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Title: 000 Krishna Chaitanya Charita Introduction
User: Swami Gaurangapada Date: 2005-04-17 03:47:00
Hanuman Avatara Shrila Murari Gupta's
Shri Krishna Chaitanya Charita Mahakavya
Shri Krishna Chaitanya Charita Mahakavya The Transcendental Characteristics of Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
By Hanuman Avatara Paramhansa Shrila Murari Gupta Thakura.
Translated by His Holiness Bhaktivedanta Bhagavata Swami
Summary Outline of Shri Krishna Chaitanya Charita Mahakavya By Shrila Murari Gupta (1513 A.D.)
A Sanskrit Maha-kavya, written in the style of the Puranas, with the flow of topics being conveyed in the form of a conversation between Shrila Murari Gupta and Shrila Damodara Pandita. Its verses total 1,927, and it is divided into 4 sections (Prakramas), and subdivided into 78 cantos (Sargas). This book is also known as Murari's kadacha, or personal notebook, and many other biographers such as Shrila Lochana dasa, Shrila Kavi Karnapura and others have used it as the original source of information regarding key in events of Lord Gauranga's life; thus they were able to elaborate on the Lord's pastimes in their own way. Also worth mentioning here is the notebook of Shrila Svarupa Damodara Gosvami; many of the Lord's biographers have also used it while composing their own versions; but unfortunately, Shrila Svarupa's book is not available today.
(Note: sometimes Shrila Murari's book is known as Shri Chaitanya-charitamrta also)
Section 1 (16 Cantos)
Description of the reason for composing this book (the order of Shrivasa).
The necessity of Lord Gauranga's descent to Earth along with His disciples.
The Lord's auspicious birth.
Description of His parents and their lineage (His father is described as belonging to the Vatsya-gotra).
The Lord's elder brother Visva-rupa leaves home and crosses the river Ganga to accept the renounced order of sannyasa at the age of 16.
Pastimes of the Lord's childhood, boyhood and youth.
The death of His father.
His marriage to Laksmi (cantos 9, 10)
His journey to East Bengal.
The death of Laksmi.
Saci's lament is described in an entire canto (12).
The Lord's second marriage to Vishnu-priya (cantos 13, 14).
His journey to Gaya, and His meeting with Isvara Puri (cantos 15, 16).
Section 2 (18 Cantos)
Descriptions of Lord Gauranga's devotional passion and ecstatic activities that became manifest after His return from Gaya.
His absorption in the mood of Lord Varaha (canto 2).
His absorption in the mood of Balabhadra (canto14).
His maha-prakasa and mahabhiseka (manifestation of greatness, and grand bathing ceremony of consecration) as the supreme Deity at the house of Shrivasa (canto 12).
The Lord's passionate realization of the divine sports of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.
His continuous rapture of dancing, singing and chanting the holy names.
He listens to Murari's Ramastaka (prayer to Lord Ramacandra in 8 verses)(2.7.10-18), but he admonishes Murari's leaning toward advaita-vedanta (impersonal monism) that Murari learned from Shri Advaita Acarya--thus the Lord makes him a devotee of Krishna by deprecating the worship of all other deities.
Canto 8 describes His first meeting with Shri Nityananda Prabhu, who was at the house of Nandana Acarya in Navadvipa; therein Lord Gauranga successively revealed His forms as the six-armed, four-armed, and two-armed Krishna to Shri Nityananda.
Canto 13 describes that the Lord's motive for taking sannyasa was because of a curse pronounced by a brahmana (2.13.18-22), who was refused permission into Lord Gauranga's presence by the foolish doorkeepers; also later (2.18.1-2) the book states that the Lord was inspired by a dream to take sannyasa.
Finally Kesava Bharati (who visits Navadvipa) praises Lord Gauranga as being Suka, Prahlada and the Shrimad Bhagavatam Himself (2.18.12).
Shortly thereafter, the sannyasa ceremony occurs at Kantaka-gram (Katwa).
Section 3 (18 Cantos)
(Canto 1,2) --Continuation of the story of Lord Gauranga's acceptance of the renounced order of sannyasa.
(Canto 3,4)--His return to Advaita Acarya's house in Santi-pura.
He takes farewell from His mother and His assembled devotees from Navadvipa, and He declares His intention to proceed directly to Jagannatha Puri in Orissa.
There are descriptions of the Lord's supremely ecstatic emotional states He enjoyed after taking sannyasa; these descriptions are then elaborated on even more completely by the author.
(Cantos 5-10)--Six cantos are devoted to narrating the Lord's journeys and pastimes as He traveled through Yajpura and Bhuvanesvara, finally arriving at Jagannatha Puri.
(Cantos 11,12)-- At Puri, the Lord goes straight to the house of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.
Afterwards, accompanied by Sarvabhauma's younger brother, the Lord visits the temple of Jagannatha, where His ecstatic emotions overcome Him so completely that He falls senseless.
He is carried back to Sarvabhauma's house and revived.
Later, Sarvabhauma (the old Vedanta scholar) tries to teach his dry Vedanta to the young ascetic Gauranga Mahaprabhu, but the Lord ends up expounding the true meaning of the Vedanta.
The Lord's exposition had struck the great Vedantist with so much wonder that he at once recognizes Shri Gauranga to be the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and he falls at the Lord's lotus feet, reciting verses of praise.
(Cantos 13-16)--Four cantos are devoted to describing Lord Gauranga's tour of South India up to setu-Bhanda, His meeting with Ramananda Raya, His meeting with Trimalla Bhatta and his young boy Gopal Bhatta, and many others.
Then the Lord's return to Puri is described.
(Cantos 17,18)--Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu returns to Bengal -- He had intended to travel to Vrindavana, but the trip was postponed (His objective for going to Shri Vrindavana was to reveal the lost holy places there).
He meets with Shri Rupa and Sanatana at Rama-keli, and thereafter returns to Puri.
Section 4 (26 Cantos)
There is an elaborate description in 11 cantos of the Lord's tour of the various holy places of Mathura and Vrindavana.
He visits the scenes of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna's sportive pastimes, and by recalling such, Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu feels the awakening of extraordinary ecstatic emotions.
Later in the course of His northern pilgrimage, He meets with Tapana Misra and his son Raghunatha Bhatta at Benares.
He meets with Shri Rupa at Prayaga, and Shri Sanatana at Benares.
He visits His Mother Saci on His way back to Bengal, and He meets with His former wife Shrimati Vishnu-priya, who makes an image of Him for worshipping.
Finally there is a description of the homage of King Pratapa Rudra upon the Lord's return to Jagannatha Puri.
Then the last 2 cantos give a list of the topics dealt with in the various sections of the book, along with the total number of sections, cantos and verses (4 sections, 78 cantos, 1927 verses).
Biography of His Divine Grace Shrila Murari Gupta:
Shrila Murari Gupta, a disciple of Shri Candrasekhara Acarya, possessed extraordinary humility. He had an intimate lifelong relationship with Lord Gauranga. Although senior in class, Murari would always lose in debates with Shri Nimai Pandit. During one heated argument they began pushing each other. The scuffle continued into the Ganges. They stirred up so much mud that ladies couldn't fill their pots and brahmanas couldn't bathe properly.
At the nightly kirtans in Shrivasa Angam Murari Gupta pleased Gaurahari with melodious chanting of the Bhagavata. He would also sing and dance expertly. Murari Gupta served Shri Gauranga in all His Nadia lilas.
Lord Gauranga once tested Murari Gupta's attachment to his worshipable Lord Ramacandra. Lord Gaurasundara preached to Murari about the supreme sweetness and position of Vrajendra-kumara (Krishna): “Murari, just worship Krishna and take shelter of Him. Nothing but His service can satisfy the mind.” Although Murari Gupta became somewhat inclined toward Shri Krishna, the thought of losing Lord Ramacandra's association devastated him. That night he prayed to Lord Rama to take his life. He asked for this because he couldn't stop serving Rama, nor could he defy Shri Gauranga's request.
After crying all night Murari approached Lord Gauranga and said: “What should I do? I've sold my head to the lotus feet of Lord Ramacandra. But if I break Your order to worship Lord Shri Krishna, then what can I do?”
Smiling, Shri Gaura Raya replied, “All glories to Murari Gupta! You're so fixed in your worship that even My request couldn't turn your mind. This is exactly the type of love and affection the servitor must have for the lotus feet of the Lord. Even if the Lord wants separation, a devotee cannot abandon the shelter of His lotus feet. Just to test your firm faith in your Lord I repeatedly asked you to change your worship from Lord Rama to Lord Krishna.”
Congratulating Murari Gupta, the Lord continued, “You are the incarnation of Hanuman, the eternal servant of Lord Rama. Therefore, why should you give up your worship of Lord Rama?”
At another time, Lord Gauranga showed His form as Lord Ramacandra with Janaki, Laksmana, and a host of monkeys reciting hymns and prayers. Seeing himself amongst those monkeys in his original form as Hanuman, Murari Gupta fainted. In Katva, when Lord Gauranga took sannyasa Murari stood by weeping like a child. And when Shriman Mahaprabhu moved to Jagannatha Puri, Murari and his wife would come every year to relish the Lord's company.
Since he was born in a dynasty of Ayur Vedic doctors Murari Gupta practiced medicine. But his practice was unique in that he cured his patient's physical ailments and also freed them from the disease of material existence. He wrote the first biography of Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, an important Sanskrit work entitled Shri Krishna Chaitanya Carita Mahakavya.