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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Other Scriptures by Acharyas > Laghu Bhagavatamrita

Shri Laghu Bhagavatamrita
By Shrila Rupa Goswami
Translated by Kushakratha dasa

 

 

Part One

Shri Krishnamrita

The Nectar of Shri Krishna

 

 

Chapter One

Svayam-rupa-vilasa-svamsavesa-prakasa-
lakshana-bhagavat-tattva-nirupana

The Svayam-rupa, Vilasa, Svamsa,
and Avesa Forms of the Lord

 

 

Text 1

 

 

om namah shri-krishnaya

 

namas tasmai bhagavate

   krishnayakuntha-medhase

yo dhatte sarva-bhutanam

   abhavayoshatih kalah

 

   om-om; namah-I offer respectful obeisances; shri-krishnaya-to Shri Krishna; namah-I offer respectful obeisances; tasmai-to Him; bhagavate-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krishnaya-Shri Krishna; akuntha-medhase-all-knwing; yah-who; dhatte-places; sarva-of all; bhutanam-living entities; abhavaya-for the liberation; usatih kalah-His innerable incarnations.

 

 

   I offer my respectful obeisances to Shri Krishna, who is glorified in the following verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.46 and 11.5.32):

 

   "I offer my respectful obeisances to Shri Krishna, the omniscient Supreme Personality of Godhead who, in order to liberate the conditioned souls from the cycle of repeated birth and death, appears in the material world in the forms of His innumerable incarnations."

 

 

Text 2

 

 

krishna-varnam tvishakrishnam

   sangopangastra-parshadam

yajnaih sankirtana-prayair

   yajanti hi sumedhasah

 

   krishna-varnam-repeating the syllables krish-na; tvisha-with a luster; akrishnam-not black (golden); sa-anga-along with associates; upanga-servitors; astra-weapons; parshadam-confidential companions; yajnaih-by sacrifice; sankirtana-prayaih-consisting chiefly of congregational chanting; yajanti-they worship; hi-certainly; su-medhasah' intelligent persons.

 

 

   "In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions."*

 

 

Text 3

 

 

mukharavinda-nisyanda-

   maranda-bhara-tundila

mamanandam mukundasya

   sandugdham venu-kakali

 

   mukha-of the face; aravinda-lotus; nisyanda-trickling; maranda-honey; bhara-abundance; tundila-filled; mama-my; anandam-bliss; mukundasya-of Lord Mukunda; sandugdham-produced; venu-of the flute; kakali-sweet sound.

 

 

   May the honey-sweet flute musi that flows from Lord Mukunda's lotus mouth fill me with bliss.

 

 

Text 4

 

 

shri-chaitanya-mukhodgirna

   hare-krsneti-varnakah

majjayanto jagat premni

   vijayantam tad-ahvayah

 

   shri-chaitanya-of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; mukha-from the mouth; udgirna-manifest; hare krishna iti varnakah-the Hare Krishna maha-mantra; majjayantah-are drowning; jagat-the entire universe; premni-in pure love of Krishna; vijayantam-all glories; tat-ahvayah-to that mah-mantra.

 

 

   Glory to the Hare Krishna maha-mantra, the Lord's names spoken by Shri Chaitanya's mouth, which drown the world in pure love!

 

 

Text 5

 

 

shrimat-prabhu-padambhojaih

   shrimad-bhagavatamritam

yad vyatani tadevedam

   sankshepena nishevyate

 

   shrimat-prabhu-of Shrila Sanatana Gosvami; pada-ambhojaih-by the lotuslike words; shrimat-bhagavatamrtam-the book named Brhad-bhagavatamrtam; yat-what; vyatani-manifested; tada-then; eva-certainly; idam-that; sanksepena-as a summary; nisevyate-is manifested.

 

 

     Of Shri Brihad-bhagavatamritam, manifested by the lotus words of my master, this book is a summary.

 

 

Text 6

 

 

idam shri-krishna-tad-bhakta-

   sambandhad amritam dvidha

adau krishnamritam tatra

   suhridbhyah pariveshyate

 

   idam-this book; shri-krishna; to Shri Krishna; tat-bhakta-and to His devotees; sambandhat-because of the relation; amrtam-the nectar; dvidha-in two parts; adau-first; krishna-amrtam-the nectar of Krishna; tatra-there; suhrdbhyah-from His friends; parivesyate-served.

 

 

   This book will describe two kinds of nectar: the nectar of Shri Krishna, and the nectar of His devotees. First will be the nectar of Krishna, nectar relished by the Lord's friends.

 

 

Texts 7 and 8

 

 

nirbandham yukti-vistare

   mayatra parimuncata

pradhanatvat pramaneshu

   sabda eva pramanyate

 

yatas taih "sastra-yonitvat"

   iti nyaya-pradarsanat

sabdasyaiva pramanatvam

   svi-kritam paramarshibhih

 

   nirbandham-without relation; yukti-of material logic; vistare-to the expansion; maya-by me; atra-here; parimuncata-freedom; pradhanatvat-because of the superiority; pramanesu-among sources of knowledge; sabdah-the Vedi revelation; eva-certainly; pramanyate-is accepted as evidence; yatah-because; taih-by them; sastra-of the Vedi literature; yonitvat-because of being the origin; iti-thus; nyaya-of the Vedanta-sutra (1.1.3); pradarsanat-because of the explanation; sabdasya-of the Vedi literature; eva-certainly; pramanatvam-evidence; svi-krtam-accepted; parama-rsibhih-by the great sages.

 

 

     Because the Vedi revelation is the best of all evidence, I will base my arguments on it and not on material logic. The best of sages accepts the Vedi revelation as the best evidence, for he said (Vedanta-sutra 1.1.3): "The Supreme is understood from the Vedi revelation".

 

 

Text 9

 

 

kim ca "tarkapratishthanat"

   iti nyaya-vidhanatah

amibhir eva su-vyaktam

   tarkasyanadarah kritah

 

   kim ca-furthurmore; ca-also; tarka-of logic; apratisthanbat-because of the inconclusiveness; iti-thus; nyaya-vidhanatah-because of the statement of Vedanta-sutra; amibhih-by them; eva-certainly; su-vyaktam' manifest; tarkasya-of material logic; anadarah-criticism; krtah-is done.

 

 

     With the words (Vedanta-sutra 2.1.11, "The Supreme cannot be understood by material logic" he directly criticized material logic.

 

 

Text 10

 

 

athopasyeshu mukhyatvam

   vaktum utkarsha-bhumatah

krishnasya tat-svarupani

   nirupyante kramad iha

 

   atha-now; upasyesu-among those who are worshippable; mukhyatvam-preeminence; vaktum-to describe; uktarsa-bhumatah-because of superiority; krishnasya-of Shri Krishna; tat-His; sva-rupani-forms; nirupyante-are described; kramat-one after another; iha-in this book.

 

 

     To prove that the Supreme Lord, Shri Krishna, is the best of they who are worthy of worship, His forms will be described here, one after another.

 

 

Text 11

 

 

svayam rupas tad-ekatma-

   rupa avesha-namakah

ity asau tri-vidham bhati

   prapancatita-dhadasu

 

   svayam-rupah-own form; tat-eka-atma-rupah-expanded form; avesa-namakah-empowered incarnation; iti-thus; asau-He; tri-vidham-in three ways; bhati-is manifest; prapanca-the material world; atita-beyond; dhamasu-in His abodes.

 

 

   In His abodes beyond the worlds of matter, the Supreme Lord is manifest in three kinds of forms: 1. svayam--rupa, 2. tad-ekatma-rupa, and 3. avesa-rupa.

 

 

Text 12

 

 

ananyapekshi yad rupam

   svayam-rupah sa ucyate

 

   ananya-apeksi-independant; yat-which; rupam-form; svayam rupah-original form; sah-that; ucyate-is called.

 

 

   The svayam--rupa is said to be the original form, not manifested from any other.

 

 

Text 13

 

 

isvarah paramah krishnah

   sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

   sarva-karana-karanam

 

   isvarah-the controller; paramah-supreme; krishnah-Lord Krishna; sat-eternal existance; cit-absolute knowledge; ananda-absolute bliss; vigrahah-whose form; anadih-without beginning; adih-the origin; govindah-Lord Govinda; sarva-karana-karanam-the cause of all causes.

 

 

   It is described in Brahma-samhita' (5.1):

 

   "Krishna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes."*

 

 

Text 14

 

 

yad rupam tad abhedena

   svarupena virajate

akrity-adibhir anya-drik

   sa tad ekatma-rupakah

sa vilasah svamsa iti

   dhatte bheda-dvayam punah

 

   yat-which; rupam-form tat-abhedena-not different from the svayam-rupa; svarupena-in its own form; virajate-is manifest; akriti-adibhih-with form, qualities, and so forth; anya-another; adrk-like; sah tat-that; eka-atma-rupakah-tadekatma-rupa; sah-that; vilasah-vilasa-rupa; svamsah- svamsa-rupa-iti-thus; dhatte-manifests; bheda-dvayam-in two divisions; punah-again.

 

 

     The svayam-rupa is not different from His original form. In the tad-ekatma-rupa the Lord's form and other features are different from His original form. The tadekatma-rupa forms are ditided into two types: 1 vilasa-rupa, and 2. svamsa-rupa.

 

 

Texts 15 and 16

 

 

svarupam anyakaram yat

   tasya bhati vilasatah

prayenatma-samam saktya

   sa vilaso nigadyate

 

paramavyoma-nathas tu

   govindasya yatha smritah

paramavyoma-nathasya

   vasudevas ca yadrisah

 

   sva-rupam-the Lord's own form; anya-other; akaram-feathures of the body; yat-which; tasya-His; bhati-appears; vilasatah-from particulat pastimes; prayena-almost; atma-samam-self-similar; saktya-by His potency; sah-that; vilasah-the vilasa (pastime, form; nigadyate-is called;parama-vyoma-nathah-Narayana, the lord of Vaikuntha; tu-also; govindasya-of LOrd Govinda; yatha-just as; smrtah-is remembered; parama-vyoma-nathasya-of Lord Narayana; vasudevah-Lord Vasudeva; ca-also; yadrsah-like whom.

 

 

     When the Lord displays numerous forms with different features by His inconceivable potency, such forms are called vilasa-vigrahas.ª In this way from Lord Govinda is manifest Lord Narayana, the master of the spiritual sky, and from Lord Narayana is manifest Lord Vasudeva.

 

 

Text 17

 

 

tadriso nyuna-saktim yo

   vyanakti svamsa iritah

sankarshanadir matsyadir

   yatha tat-tat-svadhamasu

 

   tadrsah-like that; nyuna-lessened; saktim-potency; yah-who; vyanakti-manifests; svamsah-svamsa-rupa; iritah-is called; sankarsana-adih-beginning with Lord Sankarsana; matsya-adih-beginning with Lord Matsya; yatha-just as; tat-tat-sva-dhamasu-each in His own abode.

 

 

     These forms manifest other forms that have lesser power, and are called svamsa-rupas. The forms headed by Lord Sankarshana and the forms headed by Lord Matsya, each manifest in His own abode, are examples of these forms.

 

 

Texts 18 and 19

 

 

jnana-sakty-adi-kalaya

   yatravishto janardanah

ta avesa nigadyante

   jiva eva mahattamah

 

vaikunthe 'pi yatha sesho

   naradah sanakadayah

akrura-drishtane cami

   dasame parikirtitah

 

   jnana-of knowledge; sakti-with the potency; adi-beginning with; kalaya-with a particle; yatra-where; avistah-entered; janardanah-the Supreme Lord; te-they; avesah-avesa incarnations; nigadyante-are called; jivah-individual living entities; eva-certainly; mahattamah-great souls; vaikunthe-in Vaikunthaloka; api-also; yatha-just as; sesah-Ananta Sesa; naradah-Narada Muni; sanaka-adayah-the four Kumaras; akrura-of Akrura; drstante-in the example; ca-also; ami-these; dasame-in the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; parikirtitah-glorified.

 

 

     Exalted individual souls (jivas, into whom Lord Janardana enters with a portion of His knowledge-potency and other potencies, are called avesas. Sesha, Narada, and the four Kumaras are examples of them in Vaikuntha. They were seen by Akrura, as described in the Tenth Canto.

 

 

Text 20

 

 

prakasas tu na bhedeshu

   ganyate sa hi nau prithak

 

   prakasah-prakasa-rupa; tu-but; na-not; bhedesu-in differences; ganyate-is counted; sah-He; hi-certainly; na-not; u-certainly; prthak-different.

 

 

     Prakasa-rupas are the same form manifest in many places.

 

 

Texts 21 and 22

 

 

tatha hi

 

anekatra prakatata

   rupasyaikasya yaikada

sarvatha tat svarupaiva

   sa prakasa itiryate

 

dvaravatyam yatha krishnah

   pratyaksham prati-mandiram

citram bataitat ity adi

   pramanena sa setsyati

 

   tatha hi-moreover; anekatra-in many places; prakatata-the manifestation; rupasya-of form; ekasya-one; ya-which; ekada-at one time; sarvatha-in every respect; tat-His; sva-rupa-own form; eva-certainly; sah-that; prakasah-manifestive form; iti-thus; iryate-it is called; dvaravatyam-at Dvaraka; yatha-just as; krishnah-Lord Krishna; pratyaksam-directly; prati-mandiram-at every palace; citram bata etat iti adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.69.2; pramanena-by the evidence; sah-that; setsyati-will be established.

 

 

     If numerous forms, all equal in their features, are displayed simultaneously, such forms are called prakasa-vigrahas of the Lord.ª Lord Krishna's did this in the many palaces of Dvaraka. This will be proved when Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.69.2 is quoted here.

 

 

Text 23

 

 

kvacic catur-bhujatve 'pi

   na tyajet krishna-rupatam

atah prakasa eva syat

   tasyasu dvi-bhujasya ca

 

   kvacit-sometimes; catuh-bhujatve-in the condition of manifesting four arms; api-although; na-may not; tyajet-give up; krishna-rupatam-the form of krishna; atah-therefore; prakasah-prakasa-rupa; eva-certainly; syat-may be; tasya-of Him; asau-that; dvi-bhujasya-of the two-armed form; ca' also.

 

 

     Sometimes, without abandoning His Krishna-form, Lord Krishna manifests a four-arm form. This is a prakasa-rupa of His two-arm form.

 

 

Text 24

 

 

prapancatita-dhamatvam

   esham sastre prithag-vidhe

padmiyottara-khandadau

   vyaktam eva virajate

 

   prapanca-the material world; atita-beyond; dhamatvam-abode; esam-of them; sastre-in the Vedi literature; prthak-vidhe-various; padmiya-uttara-khanda-adau-in the scriptures beginning with the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana; vyaktam-manifested; eva-certainly; virajate-appear.

 

 

     The many forms of the Supreme Lord each have their own abode in the spiritual sky, beyond the touch of matter. This is confirmed in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana, and in many other Vedic literatures also.

 

 

Chapter Two

The Purusha and Guna Avataras

 

 

Text 1

 

 

athavatarah kathyante

   krishno yeshu ca pushkalah

 

   atha-now; avatarah-incarnations; kathyante-are described; krishnah-Krishna; yesu-among whom; ca-also; puskalah-the best.

 

 

     Now the Lord's incarnations, among which Shri Krishna is the best, will be described.

 

 

Texts 2 and 3

 

 

purvokta visva-karyartham

   apurva iva cet svayam

dvarantarena vavihsyur

   avataras tada smritah

 

tac ca dvaram tadekatma-

   rupas tad-bhakta eva ca

seshasayy-adiko yadvad

   vasudevadiko 'pi ca

 

   purva-previously; uktah-described; visva-karya-artham-to execute His mission in the material world; apurvah-unprecedented; iva-as it were; cet-if; svayam-personally-dvara-antarene-by the agency of another; va-or; avihsyuh-appear; avatarah-incarnations; tada-then; smrtah-are remembered; tat-therefore; ca-also; dvaram-agency; tad-eka-atma-rupah-His tadekatma-rupa; tat-bhaktah-His devotees; eva-certainly; ca-also; sesasayi-Sesasayi Vishnu; adikah-beginning with; yadvat-just as; vasudeva-Maharaja Vasudeva; adikah-beginning with; api ca-also.

 

                     

     To act in the material world, the Supreme Lord appears in the previously described forms and in other ways, as if He had never appeared in that way before. These appearances are known as "incarnations". In this way He appears in His tad-ekatma' forms, such as Seshasayi Vishnu, and in His empowered devotees, such as Maharaja Vasudeva.

 

 

Texts 4 and 5

 

 

purushakhya gunatmano

   lilatmanas ca te tridha

 

prayah svamsas tathavesa

   avatara bhavanty ami

atra yah syat svayam-rupah

   sa 'gre vyakti-bhavishyati

 

   purusa-akhyah-purusa-avataras; guna-atmanah-guna-avataras; lila-atmanah-lila-avataras; ca-also; te-they; tridha-three kinds; prayah-generally; sva-amsah-svamsa-rupa; tatha-in the same way; avesah-avesa-rupa; avatarah-incarnations; bhavanti-are; ami-these; atra-here; yah-who; syat-may be; svayam-rupah-the original form svayam-rupa; sha-He; agre-at the beginning; vyakti-bhavisyati-will be manifest.

 

                     

     Again there are three kinds of incarnations of the Lord: 1. purusha-avataras, 2. guna-avataras, and 3. lila'-avataras. These incarnations are mostly svamsa-rupa and avesa-rupa forms. The Lord may also appear in His svayam--rupa among them.

 

 

Text 6

 

 

tatra purusha-laksh#anam yatha vishnu-purane

 

ntasyaiva yo 'nu guna-bhag vividhaika eva

   suddho 'py asuddha iva murti-vibhaga-bhedaih

jnananvitah sakala-sattva-vibhuti-karta

   tasmai nato 'smi purushaya sadavyayaya" iti.

 

ntasyaiva anu purvoktat paramesvarat samanantaram" iti svami.

 

     tatra'-there; purusha-of the Purusha-avatara; laksh#anam-decshription; yatha-as; vishnu-purane-in Vishnu Purana; tasya-of Him; eva-certainly; yah-who; anu-following; guna-bhak-full of auspicous transcendental qualities; vividha-appearing as many; ekah' one; eva-certainly; suddhah-free from material contact; api-although; asuddhah-contacting the material energy; iva-as if; murtu-vibhaga-bhedaih' expanding in many forms; jnana-anvitah-full of knowledge; sakala-all; sattva-transcendental; vibhuti-opulences and power; karta-the origin; tasmai-to Him; natah asmi-I offer my respectful obeisances; purusaya-to the purusa-avatara; sada-eternally; avyayaya-unchanging; iti-thus; tasya eva anu-this phrase; purva-uktat-from the previously explained; paramesvarat-Supreme Controller; samanantaram-after; iti-thus; svami-the commentary of Shridhara Svami.

 

 

     Now the purusha-avataras will be described. In Vishnu Purana (6.8.59, it is said:

 

   "I offer my respectful obeisances to the eternal, unchanging purusha-avatara, who has a great variety of transcendental qualities, who seems to be impure although He is supremely pure, who appears in many forms, who is full of transcendental knowledge, and who is the origin of all transcendental powers and opulences."

 

   Shridhara Svami notes that the phrase "tasyaiva anu" means "after the Supreme Controller is described."

 

 

Texts 7 and 8

 

 

atra karika

 

paramesamsa-rupo yah

   pradhana-guna-bhag iva

tad-ikshadi-kritir nana-

   vatarah purushah smritah

 

nadyo 'vatarah purushah parasya" iti.

 

     atra-here; karika-explanation; parama-isa-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amsa-rupah-expansion; yah-who; pradhana-the unmanifest modes of material nature; guna-and of the manifest modes of material nature; bhak-the master; iva-as; tat-iksa-adi-krtih-the observer and controller of material nature; nana-avatarah' the origin of the various incarnations; purusah-the purusa-avatara; smrtah' is described; adyah-the original; avatarah-incarnation; purusah-purusa-avatara; parasya-of the Supreme; iti-thus.

 

 

     Here is an explanation. He who is expanded from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who although He seems to be part of the manifested and unmanifested material modes, in truth only observes them, and who is the source of many incarnations of Godhead, the Sruti-sastras describe as the purusha-avatara. For example, Shrimad-Bhagavatam explains (2.6.40):

 

     nKaranarnavasayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord."

 

 

Text 9

 

 

tasya tu bhedah. satvata-tantre

 

nvishnos tu trini rupani

   purushakhyany atho viduh

ekam tu mahatah srashtri

   dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam

tritiyam sarva-bhuta-stham

   tani jnatva vimucyate"

 

   vishnoh-of Lord Vishnu; tu-certainly; trini-three; rupani' forms; purusha-akhyani-celebrated as the purusha; atho-how; viduh-they know; ekam-one of them; tu-but; mahatah srashtri-the creator of the total material energy; dvitiyam-the second; tu-but; anda-samsthitam' situated within the universe; tritiyam-the third; sarva-bhuta-stham' within the hearts of all living entities; tani-these three; jnatva' knowing; vimucyate-one becomes liberated.

 

 

   The different purusha-avataras are described in Satvata Tantra:

 

   "Vishnu has three forms called purushas. The first, Maha-Vishnu, is the creator of the total material energy (mahat), the second is Garbhodashayi, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Kshirodasayi, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these becomes liberated from the cluthes of maya."*

 

 

Text 10

 

 

tatra prathamam- yatha ekadase

 

nbhutair yada pancabhir atma-shrishtaih

   puram virajam viracayya tasmin

svamsena vishtah purushabhidhanam

   avapa narayana adi-devah"

 

     tatra-there; prathamam-the first; yatha-as; ekadase-in the Eleventh Canto; bhutaih-by the material elements; yada-when; pancabhih-five (earth, water, fire, air and ether); atma-shrishtaih-created by Himself; puram-the body; virajam-of the universe in its subtle form; viracayya' having constructed; tasmin-wothin that; sva-amsena-in the manifestation of His own plenary expansion; vishtah-entering; purusha-abhidhanam-the name Purusha; avapa-assumed; narayanah-Lord Narayana; adi-devah' the original Personality of Godhead.

 

 

     The first purusha-avatara is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.3,:

 

   "When the primeval Lord Narayana created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Purusha."*

 

 

Text 11

 

 

brahma-samhitayam- ca

 

ntasminn avirabhul linge

   maha-vishnur jagat-patih"

 

nsahasra-sirsha purushah" ity adi

 

nnarayanah sa bhagavan

   apas tasmat sanatanat

avir asit karanarno

   nidhih sankarshanatmakah

yoga-nidram gatas tasmin

   sahasramsah svayam mahan"

 

ntad-roma-bila-jaleshu

   bijam sankarshanasya ca

haimanyandani jatani

   mahabhutavritani tu" ity etad-antam.

 

     brahma-samhitayam-in Brahma-samhita; ca-also; tasmin-in him; avirabhut-is manifest in the form of a glance; ling' in Sambhu; maha-vishnuh-known as Maha-Vishnu; jagat-of the world; patih-the Lord; sahasra-sirsha-having thousands of heads; purushah' Maha-Vishnu; iti adi-in the passage beginning with the words; narayanah-known as Narayana; sah bhagavan-the same Lord (Maha-Vishnu); apah-the expanse of water; tasmat-from Him; samkarshana-atmakah-the subjective portion of Sankarshana; yoga-nidram-divine sleep; gatah-having entered; tasmin-in that; sahasra-amshah-with thousands of subjective portions; svayam-Himself; mahan-the Supreme Lord; tat-of Maha-Vishnu; roma-bila-jaleshu-in the pores of the skin; bijam' seeds; sankarshanasya-of Sankarshana; ca-and; haimani-golden; andani-eggs; jatani-are born; maha-bhuta-with the five great elements; avritani-covered; tu-also; iti etat-antam-in the passage ending with these words.

 

 

     Brahma-samhita' (5.10-13, also describes Him:

 

   "The Lord of the world Maha-Vishnu is manifest in him (Lord Mahesvara, by His subjective portion in the form of His glance."**

   "The Lord of the mundane world, Maha-Vishnu, possesses thousands of thousands of heads, eyes and hands. He is the source of thousands of thousands of avataras in His thousands of thousands of subjective portions. He is the creator of thousands of thousands of individual souls.**

   "The same Maha-Vishnu is spoken of by the name of Narayana in this mundane world. From that eternal person has sprung the vast expanse of water of the spiritual causal ocean. The subjective portion of Sankarshana who abides in Paravyoma, the above supreme purusha with thousands of subjective portions, reposes in the state of divine sleep (yoga-nidra, in the waters of the spiritual causal ocean."**

   "The spiritual seeds of Sankarshana existing in the pores of skin of Maha-Vishnu are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great elements."**

 

 

Text 12

 

 

lingam atra svayam-rupasy-

   anga-bheda udiritah

 

   lingam-the word "linga"; atra-in this quotation; svayam-rupasya-of the original form; anga-of the body; bhedah-division; udiritah-is described.

 

 

   In this passage the word "linga" means "different from the original form (svayam--rupa, of the Lord".

 

 

Text 13

 

 

dvitiyam- yatha tatraiva tad-anantaram

 

npraty-andam evam ekamsad

   ekamsad visati svayam" iti.

 

     dvitiyam-the second; yatha-as; tatra-there; eva-indeed; tad-anantaram-then:fn 2 prati-andam-into each universe; evam-thus; eka-amsat eka amsat' as separate portions; visati-entered; svayam-of the same (Maha-Vishnu).

 

 

     Brahma-samhita 5.14, then describes the second purusha-avatara:

 

   "The same Maha-Vishnu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective portions."**

 

 

Text 14

 

 

garbhodaka-sayah padma-

   nabho 'sav aniruddhakah

iti narayanopakhyana

   uktam moksha-dharmake

sa 'yam hiranya-garbhasya

   pradyumnatve niyamakah

 

   garbha-udaka-sayah-Garbhodakasayi Vishnu; padma-nabhah-Pradyumna; asau-He; aniruddhakah-Aniruddha; iti-thus; narayana-of Narayana; upakhyane-in the story; uktam-said; moksa-dharmake-in the Moksa-dharma; sah ayam-that same person; hiranya-garbhasya-of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu; pradyumnatve-in the status of Pradyumna; niyamakah-controller.

 

 

     That the Lord expands as Lord Pradyumna and thus becomes the origin of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu is confirmed in the Narayana-upakhyana of the Moksha-dharma:

 

     "As Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, lotus-naveled Lord Pradyumna is the father of Lord Aniruddha."

 

 

Text 15

 

 

atha yat tu tritiyam syat

   rupam tac capy adrisyata

nkecit sva-dehantah" iti

   dvitiya-skandha-padyatah

 

   atha-now; yat-which; tu-also; tritiyam-in the Third purusa-avatara; syat-is; rupam-form; tat-that; ca api-also; adrsyata-was seen; kecit sva-dehatah iti-in the following verse:

 

 

nkecit sva-dekantat-hridayavakase

   pradesa-matram purusham vasantam

catur-bhujam kanja-rathanga-sankha-

   gada-dharam dharanaya smaranti";

dvitiya-skanda-padyatah-from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.8).

 

 

     The third purusha-avatara is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.8):

 

   "Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing wothin the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a cluâ respectively."*

 

 

Text 16

 

 

gunavataras tatratha

   kathyante purushad iha

vishnur brahma ca rudras ca

   sthiti-sargadi-karmana

 

   guna-avatarah-the guna-avataras; tatra-there; atha-now; kathyante-are described; purusat-from the purusa-avatara; iha-here; visnuh-Vishnu; brahma-Brahma; ca-also; rudrah-Siva; ca-and; sthiti-maintenance; sarga' creation; adi-beginning with; karmana-by work.

 

 

   From the purusha-avatara Vishnu, Brahma, and Siva, who maintain, create, and destroy the material universe, are said to have come.

 

 

Text 17

 

 

yatha prathame

 

nsattvam rajas tama iti prakriter gunas tair

   yuktah parah purusha eka ihasya dhatte

sthity-adaye hari-virinci-hareti samjnah

   sreyamsi tatra khalu sattva-tanor nrinam syuh"

 

   yatha-just as; prathame-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.23; sattvam-goodness; rajah-passion; tamah-the darkness of ignorance; iti-thus; prakriteh' of the material nature; gunah-qualities; taih-by them; yuktah' associated with; parah-transcendental; purushah-the personality; ekah' one; iha asya-of this material world; dhatte-accepts; sthiti-adaye-for the matter of creation, maintenance and destruction, etc.; hari-Vishnu, the Personality of Godhead; virinci-Brahma; hara-Lord Siva; iti-thus; samjnah-different features; sreyamsi-ultimate benefit; tatra' therein; khalu-of course; sattva-goodness; tanoh-form; nrinam-of the human being; syuh-derived.

 

 

   They are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.23):

 

   "The transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness and ignorance, and just for the material world's creation, maintenance and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Vishnu, the form of the quality of goodness."*

 

 

Text 18

 

 

atra karika

 

yogo niyamakataya

   gunaih sambandha ucyate

atah sa tair na yujyate

   tatra svamsah parasya yah

 

   atra-here; karika-explanation; yogah-contact; niyamakataya-because of being the controller¯ gunaih-with the three modes of material nature; sambandhah-relation; ucyate-is described; atah-therefore; sah-He; taih- by them; na-not; yujyate-is in contact; tatra-there; sva-amsah-direct manifestation; parasya-of the Supreme Lord; yah-who.

 

 

Explanation

 

     As controllers of them they have a relationship with the material modes of nature. Only the one (Lord Vishnu, that is a svamsa-avatara has no relation with the modes.

 

 

Text 19

 

 

tatra brahma

 

hiranyagarbhah sukshmo 'tra

   sthulo vairaja-samjnakah

bhogaya shrishtaye cabhut

   padma-bhur iti sa dvidha

 

   tatra-there; brahma-Brahma; hiranyagarbhah-Hiranyagarbha; suksmah- subtle; atra-here; sthulah-gigantic; vairaja-Vairaja; samjnakah-named; bhogaya-for enjoyment; srstaye-for creation; ca-also; abhut-was; padma-bhuh-born from the lotus navel of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu; iti-thus; sah-he; dvi-dha-in two features.

 

 

Brahma

 

     As the subtle Hiranyagarbha and the gross Viraja, Brahma, who is born from the Lord's lotus navel, is manifest in order to enjoy and create. Thus he has two features.

 

 

Text 20

 

 

vairaja eva prayah syat

   sargady-artham catur-mukhah

kadacid bhagavan vishnur

   brahma san shrijati svayam

 

   vairajah-Vairaja Brahma; eva-certainly; prayah-generally; syat-may be; sarga-creation; adi-and other activities; artham-for the purpose of performing; catuh-mukhah-with four faces; kadacit-sometimes; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; visnuh-Vishnu; brahma-Brahma; san-being; rjati' creates; svayam-personality.

 

 

     Four-headed Vairaja Brahma' appears in order to create the material universe and perform other duties. Sometimes Lord Vishnu Himself becomes Brahma and creates the universe.

 

 

Text 21

 

 

tatha ca padme

 

nbhavet kvacin maha-kalpe

   brahma jivo 'py upasanaih

kvacid atra maha-vishnur

   brahmatvam pratipadyate" iti

 

   tatha-in the same way; ca-also; padme-in the Padma Purana; bhavet' there may be; kvacit-sometimes; maha-kalpe-at the beginning of the maha-kalpa; brahma-Brahma; jivah-indivitual jiva soul; api-although; upasanaih-by devotional service; kvacit-sometimes; atra-here; maha-visnu; Lord Vishnu; brahmatvam-the post of Brahma; pratipadyate-accepts.

 

 

   Padma Purana explains:

 

   "In some maha'-kalpas a jiva soul becomes Brahma' by devotional service, and in other maha'-kalpas Lord Maha'-Vishnu Himself becomes Brahma."

 

 

Text 22

 

 

vishnur yatra maha-kalpe

   srastritvam ca prapadyate

tatra bhunkte tam pravisya

   vairajah saukhya-sampadam

ato jivatvam aisyam ca

   brahmanah kalpa-bhedatah

 

   visnuh-Vishnu; yatra-where; maha-kalpe-in the maha-kalpa; srastrtvam' the post of creator; ca-also; prapayate-attains; tatra-there; bhunkte' enjoys; tam-that; pravisya-entering; vairajah-Vairaja Brahma; saukhya-sampadam-great happiness; atah-therefore; jivatvam-as a jiva soul; aisyam-as the Personality of Godhead; ca-also; brahmanah-of Brahma; kalpa-of kakpas; bhedatah-according to differences.

 

 

     In a maha'-kalpa where Lord Vishnu personally becomes the creator Brahma', He enters the material universe as Viraja Brahma' and enjoys transcendental bliss. Thus the kalpas are divided into those ruled by the Lord and those ruled by a jiva.

 

 

Text 23

 

 

isatvapekshaya tasya

   sastre proktavatarata

samastitvena bhagavat-

   sannikrishtatayocyate

asyavatarata kaiscid

   avesatvena kaiscana

 

   isatva-apeksaya-with in relation to the Personality of Godhead; tasya' of Him; sastre-in the Vedi literature; prokta-described; avatarata-the position of His incarnations; samastitvena-as a whole; bhagavat-to the Personality of Godhead; snnikrstataya-as related; ucyate-is described; asya-of Him; avatarata-the post of incarnation; kaiscit-by some; avesatvena-as empowered incarnation; kaiscana-by others.

 

 

     When the scriptures say that the Personality of Godhead becomes Brahma, some say that in general this means that the Lord personally appears, and others say this means the Lord appears as an avesa-avatara.

 

 

Text 24

 

 

tatha ca brahma-samhitayam

 

nbhasvan yathasma-sakaleshu nijeshu tejah

   sviyam kiyat prakatayaty api tadvad atra

brahma ya esa jagad-anda-vidhana-karta

   govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami"

 

tatha-in the same way; ca-also; brahma-samhitayam-in the Brahma-Samhita; bhasvan-the illuminating sun; yatha-as; asma-sakaleshu-in various types of precious stones; nijeshu-his own; tejah-brilliance; sviyam-his own; kiyat-to some extent; prakatayati-manifests; api-also; tadvat-similarly; atra-he; brahma-Lord Brahma; yah-Who is; eshah' the Lord; jagat-anda-vidhana-karta-becomes the chief of the universe.

 

 

   Brahma-samhita (5.49, explains:

 

   "I adore the Primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the Supreme manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of Suryakanta, etc."**

 

 

Text 25

 

 

garbhodasayino 'syabhuj

   janma nabhi-saroruhat

kadacit sruyate nirat

   tejo-vatadikad api

 

   garbhodasayinah-from Garbhodakasayi Vishnu; asya-of Brahma; abhut-was; janma-birth; nabhi-saroruhat-from the lotus-navel; kadacit-sometimes; sruyate-it is heard in Vedi literatures; nirat-from the Garbhodaka ocean; tejah-from fire; vata-from wind; adikat-or from other elements; api' even.

 

 

     Brahma' is generally born from Garbhodakasayi Vishnu's lotus-navel, although the scriptures explain that sometimes he is born from water, fire, wind, or another element.

 

 

Text 26

 

 

rudra ekadasa-vyuhas

   tathashta-tanur apy asau

prayah pancananas try-aksho

   dasa-bahur udiryate

 

   rudrah-Siva; ekadasa-eleven; vyuhah-manifestations; tatha-in that way; asta-tanuh-in eight forms; api-also; asau-he; prayah-generally; panca-with five; ananah-faces; tri-with three; aksah-eyes; dasa-with ten; bahuh-arms; udiryate-is described.

 

 

Siva

 

     Siva appears in eleven forms and eight forms. Generally he has ten arms and five heads, with three eyes on each head.

 

 

Text 27

 

 

kvacij jiva-viseshatvam

   harasyoktam vidher iva

tat tu seshavad evastam

   tad-amsatvena kirtanat

 

   kvacit-sometimes; jiva-visesatvam-as a specifi jiva soul; harasya-of Siva; uktam-said; vidheh-of Brahma; iva-like; tat-that; tu-but; sesa-vat-as Ananta Sesa; eva-certainly; astam-is; tat-amsatvana-as a direct expansion of the Personality of Godhead; kirtanat-from the glorification.

 

 

     The scriptures explain that, as Brahma' is, so Siva is sometimes a jiva soul and sometimes an amsa-avatara like Lord Sesha.

 

 

Text 28

 

 

harah purusha-dhamatvan

   nirgunah praya eva sah

vikaravan iha tamo-

   yogat sarvaih pratiyate

 

yatha dasame

 

nsivah sakti-yutah sasvat

   tri-lingo guna-samvritah"

 

   harah-Siva; purusa-dhamatvat-because of being an incarnation of the Personality of Godhead; nirgunah-free from the influence of the three modes of material nature; prayah-for the most part; eva-certainly; sah-he; vikaravan-with transformations; iha-in this world; tamah-of the modes of ignorance; yogat-because of contact; sarvaih-by everyone; prtiyate-is understood; yatha-just as; dasame-in the Tenth Canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.88.3); sivah-Siva; sakti-yutah-in contact with the illusory potency; sasvat-eternally; tri-lingah-in contact with the three modes of material nature; guna-by the modes; samvrtah-accompanied.

 

 

     Because He is an incarnation of the Personality of Godhead, He is generally beyond the modes of material nature. However, because he is touched by the mode of ignorance, He is thought to be affected by it. This is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.88.3):

 

     "Lord Siva is always associated with the three modes of nature."

 

 

Text 29

 

 

yatha brahma-samhitayam

 

nkshiram yatha dadhi vikara-visesha-yogat

   sanjayate na hi tatah prithag asti hetoh

yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyat

   govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami"

 

   yatha-just as; brahma-samhitayam-in the Brahma-samhita (5.45); kshiram-milk; yatha-as; dadhi-yogurt; vikara-visesha-with a special transforming agent; yogat-by mixing; sanjayate-is transformed; na-not; tu-but; tatah-from the milk; prithak-separated; asti-is; hetoh-which is the cause; yah-Who; sambhutam-the nature of Lord Siva; api-even though; tatha-as; samupaiti-accepts; karyat-from the matter of some particular business (destruction).

 

 

     He is described in Brahma-samhita (5.45):

 

     "Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the effect curd is neither the same as, nor different from, its cause, viz., milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Sambu is a transformation for the performance of the work of destruction."**

 

 

Text 30

 

 

vidher lalataj janmasya

   kadacit kamala-pateh

kalagni-rudrah kalpante

   bhavet sankarshanad api

 

   vidheh-of Brahma; lalatat-from the forehead; janma-birth; asya-of Siva; kadacit-sometimes; kamala-pateh-of Vishnu; kala-agni-rudrah-manifested from the kala-fire; kalpa-of the kalpa; ante-at the conclusion; bhavet-may be; sankarsanat-from Sankarsana; api-also.

 

 

     Sometimes He is born from Brahma's forehead and other times from Vishnu's forehead. At the kalpa's end He is born from Lord Sankarshana as the fire of time.

 

 

Text 31

 

 

sadasivakhya tan-murtis

   tamo-gandha-vivarjita

sarva-karana-bhutasav

   anga-bhuta svayam-prabhoh

vayavyadishu saiveyam

   siva-loke pradarsita

 

   sadasiva-akhya-named Sadasiva; tat-of him; murtih-from; tamah-of the mode of ignorance; gandha-of the slightest touch; vivarjita-free; sarva-karana-bhuta-the original cause of all causes; asau-he; anga-bhuta' manifested; svayam-prabhoh-from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vayava' in the Vayu Purana; adisu-and other Vedi literatures; sa-that form; eva' certainly; iyam-that; siva-loke-on the Sivaloka planet in the spiritual world; pradarsita-seen.

 

 

     Siva's form named Sadasiva, who is a direct expansion of the Personality of Godhead, is the cause of all causes, is free from the slightest scent of the mode of ignorance, and resides in Sivaloka, is described in the Vayu Purana and other scriptures.

 

 

Text 32

 

 

tatha ca brahma-samhitayam adi-siva-kathane

 

niyatih sa rama devi

   tat priya tad vasam tada

jyoti-rupah sanatanah

   ya yonih sa para saktih ity adi

 

   tatha-in the same way; ca-also; brahma-samhitayam-in the Brahma-samhita (5.8); adi-siva-of Sadasiva; kathane-in the description; niyatih' the regulatriø (destiny); sa-she; rama devi-known as Ramadevi; tat' of Krishna; priya-beloved; tat-His; vasam-under the control; tada-at the time of creation; tat-of the Supreme Lord; lingam-8 masculine symbol; bhagavan-the Lord; sambhuh-known as Sambhu (Siva); jyoti-rupah' halo; sanatanah-divine; ya-which; yonih-feminine symbol; sa-she; apara-non-absolute; saktih-potency; iti adi-in the passage this beginning.

 

 

     He, the original form of Lord Siva, is described in Brahma-samhita' (5.8,:

 

     "Rama'-devi, the spiritual (cit, potency, beloved consort of the Supreme Lord, is the regulatriø of all entities. The divine plenary portion of Krishna creates the mundane world. At creation there appears a divine halo of the nature of His own subjective portion (svamsa,. This halo is divine Sambhu (Sadasiva), the masculine symbol or manifested emblem of the Supreme Lord. This halo is the dim twilight reflection of the supreme eternal effulgence. This masculine symbol is the subjective portion of divinity who functions as progenitor of the mundane world, subject to the supreme regulatriø (niyati). The conceiving potency in regard to mundane creation makes her appearance out of the supreme regulatrix. She is Maya, the limited, non-absolute (apara, potency, the symbol of mundane feminine productivity. The intercourse of these two brings forth the faculty of perverted cognition, the reflection of the seed of the procreative desire of the Supreme Lord."**

 

 

Text 33

 

 

shri-vishnur yatha tritiye

 

ntal loka-padmam sa u eva vishnuh

   pravivisat sarva-gunavabhasam

tasmin svayam vedamayo vidhata

   svayambhuvam yam sma vadanti so 'bhut" iti

 

   shri-visnuh-Lord Vishnu; yatha-just as; trtiye-in the Third Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15); tat-that; loka-universal; padmam-lotus flower; sah-He; u-certainly; eva-factually; vishnuh-the Lord; pravivisat-entered into; sarva-all; guna-avabhasam-reservoir of all modes of nature; tasmin-in which; svayam-in person; veda-mayah-the personality of Vedi wisdom; vidhata-controller of the universe; svayam-bhuvam-self-born; yam-whom; sma-in the past; vadanti-do say; sah-he; abhut-generated; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Vishnu is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15):

 

   "Into that universal lotus flower Lord Vishnu personally entered as the Supersoul, and when it was thus impregnated with all the modes of material nature, the personality of Vedi wisdom, whom we call the self-born, was generated."*

 

 

Text 34

 

 

yo vishnuh pathyate so 'sau

   ksh#irambudhi-sayo matah

garbhodasayinas tasya

   vilasatvan munisvaraih

narayano virad antar-

   yami cayam nigadyate

 

   yah-who; visnu-Vishnu; pathyate-is described in the Vedi literatures; sah asau-that same person; ksira-ambu-on the ocean of milk; sayah- resting; matah-is considered; garbha-uda-sayinah-of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu; tasya-of Him; vilasatvat-from pastimes; muni-isvaraih-by the great sages; narayanah-Narayana; virat-the Universal Form; antah-yami-the all-pervading Supersoul; ca-also; ayam-He; nigadyate-is described.

 

 

     The Vishnu described here is considered to be Kshirodakasayi Vishnu. Because He is a vilaasa-avatara of Garbhodakasayi Vishnu the great sages call Him "Narayana", "the Universal Form", and "the All-pervading Supersoul".

 

 

Text 35

 

 

vishnu-dharmottarady-ukta

   yah puryo 'janda-madhyatah

santi vishnu-prakasanam

   tah kathyante samssatah

 

   visnu-dharma-uttara-the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana; adi-the Vedi literatures beginning with; uktah-described; yah-which; puryah-cities; aja-anda-the material universe; madhyatah-within; santi-are; visnu-prakasanam-of manifestation of Vishnu; tah-they; kathyante-are described; samasatah-in a general way.

 

 

     The residences of Lord Vishnu in this material world, which are described in the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana and other Vedi literatures, now will be described in brief. Vishnu-dharmottara Purana explains:

 

 

Texts 36-38

 

 

yatha

 

nrudroparishthad aparah

   pancayuta-pramanatah

agamyah sarva-lokanam

   vishnulokah prakirtitah

 

ntasyoparishtad brahmandah

   kancanoddipta-samyutah

meros tu purva-dig-bhage

   madhye tu lavanodadheh

vishnuloko mahan proktah

   salilantara-samsthitah

 

ntatra svapiti gharmante

   deva-devo janardanah

lakshmi-sahayah satatam

   shesha-paryankam asthitah

 

   yatha-just as; rudra-Sivaloka; uparistat-above; aparah-beyond; panca-ayuta-50,000 yojanas; pramanatah-in breadth; agamyah-unapproachable; sarva-lokanam-to the other planets; visnulokah-the abode of Vishnu; prakirtitah-is described; tasya-that; uparistat-above; brahma-andah-sphere of Brahman; kancana-with gold; uddipta-illumined; samyutah-endowed; meroh-of Mount Meru; purva-dig-bhage-in the beginning part; madhye-in the middle; tu-also; lavana-udadheh-of the salt-water ocean; visnu-lokah-the realm of Vishnu; mahan-great; proktah-is described; salila-the water; antara-within; samsthitah-situated; tatra-there; svapiti-sleeps; gharma-ante-after the summer season; deva-devah-the master of all the demigods; janardanah-Lord Vishnu; laksmi-by Laksmi-devi; sahayah-accompanied; satatam-constantly; sesa-of Sesa; paryankam-on the couch; asthitah-situated.

 

 

     "Above Sivaloka is the place named Vishnuloka, which is 50,000 yojanas in measurement and cannot be approached from any other planet. Above it, to the east of Mount Meru, and in the midst of an ocean, is the splendid golden realm called Maha-vishnuloka. There, resting on the couch of Ananta Sesha, and accompanied by Shrimati Lakshmi-devi, Lord Vishnu, the master of all the demigods, takes a nap at the end of the summer season.

 

 

Texts 39 and 40

 

 

nmeros ca purva-dig-bhage

   madhye kshirarnavasya ca

kshirambu-madhya-ga subhra

   devasyanya tatha puri

 

lakshmi-sahayas tatraste

   seshasana-gatah prabhuh

tatrapi caturo masan

   suptas tishthati varsikan

 

   meroh-of Mount Meru; ca-also; purva-dik-bhage-at the beginning; madhye-in the middle; ksira-of milk; arnavasya-of the ocean; ca-and; ksira-ambu-of the ocean of milk; madhya-ga-in the middle; subhra-white; devasya-of the Supreme Lord; anya-another; tatha-in ths same way; puri-city; laksmi-the goddess of fortune; sahayah-accompanied by; tatra-there; aste-remains; sesa-asana-gatah-resting on Ananta Sesa; prabhuh-the Lord; tatra-there; api-also; chaturah-for four; masan-months; suptah-asleep; tisthati-remains; varsikan-during the monsoon season.

 

 

     "East of Mount Meru, in the midst of a milk-ocean, is another splendid city of the Lord. There, resting on the couch of Ananta Sesha, and accompanied by Shrimati Lakshmi-devi, the Lord sleeps during the four months of the monsoon season.

 

 

Text 41

 

 

ntasminn avaci dig-bhage

   madhye kshirarnavasya tu

yojananam sahasrani

   mandalah panca-vimsatih

svetadvipatya khyato

   dvipah parama-sobhanah

 

   tasmin-there; avaci dik-bhage-in the south; madhye-in the middle; ksira-arnavasya-of the ocean of milk; tu-also; yojananam-of yojanas; sahasrani-thousands; mandalah-a place; panca-vimsatih; 25; svetadvipataya' as Svetadvipa; khyatah-celebrated; dvipah-island; parama-sobhanah-very splendid and beautiful.

 

 

   "In the southern part of that milk-ocean is a very beautiful and splendid island 25,000 yojanas wide called Svetadvipa.

 

 

Text 42

 

 

narah surya-prabhas tatra

   sitamsu-sama-darsanah

tejasa durnirikshyas ca

   devanam api yadava

 

   narah-men; surya-of the sun; prabhah-with the splendor; tatra-there; fsitamsu-with the moon; sama-equal; darsanah-to see; tejasa-with splendor; durniriksyah-difficult to see; ca-also; devanam-by the demigods; api-even; yadava-O descendant of Maharaja Yadu.

 

 

   "O Yadava, the people there are splendid as the sun and handsome as the cooling moon. They are so splendid even the demigods cannot gaze on them."

 

 

Texts 43 and 44

 

 

brahmande ca

 

nsveto nama mahan asti

   dvipah kshirabdhi-veshtitah

laksha-yojana-vistarah

   su-ramyah sarva-kancanah

 

nkundendu-kumuda-prakhyair

   lola-kallola-rasibhih

dhautamala-silopetah

   samastat kshira-varidheh" iti

 

   brahmande-in the Brahanda Purana; ca-also; svetah-Svetadvipa; nama-named; mahan-great; asti-there is; dvipah-island; ksira-abdhi-by the ocean of milk; vestitah-surrounded; laksa-100,000; yojana-yojanas; vistarah-wide; su-ramyah-very delightful; sarva-kancanah-completely made of gold; kunda-white jasmine flowers; indu-the moon; kumuda-white lotus flowers; prakhyaih-resembling; lola-kallola-resibhih-with waves; dhauta-amala-sila-upetah-pure; samastat-in all directions; ksira-varidheh-of the ocean; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Brahmanda Purana it is said:

 

     "Surrounded by the ocean of milk is a beautiful golden island 100,000 yojanas wide named Svetadvipa, which is washed on all sides by the playful jasmine and lotus waves of the splendid milk-ocean."

 

 

Texts 45 and 46

 

 

kim- ca vishnu-puranadau

   moksha-dharme ca kirtitam

kshirabdher uttare tire

   svetadvipo bhaved iti

 

suddhodad uttare sveta-

   dvipam syat padma-sammatam

 

   kim ca-furthermore; visnu-purana-in the Vishnu Purana; adau-and other Vedi literatures; moksa-dharme-in the Moksa-dharma; ca-also; kirtitam-described; ksira-abdheh-of the ocean of milk; uttare-on the northern; tire-shore; svetadvipah-Svetadvipa; bhavet-is; iti-thus; suddha-udat-from the pure ocean; uttare-in the north; svetadvipam-Svetadvipa; syat-is; padma-of the Padma Purana; sammatam-the opinion.

 

 

     Vishnu Purana, Moksha-dharma, and other scriptures say, "Svetadvipa is on the northern shore of the milk-ocean." Padma Purana says, "Svetadvipa is north of the pure milk-ocean."

 

 

Texts 47 and 48

 

 

vishnuh sattvam tanotiti

   sastre sattva-tanuh smritah

avatara-ganas casya

   bhavet sattva-tanus tatha

 

bahirangam adhishthanam

   iti va tasya tat tanuh

ato nirgunata samyak

   sarva-sastre prasidhyati

 

   visnuh-Vishnu; sattvam-the mode of goodness; tanoti-increases; iti-thus; sastre-in the Vedi literatures; sattva-tanuh-the word "sattva-tanu"; smrtah-is stated; avatara-of incarnations; ganah-the multitude; ca-also; asya-of Him; bhavet-is; sattva-tanuh-"sattva-tanu"; tatha-in the same way; bahirangam-external; adhisthanam-control; iti-thus; va-or; tasya-of Him; tat-therefore; tanuh-the word "tanu" is used; atah-from this; nirgunata-position abode the modes of material nature; samyak-completely; sarva-in all; sastre-Vedi literatures; prasidhyati-is established.

 

 

     All Vedi literatures explain that Lord Vishnu and His many incarnations are beyond the influence of the three modes of material nature. When the word "sattva-tanu" is used to describe Him, it should be interpreted to mean either "He who expands the activities of the mode of goodness (sattvam tanoti)" or "He who is the controller of the mode of goodness."

 

 

Text 49

 

 

tatha hi shri-dasame

 

nharir hi nirgunah sakshat

   purushah prakriteh parah

sa sarva-drig upadrashta

   tam bhajan nirguno bhavet" iti

 

   tatha hi-furthermore; shri-dasame-in the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; harih-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu; hi' certainly; nirgunah-transcendental to all material qualities; sakshat' directly; purushah-the supreme enjoyer; prakriteh-material nature; parah-beyond; sah-He; sarva-drik-the seer of everything; upadrashta' the overseer of everything; tam-Him; bhajan-by worshiping; nirgunah' transcendental to material qualities; bhavet-one becomes; iti-thus.

 

 

     This is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.88.5):

 

   "Shri Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature; therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside; therefore He is supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worshps Him, he also attains a transcendental position."*

 

 

Texts 50 and 51

 

 

tena sattva-tanor asmat

   sreyamsi syur itiritam

 

ity ato vihita sastre

   tad-bhakter eva nityata

 

   tena-by this; sattva-tanoh-of the spiritual form; asmat-this; sreyamsi-best; syuh-are; iti; thus; iritam-it is said; iti-thus; atah-from this; vihita-placed; sastre-in the Vedi literatures; tat-bhakteh-of His devotional service; eva-certainly; nityata-eternality.

 

 

     In this way it is understood that the word "sattva-tanu" means "He who is the best." Thus the scriptures establish the eternality of devotional service to the Lord.

 

 

Text 52

 

 

tatha hi padme

 

nsmartavyah satatam vishnur

   vismartavyo na jatucit

sarve vidhi-nishedhah syur

   etayor eva kinkarah"

 

   tatha hi-furthermore; padme-in the Padma Purana; smartavyah-to be remembered; satatam-always; vishnuh-Lord Vishnu; vismartavyah-to be forgotten; na-not; jatucit-at any time; sarve-all; vidhi-nishedhah' rules and prohibitions mentioned in the revealed scripture or given by the spiritual master; syuh-should be; etayoh-of these two principles (always to remember Krishna or Vishnu and never to forget Him); eva-certainly; kinkarah-the servants.

 

 

     Furthermore, in Padma Purana:

 

   "Krishna is the origin of Lord Vishnu. He should always be remembered and never forgotten at any time. All the rules and prohibitions mentioned in the sastras should be the servants of these two principles."*

 

 

Text 53

 

 

ata eva tatraiva

 

nvyamohaya caracarasya jagatas te te puranagamas

   tam tam eva hi devatam paramikam jalpantu kalpavadhi

siddhante punar eka eva bhagavan vishnuh samastagama-

   vyapareshu vivecana-vyatikaram niteshu nisciyate"

 

   atah eva-therefore; tatra-there; eva-certainly; vyamohaya-for bewilderment; cara-acarasya-full of moving and non-moving creatures; jagatah-of the universe; te te-whatever; purana-Puranas; agamah-and other Vedi literatures; tam tam-whatever; eva-certainly; hi-indeed; devatam-deity; paramikam-supreme; jalpantu-may describe; kala-of the kalpa; avadhi-until the end; siddhante-in thek final conclusion; punah- again; ekah-alone; eva-certainly; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; visnuh-Vishnu; samasta-all; agama-of Vedi literatures; vyaparesu-in the efforts; vivecana-vyatikaram-the discrimination; nitesu-in conclusive statements; nisciyate-is conclusively established.

 

 

     There it is also said:

 

   "In order to bewilder the moving and non-moving inhabitants of the material universe, the Puranas and other Vedi scriptures may sometimes say that this or that demigod is the Supreme Lord. The actual final conclusion of all Vedi literatures, however, is that only Lord Vishnu, and no one else, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

 

Text 54

 

 

shri-prathama-skandhe

 

nmumukshavo ghora-rupan

   hitva bhuta-patin atha

narayana-kalah santa

   bhajanti hy anasuyavah" iti

 

   shri-prathama-skandhe-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; mumukshavah-persons desiring liberation; ghora-horrible, ghastly; rupan-forms like that; hitva-rejecting; bhuta-patin-demigods; atha' for this reason; narayana-the Personality of Godhead; kalah-plenary portions; santah-all-blissful; bhajanti-do worship; hi-certainly; anasuyavah-nonenvious; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.26,:

 

   "Those who are serious about liberation are certainly nonenvious, and they respect all. Yet they reject the horrible and ghastly forms of the demigods and worship only the all-blissful forms of Lord Vishnu and His plenary portions."*

 

 

Texts 55 and 56

 

 

atra svamsa harer eva

   kala-sabdena kirtitah

ato vidhi-haradinam

   nikhilanam su-parvanam

 

shri-vishnoh svamsa-vargebhyo

   nyunatabhiprakasita

 

   atra-here; svamsah-svamsa-vataras; hareh-of Lord Hari; eva-certainly; kala-sabdena-by the word "kala"; kirtitah-described; atah-therefore; vidhi-of Brahma; hara-Siva; adinam-and the other demigods; nikhilanam-all; su-parvanam-of the demigods; shri-visnoh-of Lord Vishnu; svamsa-vargebhyah-than the incarnations; nyunata-inferior position; abhiprakasita-manifest.

 

 

     The svamsa-avataras here are called kalas. Brahma, Siva, and all other demigods are inferior to the svamsa-avataras of Lord Vishnu.

 

 

Text 57

 

 

yatha tatraiva

 

nathapi yat-pada-nakhavashrishtam

   jagad virincopahritarhanambhah

sesham punaty anyatamo mukundat

   ko nama loke bhagavat-padarthah" iti

 

   yatha-just as; tatra-there; eva-certainly; atha-therefore; api' certainly; yat-whose; pada-nakha-nails of the feet; avashrishtam' emanating; jagat-the whole universe; virinca-Brahmaji; upahrita' collected; arhana-worship; ambhah-water; sa-along with; isam-Lord Siva; punati-purifies; anyatamah-who else; mukundat-besides the Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna; kah-who; nama-name; loke-within the world; bhagavat-Supreme Lord; pada-position; arthah-worth; iti' thus.

 

 

     There it is also said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.18.21):

 

     nWho can be worthy of the name of the Supreme Lord but the Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna? Brahmaji collected the water emanating from the nails of His feet in order to award it to Lord Siva as a worshipful welcome. This very water (the Ganges) is purifying the whole universe, including Lord Siva."*

 

 

Texts 58 and 59

 

 

maha-varahe ca

 

nmatsya-kurma-varahadyah

   sama vishnor abhedatah

brahmadyam asamah proktah

   prakritis tu samagama" iti

 

atra prakriti-sabdena

   cic-chaktir abhidhiyate

abhinna-bhinna-rupatvad

   asyaivokta samasma

 

   maha-varahe-in the Maha-varaha Purana; ca-also; matsya-Matsya; kurma-Kurma; varaha-Varaha; adyah-beginning with; samah-equal; visnoh-with Lord Vishnu; abhedatah-because of non-difference; brahma-adyam-with Brahma and the other demigods; asamah-not equal; proktah-described; prakrtih-nature; tu-but; sama-equal; asama-and not equal; iti-thus; atra-here; prakrti-sabdena-by the word "prakrti";cit-transcendental; saktih-potency; abhidhiyate-is named; abhinna-as not different; bhinna-rupatvat-and as different; asya-of Him; eva-certainly; ukta-described; sama-as equal; asama-and not equal.

 

 

     In Maha-varaha Purana also:

  

     "Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, and other incarnations are equal to Lord Vishnu, for they are not different from Lord Vishnu Himself. Brahma' and the other material demigods are described as not equal to Lord Vishnu, although as His potency they are also equal to Him."

 

     The word "prakriti" (potency, here means "spiritual potency". Because they are simultaneously different and not different from the Lord, here it is said that they are both equal to Him and not equal to Him.

 

 

Chapter Three

Lilavatara-nirupana

The Lila-avataras

 

 

Text 1

 

 

atha lilavataras ca

   vilikhyante yatha-mati

shrimad-bhagavatasyanu-

   sarena prayasas tv ami

 

   atha-now; lila-avatarah-pastime incarnations; ca-also; vilkhyante-are described in writing; yatha-mati-as far as they are understood; shrimad-bhagavatasya-of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; anusarena-in accordance with the description; prayasah-primarily; tu-also; ami-they.

 

 

     Now, primarily following Shrimad-Bhagavatam, I will write whatever I know of the lila'-avataras (pastime incarnations).

 

 

Text 2

 

 

tatra shri-catuhsanah shri-prathame

 

"sa eva prathamam devah

   kaumaram sargam ashritah

cacara duscaram brahma

   brahmacaryam akhanditam" iti

 

   tatra-in that connection; shri-catuhsanah-the Four Kumaras; shri-prathame-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; sah-that; eva' certainly; prathamam-first; devah-Supreme Lord; kaumaram-named the Kumaras (unmarried); sargam-creation; ashritah-under; cacara' performed; duscaram-very difficult to do; brahma-in the order of Brahman; brahmacaryam-under discipline to realize the Absolute (Brahman); akhanditam-unbroken; iti-thus.

 

 

     The four Kumaras are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.6,:

 

     "First of all, in the beginning of creation, there were the four unmarried sons of Brahma' (the Kumaras), who, being situated in a vow of celibacy, underwent severe austerities for realization of the Absolute Truth."*

 

 

Texts 3 and 4

 

 

caturbhir avataro 'yam

   eka eva satam matah

sana-sabdat catuhsv eva

   catuhsana iti smritah

 

suddha-jnanasya bhaktes ca

   pracarartham avatarat

pancasabdhika-balabho

   gaurah kamalayonitah

 

   catubhih-with four; avataraj-incarnation; ayam-this; ekah-one; eva-certainly; satam-by the devotees; matah-considered; sana-sabdat-from the word "sana"; catuhsu-among the four; eva-certainly; catuh-sanah-the word "catuhsana"; iti-thus; smrtah-is described; suddha-pure; jnanasya-of knowledge; bhakteh-of devotional service; ca-also; pracara-preaching; artham-for the purpose; avatarat-descended to this world; pancasa-five; abdhika-years old; bala-boys; abhah-with the appearance; gaurah-with fair complexions; kamalayonitah-born from Brahma.

 

     The devotees consider the four Kumaras a single incarnation. In order to preach devotional service and pure transcendental knowledge, they appear as the perpetually five year old, fair-complexioned sons of the demigod Brahma.

 

 

Text 5

 

 

shri-naradah tatraiva

 

"tritiyam risi-sargam vai

   devarsitvam upetya sah

tantram satvatam acashta

   naiskarmyam karmanam yatah" iti

 

   shri-naradah-Narada Muni; tatra-there; eva-certainly; tritiyam-the third one; risi-sargam-the millennium of the risis; vai-certainly; devarsitam-incarnation of the risi amongst the demigods; upetya-having accepted; sah-he; tantram-exposition of the Vedas; satvatam-which is especially meant for devotional service; acashta-collected; naiskarmyam' nonfruitive; karmanam-of work; yatah-from which; iti-thus.

 

 

     Narada Muni is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.8:

 

     "In the millennium of the rishis, the Personality of Godhead accepted the third empowered incarnation in the form of Devarshi Narada, who is a great sage among the demigods. He collected expositions of the Vedas which deal with devotional service and which inspire nonfruitive action."*

 

 

Texts 6 and 7

 

 

pravartanaya loke 'smin

   sva-bhakter eva sarvatah

harir devarsi-rupena

   candra-subhro vidher abhut

 

avirbhuyadime brahme

   kalpa eva catuhsanah

naradas" canuvartete

   kalpeshu sakaleshv api

 

   pravartanaya-in order to preach; loke asmin-in this material world; sva-bhakteh-His own devotional service; eva-certainly; sarvatah-in all respects; harih-Lord Hari; devarsi-of Narada Muni; rupena-in the form; candra-as the moon; subhrah-splendid; vidheh-from Brahma; abhut-appeared; avirbhuya-having appeared; adime-in the first; brahma kalpe-in the Brahma-kalpa; eva-certainly; catuhsanah-the Four Kumaras; naradah-Narada Muni; ca-also; anuvartete-they continue; kalpesu sakalesu-in all the succeeding kalpas; api-also.

 

 

     To preach everything about His own devotional service, Lord Hari, who is splendid as the moon, appeared from the demigod Brahma' as Devarshi Narada. In the first kalpa, the Brahma-kapla, the four Kumaras appear, and then Narada follows them. This happens in every kalpa.

 

 

Text 8

 

 

shri-varahah tatraiva

 

"dvitiyam tu bhavayasya

   rasatala-gatam mahim

uddharishyann upadatta

   yajnesah saukaram vapuh"

 

   shri-varahah-Lord Varaha; tatra-there; eva-certainly; dvitiyam-the second; tu-but; bhavaya-for the welfare; asya-of this earth; rasatala' of the lowest region; gatam-having gone; mahim-the earth; uddharishyan' lifting; upadatta-established; yajnesah-the proprietor or the supreme enjoyer; saukaram-hoggish; vapuh-incarnation.

 

 

     Lord Varaha is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.7:

 

     "The supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices accepted the incarnation of a boar (the second incarnation), and for the welfare of the earth He lifted the earth from the nether regions of the universe."*

 

 

Text 9

 

 

shri-dvitiye ca

 

"yatrodyatah kshiti-taloddharanaya bibhrat

   kraudim tanum sakala-yajna-mayim anantah

antar-maharnava upagatam adi-daityam

   tam damshtrayadrim iva vajra-dharo dadara" iti

 

   shri-dvitiye-in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; ca-also; udyatah-attempted; kshiti-tala-the planet earth; uddharanaya-for the matter of lifting; bibhrat-assumed; kraudim-pastimes; tanum-form; sakala-total; yajna-mayim-all-inclusive sacrifices; anantah-the Unlimited; antar-within the universe; maha-arnave-the great Garbha Ocan; upagatam-having arrived at; adi-the first; daityam-demon; tam-him; damshtraya-by the tusk; adrim-the flying mountains; iva-like; vajra-dharah-the controller of the thunderbolts; dadara-pierced; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.1 also:

 

     "Lord Brahma' said: When the unlimitedly powerful Lord assumed the form of a boar as a pastime, just to lift the planet earth, which was drowned in the great ocean of the universe called the Garbhodaka, the first demon (Hiranyaksha) appeared, and the Lord pierced him with His tusk."*

 

 

Text 10

 

 

dvir avirasit kalpe 'sminn

   adye svayambhuvantare

ghranad vidher dharoddhrityai

   cakshshiye tu niratah

 

   dvih-two times; avirasit-appeared; kalpe-kalpa; asmin-in this; adye-the first; svayambhuva-of Svayambhuva Manu; antare-during the reign; grhanat-from the nostril; vidheh-of Brahma; dhara-the earth; uddhrtyai' for the purpose of lifting; caksusiye-during the reign of Caksusa Manu; tu' but; niratah-from the water.

 

 

     In this, the first kalpa, He appeared twice. To rescue the eartâ he appeared during the Svayambhuva-manvantara from Brahma's nostril, and during the Cakshusha-manvantara He appeared from the water.

 

 

Texts 11 and 12

 

 

hiranyaksham dharoddhare

   nihantum damshtri-pungavah

catuspat shri-varaho 'sau

   nri-varahah kvacin matah

 

kadacij jalada-syamah

   kadacic candra-pandurah

yajna-murtih sthavishtho 'yam

   varna-dvaya-yutah smritah

 

   hiranyaksam-Hiranyaksa; dhara-of the earth uddare-during the lifting; nihantum-to lift; damstri-pungavah-with great tusks; catuspat-four-legged beast; shri-varahah-Varaha; asau-this; nr-varahah-domesti boar; kvacit-sometimes; matah-considered; kadacit-sometimes; jalada-as a raincloud; syamah-dark; kadacit-sometimes; candra-as the moon; pandurah-white; yajna-murtih-the recepient of sacrificial offerings; sthavisthah-manifesting a giganti form; ayam-He; varna-colors; dvaya-with two; yutah-endowed; smrtah-described in Vedic literatures.

 

 

     Lord Varaha, the best of tusked beasts, appears to kill Hiranyaksha and rescue the earth. Sometimes Varaha is a wild animal of the forest and sometimes He is a domesti animal. Sometimes He is dark as a rain-cloud, and sometimes He is white as the moon. In this way Smriti-sastra describes two giganti forms of Lord Varaha, the form of Vedi sacrifices.

 

 

Text 13

 

 

dakshat pracetasat shrishtih

   sruyate cakshuse 'ntare

atas tatraiva janmasya

   hiranyakshasya yujyate

 

   daksat-from Prajapati Daksa; pracetasat-the son of the Pracetas; srstih-the creation of various living entities; sruyate-is heard (in the Sixth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam); caksuse-the reign of Caksusa Manu; antare-within; atah-from that; tatra-there; eva-certainly; janma-birth; asya-of him; hiranyaksasya-of Hiranyaksa; yujyate-occured.

 

 

     The scriptures explain that the Pracetas' son, Daksha, begat childred during the reign of Cakshusa Manu. It was then that Hiranyaksha was born.

 

 

Text 14

 

 

tatha hi shri-caturthe

 

"cakshushe tv antare prapte

   prak-sarge kala-vidrute

yah sauarja praja ishtah

   sa daksho daiva-coditah" iti

 

   tatha hi-furthermore; shri-aturthe-in the Fourth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; cakshuse-named Cakshusa; tu-but; antare-the manvantara; prapte-when it happened; prak-previous; sarge-creation; kala-vidrute' destroyed in due course of time; yah-one who; sasarja-created; prajah' living entities; ishtah-desirable; sah-he; dakshah-Daksha-daiva-by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; coditah-inspired; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.30.49:

 

     "His previous body had been destroyed, but he, the same Daksha, inspired by the supreme will, created all the desired living entities in the Cakshusha-manvantara."*

 

 

Text 15

 

 

uttanapada-vamsyanam

   tanayasya pracetasam

dakshasyaiva ditih putri

   hiranyaksho diteh sutah

 

   uttanapada-of Maharaja Uttanapada; vamsyanam-of the descendents; tanayasya-of the son; pracetasam-of the Pracetas; daksasya-of Maharaja Daksa; eva-certainly; ditih-Diti; putri-the daughter; hiranyaksah- Hiranyaksa-diteh-of Diti; sutah-the son.

 

 

     In King Uttanapada's dynasty, Diti was the daughter of the Pracetas' son, Daksha. Diti's son was Hiranyaksha.

 

 

Text 16

 

 

kalparambhe tada nasti

   sutotpattir manor api

kvasau pracetaso dakshah

   kva ditih kva diteh sutah

 

   kalpa-of the kalpa; arambhe-at the beginning; tada-then; na-no; asti-is; suta-of sons; utpattih-birth; manoh-of Manu; api-even; kva-where?; asau-he; pracetasah-son of the Pracetas; daksah-Daksa; kva-where?; ditih-is Diti; kva-where?;diteh-of Diti; sutah-the son.

 

 

     In the beginning of the kalpa no one had been born yet, even from Manu. Where, then, was the Pracetas' son, Daksha? Where was Diti? Where was Diti's son?

 

 

Text 17

 

 

atah kala-dvayodbhutam

   shri-varahasya ceshtitam

ekatraivaha maitreyah

   kshattuh prasnanurodhatah

 

   atah-therefore; kala-dvaya-udbhutam-occuring at two different times; shri-varahasya-of Lord Varaha; cestitam-pastimes; ekatra-in one place; eva-certainly; aha-described; maitreyah-Maitreya; ksattuh-of Vidura; prasna-to the question; anurodhatah-in compliance.

 

 

     In answer to Vidura's question, Maitreya Muni described Lord Varaha's pastimes at two different times as if they had happened at the same time.

 

 

Text 18

 

 

madhye manvantarasyaiva

   muneh sapan manum prati

pralayo 'sau babhuveti

   purane kvacid iryate

 

   madhye-in the middle; manvantarasya-of the reign of Svayambhuva Manu; eva-certainly; muneh-of Agastya Muni; sapat-from the curse; manum prati-to Manu; pralayah-partial devastation; asau-thus; babhuva-was manifes; iti-thus; purane-in the Matsya Purana; kvacit-in a certain passage; iryate-is described.

 

 

     Because of a sage's curse to Manu a cosmi devastation occured in the middle of Manu's reign. This is descibed in a Purana.

 

 

     Note: The scripture here is Matsya Purana.

 

 

Text 19

 

 

ayam akasmiko jatas

   cakshushasyantare manoh

pralayah padmanabhasya

   lilayeti ca kutracit

 

   ayam-this; akasmikah-apparently without a reason; jatah-was manifested; caksusasya-of Caksusa; antare-during the reign; manoh-of the Manu; pralayah-partial devastation; padmanabhasya-of Lord Vishnu; lilaya' by the pastime; iti-thus; ca-also; kutracit-in a certain place.

 

 

     In another scripture it is said that, caused by the lotus-naveled Lord's pastimes, this cosmi devastation unexpectedly occurred in Cakshusha Manu's reign.

 

 

     Note: The scripture here is Vishnu-dharmottara Purana.

 

 

Text 20

 

 

sarva-manvantarasyante

   pralayo niscitam bhavet

vishnu-dharmottare tv etan

   markandeyena bhashitam

 

   sarva-of all; manvantarasya-of the reign of the Manus; ante-at the certainly; pralayah-partial devastation; niscitam-concluded; bhavet-is; visnu-dharma-uttare-in the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana; tu-also; etat-this; markandeyena-by Markandeya Muni; bhasitam-spoken.

 

 

     A cosmi devastation occurs at the end of each Manu's reign. This is described by Markandeya Muni in the following verses of Vishnu-dharmottara Purana:

 

 

Text 21

 

 

nmanvantare parikshine

   deva manvantaresvarah

mahar-lokam athasadya

   tishthanti gata-kalmashah

 

   manvantare-when the reign of each Manu; pariksine-is concluded; devah-the demigods; manvantara-during the reign of Manu; isvarah-controlling deities; mahah-lokam-the planet Maharloka; atha-then; asadya-arriving at; tisthanti-remain; gata-free; kalmasah-from all faults.

 

 

     "When Manu's reign is ended the faultless demigods that controlled the world during the manvantara travel to the planet Maharloka and remain there.

 

 

Text 22

 

 

"manus ca saha sakrena

   devas ca yadu-nandana

brahmalokam prapadyante

   punar-avritti-durlabham

 

   manuh-Manu; ca-also; saha-with; sakrena-Indra; devah-the demigods; ca-also; yadu-nandana-O descendant of Maharaja Yadu; brahmalokam-Brahmaloka; prapadyante-attain; punah-again; avartti-attainmentf; durlabham-is difficult.

 

 

     "O Yadava, at that time Manu, Indra, and the demigods take shelter of Brahmaloka, which is very difficult to attain.

 

 

Text 23

 

 

"bhutalam satalam vajra

   toya-rupi mahesvarah

urmi-mali maha-vegah

   sarvam avrtva tisthati

 

   bhutalam-Bhutala planetary system; satalam-Satala planetary system; vajra-O vajra-toya-of water; rupi-in the form; maha-isvarah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; urmi-mali-the ocean full of waves; maha-vegah- powerful; sarvam-everything; avrtya-covering; tisthati-remains.

 

 

     "O Vajra, then the Supreme Lord becomes a powerful, wave-garlanded ocean and completely covers the Bhutala and Satala planets.

 

 

Text 24

 

 

"bhurlokam ashritam sarvam

   tada nasyati yadava

na vinasyanti rajendra

   visrutah kula-parvatah

 

   bhurlokam-on Bhurloka; ashritam-situated; sarvam-everything; tada-then; nasyati-is destroyed; yadava-O descendant of Maharaja Yadu; na-not; vinasyanti-are destroyed; raja-indra-O great king; visrutah-celebrated; kula-parvatah-great mountains.

 

 

     "O Yadava, then everything in Bhurloka is destroyed. O king of kings, only the famous great mountains are not destroyed.

 

 

Text 25

 

 

"naur bhutva tu tada devi

   mahi yadu-kulodvaha

dharayaty atha bijani

   sarvany evaviseshatah

 

   nauh-a boat-bhutva-becoming; tu-also; tada-then; devi-the demigoddess; mahi-earth; yadu-kula-udvaha-O best of the Yadu dynasty; dharayati-protects; atha-then; bijani-seeds; sarvani-all; eva' certainly; avisesatah-without discrimination.

 

 

     "O best of the Yadu dynasty, then the earth-goddess becomes a boat and protects all seeds without discrimination.

 

 

Texts 26 and 27

 

 

"bhavishyas ca manus tatra

   bhavishya rishayas tatha

tishthanti raja-sardula

   sapta te prathita bhuvi

 

"matsya-rupa-dharo vishnuh

   shringi bhutva jagat-patih

akarsati tu tam- navam

   sthanat sthanam tu lilaya

 

   bhavisyah-will be; manuh-Manu; tatra-there; bhavisyah-will be; rsayah-great sages; tatha-in the same way; tisthanti-remaining; raja-sardula-O tiger among kings; sapta-seven; te-they; prathitah-famous; bhuvi-on earth; matsya-of a fish; rupa-the form; dharah-manifesting; visnuh-Lord Vishnu; srngi-with a single horn; bhutva-having become; jagat-of the universe; patih-the lord; akarsati-pulls; tu-also; tam-that; navam-boat; sthanat-from place; sthanam-to place; tu-also; lilaya-in the performance of His pastimes.

 

 

     "O tiger among kings, the future Manu and future seven sages famous in the world will take shelter in a boat. Lord Vishnu, the master of the universe, will assume the form of a horned fish will playfully pull that boat from place to place.

 

 

Text 28

 

 

"himadri-sikhare navam

   baddhva devo jagat-patih

matsyas tv adrisyo bhavati

   te ca tishthanti tatragah

 

   hima-adri-of the Himalaya Mountains; sikhare-on the summit; navam-the boat; baddhva-placing; devah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jagat-of the universe; patih-the lord; matsyah-the fish incarnation; tu-also; adrsyah-invisible; bhavati-becomes; te-Manu and the sages; ca-also; tisthanti-remain; tatragah-at that place.

 

 

     "After tying the boat to the peaks of the Himalayas, that fish, the Lord of the universes, will become invisible. Manu and the sages stayed where they were.

 

Text 29

 

 

"krita-tulyam tatah kalam

   yavat prakshalanam smritam

apah samam atho yanti

   yatha-purvam naradhipa

rishayas ca manus caiva

   sarvam kurvanti te tada" iti

 

   krta-to Satya-yuga; tulyam-equal; tatah-then; kalam-time; yavat-to which extent; praksalanam-purifying; smrtam-considered; apah-waters; samam-equality; athah-then; yanti-attain; yatha-purvam-as before; nara-adhipa-O king; rsayah-the sages; ca-and; manuh-Manu; ca-also; eva' certainly; sarvam-everything; kurvanti-will perform; te-they; tada-then; iti-thus.

 

 

     "O king, then the time will become like Satya-yuga. the waters will recede to their normal level, and Manu and the sages will recreate everything."

 

 

Text 30

 

 

manor ante layo nasti

   manave 'darsi mayaya

vishnuneti bruvanais tu

   svamibhir naisha manyate

 

   manoh-of Manu; ante-at the end; layah-devastation; na-not; asti-is; manave-to Manu; adarsi-saw; mayaya-by the illusory potency maya; visnuna-by Vishnu; iti-thus; bruvanaih-speaking; tu-also; svamibhih-by Shridhara Svami; na-not; esah-this; manyate-is thought.

 

 

     Saying "A cosmi devastation does not occur at the end of Manu's reign. That devastation is an illusion Lord Vishnu shows to Manu", Shridhara Svami does not think there is such a devastation.

 

 

Text 31

 

 

shri-matsyah shri-prathame

 

"rupam sa jagrihe matsyam

   cakshushodadhi-samplave

navy aropya mahi-mayyam

   apad vaivasvatam manum"

 

   shri-matsyah-the Matsya incarnation; shri-prathame-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; rupam-form; sah-He; jagrihe-accepted; matsyam-of a fish; cakshusa-Cakshusa; udadhi-water; samplave-inundation-navi-on the boat; aropya-keeping on; nahi-the earth; mayyam-drowned in; apat' protected; vaivasvatam-Vaivasvata; manum-Manu, the father of man.

 

 

     The fish-incarnation, Lord Matsya, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.15:

 

     "When there was a complete inundation after the period of the Cakshusha Manu and the whole world was deep within water, the Lord accepted the form of a fish and pretected Vaivasvata Manu, keeping him up on a boat."*

 

 

Text 32

 

 

shri-dvitiye ca

 

"matsyo yuganta-samaye manunopalabdhah

   kshonimayo nikhila-jiva-nikaya-ketah

visramsitan uru-bhaye salile mukhan me

   adaya tatra vijahara ha veda-margan"

 

   shri-dvitiye-in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; ca-also; matsyah-incarnation of the fish; yuga-anta-at the end of the millennium; samaye-at the time of; manuna-the would-be Vaivasvata Manu; upalabdhah' seen; kshonimayah-up to the earthly planets; nikhila-all; jiva-living entities; nikaya-ketah-shelter for; visramsitan-emanating from; uru' great; bhaye-out of fear; salile-in the water; mukhat-from the mouth; me-mine; adaya-having taken to; tatra-there; vijahara-enjoyed; ha' certainly; veda-margan-all the Vedas.

 

 

     Also in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.12:

 

     "At the end of the millennium, the would-be Vaivasvata Manu, of the name Satyavrata, would see that the Lord in the fish incarnation is the shelter of all kinds of living entities, up to those in the earthly planets. Because of my fear of the vast water at the end of the millennium, the Vedas come out of my (Brahma's) mouth, and the Lord enjoys those vast waters and protects the Vedas."*

 

 

Text 33

 

 

padme ca

 

"evam ukto hrisikeso

   brahmana paramesvarah

matsya-rupam samasthaya

   pravivesa mahodadhim" iti

 

   padme-in the Padma Purana; ca-also; evam-in this way; uktah-spoken to; hrsikesah-the master of the senses; brahmana-by Brahma; parama-isvarah-the Supreme Controller; matsya-of a fish; rupam-the form; samasthaya-assuming; pravivesa-entered; maha-udadhim-the great ocean; iti-thus.

 

 

     Also in Padma Purana:

 

     "When Brahma' said this, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the senses, assumed the form of a fish and entered the waters of the ocean."

 

 

Text 34

 

 

matsyo 'pi pradurabhavad

   dvih kalpe 'smin varaha-vat

adau svayambhuviyasya

   daityam ghnann aharac chrutih

ante tu cakshushiyasya

   kripam satyavrate 'karot

 

   matsyah-Matsya; api-also; pradurabhavat-appeared; dvih kalpe-asmin-in two kalpas; varaha-vat-as Varaha did; adau-at first; svayabhuvuyasya' ofthe reign of Svayambhuva Manu; daityam-a demon; ghnan-killing; aharat' rescued; srutih-the Vedas; ante-at the end; tu-also; caksusiyasya-of the reign of Caksusa Manu; krpam-mercy; satyavrate-to Maharaja Satyavrata; akarot-gave.

 

 

     Lord Matsya appeared in two kalpas, as Lord Varaha had done. In the first appearance, during Svayambhuva Manu's reign, He killed a demon and rescued the Vedas. In the second appearance, during Cakshusha Manu's reign, He was merciful to Satyavrata.

 

 

Text 35

 

 

antyena sardha-padyena

   proktam adyasya ceshtitam

purva-sardhena cantyasya

   matsyo jneyo varaha-vat

 

   antyena-by the conclusion; sardha-padyena-by the half-verse; proktam-described; adyasya-of the first appearance; cestitam-pastimes; purva-sardhena-by the first half-verse; ca-also; antyasya-of the second appearance; matsyah-Matsya; jneyah-should be understood; varaha-vat; like Lord Varaha.

 

 

     The first appearance of Lord Matsya is described in the quotations in Text 33 and the second half of Text 32. The second appearance is described in the quotations in Text 31 and the first half of Text 32. Thus Lord Matsya appeared as Lord Varaha had.

 

 

Text 36

 

 

upalakshanam evaitad

   anya-manvantarasya ca

vishnu-dharmottaraj jneyah

   pradurbhavas caturdasa

 

   upalaksanam-hint; eva-certainly; etat-this; anya-manvantarasya-of appearance during the reign of other Manus; ca-also; visnu-dharma-uttarat-from the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana; jneyah-may be understood; pradurbhavah- appearances; caturdasa-fourteen.

 

 

     In this way there is a hint of Lord Matsya's appearance during the reigns of the other Manus. In this way from Vishnu-dharmottara Purana it is understood that Lord Matsya appears fourteen times.

 

 

Text 37

 

 

shri-yajnah shri-prathame

 

"tatah saptama akutyam

   rucer yajno 'bhyajayata

sa yamadyaih sura-ganair

   apat svayambhuvantaram" iti

 

   shri-yajnah-Lord Yajna; shri-prathame-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; tatah-after that; saptame-the seventh in the line; akutyam-in the womâ of Akuti; ruceh-by Prajapati Ruci; yajnah' the Lord's incarnation as Yajna; abhyajayata-advented; sah-He; yama-adyaih-with Yama and others; sura-ganaih-with demigods; apat-ruled; svayambhuva-antaram-the change of the period of Svayambhuva Manu; iti' thus.

 

 

     Lord Yajna is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.12:

 

     "The seventh incarnation was Yajna, the son of Prajapati Ruci and his wife Akuti. He controlled the period during the change of the Svayambhuva Manu and was assisted by demigods such as His son Yama."*

 

 

Text 38

 

 

trayanam eva lokanam

   maharti-haranad asau

matamahena manuna

   harir ity api sabditah

 

   trayanam-of the three; eva-certainly; lokanam-planetary systems; maha-great; arti-sufferings; haranat-by removing; asau-He; matamahena-by His maternal grandfather; manuna-Manu; harih-Lord Hari; iti-thus; api-even; sabditah-named.

 

 

     Because Lord Yajna delivered (hari, the three planetary systems from great sufferings, He was given the name "hari" by His maternal grandfather, Manu.

 

 

Text 39

 

 

shri-nara-narayanau tatraiva

 

"turye dharma-kala-sarge

   nara-narayanav rishi

bhutvatmopasamopetam

   akarot duscaram tapah" iti

 

   shri-nara-narayanau-Nara Narayana Rsis; tatra-there; eva-certainly; turye-in the fourth of the line; dharma-kala-wife of Dharmaraja; sarge' being born of; nara-narayanau-named Nara and Narayana; risi-sages; bhutva-becoming; atma-upasama-controlling the senses; upetam-for achievement of; akarot-undertook; duscaram-very strenuous; tapah' penance; iti-thus.

 

 

     Nara-Narayana Rishis are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.9:

 

     "In the fourth incarnation, the Lord became Nara and Narayana, the twin sons of the wife of King Dharma. Thus He undertook severe and exemplary penances to control the senses."*

 

 

Text 40

 

 

sastre 'nyau hari-krishnakhyav

   anayoh sodarau smritau

ebhir eko 'vatarah syac

   caturbhih sanakadi-vat

 

   sastre-in the Vedi scriptures; anyau-two others; hari-Hari; krishna-and Krishna; akhyau-names; anayoh-of whom; sodarau-brothers; smrtau-remembered; ebhih-by them; ekah-one; avatarah-incarnation; syat-may be; caturbhih-by the Four; sanaka-adi-the Kumaras headed by Sanaka Kumara; vat-like.

 

 

     In another scripture these two brothers, are called Hari and Krishna. They are considered a single incarnation, as are the four Kumaras.

 

 

Text 41

 

 

shri-kapilah tatraiva

 

"pancamah kapilo nama

   siddhesah kala-viplutam

provacasuraye sankhyam

   tattva-grama-vinirnayam" iti

 

   shri-kapilah-Lord Kapila; tatra-there; eva-certainly; pancamah-the fifth one; kapilah-Kapila; nama-of the name; siddhesah-the foremost amongst the perfect; kala-time; viplutam-lost; provaca-said; asuaye' unto the brahmana named Asuri; sankhyam-metaphysics; tattva-grama' the sum total of the creative elements; vinirnayam-exposition; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Kapila is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.10:

 

     "The fifth incarnation, named Lord Kapila, is foremost among perfected beings. He gave an exposition of the creative elements and metaphysics to Asuri Brahmana, for in course of time this knowledge had been lost."*

 

 

Text 42

 

 

devahutyam kardamatah

   pradurbhavam asau gatah

proktah kapila-varnatvat

   kapilakhyo virincina

 

   devahutyam-in the womâ of Devahuti; kardamatah-from Kardama Muni; pradurbhavam-incarnation; asau-He; gatah-accepted; proktah-described; kapila-varnatvat-because of His ruddy complexion; kapila-akhyah-named Kapila; virincina-by Brahma.

 

 

     Kapila Muni appeared as the son of Kardama and Devahuti. Because of His ruddy complexion, Brahma' gave Him the name Kapila.

 

 

Texts 43 and 44

 

 

padme

 

"kapolo vasudevamsas

   tattvam sankhyam jagada ha

brahmadibhyas ca devebhyo

   bhrigv-adibhyas tathaiva ca

tathaivasuraye sarva-

   vedarthir upabrimhitam

 

"sarva-veda-viruddham ca

   kapilo 'nyo jagada ha

sankhyam asuraye 'nyasmai

   ku-tarka-paribrimhitam"

 

   kapilah-Kapila; vasudeva-of Lord Vasudeva; amsah-plenary portion; tattvam sankhyam-the Sankhya philosophy; jagada ha-spoke; brahma-adibhyah-headed by Brahma; ca-also; devebhyah-to the demigods; bhrgu-adibhyah-to the sages, headed by Bhrgu Muni; tatha-in the same way; ca-also; tatha-in the same way; eva-certainly; asuraye-to Asuri Brahmana; sarva-veda-arthaih upabrmhitam-with the poper understanding of the Vedas; sarva-all; veda-the Vedas; viruddham-contradicting; ca-also; kapilah-Kapila; anyah-another; jagada ha-spoke; sankhyam-Sankhya philosophy; asuraye-to Asuri Brahmana; anyasmai-another; ku-tarka-paribrmhitam-filled with faulty logic.

 

 

     In Padma Purana:

 

     "Lord Kapila, who is an amsa-avatara of Lord Vasudeva, spoke the Sankhya philosophy, which properly explains the meaning of the Vedas, to Asuri Brahmana, the demigods headed by Brahma, and the great sages headed by Bhrigu Muni. Then a different Kapila spoke a different Sankhya phioosophy, full of faulty logi and in opposition to all the Vedas, to a different Asuri Brahmana."

 

 

Text 45

 

 

shri-dattah shri-dvitiye

 

"atrer apatyam abhikankshata aha tushto

   datta mayaham iti yad bhagavan sa dattah

yat-pada-pankaja-paraga-pavitra-deha

   yogarddhim apur ubhayim yadu-haihayadhah"

 

   shri-dattah-Dattatreya; shri-dvitiye-in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; atreh-of the sage Atri; apatyam-issue; abhikankshatah' having prayed for; aha-said it; tushtah-being satisfied; dattah-given over; maya-by me; aham-myself; iti-thus; yat-because; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; sah-He; dattah-Dattatreya; yat-pada-one whose feet; pankaja-lotus; paraga-dust; pavitra-purified; dehah-body; yoga-mystic; riddhim-opulence; apuh-got; ubhayim-for both the worlds; yadu-the father of the Yadu dynasty; haihaya-adyah-and others, like King Haihaya.

 

 

     Lord Dattatreya is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.4:

 

     "The great sage Atri prayed for offspring, and the Lord, being satisfied with him, promised to incarnate as Atri's son, Dattatreya (Datta, the son of Atri). And by the grace of the lotus feet of the Lord, many Yadus, Haihayas, etc., became so purified that they obtained both material and spiritual blessings."*

 

 

Text 46

 

 

shri-prathame

 

"sashtham atrer apatyatvam

   vritah prapto 'nasuyaya

anvikshikim alarkaya

   prahladadibhya ucivan" iti

 

   shri-prathame-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; sashtham-the sixth one; atreh-of Atri; apatyatvam-sonship; vritah-being prayed for; praptah-obtained; anasuyaya-by Anasuya; anvikshikim-on the subject of transcendence; alarkaya-unto Alarka; prahlada-adibhyah-unto Prahlada and other; ucivan-spoke; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.11:

 

     "The sixth incarnation of the purusha was the son of the sage Atri. He was born from the womâ of Anasuya, who prayed for an incarnation. He spoke on the subject of transcendence to Alarka, Prahlada and others (Yadu, Haihaya, etc.)."*

 

 

Text 47

 

 

shri-brahmande tu kathitam

   atri-patnyanasuyaya

prarthito bhagavan atrer

   apatyatvam upeyivan

 

   shri-brahmande-in the Brahmanda Purana; tu-also; kathitam-described; atri-of Atri Muni; patnya-by the wife; anasuyaya-named Anasuya; prarthitah-appealed; bhagavan-the Supreme Lord; atreh-of Atri Muni; apatyatvam upeyivan-became the child.

 

 

     In Brahmanda Purana it is said that when Atri Muni's wife, Anasuya, requested Him, the Lord became her son.

 

 

Text 48

 

 

tatha hi

 

"varam dattvanasuyayai

   vishnuh sarva-jagan-mayah

atreh putro 'bhavat tasyam

   sveccha-manusa-vigrahah

dattatreya iti khyato

   yati-vesa-vibhusitah"

 

   tatha hi-furthermore; varam-benediction; dattva-granding; anasuyayai-to Anasuya-devi; visnuh-Lord Vishnu; sarva-jagat-mayah-the all-pervading controller of innumerable material universes; atreh-of Atri Muni; putrah-the son; abhavat-became; tasyam-in her womb; sva-iccha-according to the desire of His devotees; manusa-in the world of human beings; vigrahah-manifesting His form; dattatreyah-as Dattatreya; iti-thus; khyatah-famous; yati-of an ascetic; vesa-with the garments; vibhusitah-decorated.

 

 

     The scriptures further explain:

 

     "Lord Vishnu, who is present everywhere in all the worlds, granted Anasuya's request and appeared in her womâ as Atri Muni's son. By His own wish appearing in a humanlike form, and decorated with a sannyasi's garments. He was called Dattatreya."

 

 

Text 49

 

 

shri-hayasirsha shri-dvitiye

 

"satre mamasa bhagavan haya-sirasatho

   sakshat sa yajna-purushas tapaniya-varnah

chandomayo makhamayo 'khila-devatatma

   vaco babhuvur ushatih svasato 'sya nastah" iti

 

   shri-hayasirsa-Lord Hayagriva; shri-dvitiye-in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; satre-in the sacrificial ceremonu; mama-of mine; asa' appeared; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; haya-sirasa-with His horselike head; atha-thus; sakshat-directly; sah-He; yajna-purushah-the person who is pleased by performances of sacrifice; tapaniya-golden; varnah-hue; handah-mayah-personified Vedi hymns; makha-mayah-personified sacrifices; akhila-all that be; devata-atma' the soul of the dmigods; vacah-sounds; babhuvuh-become audible; usatih-very pleasing to hear; svasatah-while breathing; asya-His; nastah-through the nostrils; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Hayagriva is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.11:

 

     "The Lord appeared as the Hayagriva incarnation in a sacrifice performed by me (Brahma). He is the personified sacrifices, and the hue of His body is golden. He is the personified Vedas as well, and the Supersoul of all demigods. When He breathed, all the sweet sounds of the Vedi hymns came out of His nostrils."*

 

 

Text 50

 

 

pradurbhuyaiva yajnagner

   danavau madhu-kaitabhau

hatva pratyanayad vedan

   punar vagisvari-patih

 

   pradurbhuya-having appeared; eva-certainly; yajna-of sacrifice; agneh-from the fire; danavau-two demons; madhu-kaitabhau-name Madhi and Kaitabha; hatva-having killed; pratyanayat-returned; vedan-the Vedas; punah-again; vagisvari-patih-the master of the Vedas.

 

 

     Appearing from the sacrificial fire, Lord Hayagriva, the master of the Vedas, killed the demons Madhu and Kaitabha and recovered the Vedas.

 

 

Text 51

 

 

shri-hamsah shri-dvitiye

 

"tubhyam ca narada bhrisam bhagavan vivriddha-

   bhavena sadhi paritushta uvaca yogam

jnanam ca bhagavatam atma-satattva-dipam

   yad vasudeva-sarana vidur anjasaiva" iti

 

   shri-hamsah-the Hamsa incarnation; shri-dvitiye-in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; tubhyam-unto you; ca-also; narada-O Narada; bhrisam-very nicely; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; vivriddha' developed; bhavena-by transcendental love; sadhu-your goodness; paritushtah-being satisfied; uvaca-described; yogam-service; jnanam' knowledge; ca-also; bhagavatam-the science of God and His devotional service; atma-the self; sa-tattva-with all details; dipam-just like the light in the darkness; yat-that which; vasudeva-saranah-those who are souls surrendered unto Lord Vasudeva; viduh-know them; anjasa' perfectly well; eva-as it is; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Hamsa is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.19:

 

     "O Narada, you were taught about the science of God and His transcendental loving service by the Personality of Godhead in His incarnation of Hamsavatara. He was very much pleased with you, due to your intense proportion of devotional service. He also explained unto you, lucidly, the full science of devotional service, which is especially understandable by persons who are souls surrendered unto Lord Vasudeva, the Personality of Godhead."*

 

 

Text 52

 

 

sakto 'khila-viveko 'ham

   kshira-nira-vibhaga-vat

iti vyanjann ayam raja-

   hamso vyaktim jalad gatah

 

   saktah-able; akhila-in all matters; vivekah-discrimination; aham-I; ksira-of milk; nira-and of water; vibhaga-vat-with the distinction; iti-thus; vyanjan-appearing; ayam-this; raja-hamsah-regal swan; vyaktim' manifestation; jalat-from the water; gatah-accepted.

 

 

     A regal swan come from the water, the Lord said: "As a swan can divide milk and water, So I can understand the nature of everything."

 

 

Text 53

 

 

shri-dhruvapriyah tatraiva

 

"viddhah sapatny-udita-patribhir anti rajno

   balo 'pi sann upagatas tapase vanani

tasma adad dhruva-gatim grinate prasanno

   divyah stuvani munayo yad upary-adhastat" iti

 

   shri-dhruvapriyah-Dhruvapriya; tatra-there; eva-certainly; viddhah' pinched by; sapatni-a co-wife; udita-uttered by; patribhih-by sharp words; anti-just before; rajnah-of the king; balah-a boy; api' although; san-being so; upagatah-took to; tapase-severe penances; vanani-in a great forest; tasmai-therefore; adat-gave as a reward; dhruva-gatim-a path to the Dhruva planet; grinate-on being prayed for; prasannah-being satisfied; divyah-denizens of higher planets; stuvani' do pray; munayah-great sages; yat-thereupon; upari-up; adhastat-down; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Dhruvapriya is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.8:

 

     "Being insulted by sharp words spoken by the co-wife of the king, even in his presence, Prince Dhruva, though only a boy took to severe penances in the forest. And the Lord, being satisfied by his prayer, awarded him the Dhruva planet, which is worshiped by great sages, both upward and downward."*

 

 

Text 54

 

 

svayambhuve 'vatatokter

   namnas cakathanad iha

yajnadinam ca tatroktya

   pariseshya pramanatah

 

prasiddhya prisnigardheti

   tad-akhyadsya nigadyate

hastayam adrir ity adau

   padye govardhanadri-vat

 

   svayambhuve-during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu; avatara-of the incarnation; ukteh-of the description; naman namnah-of the name; ca-also; akathanat-from the description; iha-here; yajna-of Lord Yajna; adinam-and other incarnations; ca-also; tatra-there; uktya-by the description; parisesya-remaining; pramanatah-by measurement; prasiddhya-by fame; prsnigarbha-Prsnigarbha; iti-thus; tat-akhyasya-of that name; nigadyate-spoken; hasta ayam iti adrih iti adau-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.    ;padye-in the verse; govardhana-adri-Govardhana Hill; vat-like.

 

 

     Because this incarnation is described as having appeared in the reign of Svayambhuva Manu, because His name is not specifically given here, and because Lord Yajna and many other incarnations have already been described, by the process of elimination it should be said that this incarnation is Lord Prisnigarbha. This is like Govardhana Hill in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.21.18.

 

 

     Note: It is clear that the unnamed hill in that verse is Govardhana Hill.

 

 

Text 55

 

 

tatha shri-dasame

 

"tvam eva purva-sarge 'bhuh

   prisnih svayambhuve sati

tadayam sutapa nama

   prajapatir akalmasah

aham suto vam abhavam

   prisnigarbha iti srutah" iti

 

   tatha-just as; shri-dasame-in the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; tvam-you; eva-indeed; purva-sarge-in a previous millennium; abhuh-became; prisnih-by the name Prsni; svayambhuve-the millennium of Svayambhuva Manu; sati-O supremely chaste; tada-at that time; ayam-Vasudeva; sutapa-Sutapa; nama-by the name; prajapatih-a Prajapati; akalmasah-a spotlessly pious person; aham-I; sutah-the son; vam-of both of you; abhavam-became; prisni-garbhah-celebrated as born of Prisni; iti-thus; srutah-I am known; iti-thus.

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.3.32 and 41:

 

     "My dear mother, best of the chaste, in your previous birth, in the Svayambhuva millennium, you were known as Prisni, and Vasudeva, who was the most pious Prajapati, was named Sutapa. Since I found no one else as highly elevated as you in simplicity and other qualities of good character, I appeared in this world as Prisnigarbha, or one who is celebrated as having taken birth from Prisni."*

 

 

Text 56

 

 

asyatra caritanuktya

   namanuktya ca tatra vai

parasparam apekshitvad

   yukta caikatra sangatih

 

   asya-of Him; atra-here; carita-of the pastimes; anuktya-by the lack of description; mana-of the name; anuktya-by the lack of description; ca-also; tatra-there; vai-vertainly; parasparam-mutually; apeksitvat-in relation to; yukta-proper; ca-also; ekatra-in a single place; sangatih- meeting.

 

 

     Because His name and pastimes are otherwise not mentioned here (in Shrimad-Bhagavatam's list of incarnations), it is likely that this incarnation is Lord Prisnigabha.

 

 

Text 57

 

 

atragamana-matrena

   yadi syad avatarata

anyatrapi prasajyeta

   yatheshtam tat-prakalpana

 

   atra-here; agamana-appearing; matrena-only; yadi-if; syat-may be; avatarata-incarnation; anyatra-in other circumstances; api-also; prasajyeta-is also suitable; yatha-as; istam-desired; tat-prakalpana' appearing in that way.

 

 

     If only to approach (Dhruva, the Lord had descended in that form, then the Lord would also appear before others in a different form each time.

 

 

Text 58

 

 

shri-risabhah shri-prathame

 

"ashtame merudevyam tu

   nabher jata urukramah

darsayan vartma dhiranam

   sarvasrama-namaskritam" iti

 

   shri-rsabhah-Lord Rsabha; shri-prathame-in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; ashtame-the eighth of the incarnations; merudevyam tu-in the womâ of Merudevi, the wife of; nabheh-King Nabhi;jatah-took birth; urukramah-th all-powerful Lord; darsayam-by showing; vartma-the way; dhiranam-of the perfect beings; sarva-all; asrama-orders of life; namaskritam-honored by; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Rishabhadeva is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.13:

 

     "The eight incarnation was King Rishabha, son of King Nabhi and his wife Merudevi. In this incarnation the Lord showed the path of perfection, which is followed by those who have fully controlled their senses and who are honored by all orders of life."*

 

 

Text 59

 

 

suklah parama-hamsanam

   dharmam jnapayitum prabhuh

vyakto gunair varishthatvad

   vikhyata risabhakhyaya

 

   suklah-with a fair complexion; parama-hamsanam-of the most exalted of renunciates; dharmam-the prescribed duty; jnapayitam-to teach; prabhuh-the Supreme Lord; vyaktah-appeared; gunaih-varisthatvat-because of being decorated with all good qualities; vikhyatah-became famous; rsabha-akhyaya' by the name Rsabha.

 

 

     The fair-complexioned Lord appeared to teach the duties of the renounced order. Because He was supremely virtuous, He was famous as Rishabha (the best).

 

 

Text 60

 

 

shri-prithuh tatraiva

 

"risibhir yacito bheje

   navamam parthivam vapuh

dugdhemam osadhir vipras

   tenayam sa usattamah" iti

 

   shri-prthuh-Maharaja Prthu; tatra-there; eva-certainly; risibhih-by the sages; yacitah-being prayed for; bheje-accepted; navamam-the ninth one; parthivam-the ruler of the earth; vapuh-body; dugdha-milking; imam-all these; osadhih-products of the earth; viprah-O brahmanas; tena-by; ayam-this; sah-he; usattamah-beautifully attractive; iti-thus.

 

 

     Maharaja Prithu is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.14:

 

     "O brahmanas, in the ninth incarnation, the Lord, prayed for by sages, accepted the body of a king (Prithu) who cultivated the land to yield various produces, and for that reason the earth was beautiful and attractive."*

 

 

Text 61

 

 

mathyamanan muni-ganair

   asavyad vaina-bahutah

pradurbhuto maha-rajah

   suddha-svarna-rucih prabhuh

 

   mathyamanat-being churned; muni-ganaih-by the sages; asavyat-from the right; vaina-of Maharaja Vena; bahutah-arm; pradurbhutah-appeared; maha-a great; rajah-king; suddha-pure; svarna-gold; sucih-with the splendor; prabhuh-the Supreme Lord.

 

 

     When the sages massaged Vena's right arm, from it the Supreme Lord appeared as the great king Prithu, who was splendid as pure gold.

 

 

Text 62

 

 

adye vyaktah kumaradyah

   prithv-antas ca trayodasa

kola-matsyau punar vyaktim

   cakshushiye tu agmatuh

 

   adye-in the beginning; vyaktah-manifest; kumara-the Four Kumaras; adyah-beginning with; prthu-Maharaja Prthu; antah-concluding with; ca-also; trayodasa-thirteen; kola-Lord Varaha; matsyau-and Lord Matsya; punah-again; vyaktim-appearance; caksusiye-during the reign of Caksusa Manu; tu-also; jagmatuh-accepted.

 

 

     These thirteen lila'-avataras, from the Four Kumaras to Maharaja Prithu, all appeared during the reign of the first (Svayambhuva, Manu. Lord Varaha and Lord Matsya, however, appeared again during the reign of Cakshusha Manu.

 

 

Text 63

 

 

atha shri-nrisimhah tatraiva

 

"caturdasam narasimham

   bibhrad daityendram urjitam

dadara karajair urav

   erakam kata-krid yatha" iti

 

   atha-now; shri-nrsimhah-Lord Nrsimha; tatra-there; eva-certainly; caturdasam-the fourteen in the line; nara-simham-the incarnation of the Lord as half-man and half-lion; bibhrat-advanced; daitya-indram-the king of the atteists; urjitam-strongly built; dadara-bifurcated; karajaih' by the nails; urau-on the lap; erakam-canes; kata-krit; carpenter; yatha-just like; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Nrisimha is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.18:

 

     "In the fourteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Nrisimha and bifurcated the strong body of the atheist Hiranyakasipu with His nails, just as a carpenter pierces cane."*

 

 

Text 64

 

 

asya lakshmi-nrisimhadya

   vilasa bahavah smritah

tatra padma-puranadau

   nana-varna-viceshtitah

 

   asya-of Him; laksmi-nrsimha-adyah-beginning with Laksmi-Nrsimha; vilasah-pastimes; bahavah-many; smrtah-are described in the Vedi literatures; tatra-there; padma-purana-in the Padma Purana; adau-and other scriptures; nana-with various; varna-forms; vicestitah-and pastimes.

 

 

     Shri Lakshmi-Nrisimha and many other vilasa-avataras are described in the Smriti-sastra. In the Padma Purana and other scriptures Their different forms and pastimes are described.

 

 

Text 65

 

 

shashthe 'ntare 'bdhi-mathanan

   nri-hareh purva-bhavita

atah prag esha kurmader

   vyaktim shashthe 'ntare gatah

 

   sasthe-the reign of the sixth (Caksusa, Manu; antare-within; abdhi-of the ocean; mathanat-the churning; nr-hareh-of Lord Nrsimha; purva-previous; bhavita-appearance; atah-that; prak-before; esah-He; kurma' Lord Kurma; adeh-beginning with; vyaktim-appearance; sasthe-the reign of Caksusa Manu; antare-during; gatah-accepted.

 

 

     Lord Nrisimha appeared before the churning of the milk-ocean in the reign of the sixth (Cakshusha, Manu. He appeared before the appearance of Lord Kurma in the reign of the sixth Manu.

 

 

Text 66

 

 

shri-kurmah tatraiva

 

"surasuranam udadhim

   mathmatam mandaracalam

dadhre kamatha-rupena

   prishtha ekadase vibhuh" iti

 

   shri-kurmah-Lord Kurma; tatra-there; eva-certainly; sura-the theists; asuranam-of the atheists; udadhim-in the ocean; mathnatam-churning; mandaracalam-the Mandaracala Hill; dadhre-sustained; kamatha-tortoise; rupena-in the form of; prishthe-shell; ekadase-the eleventh in the line; vibhuh-the great; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Kurma is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.16:

 

     "The eleventh incarnation of the Lord took the form of a tortoise whose shell served as a pivot for the Mandaracala Hill, which was being used as a churning rod by the theists and atheists of the universe."*

 

 

Text 67

 

 

padme proktam dadhe kshauni-

   mayam evarthitah suraih

sastrantare tu bhu-dhari

   kalpadau prakato 'bhavat

 

   padme-in the Padma Purana; proktam-described; dadhe-held; ksaunimayam-the earth; eva-certainly; arthitah-appealed to; suraih-by the demigods; sastra-antare-in another scripture; tu-also; bhu-the earth; dhari' holding; kalpa-adau-during the beginning of the kalpa; prakatah-manifest; abhavat-became.

 

 

     In the Padma Purana it is said that on the demigods' request He lifted the earth. In another scripture also it is said that He appeared in the beginning of the kalpa and lifted the earth.

 

 

Text 68

 

 

shri-dhanvantari-mohinyau tatraiva

 

"dhanvantaram dvadasamam

   trayodasamam eva ca

apayayat suran anyan

   mohinya mohayan striya" iti

 

   shri-dhanvantati-Lord Dhanvantari; mohinyau-and Mohini-murti; tatra' there; eva-certainly; dhanvantaram-the incarnation of Godhead named Dhanvantari; dvadasamam-the twelfth in the line; trayodasamam-the thirteenth in the line; eva-certainly;l ca-and; apayayat-gave to drink; suran-the demigods; anyan-others; mohinya-by charming beauty; mohayan' alluring; striya-in the form of a woman; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Dhanvantari and Mohini-devi are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.17:

 

     "In the twelfth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Dhanvantari, and in the thirteenth He allured the atheists by the charming beauty of a woman and gave nectar to the demigods to drink."*

 

 

Text 69

 

 

tatra shri-dhanvantarih

 

shashthe ca saptame cayam

   dvir avirbhavam agatah

 

   tatra-there; shri-dhanvantarih-Lord Dhanvantari; sasthe-in the reign of the sixth (Caksusa, Manu; ca-and; saptame-in the reign of the seventh (Vaivasvata, Manu; ca-and; ayam-He; dvih-twice; avirbhavam agatah- appeared.

 

 

Dhanvantari

 

     Lord Dhanvantari appeared twice: during the reigns of the sixth (Cakshusha, and seventh (Vaivasvata, Manus.

 

 

Text 70

 

 

sashthe 'ntare 'bdhi-mathanad

   dhritamrita-kamandaluh

udgato dvi-bhujah syamah

   ayur-veda-pravartakah

saptame ca tatha-rupah

   kasi-raja-suto 'bhavat

 

   sasthe-of the sixth Manu; antare-during the reign; abdhi-of the milk-ocean; mathanat-from the churning; dhrta-holding; amrta-of nectar; kamandaluh-a pot; udgatah-appeared; dvi-bhujah-with two arms; syamah-and a dark complexion; ayuh-veda-of the Ayur-veda; pravartakah-original teacher; saptame-during the reign of the seventh Manu; ca-also; tatha-rupah-in the same form; kasi-of Varanasi; raja-of the king; sutah-the son; abhavat-became.

 

 

     During the reign of the sixth Manu, dark-complexioned, two-armed Lord Dhanvantari, the original teacher of the Ayur Veda, carrying pot of nectar in His two arms appeared from the churning of the milk ocean. During the reign of the seventh Manu, He appeared again, in the same form, as the prince of Varanasi.

 

 

Text 71

 

 

shri-mohini

 

daityanam mohanayasau

   pramodaya ca dhurjateh

ajito mohini-murtya

   dvir avirbhavam agatah

 

   daityanam-of the demons; mohanaya-for the bewilderment; asau-He; pramodaya-for pleasing; ca-also; dhurjateh-Lord Siva; ajitah-the inconquerable Personality of Godhead; mohini-of Mohini-devi; murtya-with the form; dvih-twice; avirbhavam agatah-appeared.

 

 

Shri Mohini

 

     To bewilder the demons and to please Lord Siva, the unconquerable Personality of Godhead twice appeared as Mohini-devi.

 

 

Text 72

 

 

iti shashthe ca catvaro

   nrisimhadyah prakirtitah

 

   iti-thus; sasthe-during the reign of the sixth Manu; ca-also; catvarah-four; nrsimha-with Lord Nrsimha; adyah-beginning with; prakirtitah-are described.

 

 

     In this way, in the reign of the sixth (Cakshusha, Manu

four avataras, beginning with Lord Nrisimha, are described.

 

 

Text 73

 

 

shri-vamanah tatraiva

 

"pancadasam vamanakam

   kritvagad adhvaram baleh

pada-trayam yacamanah

   pratyaditsus tri-pishtapam" iti

 

   shri-vamanah-Lord Vamana; tatra-there; vai-certainly; pancadasam-the fifteenth in the line; vamanakam-the dwarf-brahmana; kritva-by assumption of; agat-went; adhvaram-arena of sacrifice; baleh-of King Bali; pada-trayam-three steps only; yacamanah-begging; pratyaditsuh' willing at heart to return; tri-pishtapam-the kingdom of the three planetary systems; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Vamana is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.19:

 

     "In the fifteenth incarnation, the Lord assumed the form of a dwarf-brahmana (Vamana) and visited the arena of sacrifice arranged by Maharaja Bali. Although at heart He was willing to regain the kingdom of the three planetary systems, He simply asked for a donation of three steps of land."*

 

 

Text 74

 

 

vamanas trir abhivyaktam

   kalpe 'smin pratipedivan

tatradau danavendrasya

   vaskaler adhvaram yayau

 

tato vaivasvatiye 'smin

   dhundhor makham asau gatah

aditau kasyapaê jatah   saptame 'sya catur-yuge

pratigraha-krite jatas

   traya eva trivikramah

 

   vamanah-Lord Vamana; trih-thrice; abhivyaktam-manifest; kalpe-kalpa; asmin-in this; pratipedivan-became; tatra-there; adau-in the beginning; danava-of the demons; indrasya-of the monarch; vaskaleh-of Vaskala; adhvaram-to the sacrifice; yayau-went; tatah-then; vaivasvatiye-during the reign of Vaivasvata Manu; asmin-in this; dhundhoh-of Dhundhu; makham-to the sacrifice; asau-He; gatah-went; aditau-in the womâ of Aditi; kasyapat-from Kasyapa Muni; jatah-was born; saptame-in the seventh (Vaivasvata, Manu; asya-of Him; catuh-yuge-cycle of four yugas; pratigraha-of a donation; krte-in the offer; jatah-manifest; trayah-thrice; eva-certainly; trivikramah-the gigantic form of Lord Trivikrama.

 

 

     Lord Vamana appeared three times in this kalpa. During the reign of the first (Svayambhuva, Manu, He visited the sacrifice performed by Vaskala, the king of the danavas. Then, in the reign of Vaivasvata Manu, and visited the sacrifice performed by Dhundhu. Then, in the seventh catur-yuga of that manvantara, He appeared as the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. In this way, to accept a donation, He appeared three times as Lord Trivikrama.

 

 

Text 75

 

 

shri-bhargavah tatraiva

 

"avatare sodasame

   pasyan brahma-druho nripan

trih-sapta-kritvah kupito

   nih-kshatram akaron mahim" iti

 

   shri-bhargavah-Lord Parasurama; tatra-there; eva-certainly; avatare' in the incarnation of the Lord; sodasame-the sixteenth; pasyan-seeing; brahma-druhah-disobedient to the orders of the brahmanas; nripan-the kingly order; trih-sapta-thrice seven times; kritvah-had done; kupitah' being engaged; nih-negation; k.satram-the administrative class; akarot' did perform; mahim-the earth; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Parasurama is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.20:

 

     "In the sixteen incarnation of the Godhead, the Lord (as Bhrigupati) annihilated the administrative class (kshatriyas) twenty-one times, being angry with them because of their rebellion agaist the brahmanas (the intelligent class)."*

 

 

Text 76

 

 

renuka-jamadagnibhyam

   gauro vyaktim asau gatah

prahuh saptadase kecid

   dvavimse 'nye catur-yuge

 

   renuka-from Renuka-devi; jamadagnibhyam-and Jamadagni; gaurah-with a fair complexion; vyaktim-appearance; asau-He; gatah-accepted; prahuh-they say; saptadase-during the 17th; kecit-some;dvavimse-during the 22nd; anye-others; catuh-yuge-during the cycle of four yugas.

 

 

     Fair-complexioned Lord Parasurama appeared as the son of Renuka'-devi and Jamadagni. Some say He appeared during the 17th catur-yuga, and others say He appeared during the 22nd catur-yuga.

 

 

Text 77

 

 

shri-raghavendrah tatraiva

 

"nara-devatvam apannah

   sura-karya-cikirsaya

samudra-nigrahadini

   cakre viryany atah param" iti

 

   shri-raghavendrah-Lord Ramacandra; tatra-there; eva-certainly; vara' human being; devatvam-divinity; apannah-having assumed the form of; sura-the demigods; karya-activities; cikirsaya-for the purpose of performing; samudra-the indian Ocean; nigraha-adini-controlling, etc.; cakre-did perform; viryani-superhuman prowess; atah param-thereafter; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Ramacandra is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.22:

 

     "In the eighteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as King Rama. In order to perform some pleasing work for the demigods, He exhibited superhuman powers by controlling the Indian Ocean and then killing the atheist King Ravana, who was on the other side of the sea."*

 

 

Text 78

 

 

kausalyayam dasarathan

   nava-durva dala-dyutih

tretayam avirabhavac

   caturvimse catur-yuge

bharatena sumitraya

   nandanabhyam ca samyutah

 

   kausalyayam-in the womâ of Kausalya-devi; dasarathat-from Dasaratha Maharaja; nava-fresh; durva-dala-durva grass; dyutih-with the splendor; tretayam-during the Treta-yuga; avirabhavat-appeared; caturvimse-during the 24th; catuh-yuge-cycle of four yugas; bharatena-by Bharata; sumitrayah-of Sumitra; nandanabhyam-by the two sons (Laksmana and Satrughna); ca-also; samyutah-accompanied.

 

 

     Splendid as a new blade of durva grass, and accompanied by Sumitra's two sons and by Bharata, He appeared in the Treta-yuga of the 24th catur-yuga as the son of Kausalya and Dasaratha.

 

 

Text 79

 

 

asya sastre trayo vyuha

   lakshmanadya ami smritah

bharato 'tra ghana-syamah

   saumitri kanaka-prabhau

 

   asya-of Him; sastre-in the Rama-gita of the Skanda Purana; trayah vyuha-the three expansions of Lord Vasudeva; laksmana-with Laksmana; adyah-beginning; ami-they; smrtah-are described in the scriptures; bharatah-Bharata; atra-here; ghana-syamah-with a dark complexion like that of a rain-cloud; saumitri-the two sons of Sumitra; kanaka-of gold; prabhau-with the effulgence.

 

 

     In His scripture the three avataras beginning with Lakshmana are described. Bharata is dark as a raincloud and Sumitra's two sons are splendid as gold.

 

 

Text 80

 

 

padme bharata-satrughnau

   sankha-cakratayoditau

shri-lakshmanas tu tatraiva

   sesha ity abhisabditah

 

   padme-in the Padma Purana; bharata-Bharata; satrughnau-and Satrughna; sankha-as the conch-shell; cakrataya-and cakra; uditau-are described; shri-laksmanah-Laksmana; tu-but; tatra-there; eva-dertainly; sesah- everything else; iti-thus; abhisabditah-from the description.

 

 

     In Padma Purana it is said that Bharata and Satrughna are incarnations of the Lord's conchshell and cakra. There it is also said that Lakshmana is and incarnation of Lord Sesha.

 

 

Text 81

 

 

shri-vyasah tatraiva

 

"tatah saptadase jatah

   satyavatyam parasarat

cakre veda-taroh sakha

   drishtva pumso 'lpa-medhasah" iti

 

   shri-vyasah-Vyasadeva; tatra-there; eva-certainly; tatah-therefore; saptadase-in he seventeenth incarnation; jatah-advented; satyavatyam' in the womâ of Satyavati; parasarat-by Parasara Muni; cakre' prepared; veda-karoh-of the desire tree of the Vedas; sakhah' branches; drishtva-be seeing; pumsah-the people in general; alpa-medhasah-less intelligent; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Vyasa is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.21:

 

     "Thereafter, in the seventeenth incarnation of Godhead, Shri Vyasadeva appeared in the womâ of Satyavati through Parasara Muni, and he divided the one Veda into several branches and suâ-branches, seeing that the people in general were less intelligent."*

 

 

Text 82

 

 

"dvaipayano 'smi vyasanam"

   iti saurir yad ucivan

ato vishnu-pruanadau

   viseshenaiva varnitah

 

   dvaiapayanah-Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa; asmi-I am; vyasanam-among compilers of the Vedas; iti-thus; saurih-Lord Krishna; yat-which; ucivan-said; atah-therefore; visnu-purana-in the Vishnu Purana; adau-and other Vedi literatures; visesena-specifically; eva-certainly; varnitah- described.

 

 

     Lord Krishna Himself said: "Of dividers of the Veda I am Dvaipayana." In Vishnu Purana and other scriptures He is also described in this way.

 

 

Text 83

 

 

yatha

 

"krishna-dvaipayanam vyasam

   viddhi narayanam smritam

ko hy anyah pundarikakshan

   mahabharata-krid bhavet"

 

   yatha-just as; krishna-dvaipayanam vyasam-Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa; viddhi' please know; narayanam-Lord Narayana; smrtam-is described in the Vedi literatures; kah-who?; hi-indeed; anyah-other; pundarika-aksat-than the lotus eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahabharata-of the Mahabharata; krt-the author; bhavet-may be.

 

 

     For example (Vishnu Purana 3.4.5 explains):

 

     "Know that Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa is Lord Narayana. Who, other than the lotus-eyed Supreme Lord, could have written the Mahabharata?"

 

 

Text 84

 

 

sruyate 'pantaratama-

   dvaipayanyam agad iti

kim sayujyam gatah so 'tra

   vishnu-amsah so 'pi va bhavet

tasmad avesa evayam

   iti kecid vadanti ca

 

   sruyate-described in some Vedi literatures; apantaratama-as Apantaratama Muni; dvaipayanyam-Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa; agat-became; iti' thus; kim-whether; sayujyam-sayujya-mukti; gatah-attained; sah-he; atra' here; visnu-of Lord Vishnu; amsah-portion; sah api-he; va-or; bhavet-may be; tasmat-therefore; avesa-avesa-avatara; eva-certainly; ayam-he; iti' thus; kecit-some; vadanti-say; ca-also.

 

 

     In the scriptures it is said that Apantaratama' Muni became Dvaipayana Vyasa. Is Vyasa a jiva who attained sayujya-mukti, or is He an amsa-avatara of Lord Vishnu? Some say He is an avesa-avatara.

 

 

Text 85

 

 

atha shri-rama-krishnau shri-prathame

 

"ekonavimse vimsatime

   vrishntshu prapya janmani

rama-krishnav iti bhuvo

   bhagavan aharad bharam" iti

 

   atha-now; shri-rama-Lord Balarama; krishnau-and Lord Krishna; shri-prathame' in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; ekonavimse-in the nineteenth; vimsatime-in the twentieth also; vrishnisu-in the Vrishni dynasty; prapya-having obtained; janmani-births; rama-Balarama; krishnau' Shri Krishna; iti-thus; bhuvah-of the world; bhagavan-the Personality of Godhead; aharat-removed; bharam-burden; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lords Krishna and Balarama are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.23:

 

     "In the ninteenth and twentieth incarnations, the Lord advanted Himself as Lord Balarama and Lord Krishna in the family of Vrishni (the Yadu dynasty), and by so doing He removed the burden of the world."*

 

 

Text 86

 

 

shri-ramah

 

esa matri-dvaye vyakto

   janakad vasudevatah

yo navya-ghana-sarabho

   ghana-syamambarah sada

 

   shri-ramah-Lord Balarama; esah-He; matri-dvaye-in two mothers; vyaktah- manifest; janakat-from Hia father; vasudevatah-Vasudeva Maharaja; yah- who; navya-fresh; bhanasara-of camphor; abhah-with the splendor; ghana-syama-dark as a rain-cloud; ambarah-with garments; sada-always.

 

 

Lord Balarama

 

     Begotten by His father Vasudeva, Lord Balarama appeared in the wombs of two mothers. His complexion was white as camphor. He always dressed in garments dark as a raincloud.

 

 

Text 87

 

 

sankarsano dviriyo yo

   vyuho ramah sa eva hi

prithvi-dharena seshena

   sambhuya vyaktim iyivan

 

   sankarsanah-Sankarsana; dvitiyah-second; yah-who; vyuhah-catur-vyuha expansion; ramah-Lord Balarama; sah-He; eva-certainly; hi-indeed; prthvi-the earth; dharena-holding; sesena-with Ananta Sesa; sambhuya' joining; vyaktim-appearance; iyivan-attained.

 

 

     Meeting with Lord Sesha, who holds the earth, Lord Balarama, whose second expansion is Lord Sankarshana, appeared.

 

 

Text 88

 

 

sesho dvidha mahi-dhari

   sayya-rupas ca sarnginah

tatra sankarsanavesad

   bhu-bhrit sankarsano matah

sayya-rupas tatha tasya

   sakhya-dasyabhimanavan

 

   sesah-Sesa; dvidha-in two ways; mahi-the universes; dhari-holding; sayya-of the couch; rupah-in the form; ca-also; sarnginah-of Lord Krishna; tatra-there; sankarsana-of Lord Sankarsana; avesat-because of being an empowered incarnation (avesa-avatara); bhu-of the universes; bhrt-the maintainer; sankarsanah-Sankarsana; matah-is considered; sayya-of the couch; rupah-in the form; tatha-in that way; tasya-of the Lord; sakhya' in friendship; dasya-and service; abhimanavan-considering Himself.

 

 

     Sesha appears in two features: 1. as the maintainer of the universe, and 2. as the couch of Lord Vishnu. As the maintainer of the universe He is an avesa-avatara of Lord Sankarshana, and as Lord Vishnu's couch He thinks Himself the Lord's servant and friend.

 

 

Text 89

 

 

shri-krishnah

 

esa matari devakyam

   pitur anakadundubheh

pradurbhuto ghana-syamo

   dvi-bhujo 'pi catur-bhujah

 

    shri-krishnah-Lord Krishna; esah-He; matari-in the womâ of His mother; devakyam-Devaki-devi-pituh-from His father; anakadundubheh-Maharaê Vasudeva; pradurbhutah-appeared; ghana-syamah-His complexion like the color of a dark rain-cloud; dvi-bhujah-with two arms; api-and; catuh-bhujah-with four arms.

 

 

     Begotten by His father, Maharaja Vasudeva, Lord Krishna, who is dark as raincloud, and who has two and sometimes four arms, appeared in the womâ of His mother, Devaki.

 

 

Text 90

 

 

shri-buddah tatraiva

 

"tatah kalau sampravritte

   sammohaya sura-dvisam

buddho namnanjana-sutah

   kikateshu bhavishyati" iti

 

   shri-buddhah-Lord Buddha; tatra-there; eva-certainly; tatah' thereafter; kalau-the age of Kali; sampravritte-having ensued; sammohaya' for the purpose of deluding; sura-the theists; dvisam-those who are envious; buddhah-Lord Buddha; namna-of the name; anjana-sutah-whose mother was Anjana; kikateshu-in the province of Gaya (Bihar); bhavishyati-will take place; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Buddha is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.24:

 

     "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya-just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist."*

 

 

Text 91

 

 

asau vyaktah kaler abda-

   sahasra-dvitaye gate

murtih patala-varnasya

   dvi-bhuja cikurojjhita

 

   asau-He; vyaktah-manifest; kaleh-of the Kali-yuga; abda-years; sahasra-dvitaye-after two thousand years; gate-had passed; murtih-form; patala-of the pink patala flower; varna-the color; asya-of Him; dvi-bhuja-with two arms; cikura-hair; ujjhitah-without.

 

 

     After two thousand years of Kali-yuga had passed, He appeared. His complexion was the color of a patala flower, His head was shaven, and He had two arms.

 

 

Text 92

 

 

yada sutah katham aha

   tada buddhasya bhavita

adhuna vritta evayam

   dharmaranye yad udgatah

 

   yada-when; sutah-Shrila Suta Gosvami; katham-Shrimad-Bhagavatam; aha-spoke; tada-then; buddhasya-the appearance of Lord Buddha; bhavita-was still in the future; adhuna-at present; vrttah-occured; eva-certainly; ayam-that; dharmaranye-in Dharmaranya; yat' which; udgatah-gone.

 

 

     When Suta Gosvami spoke Lord Buddha's appearance was in the future. Now His appearance in Dharmaranya is in the past.

 

Text 93

 

 

shri-kalki tatraiva

 

"athasau yuga-sandhyayam

   dasyu-prayeshu rajasu

janita vishnu-yasaso

   namna kalkir jagat-patih" iti

 

   shri-kalki-Lord Kalki; tatra-there; eva-certainly; atha-thereafter; asau-the same Lord; yuga-sandhyayam-at the conjunction of the yugas; dasyu-plunderes; prayeshu-almost all; rajasu-the governing personalities; janita-will take His birth; vishnu-named Vishnu; yasasah-surnamed Yasa; namna-in the name of; kalkih-the incarnation of the Lord; jagat-patih-the Lord of the creation; iti-thus.

 

 

     Lord Kalki is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.25:

 

     "Thereafter, at the conjunction of two yugas, the Lord of the creation will take His birth as the Kalki incarnation and become the son of Vishnu-yasa. At this time the rulers of the earth will have degenerated into plunderers."*

 

 

Text 94

 

 

purvam manur dasaratho

   vasudevo 'py asav abhut

bhavi vishnuyasas cayam

   iti padme prakirtitam

 

   purvam-previously; manuh-Manu; dasarathah-Dasaratha; vasudeva-Maharaja Vasudeva; api-also; asau-he; abhut-was; bhavi-will take birth as; visnuyasah-Vishnuyasa; ca-also; ayam-he; iti-thus; padme-in the Padma Purana; prakirtitam-glorified.

 

 

     In Padma Purana it is said that the same person who was Manu, Dasaratha, and Vasudeva, will become Vishnu-yasa'.

 

 

Text 95

 

 

aisvaryam kalkinas tasya

   brahmande sushthu varnitam

kaiscit kalau kalau buddhah

   syat kalki cety udiryate

 

   aisvaryam-power and opulence; kalkinah-of Kalki; tasya-of Him; brahmande-in the Brahmanda Purana; susthu-nicely; varnitam-described; kaiscit-by some; kalau kalau-in each Kali-yuga; buddhah-Buddhah-syat' becomes; kalki-Kalki; ca-also; iti-thus; udiryate-is described.

 

 

     Lord Kalki's glory is eloquently described in Brahmanda Purana. Some say it is Lord Buddha who appears as Kalki in Kali-yuga after Kali-yuga.

 

 

Text 96

 

 

astau vaivasvatiye 'mi

   kathita vamanadayah

 

kalpavatara ity ete

   kathitah panca-vimsatih

prati-kalpam yatah prayah

   sakrit pradurbhavanty ami

 

   astau-eight; vaivasvatiye-during the reign of Vaivasvata Manu; ami-they; kathitah-are described; vamana-Lord Vamana; adayah-beginning with; kalpa-avatarah-appearing in each kalpa; iti-thus; ete-they; kathitah-are described; panca-vimsatih-25; prati-kalpam-in each kalpa; yatah-because; prayah-generally; sakrt-once; pradurbhavanti-appear; ami-they.

 

 

     Beginning with Lord Vamana, eight of the avataras here described appeared in the reign of Vaivasvata Manu. These 25 avataras are called kalpa-avataras because for the most part they appear once in each kalpa.

 

 

 

Chapter Four

Manvantaravatara-yugavatara-prabhava-
vaibhavavatara-tat-sthana-nirupana

Description of the Manvantara-avataras, Yuga-avataras,
Prabhava-avataras, Vibhava-avataras, and Their Abodes

 

 

Text 1

 

 

atha manvantaravatarah

 

manvantaravataro 'sau

   prayah sakrari-hatyaya

tat-sahayo mukundasya

   pradurbhavah sureshu yah

 

   atha-now; manvantara-avatarah-the manvantara-avatara; asau-He; prayah-generally; sakra-of Indra; ari-the enemies; hatyaya-by killing; tat-sahayah-aiding the demigods; mukundasya-of Lord Mukunda; pradurbhavah-appearance; suresu' among the demigods; yah-who.

 

 

The Manvantara-avataras

 

     Lord Mukunda's incarnations that appear among the demigods to aid Indra and destroy Indra's enemies, are known as manvantara-avataras.

 

 

Text 2

 

 

yukte kalpavataratve

   yajnadinam api sphutam

manvantaravataratvam

   tat-tat-paryanta-palanat

 

   yukte-appropriate; kalpa-avataratve-the designation of kalpa-avatara; yajna-adinam-of Lord Yajna and other incarnations; api-also; sphutam-manifest; manvantara-avataratvam-the position of manvantara-avatara; tat-tat-of the reigns of the various Manus; paryanta-to the end; palanat' because of protecting.

 

 

     Lord Yajna and the other manvantara-avataras may appropriately be called kalpa-avataras. Because they appear during the Manus' reigns they are called Manvantara-avataras.

 

 

Text 3

 

 

manvantareshv ami svayam

   bhuviyadishv anukramat

avataras tu yajnadya

   brihadbhanv-antima matah

   manvantaresu-during the reigns of each Manu; ami-they; svayambhuviya-the reign of Svayambhuva Manu; adisu-beginning with; anukramat-one after another; avatarah-incarnations; tu-also; yajna-with Lord Yajna; adyah- beginning; brhadbhanu-with Brhadbhanu; antimah-ending; matah-considered.

 

 

     The manvantara-avataras, beginning with Lord Yajna and ending with Lord Brihadbhanu, appear, one after another, in the reigns of the Manus beginning with Svayambhuva Manu.

 

 

Text 4

 

 

prathame svayambhuviye yajnah

 

yajnas tu purvam evoktas

   tenatra na vilikhyate

 

   prathame-during the first; svayambhuviye-during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu; yajnah-Lord Yajna; yajnah-Lord Yajna; tu-but; purvam-previously; eva-certainly; uktah-described; tena-therefore; atra-here; na-not; vilikhyate-is described in writing.

 

 

     Lord Yajna in the reign of Svayambhuva, the first Manu.

 

     Lord Yajna was already described in the previous chapter, so He will not be written of here.

 

 

Text 5

 

 

dvitiye svarocishiye vibhuh. yatha ashtama-skandhe

 

rishes tu vedasirasas

     tushita nama patny abhut

tasyam jajne tato devo

     vibhur ity abhivisrutah

 

   dvitiye-the second; svarocasiye-during the rule of Svarocisa Manu; vibhuh Lord Vibhu; yatha-just as; astama-skandhe-in the Eight Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam; riseh -of the saintly person; tu -indeed; vedasirasah -Vedasira-;tusita-Tusita; nama-named; patni-the wife; abhut-begat;tasyam-in her (womb); jaj/ve-took birth; tatah' thereafter; devah-the Lord; vibhuh-Vibhu; iti-thus; abhivisrutah' celebrated as.

 

 

     Lord Vibhu in the reign of Svarocisha, the second Manu.

 

     He is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.1.21-22:

 

     "Vedasira' was a very celebrated rishi. From the wom⠍of his wife, whose name was Tushita, came the avatara named Vibhu.*

 

 

Text 6

 

 

astasiti-sahasrani

     munayo ye dhrita-vratah

anvasikshan vratam tasya

     kaumara-brahmacarinah iti.

 

   ashtasiti -eighty-eight; sah asrani -thousand; munayah -great saintly persons; ye -those who; dhrita-vratah-fixed in vows; anvasikshan -took instructions; vratam-vows; tasya-from him (Vibhu); kaumara -who was unmarried; brahmacarinah-and fixed in the brahmacari stage of life; iti-thus.

 

                               

     "Vibhu remained a brahmacari and never married throughout his life. From him, eighty-eight thousand other saintly persons took lessons on self-control, austerity and similar behavior."*

 

 

Text 7

 

 

tritiya auttamiye satyasenah

 

dharmasya sunritayam tu

     bhagavan purushottamah

satyasena iti khyato

     jatah satyavrataih saha

 

   trituiye-during the reign of the third Manu; auttamiye-Uttama Manu; satyasenah-Lord Satyasena; dharmasya-of the demigod in charge of religion; sunritayam-in the womâ of his wife named Sunrita; tu-indeed; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purusha-uttamah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; satyasenah -Satyasena; iti -thus; khyatah ' celebrated; jatah-took birth; satyavrataih-the Satyavratas; saha-with.

 

 

     Lord Satyasena appeared during the reign of Uttama, the third Manu. Satyasena is described in Shrimad Bhagavatam 8.1.25-26:

                              

     "In this manvantara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared from the womâ of Sunrita, who was the wife of Dharma, the demigod in charge of religion. The Lord was celebrated as Satyasena, and He appeared with other demigods, known as the Satyavratas.*

 

 

Text 8

 

 

so'nrta-vrata-duhsilan

     asato yaksha-raksasan

bhuta-druho bhuta-ganams     cavadhit satyajit-sakhah iti

 

   sah-He (Satyasena); anrita-vrata-who are fond of speaking lies; duhsilan -misbehaved; asatah -miscreant; yaksha-rakshasan -Yakshas and Rakshasas; bhuta-druhah-who are always against the progress of other living beings; bhuta-ganan-the ghostly living entities; ca -also; avadhit-killed; satyajit-sakhah-with His friend Satyajit; iti-thus.

 

                              

     "Satyasena, along with His friend Satyajit, who was the King of heaven, Indra, killed all the untruthful, impious and misbehaved Yakshas, Rakshasas and ghostly living entities, who gave pains to other living beings."*

 

 

Text 9

 

 

caturthe tamasiye harih

 

tatrapi jaj/ve bhagavan

     harinyam harimedhasah

harir ity ahrito yena

     gajendro mocito grahat

 

   caturthe-during the reign of the fourth Manu; tamasiye-Tamasa Manu; harih-Lord Hari; tatrapi-in that period; jaj/ve-appeared; bhagavan ' the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harinyam-in the womâ of Harini; harimedhasah-begotten by Harimedha; harih-Hari; iti-thus; ahrtah -called; yena-by whom; gaja-indrah-the King of the elephants; mocitah-was freed; grahat-trom the mouth of a crocodile.

 

 

     Lord Hari, who appeared during the reign of Tamasa, the fourth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.1.30:

 

     "Also in this manvantara, the Supreme Lord, Vishnu, took birth from the womâ of Harini, the wife of Harimedha, and He was known as Hari. Hari saved His devotee Gajendra, the King of the elephants, from the mouth of a crocodile."*

 

 

Text 10

 

 

smaryate 'sau sada pratah

   sad-acara-parayanaih

sarvanishta-vinasaya

   harir dantindra-mocanah

 

   smaryate-is remembered; asau-He; sada-always; pratah-in the morning; sat-spiritual; acara-activities; parayanaih-by those devoted to performing; sarva-all; anista-unwanted things; vinasaya-for the destruction; harih-Hari; dnati-of the elephants; indra-the king; mocanah- rescuing.

 

 

     To become free from all that is undesirable, every morning the saintly devotees meditate on Lord Hari, who rescued Gajendra.

 

 

Text 11

 

 

pancame raivatiye vaikunthah

 

npatni vikuntha subhrasya

   vaikunthaih sura-sattamaih

tayoh sva-kalaya jajne

   vaikuntho bhagavan svayam

  

   pancame-during the reign of the fifth Manu; raivatiye-named Raivata; vaikunthah-Lord Vaikuntha; patni-the wife; vikuntha-named Vikuntha; subhrasya-of Subhra; vaikunthaih-with the Vaikunthas; sura-sat-tamaih-demigods; tayoh-by Vikuntha and Subhra; sva-kalaya' with plenary expansions¯ jajne-appeared; vaikunthah-the Lord; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam-personally.

 

 

     Lord Vaikuntha, who appeared in the reign of Raivata, the fifth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.5.4-5:

 

     "From the combination of Subhra and his wife, Vikuntha, there appeared the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, along with demigods who were His personal plenary expansions.*

 

 

Text 12

 

 

nvaikunthah kalpito yena

   loko loka-namaskritah

ramaya prarthyamanena

   devya tat-priya-kamyaya"

 

   vaikunthah-a vaikuntha planet; kalpitah-was constructed, yena-by whom; lokah-planet; loka-namaskrtah-worshiped by all people; ramaya-by Rama, the goddess of fortune; prarthyamnanena-being so requested; devaya' by the goddess; tat-her; priya-kamyaya-just to please.

 

 

     "Just to please the goddess of fortune, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, at her request, created another Vaikuntha planet, which is worshiped by everyone."*

 

 

Text 13

 

 

maha-vaikuntha-lokasya

   vyapakasyavyatmanah

prakati-karanam satyo-

   pari kalpanam ucyate

 

   maha-vaikuntha-lokasya-of the spiritual sky; vyapakasya-all-pervading; avyaya-atmanah-eternal and unchanging; prakati-karanam-cause of manifestation; satya-Satyaloka; upari-above; kalpanam-conception; ucyate' is said.

 

 

     It is said He created the eternal, all-pervading Maha'-Vaikuntha world above Satyaloka.

 

 

Text 14

 

 

shashthecakshusiye-ajitah

 

ntatrapi devasambhutyam

   vairajasyabhavat sutah

ajito nama bhagavan

   amsena jagatah patih

 

   sasthe-in the sixth; caksusiye-during the reign of Caksusa Manu; ajitah-Lord Ajita; tatra api-again in that sixth manvantara; devasambhutyam-by devasambhuti; vairajasya-by her husband, Vairaja; abhavat-there was; sutah-a son; ajitah nama-by the name Ajita; bhagavan' the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amsena-partially; jagatah patih-the master of the universe.

 

 

     Lord Ajita, who appeared during the reign of Cakshusha, the sixth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.5.9-10:

 

     "In this sixth manvantara millennium, Lord Vishnu, the master of the universe, appeared in His partial expansion. He was begotten by Vairaja in the womâ of his wife, Devasambhuti, and His name was Ajita.*

 

 

Text 15

 

 

payodhim yena nirmathya

   suranam sadhita sudha

bhramamano 'mbhasi dhritah

   kurma-rupena mandarah

 

   payodhim-the ocean of milk; yena-by whom; nirmathya-by churning; suranam-of the demigods; sadhita-produced; sudha-nectar; bhramamanad-moving here and there; ambhasi-within the water; dhrtah-was staying; kurma-rupena-in the form of a tortiose; mandarah-the montain known as Mandara.

 

 

     "By churning the ocean of milk, Ajita produced nectar for the demigods. In the form of a tortoise, He moved here and there, carrying on His back the great mountain known as Mandara."*

 

 

Text 16

 

 

saptame vaivasvatiye vamanah

 

vaivasvatantare vyaktah

   puraivoktah sa vamanah

bhavishyah sapta kathyante   te savarny-antaradishu

 

   saptame-during the reign of the seventh Manu; vaivasvatiye-Vaivasvata; vamanah-Lord Vamana; vaivasvata-of Vaivasvata Manu; antare-during the reign; vyaktah-manifest; pura-previously; eva-certainly; uktah- described; sah-He; vamanah-Lord Vamana; bhavisyah-will be; sapta-seven; kathyante-are described; te-they; savarni-of Savarni Manu; antara-the reign; adisu-beginning with.

 

 

     Lord Vamana, who appeared during the reign of Vaivasvata, the seventh Manu, has already been described. The seven manvantara-avataras that will appear in the future, in the reigns of Savarni and the other Manus, will now be described.

 

 

Text 17

 

 

astame savarniye sarvabhamah

 

devaguhyat sarasvatyam

     sarvabhauma iti prabhuh

sthanam purandarad dhrtva

     balaye dasyatisvarah

 

   astame-the eighth; savarniye-during the reign of Savarni Manu; sarvabhaumah-Lord Sarvabhauma; devaguhyat-from His father, Devaguhya; sarasvatyam-in the womâ of Sarasvati; sarvabhaumah-Sarvabhauma; iti-thus; prabhuh-the master; sthanam-place; purandarat-from Lord lndra; hritva-taking away by force; balaye-unto Bali Maharaja; dasyati-will give; isvarah-the master.

 

 

     Lord Sarvabhauma, who will appear during the reign of Savarni, the eighth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.17:

 

     "In the eighth manvantara, the greatly powerful Personality of Godhead Sarvabhauma will take birth. His father will be Devaguhya, and His mother will be Sarasvati. He will take the kingdom away from Purandara (Lord Indra) and give it to Bali Maharaja."*

 

 

Text 18

 

 

navame daksha-savarniye rishabhah

 

ayushmato 'mbudharayam

     rishabho bhagavat-kala

bhavita yena samraddham

     tri-lokim bhokshyate'dbhutah

 

   navame-during the reign of the ninth Manu; daksa-savarniye-Daksa-savarni; rsabhah-Lord Rsabha; ayushmatah-of the father, Ayushman; ambudharayam-in the womâ of the mother, Ambudhara; rishabhah-/Rshabha; bhagavat-kala-a partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhavita-will be; yena-by whom; sammadham-all-opulent; tri-lokim-the three worlds; bhokshyate-will enjoy; adbhutah-the Indra of the name Adbhuta.

 

 

     Lord Rishabha, who will appear in the reign of Daksha-savarni, the ninth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.20:

 

     "Rishabhadeva, a partial incarnation of the Supreme  Personality of Godhead, will take birth from his father,  Ayushman, and his mother, Ambudhara. He will enable the  Indra named Adbhuta to enjoy the opulence of the three worlds."*

 

 

Text 19

 

 

dasame brahma-savarniye vishvaksenah

 

vishvakseno vishucyam tu

     sambhoh sakhyam karishyati

jatah svamsena bhagavan

     grihe visvashrijo vibhuh

 

   dasmame-during the reign of the tenth Manu; brahma-savarniye-Brhma-savarni; visvaksenah-Lord Visvaksena; visvaksenah-Vishvaksena; visucyam-in the womâ of Vishuci; tu-then; sambhoh-of Sambhu; sakhyam-friendship; karishyati' will create; jatah-being born; sva-amsena-by a plenary portion; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; grihe' in the home; visvashrijah-of Visvasrashta; vibhuh-the supremely powerful Lord.

 

 

     Lord Vishvaksena, who will appear in the reign of Brahma-savarni, the tenth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.23:

 

     "In the home of Visvasrashta, a plenary portion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear from the womâ of Vishuci as the incarnation known as Vishvaksena. He will make friends with Sambhu."*

 

 

Text 20

 

 

ekadase dharma-savarniye dharmasetuh

 

aryakasya sutas tatra

     dharmasetur iti smritah

vaidhritayam harer amsas

     tri-lokim dharayishyati

 

   ekadase-during the reign of the eleventh Manu; dharma-savarniye-Dharma-savarni; dharmasetuh-Lord Dharmasetu;.fn 2 aryakasya-of Aryaka; sutah-the son; tatra-in that period (the eleventh manvantara); dharmasetuh-Dharmasetu; iti-thus; smritah-celebrated; vaidhritayam-from the mother, Vaidhrita; hareh-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amsah-a partial incar-nation; tri-lokim-the three worlds; dharayishyati-will rule.

 

 

     Lord Dharmasetu, who will appear in the reign of Dharma-savarni, the eleventh Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.26:

 

     "The son of Aryaka known as Dharmasetu, a partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will appear from the womâ of Vaidhrita, the wife of Aryaka, and will rule the three worlds."*

 

 

Text 21

 

 

dvadase rudra-savarniye sudhama

 

svadhamakhyo harer amsah

     sadhayisyati tan-manoh

antaram satyasahasah

     sunritayah suto vibhuh

 

   dvadase-the twelfth Manu; rudra-savarniye-during the reign of Rudra-savarni; sudhama-Lord Sudhama; svadhama-akhyah-Svadhama; hareh amsah-a partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sadhayisyati-will rule; tat-manoh-of that Manu; antaram-the manvantara; satyasahasah-of Satyasaha; sunritayah-of Sunrita; sutah-the son; vibhuh-most powerful.

 

 

     Lord Svadhama, who will appear in the reign of Rudra-savarni, the twelfth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.29:

 

     "From the mother named Sunrita and the father named Satyasaha will come Svadhama, a partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He will rule that manvantara."*

 

 

Text 22

 

 

trayodase deva-savarniye yogesvarah

 

devahotrasya tanaya

     upaharta divaspateh

yogesvaro harer amso

     brhatyam sambhavishyati

 

   trayodase-during the reign of the thirteenth Manu; deva-savarniye-Deva-savarni; yogesvarah-Lord Yogesvara; devahotrasya-of Devahotra; tanayah-the son; upaharta-the benefactor; divaspateh-of Divaspati, the Indra at that time; yoga-isvarah-Yogesvara, the master of mysti powers; hareh amsah-a partial representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; brhatyam-in the womâ of his mother, Brihati; sambhavishyati-will ap-pear.

 

 

     Lord Yogesvara, who will appear in the reign of Deva-savarni, the thirteenth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.32:

 

     "The son of Devahotra known as Yogesvara will appear as a partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. His mother's name will be Brihati. He will perform activities for the welfare of Divaspati."*

 

 

Text 23

 

 

caturdasa indra-savarniye brihadbhanuh

 

satrayanasya tanayo

     brhadbhanus tada harih

vitanayam maharaja

     kriya-tantun vitayita

 

   caturdase-during the reign of the fourteenth Manu; indra-savarniye' Indra-savarni; brhadbhanuh-Lord Brhadbhanu; satrayanasya-of Satrayana; tanayah-the son; brihadbhanuh-Brihadbhanu; tada-at that time; harih-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vitanayam-in the womâ of Vitana; maha-raja-O King; kriya-tantun-all spiritual activities; vitayita-will perform.

 

 

     Lord Brihadbhanu, who will appear in the reign of Indra-savarni, the fourteenth Manu, is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.13.35:

 

     "O King Parikshit, in the fourteenth manvantara the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear from the womâ of Vitana, and His father's name will be Satrayana. This incarnation will be celebrated as Brihadbhanu, and He will administer spiritual activities."*

 

 

Text 24

 

 

yajna-vamanayos tatra

   punar uktataya dvayoh

manvantaravataras tu

   sankhyayam dvadasoditah

 

iti manvantaravatarah.

 

   yajna-of Lord Yajna; vamanayoh-and Lord Vamana; tatra-there; punah- again; uktataya-by the description; dvayoh-of the two of them; manvantara' avatarah-manvantara-avataras; tu-also; sankhyayam-in the enumeration; dvadasa-twelve; uditah-manifested; iti-thus concludes; manvantara-avatarah-the description of the manvantara-avataras.

 

 

     Because Lord Yajna and Lord Vamana were described before, twelve manvantara-avataras are listed here. In this way the description of manvantara-avataras is concluded.

 

 

Texts 25 and 26

 

 

atha yugavatarah

 

kathyate varna-namabhyam

   suklah satya-yuge harih

raktah syamah kramat krishnas

   tretayam dvapare kalau

 

upasana-viseshartham

   satyadishu yugeshv asau

manvantaravataras tu

   tathavatarati kramat

 

   atha-now; yuga-avatarah-the yuga-avataras; kathyate-is described; varna-according to color; namabhyam-and name; suklah-white; satya-yuge' during the Satya-yuga; harih-Lord Hari; raktah-red; syamah-the dark color of a monsoon cloud; kramat-one after another; krishnah-black; treyatam-in the Treta-yuga; dvapare-in the Dvapara-yuga; kalau-in the Kali-yuga; upasana-worship; visesa-specific; artham-for the purpose; satya-the Satya-yuga; adisu-beginning with; yugesu-during the yugas; asau-He; manvantara-avatarah-Manvantara-avatara; tu-but; tatha-in that way; avatarati-incarnation; kramat-in succession.

 

 

The Yuga-avataras

 

     In Satya-yuga the incarnation is said by color and name to be white Lord Hari. In the Treta, Dvapara, and Kali yugas the incarnations are red, blue, and black respectively. As for different kinds of worship the manvantara-avataras descend in Satya-yuga and other yugas, so, one after another, do the yuga-avataras.

 

 

Text 27

 

 

kalpa-manvantara-yuga

   pradurbhava-vidhayinah

avatara ime tv eka-

   catvarimsa udiritah

 

   kalpa-lila-avataras; manvantara-manvantara-avataras; yuga-yuga-avataras; pradurbhava-vidhayinah-incarnations; avatarah-incarnations; ime-these; tu-but; eka-catvarimsat-41; udiritah-described.

 

     In this way 24 lila, manvantara, and yuga avataras have been described.

 

 

Text 28

 

 

vritta brahmadayah kalpah

   padmantas te sahasrasah

vartamanas tu kalpo 'yam

   sveta-varaha ucyate

 

   vrttah-occured; brahma-Brahma-kalpa; adyah-beginning with; kalpah-kalpas; padma-with Padma-kalpa; antah-concluding; te-they; sahasrasah-thousands of times; vartamanah-at present; tu-also; kalpah-the kalpa; ayam-this; sveta-varaha-Sveta-varaha-kalpa; ucyate-is named.

 

 

     The cycle of kalpas, beginning with Brahma-kalpa and ending with Padma-kalpa, is repeated a thousand times. The present kalpa is called Sveta-varaha-kalpa.

 

 

Text 29

 

 

brahma-kalpa-prathama-je

   vyaktah svayambhuvantare

kumara-naradadyas ca

   cakshusiyadisuttare

 

   brahma-kalpa-Brhama-kalpa; prathama-in the beginning; je-manifested; vyaktah-manifested; svayambhuva-of Svayambhuva Manu; antare-during the reign; kumara-the four Kumaras; narada-Narada; adyah-and other incarnations; ca-and; caksusiya-in the reign of Caksusa; adisu-and the other Manus; uttare-afterwards.

 

 

     During the reign of Svayambhuva Manu, at the beginning of Brahma-kalpa, the four Kumaras, Narada Muni, and many other oncarnations appeared. Other incarnations also appeared later, during the reigns of Cakshusha and the other Manus.

 

 

Text 30

 

 

prayah svayambhuvadyakhyah

   kalpe kalpe bhavanty ami

manavas te 'vataras ca

   tatha yajnadi-namakah

 

   prayah-generally; svayambhuva-the reign of Svayambhuva Manu; adi-beginning with; akhyah-named; kalpe kalpe-kalpa after kalpa; bhavanti-appear; ami-these; manvah-the Manus; te-they; avatarah-incarnations; ca' also; tatha-in the same way; yajna-Lord Yajna; adi-beginning with; namakah-named.

 

 

     The Manus, beginning with Svayambhuva, appear one after the other in each kalpa, and the manvantara-avataras, beginning with Lord Yajna, also appear in the same way.

 

 

Text 31

 

 

tatha hi shri-vishnu-dharmottare shri-vajra-prasnah:

 

ya ete bhavata prokta

   manvas ca caturdasa

nityam brahma-dine prapte

   eta eva kramad dvija

bhavanty utanye dharma-jna

   etam- me chindhi samsayam

 

   tatha hi-moreover; shri-visnu-dharma-uttare-in the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana; shri-vajra-of Maharaja Vajra; prasnah-the question;l ye ete-whichever; bhavata-by you; proktah-described; manvah-Manus; ca-also; caturdasa-fourteen; nityam-always; brahma-of Brahma; dine-when the day; prapte-is manifest; ete-they; eva-certainly; kramat-one after the next; dvija-O Brahmana; bhavanti-are manifest; uta-certainly; anye-others; dharma-jna-O knower of religious princioles; etam-this; me-my; chindhi-please sever; samsayam-doubt.

 

 

     Vajra's question in Vishnu-dharmottara Purana:

 

     "O Brahmana, you have said that in every day of Brahma' 14 Manus always appear, one after the other. O knower of religion, are there any other Manus? Please break my doubt."

 

 

Texts 32 and 33

 

 

shri-makandeyottaram

 

eta eva maha-raja

   manvas ca caturdasa

kalpe kalpe tvaya jneya

   natra karya vicarana

 

eka-rupas tvaya prokta

   jnatavyah sarva eva hi

kecit kincid vibhinnas ca

   mayaya paramesituh

 

   shri-markandeya-of Markandeya Rsi; uttaram-the reply; atah eva-therefore; eva-certainly; maha-raja-O great king; manvah-Manus; ca-also; caturdasa-fourteen; kalpe kalpe-in each day of Brahma; tvaya-by you; jneyah-should be; na-not; atra-here; karya-should be done; vicarana-investigation; eka-rupah-with a single form; tvaya-by you; proktah-spoken; jnatavyah-should be understood; sarve-all; eva-certainly; hi-indeed; decit-certain; kincit-to a certain extent; vibhinnah-separated; ca-also; mayaya-by the potency; parama-isituh-of the Supreme Controller.

 

 

     Shri Markandeya's reply:

 

     "O great king, in each kalpa there are 14 Manus. You should not doubt. Know that, as you have said, they all have the same form. Sometimes some, by the Supreme Lord's potency, are different.

 

 

Texts 34 and 35

 

 

avataras caturdha syur

   avesah prabhava api

athaiva vaibhavavasthah

   paravasthas ca tatra te

 

atravesavataras tu

   jneyah purvokta-rititah

yatha kumara-devarshi-

   venanga-prabhavadayah

 

   avatarah-incarnations; caturdha-four kinds; syuh-are; avesah-avesa (empowered, avataras; prabhavah-prabhava avataras; api-also; atha-now; eva-certainly; vaibhava-avasthah-vaibhavavastha-avataras; para-avastha-paravastha-avataras; ca-also; tatra-there; te-they; atra-here; avesa-avatarah-avesa-avataras; tu-also; jneyah-may be understood; purva-previous; ukta-rititah-from the statement; yatha-just as; kumara-the Four Kumaras; devarsi-Narada; venanga-Maharaja Prthu; prabhava-manifestation; adayah-beginning with.

 

 

     There are four other kinds of avataras: 1. avesa-avatara, 2. prabhava-avatara; 3. vaibhavavastha-avatara, and 4. paravastha-avatara. The avesa-avataras may be understood from the previous descriptions of the Kumaras, Narada Muni, Maharaja Prithu, and others.

 

 

Text 36

 

 

yatha padme

 

avishto 'bhut kumareshu

   narade ca harir vibhuh

 

   yatha-just as; padme-in the Padma Purana; avistah-entered; abhut-become; kumaresu-among the Kumaras; narade-within Narada Muni; ca-also; harih-Lord Hari; vibhuh-omnipotent.

 

 

     In Padma Purana:

 

     "All-powerful Lord Hari entered the Kumaras and Narada."

 

 

Text 37

 

 

yatha tatraiva

 

navivesa prithum devah

   sankhi cakri catur-bhujah" iti

 

   yatha-just as; tatra-there; eva-certainly; avivesa-entered; prthum-Maharaja Prthu; devah-the Supreme Lord; sankhi-holding the conch-shell; cakri-holding the cakra; catuh-bhujah-with four arms; iti-thus.

 

 

     In the same book:

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has four arms and holds a conchshell and cakra, entered Maharaja Prithu."

 

 

Text 38

 

 

avishto bhargave cabhut

   iti tatraiva kirtitam

 

   avistah-entered; bhargave-Lord Parasurama; ca-also; abhut-became; iti-thus; tatra-there; eva-certainly; kirtitam-described.

 

 

     In that book it is also said: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead also entered Parasurama."

 

 

Text 39

 

 

tatha hi

 

netat te kathitam devi

   jamadagner mahatmanah

sakty-avesavatarasya

   caritam sarnginah prabhoh" iti

 

   tatha hi-furthermore; etat-this; te-to you; kathitam-explained; devi' O goddess; jamadagneh-of       of jamadagni; maha-atmanah-th great soul; sakti-avesa-avatarasya-sakty-avesa-avatara; caritam-pastimes; prabhoh-of the Lord; iti-thus.

 

 

     It is also said:

 

     "O goddess, I have thus described to you the pastimes of Lord Parasurama, who is a sakty-avesa-avatara of Lord Vishnu."

 

 

Text 40

 

 

avesatvam kalkino 'pi

   vishnu-dharme vilokyate

 

   avestvam-the position of an avesa-avatara; kalkinah-of Lord Kalki; api-also; visnu-dharme-in the Vishnu-dharma Purana; vilokyate-is seen.

 

 

     In Vishnu-dharma Purana it is seen that Lord Kalki is also an avesa-avatara.

 

 

Texts 41-43

 

 

yatha

npratyaksha-rupa dhrig devo

   drisyate na kalau harih

kritadishv iva tenaiva

   tri-yugah paripathyate

 

nkaler ante ca samprapte

   kalkinam brahma-vadinam

anupravisya kurute

   vasudevo jagat-sthitim

 

npurvotpanneshu bhuteshu

   tesu tesu kalau prabhuh

kritva pravesam kurute