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Part Two--BIRTH OF GAURANGA MAHAPRABHU
Chapter One--PERIOD PRIOR TO NIMAI'S JOURNEY TO GAYA
1486 AD / 1407 S' Phalguni purnima lunar eclipse
According to astrological texts this type of an auspicous occasion seldom occurs. After spending 14 months in his mother's womb, Mahaprabhu was born in the midst of chanting of Harinama.
1487 AD / 1409 S' Vaisak amavasya (new moon)--birth of
Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami
Shrimati Radhika in Vrajalila, Gadadhara was born to Madhava Misra, a Varendra brahmana and Ratnavati Devi of village Campahati in Navadvipa. Madhava Misra had two sons: Vaninatha and Gadadhara. Gadadhara was a bachelor. Nayanananda, the son of Vaninatha took diksa from Gadadhara and settled in village Bharatpur under Kandi subdivision of Mursidabad district. Gosvamis descending from him still live in this village. Bharatpur is well known as `Pandita Gosvamira pata.' Pandita Gosvami, i.e. Gadadhara must have come and lived there from time to time with his doting nephew cum disciple. A manuscript of Gita copied by Shri Gadadhara by hand and showing handwritings of Mahaprabhu in it has been preserved at this shripat. It is said that Mahaprabhu also visited this shripat at some time. It is assumed that during his first visit to Vrndavana on his return from Kanainatasala He may have come to Bharatpur.
Shortly after Mahaprabhu went to Nilacala as a new sannyasi, Gadadhara Pandit also proceeded to Puri where he embraced sannyasa, installed the deity of Gopinatha and stayed until he passed away.
Some say that Pandita Gosvami was born in Sylhet and that up to twelve years of age he lived in Beleti village of Dacca.
1487 AD / 1409 S' Writing of the book Balyalila-Sutra
Divyasinha, the king of the old Lauda kingdom of Sylhet, wrote a Sanskrit work entitled Balyalila-Sutra on the childhood of Advaitacarya. Kuveracarya, the father of Advaitacarya was a minister of this king. During his childhood Advaita Prabhu left his birthplace Lauda and went to Santipura. Although King Divyasinha was a sakta, during his old age on his way to Kasi he went to meet Advaita Prabhu at Santipur and there he gave up his religion, took diksa from the Acarya in Vaishnava mantra and later became famous by the name of Laudiya Krishnadasa.
1487 AD / 1409 S' Gauda king Feroz Shah
This year marked the end of the rule of King Jalaluddin and the beginning of the rule of Feroz Shah.
1488 AD / 1410 S' The rule of Emperor Bahul Lodi of Delhi ended and the rule of Sikandar Lodi began
1489 AD / 1411 S' Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah--king of Gauda
The rule of Firoz Shah, king of Gauda, ended and that of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah began.
1490 AD / 1412 S' Samsuddin Muzaffar Shah--king of Gauda
Nasiruddin's rule ended and Mamud Shah's rule began
1491 AD / 1413 S' Winter--sannyasa of Visvarupa
Visvarupa, the elder brother of Mahaprabhu, and their maternal uncle's son Lokanath renounced home and embraced sannyasa. Visvarupa and Lokanath were classmates and of the same age. The two of them slept one night in the house of Jagannatha and early in the morning quietly left home. Swimming the Ganges they went off without a trace. Visvarupa took sannyasa from an ascetic of the puri-sampradaya and took the name Sankaranya-puri. Lokanath took his mantra from Visvarupa and became the carrier of his guru's staff and vessel.
1492 AD / 1414 S' Birth of Gopala Kamalakara Pipalai
Mahabala sakha in Vrajalila, Kamalakara was born in a place named Khalijuli near the Sunderbans. His father was a Suddha Srotriya Radhi brahmana and was extremely wealthy. Kamalakara left home in his childhood and later reached shripat Mahesa where Dhruvananda, the founder of the Jagannatha deity, entrusted charge of the deity's service to Kamalakara as directed by svapnadesa. Nidhipati, younger brother of Kamalakara, also proceeded to Mahesa.
Radharani, the daughter of Kamalakara, and Ramadevi, the daughter of Nidhipati, were married to Kamadeva Pandita and Yogesvara Pandita of Khardaha respectively. These two panditas were instrumental in bringing Nityananda Prabhu to Khardaha through lodging requests with Kamalakara. Chand Sarma, the great grandson of Kamadeva Pandita was the employee of King Pratapaditya of Jasohara Nagara. When Man Singh destroyed that Nagara (city) and took Pratapaditya in chains, Chand Sarma carried the deity of Radhakanta of the said king to Khardaha and installed it there.
During sankirtana all would shed tears, but because Kamalakara was unable to do so he felt miserable, so once he used pippuli curna (powder of a small roundish pungent seed of the pepper genus used in medicine) and forcibly shed tears during sankirtana, hence Mahaprabhu gave him the name Pipulai. Kamalakara was an associate of Nityananda, thus he was in Nityananda's line.
Shripata Mahesa is situated on the bank of the Ganges, one and a half miles south of Shrirampur subdivision of Hooghly district. The deities there are Jagannatha, Subhadra, Baladeva and sila. The Rathayatra festival celebrated there is one of the foremost festivals of West Bengal. Since all the Gopalas used to gather together prior to this festival, this Rathayatra of Mahesa is called Dvadasa Gopaler Parvana.
1492 AD / 1414 S' Birth of Gopala Mahesa Pandit
Mahabahu sakha of Vraja, his ancestral home and place of birth was Shrihatta. His father was Kamalaksa, a Radhiya brahmana (Bandyopadhyaya), his mother Bhagyavati. He was a neighbor of Jagannatha Misra in Navadvipa. He had two brothers; the elder was Jagadisha and the younger was Mahesa. Dukhini, the wife of Jagadisha, was deeply close to Saci. On hearing that Mahaprabhu was to go away to Nilacala after embracing sannyasa, Jagadisha, in ecstatic emotional love, rushed to fetch the deity of Jagannatha from Nilacala to Nadiya with the desire that thus he would be able to prevent Prabhu from going to Nilacala. Bringing a deity from "Vaikuntha" of Nilacala Jagadisha installed it in the village Jasada near Navadwip. Soon after taking sannyasa Mahaprabhu visited the house of Jagadisha at Jasara accompanied by Nityananda from Advaita's house at Santipur.
Nitai gave diksa to Mahesa Pandit and took him in his inner circle. After Nityananda founded the shripata at Khardaha, Mahesa Pandit established a shripata on the bank of the Ganges at Masipura near Jasada.
Mahesa Pandit's shripata was first at Masipura near Cakdaha and later at Saradanga. When the latter village sank in the Ganges in 1257 (Bengali year), the shripata was shifted to the village Palapara. Palapara is one mile south of Cakdaha railway station on the East Bengal Rail. Deities installed there are Gopinatha, Nitai Gauranga and Madanamohana.
Shripat Jasara of Jagadisha Pandit is one mile west of Cakdaha station. There the deities are Jagannatha, Radhakrishna, Radhavallabha and Gaura Nnitai. In Vrindavana at Jagadisha Kunja lies the samadhi of Jagadisha and the deity of Nritya-gopal.
1492 AD / 1414 S' Birth of Isana Nagara, the writer of Advaita Prakash
When Isana lost his father in his childhood his mother took shelter in the house of Advaitacarya. When Isana went to wash the feet of Mahaprabhu the latter prevented him from doing so as Isana was a brahmana by caste, so Isana tore off his saced thread at that instant. When Mahaprabhu gave his consent at the request of Advaitacarya, Isana washed the soft red lotus feet of Gaura.
1492 AD / 1414 S' Birth of Acyutananda, the eldest son of Advaita Acarya
Acyutananda was a brahmacari and is famous as an avatara of Kartikeya. The opinion of Acyuta is acceptable from all sides among all the sons of Advaita.
1493 AD / 1415 S' Visvarupa-vijaya
In village Pandapur (Pandharpur?) Visvarupa passed away in a very strange way.
1493 AD / 1415 S' Hussain Shah, the king of Gauda
The rule of Muzaffar Shah ended and the rule of Alauddin Hussain Shah began as the king of Gauda.
1493-1498 AD / 1415-1420 S' Birth of Gopal Halayudha Thakur
Prabala sakha in Vraja, his shripata at Ramacandrapur near Navadwip sank into the Ganges long ago.
1493-1498 AD Birth of Gopala Purusottama Dasa Thakura
Stokakrishna sakha in Vrajalila, he was a vaidya by caste. Four generations of his family were nityasiddhas--Kansari Sen was Ratnavali sakhi in Vraja; his son Sadasiva Kaviraj was Candravali of Vraja; his son Kanai Thakur was Ujjvalagopala of Vraja. Sadasiva Kaviraj, close associate of Mahaprabhu, had his shripat at Kancanapalli (present Kancrapara). Purusottama Dasa made his shripat at Sukhasagar in Nadia district. Since the names of his wife and that of Nityananda were Jahnava, the two wives became close friends.
When the wife of Purusottama died leaving behind an infant son of 12 days, Jahnava the wife of Nityananda adopted him and brought him up. Jiva Gosvami named this baby Kanai Thakur. Kanai Thakur made his shripata at Bodhakhana in Jessore district. There his descendants live even today. The place Garabeta in Midnapore district is also known as the shripata of Kanai Thakur as he lived his last days there and passed away there. Kansari Sen had his shripat at Gurtipara. About 55 years ago the deity installed by Purusottama Thakur was shifted to the village Candura and is still worshipped there. The deities of Jahnava are also there.
Candura village is half a mile from the Simurali station on the bank of the Ganges in the Nadiya district. Bodhakhana is in Jessore district three miles west of Jhikargacha Ghat station.
1493-1498 AD / 1415-1420 S' Birth of Gopal Paramesvara Dasa
Arjuna sakha of Vraja, he was a vaidya by caste. His name is also stated as Paramesvari Dasa in Vaishnava sastra. He used to live with Jahnava as the latter's guardian, protector and servant. His shripat is in Tara Atpura in Hooghly district near Atpur railway station on the Howrah-Amta line. At the command of Jahnava, Paramesvara started his shripat at Tara-Atpur installing Radha Gopinath deity there. Now this deity is called Syamasundara.
1493-1498 AD / 1415-1420 S' Birth of Gopala Kalakrishnadasa Thakura
Labanga Sakha in Vrajalila, he was a Varendra Brahmana and a companion of Mahaprabhu during His pilgrimage in the South. His Shripata lies in Akaihat near Katoya in Burdwan district; his samadhi is there. The diety served by Krishnadasa is at present in the house of a disciple Mohanta of Kadui village in Burdwan district. While on his mission of propagating Nama, Krishnadasa reached Sonatala village near Beda Bandara in Patna district where he lived for some time. His descendents are still living in Sonatala.
1494 AD / 1416 S' Upanayana of Nimai
Being under the impression that during the time of Upanayana there was an avesa of Hari in his body, people henceforth would call him "Gaurahari".
1495 AD / 1416 S' Caitra Purnima, Birth of Vansivadana Thakura
He was born of Madhava Dasa Misra (also known as Chakadi Cattopadhyaya) and of Sinila Devi, residents of South Kuliapahadapura in Navadvip. As a child of five years he was taken by Nimai to His house where he was brought up. At Nimai's command Devi Vishnupriya adopted Vansivadana as her own son. After Mahaprabhu embraced Sannyasa, the responsibilities of His household fell chiefly on Vansivadana. This responsibility became more serious with the disappearance of Prabhu. According to the svapnadesa of Prabhu, when his wooden murti was made Vansi engraved his name on the padmasana and began serving the diety regularly. After a time when this diety was brought to Vishnupriya's father's house, Vansi went to Vrindavana where Baladeva commanded him to return home and reveal worship of Baladeva.
Accordingly Vansi on his return home founded Baghnapara Shripata after clearing the forest and gradually installed dieties of Balarama, Gopala, Gopesvara, Radhika, Revati, etc. This Gopala was the family diety of Jagannath Misra and Vishnupriya gave it to Vansi. According to the Svapnadesa of Baladeva, Vansi married Parvati Devi, the daughter of Candrasekhara Pandita who was the younger brother of Nityananda Prabhu. He had two sons named Nityananda dasa and Chaitanya dasa. Ramacandra Thakur was the son of Caityana dasa.
1496 AD / 1417 S' Maghi Sukla Pancani, Birth of Vishnupriya
Her father Sanatana Misra was a Brahmana of Vaidic Sreni and scholar of the court, her mother Mahamaya Devi. Vishnupriya was Satyabhama in Krishna lila. Sanatana Misra was king Satrajit in Vrajalila.
1496 AD / 1418 S' Passing away of Mahaprabhu's father
Jagannath Misra expired from fever in a fully concious state rembering the name of Raghunath, the family diety, while dipping in Ganges water. Mahaprabhu performed the sradha and last rites of his father according to usual custom.
1495 AD / 1417 S' Agrahayana, Birth of lyrical poet Dvijabalarama Dasa
His father was Satyabhama Upadhyaya, a Pascatya Vaidie Brahmana of Bharadwaj gotra; mother Sarvamangala Devi. Earlier Satyabhama lived in village Pancakhanda in Sylhet. He was a worshipper of Bala-gopala mantra; before marriage he went on a pilgrimage early in his youth and after visiting many pilgrimage centers he finally reached Navadvipa where he married and settled. His three sons were Balarama, Janardana and Murari. This Balarama is well known as the famous poet Dvija Balaram Dasa in the Vaishnava world.
His descendents now live in Shripata Dogachia two miles from Krishnagar in Nadiya district. Here the deity of Balagopala installed by Balarama Dasa is there and a worn out turban of Nityananda has been preserved here with great care. Descendants of Janardana live in the village Meherpur in Nadiya district and those of Murari live in the village Bhaluka. According to the Gosvamis of the Shripata Satyabhama Upadhyaya is the Tairthik brahmana mentioned in the Chaitanya Bhagavata to whom child Gauranga revealed his svarupa by thrice eating the food offered to Bala-gopala.
For a long time the Padavali of Dvija-balarama dasa used to be sold in the name of Vaidya Balarama dasa of Shrikhanda who wrote Prema-vilasa. This error has now been corrected. In his childhood Vaidya Balarama dasa took the name "Nityananda dasa" by vesasraya. Had the padavali been his work then the bhanita would have definitely noted the name of Nityananda Dasa instead of Balarama Dasa. Prabhupada Haridas Goswami of Navadvip is the descendent of Dvija-Balarama Dasa.
1496 AD / 1418 S' Birth of Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami
Batnulekha in Vrajalila, his father was Bhagiratha Kaviraj and mother was Sunanda. He was Vaidya by caste. His place of birth was Jhamatpur three miles north of Katoya in Burdwan district near Naihati and Uddharana-pura. At the age of six years old Krishnadasa lost his father and during his early youth he became spiritually detached (Vairagya). According to the Svapnadesa of Nityananda Prabhu Krishnadasa renounced home, left for Vrindavana and spent his life there. He was a bachelor and wrote Chaitanya Charitamrita (considered a Veda of the Vaishnavas), Govinda-lilamrita, commentary to Krishna-karnamrita, etc.(many books.)
At Shripata Jhamatpur there are the deity of Mahaprabhu, shoes (paduka) of Kaviraja Gosvami and his place of bhajana. About 8 to 10 years ago a charming deity of Nityananda was installed on the right side of the image of Gauranga. The anniversary of Kaviraja Gosvami's passing away is annually celebrated every year at the Shripata after the Durga Puja on Sukla-dvadasi.
1497 AD / 1419 S' Isana Nagara, the writer of Advaita prakasa took shelter in the house of Advaita Prabhu with his mother at the death of his father.
1497 AD / 1419 S' King Prataparudra in Orissa
End of the rule of Pursottama Deva, the independent king of Orissa and beginning of Prataparudra's rule. In Purva lila Pratapa-rudra was King Indradyumna and one of the 64 mahantas in Gauralila.
1498 AD / 1420 S' Gadadhara's visit to Navadvipa
Gadadhara Pandit was born in Shrihatta and lived in Beleti village of Dacca district till his 12th year of age. On the 13th year he came to his maternal uncle's house in Navadvipa for studies. Opinions vary and some say that a wealthy man named Suraraja brought him from Beleti to Bharatpur.
1498 AD / 1420 S' Birth of Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami
He was Ratimanjari in Vrajalila and one of the six gosvamis in Gauralila. He was the son of Govardhana Majumdar, a north Radhi Kayastha zamindar of Saptagrama in Hooghly district. Hiranya and Govardhana were two brothers. Hiranya was the elder brother and had no child. They got a contract (ijara) land of Saptagrama from the Royal Muslim Government. In those days Hooghly, Twenty-four Parganas, Howrah, Calcutta and part of Burdwan were under the Saptagrama area. The income from the zamindar estate was more than 10 lakh rupees. All know the glorious history of Saptagrama.
Since his childhood Raghunath had the signs of Vairagya. He used to study in the house of his family priest Balarama Acarya. At that time Yavana Haridasa Thakura visited the house of Balarama Acarya and stayed there for some days. As a result of Haridasa's association Raghunatha became more inclined towards Vairagya. With the embracing of Sannyasa by Mahaprabhu, Raghunatha felt an intense feeling of detachment.
Although his parents got him married to an extremely beautiful girl that failed to make him worldly. Five years after Mahaprabhu's sannyasa while staying in the house of Advaita at Gauda at that time Raghunatha met Him. Prabhu ordered him to go home and perform his household duties in a detached spirit. Four years later Nityananda Prabhu along with his associates gathered in the house of Raghava at Shripata Panihati. There Raghunatha received Nityananda's staff and a command to visit Nilacala. Within a few months Raghunatha left home secretly and after walking on foot for 12 days reached Nilacala at the feet of Gauranga . Prabhu gave charge of him to Svarupa Damadora and granted him consent to worship after giving him Govardhana Sila and Gunjamala.
After Mahaprabhu's disappearance Raghanatha, feeling extremely miserable, went to Vraja-mandala and with the permission of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis practised bhajana at Radha-kunda-tata, living a rare example of acute detachment and sincere practice of strict discipline till he passed away.
His Shripata is Krishnapur about one mile southwest from Trisavigha station of E.I.R.(East India Railway) in Hooghly district, P.O. Devanandapur. Dieties of Radha-mohana, Nitai Gaura and the piece of rock on which Raghunatha used to meditate in his childhood are served daily.
The diety of Radha-mohana was worshipped by Raghunatha as a child. Once due to a pogrom by Muslims this deity was thrown into the river. On hearing this Raghunatha sent his Vraja-vasi disciple named Krishna Kisora from Vrndavana to Saptagrama to rescue the diety and worship it. His disciplic branches still carry out the present worship.
1498 S' / 1420 S' Birth of Ugragopala Kasisvara or Kasinath Pandita
In Vrajalila he was Kinkini Gopala. Karisvara or Kasinath was born as the son of Vasudeva Bhattacharya and Jahnava devi of village Brahmanadanga in Jessore district. Vasudeva was a wealthy exalted Vaishnava. Kasisvara was renounced since his early childhood. At the age of 17 he went quietly to Nilacala and met Mahaprabhu. With the intervention of his mother he had to return home later. However, without going into marriage he served the diety of Nitai Gaura in Catra village. In due course of time he gave diksa to his own nephew Murari and appointed him in charge of this service and he himself went to Vrindavan where he passed awary. Upagopala Rudra Pandit is also his nephew from his sister's side.
His shripata is in the village Catra, northeast of Serampore station of Hooghly district. The present sevaits are descendents of Murari.
1498 AD / 1420 S' Birth of Mirabai, daughter of King Ratan Singh of Merata in Udaipur
Ratan Singh was a Vallabhacari Vaishnava. Since her childhood Mira became a devotee. After her marriage she became fed up with the torture of her husband who was a Sakti-worshipper, so she left home and went to Vrndavana. Once when Mira sought a meeting with Rupa Goswami the latter sent a message to her saying that he didn't meet with women. To this Mira replied that there was no man in Vrndavana except Krishna. Rupa felt ashamed and met her. Worshipping Krishna in Gopibhava Mira spent her last days in Dvaraka.
1499 AD / 1421 S' Vyakaranesva Tippani by Nimai
Nimai wrote a commentary on Sanskrit grammar; it was highly appreciated by all. After finishing his study of grammar, he studied Nyaya in the school of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma.
1500 AD / 1422 S' Nyaya-sastrera Tippani by Nimai
When Nimai began writing a commentary on Nyaya he tore it up and threw it in the Ganges at the resquest of Raghunatha Siromani, a classmate of Nimai, an unparallel Niyaya scholar and Didhiti writer.
1500 AD / 1422 S' Destruction of Mathura by Badshah Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi, the Emperor of Delhi, destroyed all the temples along with the deities in Mathura and installed meat shops in all the holy spots. The broken pieces of the deities were used as weighing stones for the sale of meat. During the rule of this Emperor the Hindu residents of Mathura mandala were greatly tortured.
1501 AD / 1423 S' The tola of Nimai
After completion of his studies Nimai started his own tola (school) in the Candimandapa of a wealty brahmana neighbour named Mukunda Sanjaya.
1501 AD / 1423 S' First marriage of Nimai
His first marriage was with Laksmipriya Devi, the daughter of Vallabhacarya. The matchmaker of this marriage was Vipra Vanamali. Laksmipriya was Rukmini in Purvalila.
1501 AD / 1423 S' Visit of Isvarapuri to Navadvipa
The diksaguru of Mahaprabhu, i.e. Isvarapuri, a resident of Kumarahatta (Halisahara) came to Navadvipa. He was a favourite disciple of Madhavendra-puri. Isvarapuri waited for some days at Navadvipa and after begging alms in Nimai's house one day he left.
1502 AD / 1424 S' Nimai's visit to East Bengal
Nimai left for East Bengal accompained by some disciples.
1502 AD / 1424 S' Meeting between Nimai and Tapana Misra
Mahaprabhu met Tapana Misra of Navagrama in Landa pargana of Shrihatta district. Tapana Misra was an extremely honest brahmana of a saintly nature. He paid his respects to Nimai and told of his experience of the previous night when in a dream he came to know that Nimai was Purna-brahma Sanatana and he prayed for liberation. Prabhu instructed him to chant Hare Krishna nama and visit Kasi immediately. This Tapana Misra was the father of Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami.
1502 AD / 1424 S' Laksmipriya, the wife of Nimai died of snake bite. Nimai returned to Navadvipa from East Bengal.
1503 AD / 1425 S' Birth of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami
Gunamanjari in Vrajalila, one of the six Gosvamis, Gopala Bhatta was born as the son of Venkata Bhatta in the village Bhattamari close to Shri Ranganatha Ksetra in the South. During Mahaprabhu's journey in the South in monsoon season He stayed at the house of Venkata Bhatta and Gopala received his grace. Mahaprabhu ordered Gopala not to marry and to leave for Vrndavana with the death of his parents. Gopala did as he was commanded. In Nilacala when Mahaprabhu heard of Gopala's arrival in Vrndavana, He sent His dora-kaupina (a small loin cloth worn by Vaishnava ascetics) and His asana (seat) to Gopala Bhatta.
Shrinivasacarya was the disciple of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. The popular saying goes that from the Damodara Sila of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami the attractive tribhanga murti of Krishna manifested Himself and that is the present murti of Radha-Ramana Deva. Gopala Bhatta Gosvami wrote Haribhakti-vilas. He also wrote Shrikrishna-vallabha which is a tika or commentary of the book Shrikrishna Karnamrita.
1504 AD / 1426 S' Liberation of Digvijayi Pandit Kesava Kasmiri
The world-champion scholar of Kasmir named Kesava Kasmiri visited Navadvipa and was defeated by Nimai Pandit. In the night through svapnadesa from Goddess Sarasvati, Kesava learned the facts about who Nimai was and the next day he surrendered himself at the feet of Nimai, embraced sannyasa and left the world.
1505 AD / 1427 S' Second marriage of Nimai
Nimai was married to Vishnupriya Devi, daughter of Mahamaya devi and court scholar Sanatana Misra, a Vaidic brahmana. The matchmaker was Kasi Misra. The marriage took place in regal splendor. Buddhimanta Khan, the Kayastha King of Navadvipa, Mukunda, Sanjaya and the students of Nimai bore the expenses of the marriage. After the marriage when the bride and groom were going towards the bride-chamber Vishnupriya stumbled and her toe bled. This was considered a very ominous sign.
1505 AD / 1427 S' Birth of Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami
He was Shri Rasa-manjari in Vraja lila and one of the six Goswamis. Mahaprabhu on his way from Nilacala to Vrndavana stayed in the house of Raghunatha's father, Tapana Misra. Child Raghunatha at that time obtained the grace of Mahaprabhu by serving him. He never married. After the death of his parents he went to Nilacala and lived for a year there at the feet of Mahaprabhu and then at His command went to Vrindavan and met Rupa and Sanatana there. He had a sweet musical voice and extraordinary erudition in Shrimad Bhagavatam. He used to deliver joy to the Gosvamis of Vraja by reciting from Shrimad Bhagavatam. Maharaja Man Singh was his disciple and the old temple of Govindadeva was built with the cost borne by Man Singh.
1505 AD / 1427 S' Birth of Haridasa Thakura in Saptagrama
Yavana Haridasa Thakura arrived at the house of Balaramacarya Thakura in the village Candpur of Saptagrama. Raghunatha Dasa Goswami was a boy at that time and studying in the house of Balaramacarya. At Balarama's urging Haridasa sang the glory of nama in Hiramya-Govardhana sabha (assembly). A brahmana named Gopala Cakravarti argued with Haridasa mischievously to tease him and boasted that he would cut of his nose if liberation was attainable by nama. Shortly afterwards this brahmana suffered from leprosy.
GAURANGA'S VISIT TO GAYA AND THE INTERVENING PERIOD TILL HE EMBRACED SANNYASA
1505 AD / 1427 S' Asvin--Nimai's visit to Gaya
Nimai left for Gaya in order to pay off his pitrrna (the debt to his father), accompained by Candrasekhara Acaryaratna and a few disciples. On the way Nimai had a severe attack of fever but on drinking `padodaka' (water touched by the foot) of a brahmana he had remission of the fever. On seeing the Vishnupada at Gaya, Nimai felt a strange emotional change--he became overwhelmed and restless with Krishna-prema. Isavrapuri, the disciple of Madhavendra Puri was in Gaya at the time. Nimai took diska from him in ten lettered Gopijana-vallabha mantra. After this Isvarapuri went to Vrndavana from Gaya.
1505 AD / 1427 S' Agrahayana
On his arrival at Vrndavana, Isvarapuri saw that an extremely handsome youth named Nityananda was madly searching for Krishna. Shripada informed him that Krishna has now manifested in Navadvipa. On hearing this Nityananda left for Navadvipa.
1506 AD / 1427 S' Paus & Magha--Nimai returned to Navadvip from Gaya
On the way back, in village Kanai Natasala near Gauda, "a dark-complexioned child playing the flute" appeared before him, embraced him and disappeared. The overflowing emotional state (preme-matoyara) of Nimai drew the attention of the people of Navadvipa. Gradually Shriman Pandit, Sadasiva Kaviraj, Murari Gupta, Suklamvara Brahmacari, Gadadhara, etc. met at his feet. In spite of repeated attempts Nimai was not able to impart lessons to his students. He closed school after singing Nama Kirtana: "Hari Haraye Namah Krishnaya Yadavaya Namah" with them. Devotees such as Mukunda Sanjaya, Ratnagarbha Acarya, Shrivasa Pandita, Mukunda Dutta, etc. felt attracted. Advaitacarya learned the svarupa of Nimai through a dream and worshiped his feet with tulasi and Ganges water. Gathering of devotees and singing of nama in chorus began in the premises of Shrivasa.
No date given--Shrivasa Pandita
Shrivasa Pandita, avatara of Narada and one of the Panca-tattva of Gauranga lila, was a resident of Shrihatta. He was one among five sons of Jaladhara Pandita, a Vaidic brahmana. Jaladhara Pandit had one house at Navadvip and one at Kumarahatta and his sons used to live in both the places. The names of these five sons were Shrinalina, Shrivasa, Shrirama, Shripati and Shrikanta or Shrinidhi. Narayani, the mother of Vrndavana dasa was the daughter of Shrinalina Pandita.
Shrivasa Pandita was an atheist for 26 years, then on seeing an extraordinary dream his life underwent a strange transformation and he began chanting Harinama day and night.
1506 AD / 1428 S' Vaisakh--Manifestation and abhiseka in the house of Shrivasa
Shrivasa Pandita was offering worship to Nrsimha-deva in his worship room. Meanwhile Nimai arrived there and said, "Shrivasa, I have come; please annoint me." Then he sat on the Vishnukhatta (Vishnu's cot) removing the salagrama sila from there. All over his body effulgence brighter than the rays of the sun began to radiate. Nimai was then anointed with a bath from a hundred pitchers of Ganges water and his body was worshiped with flowers and sandal. After delivering Krishna Prema to Narayani, the niece of Shrivasa, Nimai restrained His divine manifestation. He gave assurance to the devotees and revealed his true self.
1506 AD Month of Jaistho--Nityananda Prabhu's visit to Nadiya
On arrival from Vrndavana to Navadvip, Nitai stayed quietly in the house of Nandanacarya as a guest. The previous night Nimai learned everything in a dream, so early in the morning He sent out His devotees to find Nityananda. The devotees failed to trace him. Then Nimai accompained by devotees went to the house of Nandanacarya and found Nityananda there. After a short conversation in code words (Sanketalapa) both hid their true natures. It was decided that Nitai should stay in the house of Shrivasa.
It was the occasion of the full moon, so arrangments were made for offering Vyasapuja to Him. But in the morning Nitai broke his own staff and kamandalu, threw them in the Ganges water and put the garland of Vyasapuja around the neck of Nimai. Instantly Nimai manefested a six-armed form and Nitai fainted. The food that was left by Nimai was eaten by Narayani. Later Nimai took Nitai to Saci who felt extremely content seeing two sons.
1506 AD Nimai reveals Himself to Advaita Acarya and his wife
Pleased with Advaitacarya and his wife Sitadevi, Nimai showered on them their desired boon by revealing himself in the form of Syamasundara.
(No date) Pundarika Vidyanidhi
Pundarika Vidyanidhi was a respected wealthy zamindar of Chittagong and hailed from the same village where Mukunda Datta came from. He had a house at Navadvip, too. Though externally he behaved like a materially affulent man, inside he was a Krishna devotee of a rare quality. Being charmed by his qualities Gadadhara sought Nimai's permission to take diksa from Him. Pundarika also surrendered at the feet of Mahaprabhu.
1506 AD Asadh, Mahaprakash in the house of Shrivasa
Nimai reveals his divine form for a period of seven prahara in the house of Shrivasa. He blessed each devotee by benedicting them with a boon and revealing his various forms to them. He showered his mercy on Shridhara by giving darsana in the form of Syamasundara. He also showered his grace on Haridasa, Mukunda, and Murari, and placed his feet on the head of Saci thus delivering love.
1506 AD Liberation of Jagai and Madhai
The two brothers Jagannatha (Jagai) and Madhava (Madhari) Raya were wealthy land-owners of Navadvip and under the Qazi worked as the severnity personnel of the town. In spite of being "Brahmana" they drank alcohol, ate beef and constantly caused harm to others". The entire town suffered from the torture perpetrated by these two. At this time, Nityananda and Haridasa Thakura took the vow of delivering Harinama to every person at every door of Navadvip. When they approached these two brothers they were severely humilated. At the earnest prayer of the devotees Prabhu liberated these two notorious culprits. Nityananda prabhu was beaten up by Madhari yet forgiving them he gave Harirama in the ears of these two brothers. Madhari didn't return home. Building a ghat and a hut on the bank of the Ganges he began reciting Harirama two lakh times daily. In Navadvip "Madhaiyera Ghat" is still there.
1506 AD Liberation of Gopala Capala
A brahmana pandit named Capala Gopala of Navadvip expressing his scorn at the Lord's chanting of kirtana, left flesh and alcohol on the outer door of Shrivasa's house. Shortly after this was attached with leprosy. Receiving direction from the diety Visvanatha of Kasi he took refuge at the feet Nimai. Nimai commanded him to drink the water touched by Shrivasa's feet. Doing that Gopala was liberated.
1506 AD Performance of drama in the house of Candrasekhara
At the initative of Buddhimanta Khan and Sadasiva Kaviraj, the associates of Prabhu staged a dramatic performance of Krishnalila in the house of Acaryaratna in which Nimai and his associates participated.
1506 AD Scholastic practices of Advaita
At this time Adavita along with his followers returned to Santipura to start scholastic work. One of his disciples named Sankara went to Assam and began propagating there independently. On hearing this Nimai came to the house of Adavita along with Nityananda and persuaded Adavita to give up pursuit of knowledge On his return to Navadvip at Amvika he gave an oar to Gauridasa Pandit commanding the latter thus to ferry the afflicted human beings to the other bank of the world-river. This oar has still been preserved in the temple of Gauridasa.
1507 AD / 1429 S' Vaisakhi krishna dvadasi, Birth of Vrndavana Dasa
Narayani, the daughter of Nalin Pandit and niece of Shrivasa, lost her parents very early in her life. Shrivasa arranged her marriage when she was a child ans soon after her marriage she became a widow, Nityananda Prabhu during his visit with Shrivasa blessed Narayani saying "May you have a son" not knowing that she was a widow. Narayani conceived after eating the food left during Vyasapuja of Nityananda. Vrindavanadasa was born in Shrivasa's house at Kumarahatta where Narayani was severely criticzed by the people and finally Narayani with her one year old son took shelter in the temple with the house of Vasudeva Datta in village Mamragachi, near Navadvip. This temple later became famous as pata of Narayani. When Vrndavana dasa grew up he studied at Navadvipa and in due course of time was initated by Nityananda Prabhu and recited Bhagavata. At the command of Nityananda sometime later he founded his Shripata in village Dunuda 14 miles west of Navadvip. Vrndavana dasa attained immortality among the Vaishnavas by writing Chaitanya Bhagavata. This book was first titled as Caityanamangala. Later when Locan dasa, of Kograma and disciple of Narahari Thakura wrote Chaitanyamangala the name of Vrndavana's book was changed to CBh.
1507-1508 AD / 1429-1430 S' Rasavadana of Vrajalila
Nimai and his associates induced others to taste rasa by performing the celebrations of Vrajalila.
1508 AD / 1430 S' Saranga Thakura accepts disciples
Saranga Thakura, of village Jannagada near Navadvip, was an old associate of Prabhu. In his old age, Mahaprabhu asked him to initiate disciples and thus provide for the service of his deity Gopinatha. It was decided that next morning whomever he should meet first, would be taken as his disciple. Early the next morning while taking a dip in the Ganges, the corpse of a twelve year old brahmana boy wearing a sacred thread touched the body of Saranga and the latter, remembering the command of Prabhu, gave mantra in the ears of that dead child. The boy gradually woke up to life. In the morning Mahaprabhu came with his companions and asked the boy where he was from. The boy said that he was named Murari, born in the Gosvami family of village Sardanga near Guskara railway station in the district of Burdwan. Soon after his sacred thread ceremony he suffered from a snakebite and was thus placed in the river. Murari never returned home, rather he stayed at Jannagada Shripata.
1509 AD 1430 S' Sukla Patcami, Birth of Raghunandana Thakura
Pradyumna in Vrajalila, Raghunandana was born as the son of Mukunda kaviraja who was the elder brother of Narahari Sarkara Thakura in village Shrikhanda district Burdwan. His descendants claim that he was the "svkrtaputra" (legitimate son) of Gauranga Mahaprabhu and his mother covceived him after eating the chewed betel left by Mahaprabhu. At the age of five years old child Raghu fed ladu (sweet) to Gopinatta Jiu, their family deity. Under his influence two flowerrs used to blossom every month throughout the year in a Kadamva tree. He danced after bearing with the pranama offered by Abhirama Thakura. Raghanandana who was brought up by Narahari Thakura as his son, later took diksa from Narahari. He took speacial initative in propagating prema bhakti in Gaudamandula and left a large number of disciples. At Nilacala during the special cecmony of Sankutana, Mahaprabhu with his companions made Raghunandana eligible for the same task by making him offer garlands and sandal and break the curd-vessel after kirtana. Since then his disciples have been entitled to perform this service.
1509 AD 1430 S' Installation of Radhavallabha at Vrindavana
When Hita-Harivansa, the founder of Radhavallabha Sampradaya was on his way to Vrindavana after renouncing the world he became a guest in the house of a brahmana named Ananta. Ananta commanded by Radhika in Svapnadesa handed over his two daughters named Krishna dasi and Manohari and the family deity Radhavallabha to Harivansa. Harivansa carrying all these with him went to Vrindavana where he began the seva of Radhavallabha. Harivansa was a disciple of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. Finding Harivansa chewing betel in a session of Harivansa, Gosvami forbade him to do so but Harivansa repeatedly flouted his guru's command by replying that he was doing so at the command of Radhika. For that reason he was abandoned by his guru and thus he formed a seperate Sampradaya.
1509 AD 1431 S' Vaisakli Pancame, Birth of Jahnava Thakurani
Jahnava's father was Swiyedasa Pandit, mother Bhadravati Devi. She was born in Amvikakalna. Swiyedas was the son of Kansari Misra, a brahmana of Bharadwij gotra in Radhi class. Swiyedasa was awarded the title of "Sarkhel" by the Muslim king. Nityananda married the two daughters of Swiyedas, namely, Vasudha and Jahnava. The latter were Revati and Ananga Manjari respectively in Vrajalila.
1509 AD 1431 S' Kartika, suppression of Kaji and his liberation
Cand Kaji, the grandson of the King of Gauda, was the ruler of Navadvipa. Some hostile groups and Muslim employes under the Kaji repeatedly complained of the noise arising from Mahaprabhu's chanting of the holy names and persuaded the Kaji to stop it. The Kaji's men broke the drums used for kirtana, arrested the participants and issued strict orders prohibiting sankirtana. Nimai requested the devotees to defy this order and organized a massive sankirtana in protest. A great uproar arose in the town- the town was decorated with auspicous pitchers, banana plants, flower garlands, banners and lamps. After sunset hundreds of people carrying burning torches gathered at the residence of Nimai- numerous groups were formed to carry on kirtana. Nimai along with his associates and dressed in a handsome "Natavara" dress came out in the midst of Harinama. People thronged on the riverbank, on the road, on tree tops on house tops - all around the sound of conch, uludhani (a sound made by Hindu women by moving their tongues within their mouth on festival occasion), Harinama, reverbated everywhere. When this flow of people reached the front of Kaji's house, the Kaji hid inside in fear and the soldiers dared not move out of the house. The highly agitated crowd began hitting and breaking the house of the Kaji. Nimai calmed all, brought Kaji out and hearing everything from the Kaji showered grace on him. He touched the body of Kaji thus cleansing all his sins and the Kaji surrendered at the feet of Prabhu. Thus the Kaji was liberated and his family began serving Gauranga. The grave of Cand Kaji at Navadvip near "Vallalatila" has become a Vaishnava pilgrimage-center.
1509 AD/ 1431 S' Govinda Karmakara leaves home and takes refuge at the feet of Lord Gauranga
Govindadasa Karmakara, a resident of Kancananagar lacality of Burdwan town, left home being exasperated with the family life. Upon arrival in Navadvipa, he received the grace of Mahaprabhu and stayed at his house. According to the book named "Govinda Dasera Kadaca" this this Govinda Dasa accompained Mahaprabhu to the South and recorded the travelogue in the form of a diary. The entire book cannot be taken as authentic.
1509 AD / 1431 S' Agrahayana, Lokanath and Bhugarbha Gosvami leave for Vrndavana
Lokanatha, the only son of Padmanabha Cakravarti who was a resident of village Talakhadi in Jessore district and a disciple of Advaitacarya, was a class-mate of Nimai as a child and accompained the latter during his journey to the Eastern region. Lokanatha was a bachelor. During his early youth without his parents knowledge he came to Navadvipa to take refuge at the feet of Mahaprabhu. Mahaprabhu sent him to Vrindavana to unearth the lost ruined holy places and to preach Bhakti Dharma. Bhugarbha, the disciple of Gadahara Pandit Gosvami accompanied Lokanatha with the consent of Gaura-Gadadhara. In Vrajalila Lokanatha was Manjilani Manjari and in course of time gave diksa to Narottama Thakura.
1509 AD Pans, Advaitacarya sees the Visvarupa
Shri Advaita begged Nimai to reveal the Visvarupa which Arjuna had seen in Dvapara-yuga so that doubts might never arise in his mind. Thus Mahaprabhu showed Advaita and Nityananda His Visvarupa form.
Chapter 3--NIMAI'S SANNYASA INITIATION AND HIS VISIT TO THE SOUTH
1510 AD / 1431 S' Magh, Nimai accepts sannyasa
Some rascals found the rise of Nimai intolerable. Secret plans were afoot to beat him up. When Nimai came to know everything, he discussed with Nityananda in a solitary place about his plan to embrace sannyasa--becoming an ascetic he planned to beg at the doors of all, requesting them to chant the holy name and worship Krishna. Nimai bid farwell to Saci and Vishnupriya, consoling them in various ways. He delivered knowledge to them and finally, overwhelming them with his own power, he recieved their consent. At dawn he left home without letting them know about his departure. He swarm across the Ganges and rushed to the feet of Kesava Bharati in Katwa. The bank of Navadvipa where he crossed the river that day is called "Nidayara Ghatha" (a heartless ghata). Even stone melted to hear the piercing wails of Saci and Vishnupriya. Some of the devotees stayed there to attend them while Nitai, Vakresvara, Mukunda, Acaryaratna and Damadora left in search of Prabhu. Narahari and Gadadhara met them the next day. On their arrival at Katwa the scene which they saw in the asrama of Kesava Bharati defies description. A large crowd, people of all ages were wailing, some aloud some quitely while some rolled in the dust on the earth. Prabhu's appearance was unique; his head was shaved and he wore an ochre robe, kamandalu in hand and incessant tears streamed from his eyes. Kesava Bharati gave the sannyasa mantra in Prabhu's ears and gave him the name Shri Krishna Chaitanya. Prabhu then went westward towards Vrndavana. For three days rushing in a semi-normal state in Radha he arrived in the house of Advaita as a result of Nitai's tact.
1510 AD / 1431 S' Gauranga in Advaita's house
All the people of Nadiya accompained Saci to meet Prabhu, only Vishnupriya could not come. Prabhu begged pardon by falling at the feet of Saci. A few days were spent in the amidst the joy of kirtana when finally with the command of Saci it was decided that Prabhu should stay at Nilacala.
1510 AD / 1431 S' In the house of Jagadisa in Jasada
Information on Jagadisa and Mahesa Pandit has been given earlier. Jagadisa did not come out of Abhimana (hurt feeling) to meet Prabhu. Prabhu could not stay at peace and accompained by Nityananda reached Jasada at the house of Jagadisa and stayed for a day there. Nityananda gave diksa to Mahesa Pandit and included him in his inner circle.
1510 AD / 1431 S' Journey to Nilacala
Bidding farwell to his mother, to the Jahnavi (the Ganges) and to the devotees, Prabhu left for Nilacala. However, he could not make a few persons leave his company e.g. Nityananda, Damodara, Govinda, Jagadananda and Mukunda- these persons went along with Prabhu. All of them were Udasina (indifferent to worldly attachments) and wore kaupins. Along the way, in village Athisara at Chaterabhoga Tirtha (at present village Khadigrama, police station Mathurapura, District 24 Parganas) he showered his grace upon Ananta Pandita and King Ramacandra Khan. Mahaprabhu had darsana of deities such as Ksiracora Gopinath at Remuna, Saksi Gopala at Cuttack, at Bhuvanesvara and Jajpura etc.
On the bank of the river Bhagi near Bhuvanesvara, Nityananda broke the staff of Prabhu and threw it in the water which led to the naming of that river as "Dandabhanga Nadi" for ever.
1510 AD / 1431 S' Chaitanya at Nilacala
Before the festival of Holi, Prabhu went to Nilcala. Leaving behind his companions at Atharanala, and moved by ecstatic love, he rushed to the temple of Jagannatha. He leaped up to embrace the deity and in its contact fell and fainted.
1510 AD / 1431 S' Liberation of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma
The reputed Nijaya scholar of Navadvip, Vasudeva Sarvabhauma was at that time present at the Jagannatha temple. Recognizing the signs of prema exhibited by Mahaprabhu, Vasudeva Sarvabhauma rescued the Lord from the clutches of the furious priests. Sarvabhauma carried the unconscious Lord to his own house. Mahaprabhu stayed with Sarvabhamna at Puri for two months. The pride of Sarvabhamna due to his knowledge and erudition was humbled upon seeing the supernatural talent, erudition, Krishna Prema and handsome appearance of Prabhu. Mahaprabhu showered his mercy upon Vasudeva, revealing his six-form. Thus Sarvabhamna and his family became sold to him forever.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Mahaprabhu's visit to South India
On the 7th of Vaisakh, Prabhu felt left for an apparent pilgrimage to the South, although his real intention was to liberate the residents of South India. Krishnadasa Vipra and Govinda Karmakara accompained him. Some don't believe Karmakara was there. Information on Krishnadasa or Kalakrishna dasa Thakura has been given earlier.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Sannyasa of Purusottama Acarya
Purusottama Acarya who lived in Navadvip took refuge at the feet of Prabhu when the latter revealed himself. He became furious when Prabhu embraced sannyasa. Out of a feeling of anguish taxed Prabhu. Purusottamaa went to Kasi where there was no name or trace of Prabhu and embraced sannyasa there. His name became Svarmpa-Damadora.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Gadadhara and Narahari visit Nilacala
When Prabhu left for Nilacla after accepting sannyasa, Gadadhara and Narahari could not live in Navadvipa devoid of his association. Accompained by devotees such as Bhagavata Acarya and Ramabhatta, they left for Nilacala. On arriving at Nilacala they heard that Prabhu had gone South so they stayed at Nilacala with Nityananda Prabhu.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Lokanatha and Bhugarbha Gosvami reach Vrndavana
On arriving at Vrndavana the two of them found that the place had become a forest habitat for wild animals and the holy spots had all disappeared. The deities were all transferred and no one could guide them in any way. They roamed in different forests weeping like mad men. Upon hearing the news that Prabhu had gone to Nilcala after embracing sannyasa, both of them immediately left for Nilcala to meet Prabhu.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Meeting between Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya
Raya Ramananda ruled Vidyanagara under King Pratapaditya. He came to take a bath in the river Godavari riding on a dota (special royal vehicle), while numerous drums announced his arrival. He was escorted by numerous soldiers and animals. At the same time Prabhu also arrived at the bank of the Godavari. After finishing his bath, Prabhu sat down on the ghat to chant japa. When Ramananda saw the Lord, he fell prostrate before him offering his obeisances. Prabhu embraced him warmly, as if greeting a very old acquaintance. Both fainted with ecstacy and after some time rose and sat. Ramananda surrendered at the feet of Prabhu, who spent one month teaching Jiva ?? lessons on sadhana and bhajana. After spending a few days with Ramananda and instructing him to renounce his wealth and visit Nilacala, Prabhu went down South. Raya Ramananda was one among the three and half "Patras" of Gauralila and was Visaka sakhi in Vrajalila.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Meeting with Gopala Bhatta
After visiting many holy places Prabhu arrived at Rangaksetra on the bank of Kaveri. There Venkata Bhatta, a Vaishnava belonging to the Shri sampradaya, received the grace of Prabhu, who stayed in his house. Venkata Bhatta had two brothers named Trimalla and Prakasananda, and an only son of 8/9 years of age named Gopala. Gopala underwent a unique transformation of spirit upon seeing Prabhu. At the command of his father Gopala remained at the service of Prabhu. A few days later Gopala saw in a dream Mahaprabhu dancing and singing with his companions at the premises of Shrivasa. Prabhu revealed before him the form of Syamasundara and Gopala fell at his feet unconscious. On the eve of his departure Prabhu left instructions with Venakata that Gopala should not be married and he should be thoroughly instructed in the scriptures. He advised Gopala to take shelter of Rupa Sanatana after the death of his parents and to preach Bhakti Sastra in Gaudamandala in the future with Shrinivasa.
1510 AD / 1432 S' Magh Sukla Dasami, Grace showered on Tukarama
Saint Tukuram flooded Maharashtra with Premabhakti. He was a devotee of Radhakrishna and a possessor of the secret rasa of Vraja. He lived in Pandharapura on the bank of the river Bhima near Pune. Prabhu gave Sudhea Darsana and infused Tukarama with spiritual power by touching his body. Tukuram fell into a state of semi-consciousness and when he awoke Mahaprabhu had disappeared from his sight. Tukurama's line of disciples increased widely over the years. They belong to the Caityana Sampradaya.
1511 AD / 1433 S' Bhadra, Meeting with Vasu Ramananda
Upon hearing about Prabhu from Govinda while bathing in the river Subhramati near the town of Ahmadavada, Ramananda Vasu, the grandson of Maladhara Vasu, a resident of Kulinagrama took refuge at the feet of Prabhu. Ramananda Vasu, accompained by his own follower named Govindacarya from his native village, was on a pilgrimage in this area. Ramananda reminded Prabhu of their own land. All of them left for Dvaraka. Prabhu addressed Ramananda as "Mita" (a friend).
(end of chapter three)
CHAPTER FOUR GAURANGA RETURNS FROM PILGRIMAGE AND THERE IS A GATHERING OF DEVOTEES
1512 AD / 1433 S' Magh, Mahaprabhu's return to Nilcala
After visiting many holy places Mahaprabhu headed back towards Nilacala. Near Nilacala he sent information through his attendent to his devotees about his arrival. The devotees keeping Nitai at the front brought Prabhu with great pomp to Nilcala. Prabhu stayed at the house of Kasi Misra, the guru of the King Prataparundra. Before Prabhu's arrival the King, in consultation with Sarvabhauma, fixed the house of Kasi Misra for Prabhu to stay in. Prabhu showered grace on Kasi Misra and manifested his four armed Narayana form before him.
1512 AD / 1433 S' Magh, Kala Krishnadasa Vipra left for Navadvipa carrying the news of Prabhu's return
1512 AD / 1433 S' Phalguna, Svarupa Damodara visits Nilacala
The information about Prabhu's return to Nilacala spread everywhere. Svarup-Damarora with the consent of his guru came to Nilacala from Kasi and took refuge at the feet of Prabhu. He was Visakha Sakhi (same as Ramananda Raya) in Vrajalila and one among the three and half "Patras" in Ganralila. He was the first to expand the Svarupa tattva of Mahaprabhu in the world, and it was he who created the enchanting tune of Kirtana sung today.
1512 AD / 1433 S' Paitra, Paramananda Puri's visit to Nilacala
At that time Paramananda Puri was famous throughout India. He was a disciple of Madhevendra Puri and lived in Trihuta. On hearing about Prabhu he travelled various places in search of him. Eventually he arrived at Nilacala where he stayed with Prabhu for good.
1512 AD / 1433 S' Govinda and Kasisvara visit Nilacala
Govinda Kayastha and Kasisvara brahmacari, two disciples of Isvara Puri, were commanded by the latter to go to Nilacala and take shelter of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. After the death of their guru, they carried out this order. Govinda was the personal servant of Prabhu.
1512 AD / 1433 S' Birth of Gopinatha
Gopinatha, the first son of Vallabhacarya, was born in this year.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Vaisakh, Brahmananda Bharati's visit to Nilacala
Brahmananda Bharati, a God-brother of Kesava Bharati was at that time a sadhu and Pandit of country wide reputatuion. He came to surrender before Prabhu wearing leather dress and Prabhu taunted him. Bharati gave up that dress forever and Prabhu gave him shelter.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Jaistho, Raya Ramananda visits Nilacala
With the consent of King Prataparundra, Ramananda retired from the royal service and came to stay at Nilacala with Prabhu. King Prataparundra was very anxious to have obtain the blessings of Prabhu, but Prabhu avoided royal company.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Asadh, Devotees from Ganda visit Nilacala
About 200 devotees arrived at Nilacala. Of these Sankara, the younger brother of Damodara Pandit, Vasudeva Ghosh the poet, Yavana Haridasa Thakura and some others remained in Puri with Prabhu.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Birth of Jayananda, the author of Chaitanya Mangala
Son of Suviddhi Misra and Rodani Devi of Amvika, Suvuddhi Misra belongs to the line of Chaitanya. Jayananda was a disciple of Abhirama Thakura.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Paus, Nityananda sent to Gaudamamdala
Prabhu, after much cajoling, sent Nityananda to Gauda to deliver Prema.
1512 AD / 1434 S' Phalguna, Grace showered on Sikhi Mahiti
Sikhi Mahati, a resident of Orissa, was a writer in the Jagannatha temple. He had a brother named Murari and a sister named Madhavi. After their first meeting with Prabhu, Murari and Madhavi began worshipping Gauranga as Krishna. However Sikhi Mahiti did not have that faith. He began to pray to Lord Jagannatha for Murari and Madhavi. Prabhu, however, showered his mercy on Sikhi in a dream and revealed His self . Sikhi acquired such grace that he came to be counted as one among the three and a half "Patras" of Gauralila. Madhavi Dasi too became a half "Patra".
1512 AD / 1434 S' Writing of Kadaca by Murari
1513 AD / 1435 S' Asadh, Sukla Pancami, Completion of Murari's Shri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamrita
Murari Gupta completed the writing of Shri Krishna Caityana Caritamrita (also known as Murarira Kadaca ). This is an authentic work on Valyalila of Gauranga.
1513 AD / 1435 S' Advaita openly chants the name of Gaura
As usual the devotees from Gauda came to Nilacala, but Prabhu told them to go back home because he was planning to stop in Gauda Mandala on the Vijayadasami day on the way to Vrndavana. All joy of the Gauda devotees was boundless. Advaita Acarya had a desire to sing Gaura Kirtana; he composed a pada and hundreds of devotees began to sing Gaura kirtana openly. Prabhu felt irrated but could not stop them.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Asadh, Letter from Prakasananda Sarasvati
At this time Prakasanandana Sarasvati, the foremost mayavadi ascetic of India wrote a harsh letter to Prabhu from Kasi. Without informing Prabhu, Vasudeva Sarabhauma left for Kasi to teach Prakasananda a lesson, but having failed to do anything there he returned in the month of Bhadra.
CHAPTER FIVE GAURANGA IN GAUDAMANDALA
1514 AD / 1436 S' Vijaya Dasami, Mahaprabhu leaves for Gaudamandala
Prabhu left Nilacala in order to visit his mother, the Ganges and his place of birth. At that time Gadadhara was engaged in the service of Gopinatha after taking Ksetra-Sannyasa. Thus Prabhu did not take Gadadhara with him. Sarvabhanma, Raya Ramanandana etc. accompanied Prabhu from some distance then returned.
The boat docked at Raghava ghat at Panihati, and Prabhu climbed up on the bank to take rest beneath a peepal tree. After spending the night in the house of Raghava, Prabhu moved on again. This tree, the ghat, and the house of Raghava are still there as Vaishnava pilgrimage centers at Panihati. Mahaprabhu's next stop was at the house of Shrivasa at Kumarahatta (Halisahara). Along the way Prabhu collecting a handful of earth from Shripata Kumarahatta, the birthplace of his guru. At the house of Shrivasa, Prabhu showered his mercy upon Shrivasa and his family. The next day he visited the house of Sivananda Sena and Vasudeva Datta in village Kancanapalli (Kancrapada) where he stayed for a short while and then next day went to the house of Advaita at Santipur. Prabhu became restless due to the large crowds of people which gathered to see him. Hoping to escape the crowds, he quietly left for Navadvipa. Prabhu secretly went to the house of Vidyavaspati at Vidjiyanagara, then escaped to the house of Madhavadasa (alias Chakdi Cattopadhyay) in Kulia on the other bank of the Ganges. There Prabhu remained peacefully for seven days. Perhaps for this reason Kulia is also called Sata-Kulia. Once he went to visit his father's house, there at the doorstep Vishnupriya prostrated herself at the feet of Prabhu. Prabhu gave her a pair of his own wooden sandals and asked her to bear her grief with those.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Forgiving the offense of Devananda
The offense commited to Shrivasa Pandita by Devananda was forgiven by Prabhu in the house of Madhavadasa. Devananda requested the boon that whoever would pray for Gauranga's forgiveness at Kulia should be instantly forgiven. Prabhu said "so it be" and since then Kulia became known as "Aparadh Bhanjanera Pata". Recently the place called "Kole" near Kancrapada railway station has been stated to be "Devanandera Aparadha Bhanjanera Pata" and festivals are held but this is not correct. The house of Madhavadasa alias Chakadi Cattopadhyay is at present at Satakulia, half a mile South of village Hatadanga. Recently celebrations are held by installing "Aparadha Bhanjanera Pata" here. The descendents of Madhavadasa have been living at Baghnapada and at Bainchi.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Agrahayana, Govinda Ghosh at Agradvipa
One day Prabhu begged for alms at village Agaradvipa on the bank of the river Ganges, after lunch he expressed his desire to eat some mouth-freshner. His companion, Govinda Ghosh, from the fold of his cloth he took out a piece of haritaki preserved from the previous day. Prabhu realised that Govinda still couldn't get rid of his desire to save things and hence Prabhu abandoned him at Agradvipa. Staying back at Agradvipa Govinda kept on waiting for Prabhu's return. One morning during his bath in the Ganges a piece of wood came floating and touched the body of Govinda. As directed by Prabhu in a dream, he pulled it ashore and brought it to his house the next day. He found that it was not a piece of wood but a radiant stone.
Govinda Ghos Thakura was born in a North Radhi Kayastha family in Kulaigrama on the bank of the river Ajaya about ten miles Northwest of Katwa. Formerly his father, Vallabha Ghosh, used to live in village Rasoda near Kandi in Murshidavad. Nine sons of Vallabha were all very devoted to Mahaprabhu and of them Vasudeva, Govinda and Madhava were born of the same mother. All three of them were poets, had musical voices and embraced Vairagya in pursance of Prabhu. Govunda was married with a woman from Kasipura-Vishnutala, but she died before bearing any children. Thereafter Govinda took refuge at the feet of Gauranga. The patas set up by Vasudeva Ghosh, Madhava Ghosh and Govinda Ghosh were at Tamalnka, Daihata and Agradvipa respectively. Their ancestral abode and descendents are still living in Kulaigrama.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Gauranga at Ramakali
Prabhu arrived at Ramakeli town near present Maldaha, the capital of Gauda. At this time Santana and Rupa became very eager to meet Prabhu. At midnight they arrived in disguise at the feet of Prabhu, who showered his grace upon them. Speaking secretly, Gauranga assured them that Krishna would soon liberate the them. Because Prabhu was being followed by large crowds of people, Sanatana advised him that he should not go to Vrndavana accompained by this large crowd. Thus Prabhu gave up the journey and went homeward.
Prabhu visited the holy place of Uddliaranapura of Uddharana Datta Thakura on Makara Sankranti day. In memory of this occasion every year a festival is held there. After that, early in the month of Magha, Prabhu came to Agradvipa via Shrikhanda.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Magh, Shri Gopinatha at Agradvipa.
Govinda had a deity of Krishna made from the stone he recieved. Prabhu himself installed it and Govinda Ghosh was appointed the priest (sebaita). The deity was named "Gopinatha". Let me narrate the story of Gopinatha here. Govinda stayed at Agradvipa with Gopinatha. At the command of Prabhu, he married again, had a son and soon after his wife died. Govinda carefully took care of both Gopinatha and the babay. However, the baby soon died. Govinda, being filled with anguish, forgot his service to Gopinatha and left the Lord starving. Gopinatha, however, spoke to Govinda and comforted him by pledging to personally take charge of all the duties which his son should have done. Sometime later when Govinda died his corpse was buried at the premises of the temple. Gopinatha observed the customary rites of mouring and after a month in front of all, performed the sraddha of Govinda and offered pinda. Since then every year in the month of Caitra on Krishna Ekadashi day at Agradvipa, Gopinatha observes the death anniversary of Govinda by performing the sraddha and offering pinda. Due to a family quarrel among the descendents of Govinda's brother's family, this deity stayed at the palace of Patuli for sometime and through a strange sequence of events, came under the supervision of the King of Navadvip Krishnacandra. Since then the deity has been living in the capital Krishnanagara and every year in Caitra, visits Agradvipa to perform his father's sradh. From some time King Navakrishna of Sovabajar, Calcutta kept this diety in his palace.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Mahaprabhu's meeting with Raghunatha Dasa
From Agradvipa, Prabhu went to the house of Advaita in Santipura where he stayed back until the celebration of the disappearance day Madhavendra Puri. Raghunatha of Saptagrama, who was a young boy at that time, took shelter at the feet of Prabhu, who instructed him to perform household duties in a detached spirit.
1514 AD / 1436 S' Phalgun Purnima, The original deities of Nitai Gaura installed in the house of Gauridasa Pandita
One day, while staying in the house of Advaita, Prabhu and Nityananda visited the house of Gauridasa Pandit at Amvika. Ecstatic, Gauridasa requested Prabhu and Nitai to remain in his temple forever or else he would commit suicide. Thus deities of Nitai Gaura were prepared, and Acyutananda, as commanded by his father Advaita Acarya, installed the two deities with great pomp with ten lettered "Gopala Mantra". These were the first deities of Nitai Gaura.
From Santipura, Prabhu went to the house of Shrivasa at Kumarahatta and later to the house of Raghava at Panihat. On the Krishna Dvadasi day of Phalgun, Prabhu listened to the recital of Bhagavata by Bhagavatacarya at Baraha nagara and left for Nilcala in the end of Caitra, leaving Nityananda at Gauda.
CHAPTER 6 GAURANGA IN VRNDAVANA AND KASI
1516 AD / 1438 S' Vijaya Dasami, Mahaprabhu leaves for Vrndavana
On Vijaya Dasami day Prabhu left Nilacala for Vrndavana. Valabhadra Bhattacharya of Gauda and his brahmana servant accompained Prabhu.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Agrahayana, Prabhu arrives in Kasi
Prabhu reached Kasi in the month of Agrahayana and stayed in the house of Tapana Misra. Tapana Misra's young son, Raghunatta bhatta, was engaged in taking care of Prabhu's needs. Candrasekhara Sena, a devotee hailing from Prabhu's own place, was at Kasi then and met Prabhu. Subuddhi Raya, the zaimindar of Gauda, came to Kasi to recieve instructions from the group of Pandits after he was excommunicated. Prabhu sent him to Vrndavana.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Rupa's visit to Vrndavana
After meeting Prabhu at Ramakali, Santana and Rupa planned to renounce the world. They distributed their wealth among the families of Fateyavada and Candradvipa, and kept ten thousand coins in the custody of a trusted merchant of Gauda for Sanatana's use. Taking his younger brother Vallabha along, Rupa left for Vrndavana first.
Prabhu reached Prayaga in Paus, where he stayed for three days, then left Mathuramandala. In Mathura he showered his mercy upon Krishnadasa, a Sanvadiya Brahmana and a disciple of Madhavendra Puri and along with him left for Vrindavana.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Sanatana leaves for Vrndavana
After Rupa and Anupama left for Vrndavana, Santana expressed his reluctance to do royal administrative work. Unable to change Sanatana's mind, the King of Gauda him arrested. When the King went to Orissa for his offical work, Santana won over the prison gaurd with the money left by Rupa and left for Vrndavana quietly in the night.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Gauranga in Vrndavana
When Prabhu, the moon of Vrndavana, arrived in Vrindavana, the uproar arose all around that Krishna had come. At that time Vrndavana was completely covered over. Almost all the sites of the holy places had disappeared and forests abounded everywhere. Syamakunda and Rudhakunda had been totally lost and the sites for these two places were called by people as "Katipokra" and "Goripokra". Prabhu took a bath there in the water of the paddy field. Later, Dasa Gosvami recovered the original five thousanad year old kunda established by Vrajanabha, and had Syamakunda and Radhakunda re-built and expanded into two beautiful kundas. The ghat where Mahaprabhu rested still exists on the Southeast corner of Syamakunda.
Prabhu did not Lokanatha and Bhugarbha Gosvami in Vrndavana, as before his arrival they had left for the South in search of Prabhu. Prabhu showered grace on a Brahmana resident of Lahore named Krishnadasa whom he gave the Gunjamala from his own neck thus infusing spiritual power in him - he then came to be known as "Krishnadasa Gunjamali". Prabhu sent him to the Western part of the country to preach the message of love. Krishnadasa established deities of Gaura Nita in Malabara, Gujarat and Sind.
Before Makara Sankranti day Prabhu returned to Prayaga. On the way he showered mercy on the Pathan prince Bijali Khan, his yavana spiritual Guru and soldiers. All of them became devotees known as the Pathan Vaishnavas. The Yavana Dharmagura was named "Ramadasa".
1516 AD / 1438 S' Magha, Lessons taught to Rupa
Meanwhile Rupa and Anupama reached Prayaga and fell at the feet of Prabhu. Prabhu instructed Rupa there for ten days and then sent him to Vrndavana.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Gauranga and Vallabhacarya
The founder of the Vallabhacari Sampradaya, Vallabhacarya, lived in the village of Amvuti near Prayaga. He came to meet Prabhu and took the latter to his own house. Raghupati Uppadhyaya, the Vaishnava scholar of Trihuta, met Prabhu there.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Instructions to Sanatana
Prabhu returned to Kasi by the end of Magha and stayed in the house of Candrasekhara. Meanwhile Santana arrived and was instructed by Prabhu for two months. Prabhu then sent him to Vrndavana.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Liberation of Prakasananda
Prakasananda Sarasvati, the unparalleled Vedanta scholar of India and the leader of Kasi recieved grace from Prabhu. He had a new birth - the atheist Mayavadi asectic became a devotee filled with ecstatic love. Prabhu named him "Pravodhananda" and ordered him to visit Vrindavana. Pravodhananda in his book Chaitanya Candramrita describes Gauranga Tattva.
1516 AD / 1438 S' Caitra, Return to Nilacala
By the end of Caitra, Prabhu returned to Nilcala. The joy of the devotees in Nilacala knew no bounds.
CHAPTER 7 NITYANANDA'S STAY AT GAUDA AND GAURANGA'S STAY AT GAMBHIRA
1517 AD / 1439 S' Jaistho Sukla Trayodasi, Dandomahotsava at Panihati
As commanded by Prabhu, Nityananda and his ecstatic associates preached throughout Gauda. On both sides of the Ganges the message of love overflowed, covering Panihati, Khaddaha, Ariadaha, Saptagrama, Triveni, Santipura, Navadvipa, Badagachi, Dogachia, Kulia etc. Nitai was accompanied by his "aptas" (powerful associates); Abhirama, Sundarananda, Kamalakara, Dhananyaya, Paramesvara Dasa, Mahesa, Gauridasa, Uddharanadatta, Gadadhara Dasa, Murari, Sadasiva, Purandara, Jagadisa, Krishnadasa Hoda etc. Nityananda spent three months with them in the joy of Sankirtana in the house of Raghava at Panihati.
At that time Raghunatha Dasa came from Saptagrama and fell at the feet of Nitai. Nitai showered grace on him by giving him his danda (staff) and ordered him to feed all the devotees with curd and flat rice. On the occasion of this splendidly celebrated festival, at the request of Nityananda, Mahaprabhu appeared before the devotees as Saccidaranda Vigraha. At that time Nitai joyfully gave a palmful of food in the mouth of Mahaprabhu. For the last 400 hundred uears or more this festival has been celebrated at Panihati beneath the same tree in the Sukla Trayodasi of Jaistho.
1517 AD / 1439 S' Birth of Jiva Gosvami
Jiva Gosvami was Vilasa Manjari in Vrajalila and one of the six Gosvamis. Vallabha, the younger brother of Rupa, who accompained Rupa to Vrndavana, died along the way. Jiva Gosvami is the son of this Vallabha. At the age of 24 years he went to Kasi where he studied for sometime under Madhusudana Vasaspati and then went to Vrndavana where he studied Vaishnava treatises under his paternal uncles Rupa and Santana and wrote many Vaishnava works, such as the Seven Sandarbhas (Bhagawat, Krishna, Paramartha, Bhakti, Tattva, Krama and Priti), Gopalcampu, Harinamamrita Vyakarama, Krishnacama-Dipika, Dhatu-Sangraha, Sutramalika, Rasamrtasesa etc.
1517 AD / 1439 S' Rupa's visit to Nilacala
After staying one month in Vrndavana, Rupa returned home. When he heard news of Prabhu's return to Nilacala, he went there. Arriving at Nilacala he took refuge in the Asrama of Haridasa Thakura. At that time Rupa was busy writing Lalita-Madhava and Vidagdha-Madhava. Prabhu kept Rupa with him for ten months then sent him to Vrndavana.
1517 AD / 1439 S' Ibrahim Lodi, the emperor of Delhi
Rule of Emperor Sikkananda Lodi ended in Delhi and Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne.
1518 AD / 1440 S' Santana Gosvami's visit to Nilacala
Sanatana lived in Vrndavana for one year then went vist Prabhu in Nilacala. There he stayed with Yavana Haridasa Thakura. Along the way to Nilacala, Sanatana contacted a severe case of skin rash all over his body. He thus made a firm decision to give up his life under the wheel of the chariot. The omniscient Prabhu understood the mind of Sanatana and forced him to give up this idea. Later Sanatana's body was cleansed of the rash when Prabhu embraced him.
1518 AD / 1440 S' Jaistho, Raghunatha Dasa visits Nilacala
After the festival of Panihati Raghunatha felt restless due to seperation from Gauranga and thought of various ways of leaving his home. A gaurd was appointed to keep vigilance on his movements. By a course of events one late night Raghunatha found liberation by the grace of his cherished spiritual master Raghunandana Acarya and after walking untiringly for 12 days reached Nilacala at the feet of Prabhu. Prabhu showered grace on him and handed him over to Svarupa Damodara. Among the circle of devotees he came to be called "Svarupera Raghu".
1518 AD / 1440 S' Death of Kabir
Kabir, the founder of Kabirapanthi Sampradaya, died at this time. Kabir was a Ramanandi Vaishnava, whose philosophy was accepted by both Hindus and Muslims.
1518 AD / 1440 S' Caitra, Sanatana leaves for Nilacala
Keeping Santana close to him for one year Prabhu made him very powerful and sent him to Vrndavana to recover the lost holy spots and to write Vaishnava treatises.
1519 AD / 1441 S' Vaisakhi Purnima, Birth of Shrinivasa Acarya
Shrinivasa was born in Cakandi village on the East bank of the Ganges, seven miles from Katwa. When his father Gangadhara Bhattacharya, a Radhi Brahmana, and his mother Laksmipriya Devi, the daughter of Balarama Acarya of Jajigrama near Shrikhanda, visited Nilacala with the desire to have a son, Prabhu showered his grace upon them. Prabhu told them to return home and assured them that soon they would have a son which would manifest Prabhu's pure love. When Laksmipriya conceived, Harinama was sung all over the village and Durgadasa, the Sakti-worshipping zamindar of the village, became a devotee of Hari. On Vaisakhi Purnima day Lakshmipriya delivered a fair-complexioned son who manifested all auspicous signs. The son was named Shrinvasa.
1519 AD / 1441 S' Meeting of Nityananda and Vasudha
At the command of Mahaprabhu and at the initiative of Uddharan Datta Thakura, Nityananda's favorite disciple, Nityananda married Vasudha Devi, the daughter of Suryadasa Sarakhel, a brahmana of Vatsya Gotra, Radhi caste, who lived in Ambika Kulna. Before his marriage Nityananda had to wear the sacred thread after following the rules prescribed by the Vedas.
1519 AD / 1441 S' End of the rule of Hosain Shah, the King of Gauda
and beginning of Nasiruddin Hasrat
1520 AD / 1442 S' Construction of the temple of Govardhana Nathaji
The entitlement to serve the diety Govardhana-Nathaji installed by Madhavendrapuri was passed on to his disciple Vallabhacarya. Vallabhacarya constructed a temple for this diety of Govardhana.
1521 AD / 1443 S' Meeting of Nityananda and Jahnava
At the desire of Nityananda, Suryadasa Pandit gave his daughter Jahnava Devi in marriage to Nityananda.
1522-1523 AD / 1444-1445 S' Birth of Vira Hamvira
Vira Hamvira, the King of Mall royal family of independent Vishnupura was born. His Vaishnava name given by Jiva Gosvami is "Chaitanyadasa".
1523 AD / 1445 S' Shripata of Vrndavanadasa at Denuda
On his way to Nilacala, Nityananda left his disciple Vrindavanadasa in the village Denuda about seven miles West of Navadvipa and commanded him to install the diety of Mahaprabhu and Shripata at this place and to narrate the lila. From that time Vrndandavanadasa lived in Denuda.
1523 AD / 1445 S' Jaistho, Nityananda's actions criticized
Arriving at Gandamandala ecstatic Nityananda gave up the discipline, practices and dress of an ascetic, wore any clothes he liked and showering grece on the Suvarna-Vanik (jeweller) caste of people, elevating their social status. Thus he created a group of powerful enemies. Many among the Vaishnava also left him. At Nilacala Prabhu heard various various complaints concering Nityananda. Nityananda was forced to meet Prabhu at Nilacala. Prabhu supported all his actions with praise and stated that the associates of Nitai were cowherds of Vraja and hence were not subject to disciplinary rules. Prabhu said, "even if he does hundreds of wrongs Nitai is adorable by Brahma etc."
1523 AD / 1445 S' Birth of Locana dasa, author of Chaitanya Mangala
Locanadasa, alias Trilocana Dasa, was born in a Vaidya family in Kograma, five miles away from Guskara railway station in Burdwan district. His father was Kamalakara Dasa. Locana's maternal uncle's house was in the same village. In his childhood Locana was a very doted child and studied a little after much efforts. Recieving diksa from Narahari Sarkara and at his command Locana wrote Chaitanya Mangala, Durlabhasara, Anana-latika, Deha-Nirupara, Chaitanya-Premvilasa, Dhatu-Tattvasara. The Dhamala padas of Locana are very sweet.
1524 AD / 1446 S' Birth of Kavikarnapura
Kavikarnapura was called Paramananda Sena by his father, Sivananda Sena, a very close associate of Mahaprabhu from Kancrapada. At the age of seven years he came with his father to Nilacala. At that time he sucked the finger of finger of Gauranga and attained divine divine knowledge. After recieving this blessing, the first verse he uttered gave a description of the ear-ornaments of the Vrajagopis which made Prabhu name him "Kavikarnapura". Chaitanya Candrodaya Nataka, Gauraganoddesa Dipika, Avandavrudana Campi, Chaitanya Carita Mahakavya are some of his literary works.
1525 AD / 1447 S' Death of Yanana Haridasa
When Haridasa Thakura became very old it was difficult for him to complete the chanting of the holy name three lakhs daily, thus he prayed to Prabhu that he would allow him to breathe his last while gazing at the face of Prabhu and holding his feet on his chest. It happened so. Gauranga with his associates chanted the holy name and Haridasa died in their midst. Prabhu danced carrying Haridasa's corpse in his lap and burning it himself with others on the seashore begged for alms for observance of the occasion.
1526 AD / 1448 S' End of Emperor Ibrahim Lodi's rule and beginning of Babar"s rule
1527 AD / 1449 S' Birth of Govinda Dasa
His father was Ciranjiva Sena, who belonged to a Vaidya caste from Shrikhanda and was an associate of Caityana. His mother was Sunanta Devi, the daughter of Poet Damadora, the reputed Nijaya scholar of Shrikhananda. After marriage Ciranjiva left his home in Kumaranagara and settled at Shrikanda in his father-in-laws house. Ramacandra Kaviraj, the beloved friend of Narottama Thakura, was the elder brother of Govinda. Both the brothers were brought up in their maternal uncle's family who were all Sakti-worshippers. Thus they the brothers were Saktas for a long time, but later they became Vaishnavas and took diksa from Shrinivasa Acarya. During their later life Ramacandra and Govinda established a Shripata at Teliya Vidhuri village near present Bhagavanagola station in Mursidavad district. The Vaishnava society of Vrndavana awarded them this "Kaviraja" title. While staying at Budhuri, Govinda used to visit the royal court of Pratapaditya, the King of Jessore. Govinda was very close to Basanta Raya, the uncle of Pratapaditya. Two ponds named Radhakunda and Syamadunda were set up by Govinda and still exist in Budhuri.
1529 AD / 1451 S' Uddharana Datta Thakura's visit to Nilacala
At the age of 48 years Uddharana Datta renounced home and went to Nilacala where he stayed for six years. He spent the rest of his life in Vrndavana.
1530 AD / 1452 S' Birth of poet Jnanadasa
Padakarta Jnanadasa, of Nityananda line, was born in a householder family in Ramajivanapura village or Bada Kandra in Manoharasahi Pargana under Ketugrama police station of Burdwan district. The descendents of Jnanadasa still serve the dieties of Radhakrishna installed by him at the Shripata in this village. The Shripata of Mangala Vaishnava, a disciple of Gadahara Pandita Gosvami, is also in the same village. The famous tradition of "Manoharasaha Kirtana" originated from this village. The saying goes that soon after embracing sannyasa Mahaprabhu took rest in a place called "Visramatala" near this village. The Pata of Siddha Manohara Dasa of Nityananda's line named "Dadhiya Vairagitala" also lies close to this village.
1530 AD / 1452 S' End of Babar's rule and Hunayun becomes Emperor of Delhi
1531 AD / 1452 S' Kasisvara at Catra
Upagopala Kasisvaa Pandit at the age of 17 years renounced home and took refuge at the feet of Gauranga at Nilacala. Staying with Prabhu for 16 years, at the efforts of his mother and command of Prabhu, Kasisvara went back home at the age of 33 and installed his pata at village Catra very close to Serampore station in Hooghly District.
1531 AD / 1453 S' Birth of Kanai Thakur
Kanai, the son of Gopala Purusottama Dasa, was born of Jahnava Devi in village Suklasagara. At the age of 12 days when his mother died, Jahnava, the wife of Nityanada brought up this baby as her own son. Nityananda named this child "Krishnadasa" and Jiva Gosvami named him Kanai Thakur.
1531 AD / 1453 S' Magh Purnima, Birth of Narottama Thakura
Narottama was born in a North Radhi Kayastha family in Kheturi village, Pargana Gaderahata, 12 miles North West of present Ramapura Boalia, the principal town of Rajsahi district. Krishnananda Datta, the father of Narottama, was the King of a small principality under a Muslim Jaigiradara. Before early youth Narottama went to Vrndavana, renouncing home, his cousin Santos became the King in his place.
1531 AD / 1453 S' Gopala Bhatta Gosvami's visit to Vrndavana
As commanded by Prabhu, with the death of his parent, Gopala Bhatta went to Vrndavana and was cordially welcomed by Rupa-Santana. He was a particularly dear friend of Rupa. When Prabhu heard that Gopala had arrived in Vrndavana, he sent a letter along with a speacial seat and Dorakaupina to Gopala Bhatta as a sign of his grace.
1532 AD / 1454 S' Phalguni Purnima, Diety of Nitai Gaura installed at Catra
Kasisvara Pandita constructed a temple at Catra. He arranged for ownership of land on contract from the zamindar and thus the Matha of Gaurangapura, Vasudevapura and Catra originated. The mother, brother and other relatives of Kasavara came and settled at Catra.
1532 AD / 1454 S' Kamalakara Pipalai at Mahesa
When Dhruvananda was very old he received a command to hand over the service of the Jagannatha deity to a devotee named Kamalakara, and immediately Kamalakara Pipalai, without the knowledge of his relations, suddenly arrived at Mahesa after renouncing home. Dhruvananda died in due course after handing over the charge to him.
1532 AD / 1554 S' Birth of Tulasidasa
Tulasidasa was born in a Brahmana family in Rajapura near Prayaga at UP. His father was Atmarama and mother Hulasi. Being left an orphan in his childhood Tulasi was brought up by an ascetic named Nrsinhadasa. With the grace of Hamumana, Tulasi recieved darsana of Rama and Sita. In Vrndavana, South of the Jamuna, at the matha of Tulasidasa the diety of Rama-Sita and Tulasidasa are there. The Hindi Ramayana and Doha by Tulasi are well known.
1532 AD / 1454 S' End of the rule of Nasiurddin Hasrat Shah the King of Gauda and beginning of that of Firoz Shah
1533 AD / 1455 S' First Asadh, Death of Mahaprabhu
During the last 18 years following his return from Vrndavana, Prabhu never went anywhere. Living in solitary cell of Gambhira temple in Nilacala he remained absorbed in tasting the spirit of Vrajalila with intimate companions such as Svarupa Damodara, Raya Ramananda etc. This lila of Prabhu is known as "Gambhira-lila".
Early in Asadha Prabhu passed away. Vrndavanadasa and Kaviraja Gosvami instead of narrating this "Aprakata Lila" taught people that human beings are not competent to describe this lila.
Gambhira is the name of a solitary cell in the house of Kasi Misra, the guru of King Prataparudra. After the death of Prabhu, his favourite companion Vakresvara Pandita became the Mahanta of this Gambhira-asrama and installed the deity of Radhakantha there. At Gambhira temple the footwear, Karanga and wrapper used by Gauranga have been preserved and worshipped with great care. Vakresvara Pandit calls his own Sampradaya as "Nimananda Sampradaya". One patabadi of this Nimananda Sampradaya is there inside the Kunja of Jiva Goswami at Vrndavana. This is called junior matha while the Gambhira temple of Nilacala is called senior matha or "Radha Kantera matha".