vasasi mad-grihe;

na deva divi tishthanti, rishayo na vane vane.


“I do not reside in Kailasa. You do not reside in my home. The demigods do not reside in heaven. The sages do not stay in the forest.


(12) sarve vayam navadvipe, tishthamah prema-lalasah;

gaura gaureti gayantah, sankirtana-para bhuvi.


“Overwhelmed with the great longing for obtaining pure love for Krishna, we all stay in Navadvipa. All of us constantly perform sankirtana, singing ‘Gaura! Gaura!’  while residing there.


(13) ye narah kritino devi, navadvipe vasanti te;

jivena marane tesham, patir eko mahaprabhuh.


“O goddess, for the extremely fortunate devotees who live in Navadvipa, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is their only Lord and maintainer, in this life and also after death.


(14) panca-tattvatmakam gauram, krishna-chaitanya-samjnakam;

ye bhajanti navadvipe, te me priyatamah kila.


“They who in Navadvipa worship Lord Gaura, who is known as Shri Krishna Chaitanya in His five features (Panca-tattva) are most dear to me.


(15) padmakaram navadvipam, antardvipam ca karnikam;

simantadi-sthalams tatra, dalan ashta-svarupakan.


“Navadvipa has the form of a great lotus. Antardvipa is the whorl of that lotus, and Simantadvipa and the other islands are its eight petals.


(16) karnika-madhya-bhage tu, pitham ratnamayam param,

panca-tattvanvitam tatra, gauram purata-sundaram;

ye dhyayanti janah sasvat, te tu sarvottamottamah.


“In the middle of that whorl (Antardvipa) is the topmost sacred place of jewels Shri dhama (Mayapura). There resides the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the handsome golden Gaura in His five features (Panca-tattva). They who always meditate on Lord Gaura in Mayapura are the most exalted of all exalted souls.


(17) yatra tatra navadvipe, sa sannyasy athava grihi;

ha gaureti vadan nityam, sarvanandan samasnute.


“Whether a sannyasi or a grihastha, a person who somewhere in Navadvipa always chants the name of Gaura merges in full transcendental bliss.


(18) bhagirathi-tate purve, mayapuram tu gokulam;

tasyas tate pascime hi, vrindavanam vidur budhah.


“The wise know that on the eastern shore of the Ganges, Mayapura is Gokula, and on the western shore, is Vrindavana.


(19) tatra rasa-sthali divya, pulinam baluka mayam,

rasa-sthali pascime tu, punyam dhira-samirakam;

yad yad vrindavane devi, tat tat tatra na samsayah.


“On the western shore is the most beautiful and transcendental sandy arena of the rasa dance, which is filled with bakula flowers and gentle breezes. O goddess, this place is nondifferent from Vrindavana, and all the opulences of Vrindavana are present here. Of this there is no doubt.


(20) tvam hi maya hareh saktir, durghatana-patiyasi;

cin-mayam antaradityam, acchadayasi sampratam.


“O Parvati, you are Lord Hari’s insurmountable and formidable illusory potency. So at present you cover the spiritual sun shining there.


(21) tato mayapura-khyatir, yoga-pithasya bhu-tale;

praudha maya tava khyatih, sarvatra vartate priye.


“O beloved, you eternally reside at the outskirts of this Mayapura Yogapitha as Praudha Maya, to keep unqualified people from entering the dhama.


(22) gate tu pulinabhyasam, kale shri-gaura-vigrahe;

vamsivatam samashritya, tvam pasi vaishnavan janan.


“When the form of Lord Gaura personally enjoys His pastimes on the shore there, you stay nearby in Vamsivata to protect the Vaishnavas.


(23) navadvipa-samam sthanam, shri-gauranga-samah prabhuh;

krishna-prema-sama praptir, nasti durge kadacana.


“O Durga, no place in the creation is equal to Navadvipa, no master is as merciful as Lord Shri Gauranga, and no attainment in the whole world is equal to pure love for Krishna.


(24) etad dhi janma-saphalyam, vaishnavanam viseshatah;

bhajanam shri-navadvipe, vraja-lokanusaratah.


“The success of life, especially for the Vaishnavas, is to worship Lord Krishna by residing in Navadvipa, and to follow in the footsteps of the residents of Vrindavana.


(25) kshauram uposhanam sraddham, snana-danadikam hi yat;

anya-tirtheshu kartavyam, navadvipe na tad vidhih.


“In other holy places, shaving the head, fasting, offering sraddha, taking ritual bath, giving charity, and other duties are mandatory, but in Navadvipa there is no such rule that they must be done.


(26) tani tani hi karmani, kritani yadi tatra vai;

nasyanti sahasa devi, karma-granthi-nikrintanat.


“O goddess, in Navadvipa one’s hard knot of karma is completely cut, and thus all the karmic reactions of previous lives are destroyed forever.


(27) bhidyate hridaya-granthis, chidyante sarva-samsayah;

kshiyante jada-karmani, gaure drishte parat pare.


“The strong knot of material attachment in the heart from millions of lives is pierced, all the misgivings and doubts are cut to pieces, and the chain of material fruitive activities is permanently terminated when one sees Lord Gaura-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all masters-in Navadvipa.


(28) ato vai munayo devi, nava-khandam samashritah;

kurvanty ahaitukim bhaktim, radha-krishna-padambuje.


“O goddess, all the great sages thus take full shelter of Navadvipa and serve Shri Shri Radha-Krishna’s lotus feet with unmotivated devotion.


(29) aho dvipasya mahatmyam, na ko ’pi varnane kshamah,

anya-tirtha-mritih pumsam, bhukti-mukti-pradayini;

navadvipa-mritih sakshat, kevala bhakti-dayini.


“No one has the power to properly and fully describe the glories of Navadvipa. Death in all other holy places brings future sense gratification or liberation, but death in Navadvipa awards with one with the greatest gift of kevala-bhakti, i.e. pure unalloyed devotional service to Lord Krishna, following in the footsteps of the Vrajavasis.


(30) akala-maranam vapi, kashta-mrityur grihe mritih;

apamrityur na doshaya, nava-khande varanane.


“O goddess with a beautiful face, in Navadvipa an untimely death, a painful death, a peaceful death at home, or an unnatural death are all extremely auspicious.


(31) anyatra yoga-mrityur va, kasyam jnana-mritir bhavet;

tat sarvam phalam carv-angi, navadvipe mritasya vai.


“O beautiful goddess, all the cumulative results of dying in a yoga trance in other holy places, or dying absorbed in transcendental knowledge in Kasi, are attained by dying in Navadvipa.


(32) varam dinam navadvipe, prayage kalpa-yapanat;

varanasi-nivasad va, sarva-tirtha-nishevanat.


“By staying for a single day in Navadvipa, one attains all the results of living for a kalpa (4.32 billion years) at Prayaga, staying for a very long time at Varanasi, or serving all the other holy places.


(33) yoge ’nyatra phalam yat tad, bhoge dvipe nave subhe;

pada-kshepe maha-yajnah, sayane dandavat phalam.


“Merely by living in Navadvipa, one attains the result of practicing yoga in any other holy place. In Navadvipa, walking one step is like performing maha-yajnas, and lying down to rest is like offering repeated dandavats.


(34) yatra tatra navadvipe, yad annam tan-niveditam;

tad grahyam brahmana sakshac, candalad api candike.


“O goddess Candika, if a brahmana is offered Gaura-prasadam anywhere in Navadvipa, he should accept it even if it is given by a candala (dog-eater).


(35) bhojane paramesasya, prasada-sevanam bhavet,

kim punah sraddadhanasya, hari-nama-parasya ca;

gaura-prasada-bhaktasya, bhagyam tatra vadamy aham.


“Even ordinary eating there becomes equal to honouring the prasadam of the Supreme Lord. So how much more fortunate are those faithful devotees who chant the holy names of Lord Hari and partake Lord Gaura’s prasadam while residing in Navadvipa!”


Shri Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika


rasajnah shri-vrindavanam iti yam ahur bahu-vido

yam etam golokam katipaya-janah prahud apare;

sita-dvipam prahuh param api para-vyoma jagadur

navadvipah so ’yam jayati paramascarya-mahima.


In the Shri Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, it is said: “Some devotees expert in relishing the mellows of bhakti declare that Navadvipa is identical with Vrindavana. Some very learned devotees say that Navadvipa is actually the spiritual planet Goloka. Some say that Navadvipa is the planet Svetadvipa. And others say that Navadvipa is actually the spiritual sky (paravyoma) of Vaikuntha. All glories to the superexcellent opulences of  Shridhama Navadvipa!”