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17.7 million years ago

Post Author: Swami Gaurangapada    Date: 2006-05-05 05:30:47
Title: 17.7 million years ago
User: Damodara Svarupa dasa    Date: 2005-02-24 16:55:43

17.7 million years ago -- By Swami Gaurangapada

Shrila Rupa Goswami's Laghu Bhagavatamrta Text 78:

kausalyayam dasarathan
nava-durva dala-dyutih
tretayam avirabhavac
caturvimse catur-yuge
bharatena sumitraya
nandanabhyam ca samyutah

kausalyayam-in the womb of Kausalya-devi; dasarathat-from Dasaratha
Maharaja; nava-fresh; durva-dala-durva grass; dyutiH-with the splendor;
tretayam-during the Treta-yuga; avirabhavat-appeared; caturvimse-during the
24th; catuh-yuge-cycle of four yugas; bharatena-by Bharata; sumitrayaH-of
Sumitra; nandanabhyam-by the two sons (Laksmana and Satrughna); ca-also;

"Splendid as a new blade of durva grass, and accompanied by Sumitra's two
sons and by Bharata, Lord Ramachandra appeared in the Treta-yuga of the 24th
catur-yuga as the son of Kausalya and Dasaratha."

[It is clearly mentioned that caturvimse catur yuge i.e during the 24th
caturyuga. Calculations: 1 Catur-yuga= 4,320,000 years or 43 lakh 20
thousand years]

Catur-yugas passed = 24th part (roughly half) of Treta & full Kali,
25th, 26th, 27th, 28th till part of Kali-yuga

Years passed approx. = 432,000 + 432,000 + 4,320,000 + 4,320,000 +
4,320,000 + (4,320,000-427,000 left)

= 17,717,000 (+or-432,000 years)

(+ or - 432,000 years is required because we don't exactly know in which
period of Treta Yuga of the 24th Chatur-yuga Lord Rama appeared, He

This is a most beautiful & detailed narration about the appearance of Lord
Ramachandra from the book (Valmiki) "Ramayana" by Shriman Purnaprajna dasa.

The great tract of land known as Kosala extended along the banks of the
Sarayu River. This land was verdant, prosperous and rich in grain. Within
this vast territory was the renowned city of Ayodhya, built by the desire of
Vaivasvata Manu, the ruler of mankind. This glorious city was ninety-six
miles long and twenty-four miles wide. It was well laid out, and its
beautiful, straight roads were perfumed with scented water sprayed from the
trunks of intoxicated elephants. Every day, the damsels of the celestial
planets hovered above it in their beautiful airplanes and showered it with

The arched gateways of Ayodhya were made of marble, and the gates were
wrought with gold and silver and embedded with precious jewels. Cannons and
catapults, capable of repulsing any enemy, protected the city walls. The
marketplaces were well planned, and seven-story houses symmetrically lined
the streets. Adorned with multi-storied palaces and surrounded with
exquisite gardens, Ayodhya resounded with the vibrations of musical
instruments, rivaling Amaravati, the abode of the heavenly king, Indra.
Throughout the city, bards and singers recited the glories of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, and dancers acted out the Lord's pastimes for
everyone's benefit.

Within Ayodhya were many beautiful gardens abounding with flowers and shaded
by fruit trees. Blue, red, and golden lotuses filled the ponds, and
fountains shot water high into the air. Gentle breezes carried the aromatic
spray from the fountains, cooling the citizens by their touch, and making
even a hot summer day seem like spring. The sounds of cranes and peacocks
could be heard everywhere. The water flowing through Ayodhya's streams and
rivulets tasted as sweet as sugarcane sap, and it was used not only for
drinking but for irrigating numerous mango orchards. Many houses and
palaces, perfectly designed, were built of precious stones and decorated
with flags and festoons. Their beauty rivaled the palaces of Vaikuntha.
Thousands of warriors protected the great city: skilled archers, well versed
in the use of weapons, and chariot fighters who were able to fight with
thousands of men at a time.

The streets leading into Ayodhya were always filled with travelers. Kings
and princes from all parts of the world came to render their annual tribute
and pay respects to the King of Ayodhya. Traders from near and far flocked
to the markets to barter.

Brahmana priests could often be seen pouring ghee into sacrificial fires and
chanting Vedic hymns, proclaiming the glories of Lord Vishnu. Having mastered
their senses and devoted themselves to truth, these brahmanas were blessed
with all good qualities.

Maharaja Dasaratha was the emperor of the entire world and was a great
rajarsi, considered almost on the level of a maharsi He was a formidable
warrior, capable of fighting alone with an unlimited number of opponents.
Because he and the citizens were completely pious, Ayodhya was the picture
of perfect Vedic civilization. Every imaginable opulence was exhibited in
perfection, and material miseries, coming from the results of sinful life,
were practically nonexistent. In Ayodhya, the four social orders, namely the
brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras, participated cooperatively for the
peace and prosperity of the kingdom. No one cheated and no one was miserly.
Arrogance, atheism, and harsh behavior and speech were conspicuous by their

Even though Maharaja Dasaratha possessed such fantastic opulence and
prestige, he remained unhappy. Try as he may, the King was unable to beget a
son to continue his dynasty. Finally, after much deliberation, King
Dasaratha decided to perform a horse sacrifice for the purpose of getting a
son. With this in mind he sent his chief minister, Sumantra, to call for his
family priests.

When the brahmanas, headed by Vasistha and Vamadeva, assembled, Maharaja
Dasaratha addressed them, saying, ''O best among the twice born, for many
years I have ardently desired to beget a son. However, all my efforts have
been in vain. Because I am without an heir, I can no longer feign happiness.
Indeed, my days seem wasted and are filled with grief. Thus, after much
careful consideration, and with your kind permission, I have decided to
perform a horse sacrifice. Because you are fully knowledgeable in scripture,
I am confident that you will be able to lead me on the proper path.''
The priests unanimously approved of Maharaja Dasaratha's idea to perform the
horse sacrifice, and thereafter, the king ordered his ministers to make all
necessary arrangements without delay. Sumantra then took Maharaja Dasaratha
aside to narrate the following story (about Rsyasrnga)...

Maharaja Dasaratha was very pleased to hear this story from Sumantra. Then,
without delay, he went with his retinue to the kingdom of Anga. There, he
was received by Maharaja Romapada with great respect, and at that time the
king of Anga informed Rsyasrnga that Dasaratha was his real father-in-law.
After enjoying Romapada's hospitality for about one week, Maharaja Dasaratha
addressed his friend as follows: ''For a long time I have been morose on
account of not having a son to perpetuate my illustrious dynasty. Now, I beg
you to allow Rsyasrnga to come to Ayodhya to perform a horse sacrifice on my

Romapada happily agreed, and Maharaja Dasaratha soon returned to his capital
with Rsyasrnga and Santa. Then, when spring arrived, Maharaja Dasaratha
humbly approached Rsyasrnga, begging him for instructions regarding the
performance of the horse sacrifice. Thus, preparations for the sacrifice
commenced and a site was selected on the northern bank of the River Sarayu.
The system was for an emperor to send a challenge horse all over the world
to establish his supremacy over subordinate kings. The horse would be
accompanied by soldiers of the emperor, and upon its arrival in a kingdom,
the local king would either have to offer tribute to the emperor's
representatives, or fight to capture the horse. Any ruling prince or king
was at liberty either to express his tacit willingness to obey the emperor,
or to accept the challenge and thus disobey the supremacy of the particular
emperor. One who accepted the challenge had to fight with the emperor's men
and establish his own supremacy by victory. The defeated challenger would
have to sacrifice his life, making place for another king or ruler. Only
when the horse returned after touring the world, with no more challengers
left, could a horse sacrifice begin.

Understanding that King Janaka would be the future father-in-law of his
sons, Maharaja Dasaratha sent him the first invitation. Likewise, other
subordinate kings were requested to attend the sacrifice. After one full
year, the challenge horse returned to Ayodhya, having wandered over the
earth under the protection of 400 princes. Only then could the sacrifice

After the preliminary rites had been performed Maharaja Dasaratha's eldest
queen, Kausalya, circumambulated the challenge horse, which was tied to one
of the sacrificial stakes. Then, with three strokes of a sword, she severed
the horse's head, as prescribed by scriptural injunction.

Thereafter, Rsyasrnga offered the fat of the dead horse into the sacrificial
fire. Maharaja Dasaratha was directed to inhale the fumes, to free him from
all sins. Then, the assisting priests offered the limbs of the horse into
the sacrificial fire, bringing the three day sacrifice to an end.
Maharaja Dasaratha then gave away the four directions of the earth in
charity to the four chief priests. The brahmanas returned the gifts,
however, saying, ''O king, we are devoted to Vedic study and the performance
of austerities, and have no interest in ruling over a kingdom. Therefore,
please give us other gifts like cows and gold.''

Rsyasrnga then approached Maharaja Dasaratha, saying, ''My dear king, you
will surely receive four glorious sons. However, I propose that a separate
sacrifice, known as Putresti, be performed for that purpose.''

Maharaja Dasaratha readily assented, soon the sacrifice was begun.
Meanwhile, in the higher planets, the chief demigods approached Lord Brahma
and explained, ''O grandsire, because of your benedictions, Ravana has
become so powerful that he is harassing everyone at will. Even we cannot
subdue the wicked Raksasa. Therefore, we request you to personally devise
the means for his destruction.''

Lord Brahma considered the situation and then replied, ''At the time of
asking for benedictions, Ravana did not bother to ask for immunity from
death at the hands of human beings, for he considered them to be too

While Brahma was thinking how Ravana could be killed, Lord Vishnu suddenly
appeared, riding on His carrier, Garuda. As effulgent as many suns, Lord
Vishnu appeared in His four-armed form, dressed in bright saffron garments
and carrying His disc, conch, club and lotus flower.

The demigods worshipped the Supreme Lord with great reverence and then
requested, ''O master of the universe, please come to our rescue by dividing
Yourself into four, becoming the sons of Maharaja Dasaratha for the purpose
of killing Ravana.''

Lord Vishnu replied, ''Rest assured, there is no longer any need to be
afraid. I will soon incarnate to rule over the earth for 11,000 years after
vanquishing your enemy, the king of the Raksasas.'' After saying this, Lord
Vishnu disappeared as the demigods looked on with wonder.
Meanwhile, from the sacrificial fire of Maharaja Dasaratha, there appeared
an exceptional being of dark complexion with all auspicious bodily features.
This personality appeared to be unlimitedly powerful. He was decorated with
transcendental ornaments, and in his hand he carried a large golden pot of
sweet rice. That divine person then told Maharaja Dasaratha, ''I am a
messenger of Lord Vishnu.''

With folded hands, the king replied, ''O Vishnuduta, please order me to
perform whatever service I can render.''

The servant of Lord Vishnu said, ''This pot of sweet rice is the reward for
your two sacrificial performances. Give portions to your three wives to eat.
Through them you shall beget four sons who will forever perpetuate your

Maharaja Dasaratha happily accepted the sweet rice and circumambulated the
Vishnuduta. After Lord Vishnu's messenger disappeared from view, Maharaja
Dasaratha quickly gave portions of the sweet rice to his wives, for he was
eager to have sons.

Maharaja Dasaratha gave Kausalya one half of the sweet rice, Sumitra one
fourth, and Kaikeyi one eighth. Then after some deliberation, he gave the
remaining eighth to Sumitra. All three wives were overjoyed, for they were
confident that they would soon become mothers.

The three Queens eagerly ate their shares and soon thereafter, each felt the
presence of divine offspring within their wombs. When Maharaja Dasaratha
understood that his wives were pregnant, he too became very satisfied.
Meanwhile, Lord Brahma ordered the demigods as follows: ''Beget partial
manifestations of yourselves to assist Lord Vishnu in His forthcoming
incarnation. The children which you produce in the form of monkeys (by
uniting with Apsaras, she-monkeys, and female Yaksas, Nagas, Vidyadharas and
other celestial beings), must be capable of assuming any form at will and
must possess all other mystic powers. In addition, they must be very
intelligent, highly skilled in the use of weapons, having prowess almost
equal to Lord Vishnu, and possess ethereal bodies.''

After receiving the order of Lord Brahma, Indra begot Vali, Surya begot
Sugriva, Brhaspati begot Tara, Kuvera begot Gandhamada, Visvakarma begot
Nala, Varuna begot Susena, and Vayu begot Hanumana. Besides these principal
monkeys, many thousands of others took birth to assist Lord Vishnu in His
mission. All of them were gigantic like mountains and were very eager to
fight with Ravana. Like the demigods who begot them, these monkeys were born
just after conception. They were so powerful that they could agitate the
ocean with their impetuous energy.

There were three classes of these created beings: bears, monkeys, and
monkeys that had long tails like cows. Because there were more than ten
million of these monkeys and bears, the earth soon became overrun with them
as they wandered throughout the forests, eating wild fruits and various

After the completion of the Putrsti sacrifice, the demigods (who personally
came to accept their offerings) and the priests, Rsyasrnga and Santa,
departed for their respective residences. Then, after a pregnancy of twelve
months, on the ninth day of the waxing (bright) fortnight in the month of
Caitra, Kausalya gave birth to a son. This divine child had reddish eyes and
lips, long arms, and was decorated with all auspicious markings. The son of
Kausalya represented one-half of the potency of Lord Vishnu.

Soon thereafter, a son representing one-fourth of the prowess of Lord Vishnu
was born of Kaikeyi, Maharaja Dasaratha's youngest queen. Then, two days
after the appearance of Kausalya's son, Sumitra gave birth to twins, each
representing one-sixth of the potency of Lord Vishnu. All four of the newborn
children highly resembled one another and were exceedingly effulgent and
pleasing to behold. Indeed, upon the appearance of Maharaja Dasaratha's four
sons, the demigods showered flowers from heaven, while the Gandharvas sang
and played musical instruments as the Apsaras danced. In Ayodhya there was a
great festival, as musicians, dancers and actors crowded the streets, with
all the citizens participating in the merrymaking.

SrI RAma ashTottara satanAmAvaLi

asya srI rAmacandranAmAshTottara satamantrasya brahmA rshih |
anushtup chandah | jAnakI vallabhah srI rAmacandro devatA | om bIjam |
namah saktih | srI rAmacandrah kIlakam | shri rAmacandraprItyarthe
jape viniyogah |

om namo bhagavate rAjAdhirAjAya paramAtmane hrdayAya namah|
om namo bhagavate vidhyAdhirAjAya hayagrIvAya sirase svAhA |
om namo bhagavate jAnakI vallabhAya namah sikhAyai vashatt |
om namo bhagavate raghunandAyAmitatejase kavacAya hum |
om namo bhagavate kshIrAbdhi madhyasthAya nArAyaNAya netratrayAya voushaT |
om namo bhagavate satprakAsAya rAmAya astrAya phaT |
iti shadanganyAsah |
evam angulinyAsah kAryah |

atha dhyAnam

mandArakrti puNya dhAma vilasad vakshasthalam komalam
sAntam kantamahendra nIla rucirAbhAsam sahasrAnAmam
vande'ham raghunandanam surapatim kodaNda dIkshAgurum
rAmam sarva jagat susevita padam sItA manovallabham

1. sahasrasIrshNe vai tubhyam sahasrAkshAya te namah |
namah sahasrahastAya sahasra caraNAya ca ||

[ 1. sahasrasIrshNe namah 2. sahasrAkshAya namah
3. sahasrahastAya namah 4. sahasra caraNAya namah ]

2. namo jImUtavarNAya namaste visvatomukha |
acyutAya namastubhyam namaste seshasAyine ||

[ 5. jImUtavarNAya namah 6. visvatomukhAya namah
7. acyutAya namah 8. seshasAyine namah ]

3. namo hiraNyagarbhAya pancabhUtAtmane namah |
namo mUlaprakrtaye devAnAm hitakAriNe ||

[ 9. hiraNyagarbhAya namah 10. pancabhUtAtmane namah
11. mUlaprakrtaye namah 12. devAnAm hitakAriNe namah ]

4. namaste sarvalokesa sarva duhkha nishUdana |
sankha cakra gadA padma jatAmukuta dhAriNe ||

[ 13. sarvalokesAya namah 14. sarva duhkha nishUdanAya namah
15. sankha cakra gadA padma jatAmukuta dhAriNe namah ]

5. namo garbhAya tatvAya jyotishAm jyotishe namah |
om namo vAsudevAya namo dasarathAtmaja ||

[ 16. garbhAya namah 17. tatvAya namah 18. jyotishAm jyotishe namah
19. vAsudevAya namah 20. dasarathAtmajAya namah ]

6. namo namaste rAjendra sarva sampat pradAya ca |
namah kAruNya rUpAya kaikeyIpriyakAriNe ||

[ 21. rAjendrAya namah 22. sarva sampat pradAya namah
23. kAruNya rUpAya namah 24. kaikeyIpriyakAriNe namah ]

7. namo dAntAya sAntAya visvAmitra priyAya te |
yajnesAya namastubhyam namaste kratupAlaka ||

[ 25. dAntAya namah 26. sAntAya namah 27. visvAmitra priyAya namah
28. yajnesAya namah 29. kratupAlakAya namah ]

8. namo namah kesavAya namo nAthAya sArngiNe |
namaste rAmacandrAya namo nArAyaNAya ca ||

[ 30. kesavAya namah 31. nAthAya namah 32. sArngiNe namah
33. rAmacandrAya namah 34. nArAyaNAya namah ]

9. namaste rAmacandrAya mAdhavAya namo namah |
govindAya namastubhyam namaste paramAtmane ||

[ 35. rAmacandrAya namah 36. mAdhavAya namah
37. govindAya namah 38. paramAtmane namah ]

10. namaste vishNurUpAya raghunAthAya te namah |
namaste anAthanAthAya namaste madhusUdana ||

[ 39. vishNurUpAya namah 40. raghunAthAya namah
41. anAthanAthAya namah 42. madhusUdanAya namah ]

11. trivikrama namastestu sItAyAh pataye namah |
vAmanAya namastubhyam namaste rAghavAya ca ||

[ 43. trivikramAya namah 44. sItAyAh pataye namah
45. vAmanAya namah 46. rAghavAya namah ]

12. namo namah srIdharAya janakIvallabhAya ca |
namastestu hrshIkesa kandarpAya namo namah ||

[ 47. srIdharAya namah 48. janakIvallabhAya namah
49. hrshIkesAya namah 50. kandarpAya namah ]

13. namaste padmanAbhAya kausalyAharshakAriNe |
namo rajIvanayana namaste lakshmaNAgraja ||

[ 51. padmanAbhAya namah 52. kausalyAharshakAriNe namah
53. rajIvanayanAya namah 54. lakshmaNAgrajaya namah ]

14. namo namaste kAkutstha namo dAmodarAya ca |
vibhIshaNa paritrAtarnamah sankarshaNAya ca ||

[ 55. kAkutsthaya namah 56. dAmodarAya namah
57. vibhIshaNa paritrAtre namah 58. sankarshaNAya namah ]

15. vAsudeva namastestu namaste sankarapriya |
pradyumnAya namastubhyam aniruddhAya te namah ||

[ 59. vAsudevaya namah 60. sankarapriyAya namah
61. pradyumnAya namah 62. aniruddhAya namah]

16. sadasat bhaktirUpAya namaste purushottama |
adhokshaja namastestu saptatAla harAya ca ||

[ 63. sadasat bhaktirUpAya namah 64. purushottamAya namah
65. adhokshajAya namah 66. saptatAla harAya namah ]

17. kharadUshaNa samhartre srI nrsimhAya te namah |
acyutAya namastubhyam namaste setubandhaka ||

[ 67. kharadUshaNa samhartre namah 68. srInrsimhAya namah
69. acyutAya namah 70. setubandhakAya namah ]

18. janArdana namastestu namo hanumadAsraya |
upendra candravandyAya mArIca-mathanAya ca ||

[ 71. janArdanAya namah 72. hanumadAsrayAya namah
73. upendra candravandyAya namah 74. mArIca-mathanAya namah ]

19. namo vAli-praharaNa namah sugrIva-rAjyada |
jAmadagnya mahAdarpa HarAya haraye namah ||

[ 75. vAli-praharaNAya namah 76. sugrIva-rAjyadAya namah
77. jAmadagnya mahAdarpa harAya namah 78. haraye namah ]

20. namo namaste krshNAya namaste bharatAgraja |
namaste pitr-bhaktAya namah satrughna pUrvaja ||

[ 79. krshNAya namah 80. bharatAgrajAya namah
81. pitr-bhaktAya namah 82. satrughna pUrvajAya namah ]

21. ayodhyAdhipate tubhyam namah satrughna sevita |
namo nityAya satyAya buddhyAdi-jnAnarUpiNe ||

[ 83. ayodhyAdhipataye namah 84. satrughna sevitAya namah
85. nityAya namah 86. satyAya namah 87. buddhyAdi-jnAnarUpiNe namah ]

22. advaita brahma-rUpAya jnAna-gamyAya te namah |
namah pUrNAya ramyAya mAdhavAya cidAtmane ||

[ 88. advaita brahma-rUpAya namah 89. jnAna-gamyAya namah
90. pUrNAya namah 91. ramyAya namah
92. mAdhavAya namah 93. cidAtmane namah ]

23. ayodhyesAya sreshThaya cin-mAtrAya parAtmane |
namo'halyoddhAraNAya namaste cApa bhanjine ||

[ 94. ayodhyesAya namah 95. sreshThaya namah
96. cin-mAtrAya namah 97. parAtmane namah
98. ahalyoddhAraNAya namah 99. cApa bhanjine namah ]

24. sItArAmAya sevyAya stutyAya parameshThine |
namaste bANa-hastAya namah kodaNda-dhAriNe ||

[100. sItArAmAya namah 101. sevyAya namah
102. stutyAya namah 103. parameshThine namah
104. bANa-hastAya namah 105. kodaNda-dhAriNe namah ]

25. namah kabhanda-hantre ca vAli-hantre namos'tu te |
namastestu dasagrIva prANa samhAra kAriNe ||

[ 106. kabhanda-hantre namah 107. vAli-hantre namah
108. dasagrIva prANa samhAra kAriNe namah ]

Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu delightfully ordered Shri Murari Gupta (none other
than Hanuman) to recite some poems composed by Shri Gupta himself. Shri Murari
Gupta began to recite Ramastaka and the Lord, who was greatly pleased, at
once regarded himself as Ramacandra. With a sweet smile Prabhu wrote the
name "Ramadasa" on the forehead of Murari Gupta.

By the order of Mahaprabhu, Murarigupta recited his own composition "Shri

(1) "I adore the Supreme Lord Ramacandra who is worshipped by the
residents of the three worlds; Whose face is as beautiful as a spotless
moon, Whose ears are adorned with beautiful kundalas, shining more
brilliantly than the stars named Brhaspati and Sukra; and whose crown is
bedecked with the gleaming Kiritamani jewel which glows like the shining
rays of the sun."

(2) "I worship Shri Ramacandra, the only guru of the three worlds, Whose
eyes are as beautiful as blossoming lotus', Whose lips are like beautifully
red bimba fruit. His nose is charming and His smile defeats the soft rays of
the moon."

(3) "I worship the only guru of the three worlds, Shri Ramacandra, whose
neck is as charming as a conch, and Whose complexion is like that of a blue
lotus. His effulgent necklaces of pearl and gold are likened to the sky,
where lightening flashes next to white swan-colored clouds."

(4) "I praise Shri Ramacandra, by whose side is seated the bright golden
complexioned Sita who holds a lotus flower in Her raised hand. That lotus
clasped by Her five beautiful fingers is possessed of morethan five hundred

(5) "I sing the glories of Shri Ramacandra, the only guru throughout the
three worlds, in front of whom stands the great archer Shri Laksmana,
formerly known as Shesha (or Great Spirit), whose beautiful golden
complexion is enhanced by numerous ornaments and who is known as a devout
servant of his elder brother."

(6) "I glorify Shri Raghava, the killer of the demons Ravana, Khara,
Trisira and Kavandha. He is the destroyer of the corruptor's of Shri
Dandakaranya: the killer of Vali: and the friend of Sugriva."

(7) "I worship the only guru of the three worlds, Shri Rama, who has
taken the hand of Sita after breaking the Haradhanu. While one his way from
Mithila to Ayodhya, Shri Ramacandra, for the pleasure of his father,
destroyed the pride of Parasaurama. "

(8) To be Translated

Being pleased to hear the glories of Shri Raghunandana Rajasimha, the
Supreme Lord Gaurasundara, placed his feet on the head of Shri Murari Gupta
and wrote on his forehead, "It is My desire that henceforward you shall be
known as Ramadasa."
Murari Gupta was overwhelmed with joy and gratitude. In the morning
Prabhu and all the devotees returned to their own houses. Who can understand
the hidden meaning and true intentions behind the Lord's transcendental

From Bhati Ratnakara by Narahari Dasa, Translation by Shri Kushakratha dasa

Daaso'smi, Tridandi Bhikshu Bhaktiratna Sadhu Swami.

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