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Title: 21 Shrimad Bhagavata Mahapurana about Navadvipa
User: Swami Gaurangapada Date: 2006-07-17 12:40:02
Shrimad Bhagavata Mahapurana
krishna-varnam tvishakrishnam, sangopangastra-parshadam;
yajnaih sankirtana-prayair, yajanti hi su-medhasah.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32) Karabhajana Muni speaks to Videharaja Nimi: “In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead (Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu), who constantly sings the name of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish (but is like molten gold), He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons, and confidential companions.”
Commentary by Shrila Jiva Gosvami in the Tattva-sandarbha on the above verse is explained as follows:
††††††††††††††† This verse was spoken by Karabhajana Rishi in response to a question Maharaja Nimi posed concerning the Lord’s color, name, and mode of worship in the various yugas. In this verse Karabhajana Rishi describes the Lord’s incarnation in Kali-yuga, and in so doing he indirectly reveals that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is Lord Shri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krishna-varnam indicates one who describes the pastimes of Lord Krishna to others or who always chants “Krishna, Krishna.” Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu certainly meets this criterion for being krishna-varna. Varnam also means “class” or “category.” So krishna-varnam may also indicate one who is in the same class as Krishna. Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is krishna-varna in this sense because He is nondifferent from Lord Shri Krishna. Varna also means “letter” or “word,” and thus krishna-varnam also indicates one whose name has the word Krishna in it-in this case Shri Krishna Chaitanya.
††††††††††††††† Other meanings of varna are “fame,” “form,” “outward appearance,” “quality,” and “ritual.” One may apply all these meanings to the phrase krishna-varnam and thus understand it to indicate Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. For example, krishna-varnam may indicate one whose fame is like Krishna’s or whose form is like Krishna’s.
††††††††† ††††††In Sarva-samvadini, a supplementary commentary to Shri Shat-sandarbha by Shrila Jiva Gosvami himself, he explains that Lord Chaitanya is referred to as krishna-varna because people were reminded of Lord Shri Krishna just by seeing Him. Another reason is that although Shri Chaitanya displayed a golden complexion to the common man, to His intimate associates He sometimes appeared blackish. Finally, krishna-varna also means one who is blackish like Krishna, but in the case of Lord Chaitanya, krishna-varna must refer to His inner complexion. The compound word tvishakrishnam may be broken as tvisha akrishnam, giving the meaning “whose bodily hue is not blackish.”
††††††††††††††† In the Bhagavad-gita (7.25) Lord Krishna says, naham prakasah sarvasya yoga-maya-samavritah: “Because the veil of Yogamaya covers Me, I am not manifest to everyone as I am.” This declaration specifically applies to the Lord’s appearance in Kali-yuga as Shri Krishna Chaitanya. Prahlada Maharaja also refers to Lord Chaitanya when he says in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.38), channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo ’tha sa tvam: “O Lord, Your incarnation in Kali-yuga is hidden, or confidential, and therefore you are called Tri-yuga, one who incarnates in three yugas .” Here the word channa (“covered”) also signifies that Lord Chaitanya is Lord Krishna covered by the mood and complexion of Shri Radhika. The Naradiya Purana (5.47) also foretells the Lord’s appearance as a devotee:
aham eva kalau vipra nityam pracchanna-vigrahah;
bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan rakshami sarvada.
“The Lord said: ‘Concealing My real identity, O vipra , I appear in Kali-yuga in the garb of a devotee and always protect My devotees.’”
††††††††††††††† Tvishakrishnam may also be broken up as tvisha krishnam, meaning “one whose complexion is blackish.” Although Lord Chaitanya’s complexion was golden, He is Lord Krishna Himself, and thus the words tvisha krishnam indicate His original form as Lord Krishna, which He revealed only to certain devotees, such as Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.
††††††††††††††† Sangopangastra-parsadam means “with His limbs, ornaments, weapons, and associates.” According to Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Lord Chaitanya’s limbs are Lord Nityananda Prabhu and Advaita Acarya, His ornaments are Shrivasa Thakura, Shrila Haridasa Thakura, and others, His weapons are the holy names, which dispel ignorance, and His associates are Gadadhara, Govinda, and the many other devotees who stayed with Him in Jagannatha Puri.
††††††††††††††† Sangopangastra-parsadam may also refer to Lord Chaitanya’s form as Shri Krishna, which He showed to His intimate devotees. This form has beautiful limbs decorated with ornaments (such as the Kaustubha gem), which act like weapons by attracting one’s mind toward Lord Krishna and thus killing one’s demoniac mentality. The Lord’s ornaments are also associates of His, since they are living persons and are His devotees.
††††††††††††††† The words yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi su-medhasah convey the following meaning: The Vedas recommend many processes for worshiping the Supreme Lord, but in Kali-yuga the wise worship Him by chanting His holy names congregationally. Lord Chaitanya inaugurated this process and is thus called the father of the sankirtana movement.
††††††††††††††† Su-medhasah means “people of fine intelligence.” The implication is that less intelligent people will worship the Lord in other ways and that outright fools will oppose the sankirtana movement. Sankirtana is very dear to Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He Himself was always absorbed in performing sankirtana, and He enjoined everyone to participate, declaring it the universal remedy for all the defects of Kali-yuga. Sukadeva Gosvami confirms this in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.3.51, 52):
kaler dosha-nidhe rajann asti hy eko mahan gunah;
kirtanad eva krishnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet.
krite yad dhyayato vishnum tretayam yajato makhaih;
dvapare paricaryayam kalau tad dhari-kirtanat.
“My dear king, although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: Simply by chanting the names of Krishna one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom. Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Vishnu, in Treta-yuga by performing sacrifices, and in Dvapara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra.”† (Commentary ends.)