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Title: 17.7 million years ago

User: Damodara Svarupa dasa      Date: 2005-02-24 16:55:43


17.7 million years ago -- By Swami Gaurangapada



Shrila Rupa Goswami's Laghu Bhagavatamrta Text 78:


kausalyayam dasarathan

nava-durva dala-dyutih

tretayam avirabhavac

caturvimse catur-yuge

bharatena sumitraya

nandanabhyam ca samyutah


kausalyayam-in the womb of Kausalya-devi; dasarathat-from Dasaratha

Maharaja; nava-fresh; durva-dala-durva grass; dyutiH-with the splendor;

tretayam-during the Treta-yuga; avirabhavat-appeared; caturvimse-during the

24th; catuh-yuge-cycle of four yugas; bharatena-by Bharata; sumitrayaH-of

Sumitra; nandanabhyam-by the two sons (Laksmana and Satrughna); ca-also;



"Splendid as a new blade of durva grass, and accompanied by Sumitra's two

sons and by Bharata, Lord Ramachandra appeared in the Treta-yuga of the 24th

catur-yuga as the son of Kausalya and Dasaratha."


[It is clearly mentioned that caturvimse catur yuge i.e during the 24th

caturyuga. Calculations: 1 Catur-yuga= 4,320,000 years or 43 lakh 20

thousand years]


Catur-yugas passed = 24th part (roughly half) of Treta & full Kali,

25th, 26th, 27th, 28th till part of Kali-yuga


Years passed approx. = 432,000 + 432,000 + 4,320,000 + 4,320,000 +

4,320,000 + (4,320,000-427,000 left)


= 17,717,000 (+or-432,000 years)


(+ or - 432,000 years is required because we don't exactly know in which

period of Treta Yuga of the 24th Chatur-yuga Lord Rama appeared, He



This is a most beautiful & detailed narration about the appearance of Lord

Ramachandra from the book (Valmiki) "Ramayana" by Shriman Purnaprajna dasa.


The great tract of land known as Kosala extended along the banks of the

Sarayu River. This land was verdant, prosperous and rich in grain. Within

this vast territory was the renowned city of Ayodhya, built by the desire of

Vaivasvata Manu, the ruler of mankind. This glorious city was ninety-six

miles long and twenty-four miles wide. It was well laid out, and its

beautiful, straight roads were perfumed with scented water sprayed from the

trunks of intoxicated elephants. Every day, the damsels of the celestial

planets hovered above it in their beautiful airplanes and showered it with



The arched gateways of Ayodhya were made of marble, and the gates were

wrought with gold and silver and embedded with precious jewels. Cannons and

catapults, capable of repulsing any enemy, protected the city walls. The

marketplaces were well planned, and seven-story houses symmetrically lined

the streets. Adorned with multi-storied palaces and surrounded with

exquisite gardens, Ayodhya resounded with the vibrations of musical

instruments, rivaling Amaravati, the abode of the heavenly king, Indra.

Throughout the city, bards and singers recited the glories of the Supreme

Personality of Godhead, and dancers acted out the Lord's pastimes for

everyone's benefit.


Within Ayodhya were many beautiful gardens abounding with flowers and shaded

by fruit trees. Blue, red, and golden lotuses filled the ponds, and

fountains shot water high into the air. Gentle breezes carried the aromatic

spray from the fountains, cooling the citizens by their touch, and making

even a hot summer day seem like spring. The sounds of cranes and peacocks

could be heard everywhere. The water flowing through Ayodhya's streams and

rivulets tasted as sweet as sugarcane sap, and it was used not only for

drinking but for irrigating numerous mango orchards. Many houses and

palaces, perfectly designed, were built of precious stones and decorated

with flags and festoons. Their beauty rivaled the palaces of Vaikuntha.

Thousands of warriors protected the great city: skilled archers, well versed

in the use of weapons, and chariot fighters who were able to fight with

thousands of men at a time.


The streets leading into Ayodhya were always filled with travelers. Kings

and princes from all parts of the world came to render their annual tribute

and pay respects to the King of Ayodhya. Traders from near and far flocked

to the markets to barter.


Brahmana priests could often be seen pouring ghee into sacrificial fires and

chanting Vedic hymns, proclaiming the glories of Lord Vishnu. Having mastered

their senses and devoted themselves to truth, these brahmanas were blessed

with all good qualities.


Maharaja Dasaratha was the emperor of the entire world and was a great

rajarsi, considered almost on the level of a maharsi He was a formidable

warrior, capable of fighting alone with an unlimited number of opponents.

Because he and the citizens were completely pious, Ayodhya was the picture

of perfect Vedic civilization. Every imaginable opulence was exhibited in

perfection, and material miseries, coming from the results of sinful life,

were practically nonexistent. In Ayodhya, the four social orders, namely the

brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras, participated cooperatively for the

peace and prosperity of the kingdom. No one cheated and no one was miserly.

Arrogance, atheism, and harsh behavior and speech were conspicuous by their



Even though Maharaja Dasaratha possessed such fantastic opulence and

prestige, he remained unhappy. Try as he may, the King was unable to beget a

son to continue his dynasty. Finally, after much deliberation, King

Dasaratha decided to perform a horse sacrifice for the purpose of getting a

son. With this in mind he sent his chief minister, Sumantra, to call for his

family priests.


When the brahmanas, headed by Vasistha and Vamadeva, assembled, Maharaja

Dasaratha addressed them, saying, ''O best among the twice born, for many

years I have ardently desired to beget a son. However, all my efforts have

been in vain. Because I am without an heir, I can no longer feign happiness.

Indeed, my days seem wasted and are filled with grief. Thus, after much

careful consideration, and with your kind permission, I have decided to

perform a horse sacrifice. Because you are fully knowledgeable in scripture,

I am confident that you will be able to lead me on the proper path.''

The priests unanimously approved of Maharaja Dasaratha's idea to perform the

horse sacrifice, and thereafter, the king ordered his ministers to make all

necessary arrangements without delay. Sumantra then took Maharaja Dasaratha

aside to narrate the following story (about Rsyasrnga)...


Maharaja Dasaratha was very pleased to hear this story from Sumantra. Then,

without delay, he went with his retinue to the kingdom of Anga. There, he

was received by Maharaja Romapada with great respect, and at that time the

king of Anga informed Rsyasrnga that Dasaratha was his real father-in-law.

After enjoying Romapada's hospitality for about one week, Maharaja Dasaratha

addressed his friend as follows: ''For a long time I have been morose on

account of not having a son to perpetuate my illustrious dynasty. Now, I beg

you to allow Rsyasrnga to come to Ayodhya to perform a horse sacrifice on my



Romapada happily agreed, and Maharaja Dasaratha soon returned to his capital

with Rsyasrnga and Santa. Then, when spring arrived, Maharaja Dasaratha

humbly approached Rsyasrnga, begging him for instructions regarding the

performance of the horse sacrifice. Thus, preparations for the sacrifice

commenced and a site was selected on the northern bank of the River Sarayu.

The system was for an emperor to send a challenge horse all over the world

to establish his supremacy over subordinate kings. The horse would be

accompanied by soldiers of the emperor, and upon its arrival in a kingdom,

the local king would either have to offer tribute to the emperor's

representatives, or fight to capture the horse. Any ruling prince or king

was at liberty either to express his tacit willingness to obey the emperor,

or to accept the challenge and thus disobey the supremacy of the particular

emperor. One who accepted the challenge had to fight with the emperor's men

and establish his own supremacy by victory. The defeated challenger would

have to sacrifice his life, making place for another king or ruler. Only

when the horse returned after touring the world, with no more challengers

left, could a horse sacrifice begin.


Understanding that King Janaka would be the future father-in-law of his

sons, Maharaja Dasaratha sent him the first invitation. Likewise, other

subordinate kings were requested to attend the sacrifice. After one full

year, the challenge horse returned to Ayodhya, having wandered over the

earth under the protection of 400 princes. Only then could the sacrifice



After the preliminary rites had been performed Maharaja Dasaratha's eldest

queen, Kausalya, circumambulated the challenge horse, which was tied to one

of the sacrificial stakes. Then, with three strokes of a sword, she severed

the horse's head, as prescribed by scriptural injunction.


Thereafter, Rsyasrnga offered the fat of the dead horse into the sacrificial

fire. Maharaja Dasaratha was directed to inhale the fumes, to free him from

all sins. Then, the assisting priests offered the limbs of the horse into

the sacrificial fire, bringing the three day sacrifice to an end.

Maharaja Dasaratha then gave away the four directions of the earth in

charity to the four chief priests. The brahmanas returned the gifts,

however, saying, ''O king, we are devoted to Vedic study and the performance

of austerities, and have no interest in ruling over a kingdom. Therefore,

please give us other gifts like cows and gold.''


Rsyasrnga then approached Maharaja Dasaratha, saying, ''My dear king, you

will surely receive four glorious sons. However, I propose that a separate

sacrifice, known as Putresti, be performed for that purpose.''


Maharaja Dasaratha readily assented, soon the sacrifice was begun.

Meanwhile, in the higher planets, the chief demigods approached Lord Brahma

and explained, ''O grandsire, because of your benedictions, Ravana has

become so powerful that he is harassing everyone at will. Even we cannot

subdue the wicked Raksasa. Therefore, we request you to personally devise

the means for his destruction.''


Lord Brahma considered the situation and then replied, ''At the time of

asking for benedictions, Ravana did not bother to ask for immunity from

death at the hands of human beings, for he considered them to be too



While Brahma was thinking how Ravana could be killed, Lord Vishnu suddenly

appeared, riding on His carrier, Garuda. As effulgent as many suns, Lord

Vishnu appeared in His four-armed form, dressed in bright saffron garments

and carrying His disc, conch, club and lotus flower.


The demigods worshipped the Supreme Lord with great reverence and then

requested, ''O master of the universe, please come to our rescue by dividing

Yourself into four, becoming the sons of Maharaja Dasaratha for the purpose

of killing Ravana.''


Lord Vishnu replied, ''Rest assured, there is no longer any need to be

afraid. I will soon incarnate to rule over the earth for 11,000 years after

vanquishing your enemy, the king of the Raksasas.'' After saying this, Lord

Vishnu disappeared as the demigods looked on with wonder.

Meanwhile, from the sacrificial fire of Maharaja Dasaratha, there appeared

an exceptional being of dark complexion with all auspicious bodily features.

This personality appeared to be unlimitedly powerful. He was decorated with

transcendental ornaments, and in his hand he carried a large golden pot of

sweet rice. That divine person then told Maharaja Dasaratha, ''I am a

messenger of Lord Vishnu.''


With folded hands, the king replied, ''O Vishnuduta, please order me to

perform whatever service I can render.''


The servant of Lord Vishnu said, ''This pot of sweet rice is the reward for

your two sacrificial performances. Give portions to your three wives to eat.

Through them you shall beget four sons who will forever perpetuate your



Maharaja Dasaratha happily accepted the sweet rice and circumambulated the

Vishnuduta. After Lord Vishnu's messenger disappeared from view, Maharaja

Dasaratha quickly gave portions of the sweet rice to his wives, for he was

eager to have sons.


Maharaja Dasaratha gave Kausalya one half of the sweet rice, Sumitra one

fourth, and Kaikeyi one eighth. Then after some deliberation, he gave the

remaining eighth to Sumitra. All three wives were overjoyed, for they were

confident that they would soon become mothers.


The three Queens eagerly ate their shares and soon thereafter, each felt the

presence of divine offspring within their wombs. When Maharaja Dasaratha

understood that his wives were pregnant, he too became very satisfied.

Meanwhile, Lord Brahma ordered the demigods as follows: ''Beget partial

manifestations of yourselves to assist Lord Vishnu in His forthcoming

incarnation. The children which you produce in the form of monkeys (by

uniting with Apsaras, she-monkeys, and female Yaksas, Nagas, Vidyadharas and

other celestial beings), must be capable of assuming any form at will and

must possess all other mystic powers. In addition, they must be very

intelligent, highly skilled in the use of weapons, having prowess almost

equal to Lord Vishnu, and possess ethereal bodies.''


After receiving the order of Lord Brahma, Indra begot Vali, Surya begot

Sugriva, Brhaspati begot Tara, Kuvera begot Gandhamada, Visvakarma begot

Nala, Varuna begot Susena, and Vayu begot Hanumana. Besides these principal

monkeys, many thousands of others took birth to assist Lord Vishnu in His

mission. All of them were gigantic like mountains and were very eager to

fight with Ravana. Like the demigods who begot them, these monkeys were born

just after conception. They were so powerful that they could agitate the

ocean with their impetuous energy.


There were three classes of these created beings: bears, monkeys, and

monkeys that had long tails like cows. Because there were more than ten

million of these monkeys and bears, the earth soon became overrun with them

as they wandered throughout the forests, eating wild fruits and various



After the completion of the Putrsti sacrifice, the demigods (who personally

came to accept their offerings) and the priests, Rsyasrnga and Santa,

departed for their respective residences. Then, after a pregnancy of twelve

months, on the ninth day of the waxing (bright) fortnight in the month of

Caitra, Kausalya gave birth to a son. This divine child had reddish eyes and

lips, long arms, and was decorated with all auspicious markings. The son of

Kausalya represented one-half of the potency of Lord Vishnu.


Soon thereafter, a son representing one-fourth of the prowess of Lord Vishnu

was born of Kaikeyi, Maharaja Dasaratha's youngest queen. Then, two days

after the appearance of Kausalya's son, Sumitra gave birth to twins, each

representing one-sixth of the potency of Lord Vishnu. All four of the newborn

children highly resembled one another and were exceedingly effulgent and

pleasing to behold. Indeed, upon the appearance of Maharaja Dasaratha's four

sons, the demigods showered flowers from heaven, while the Gandharvas sang

and played musical instruments as the Apsaras danced. In Ayodhya there was a

great festival, as musicians, dancers and actors crowded the streets, with

all the citizens participating in the merrymaking.


SrI RAma ashTottara satanAmAvaLi


asya srI rAmacandranAmAshTottara satamantrasya brahmA rshih |

anushtup chandah | jAnakI vallabhah srI rAmacandro devatA | om bIjam |

namah saktih | srI rAmacandrah kIlakam | shri rAmacandraprItyarthe

jape viniyogah |


om namo bhagavate rAjAdhirAjAya paramAtmane hrdayAya namah|

om namo bhagavate vidhyAdhirAjAya hayagrIvAya sirase svAhA |

om namo bhagavate jAnakI vallabhAya namah sikhAyai vashatt |

om namo bhagavate raghunandAyAmitatejase kavacAya hum |

om namo bhagavate kshIrAbdhi madhyasthAya nArAyaNAya netratrayAya voushaT |

om namo bhagavate satprakAsAya rAmAya astrAya phaT |

iti shadanganyAsah |

evam angulinyAsah kAryah |


atha dhyAnam


mandArakrti puNya dhAma vilasad vakshasthalam komalam

sAntam kantamahendra nIla rucirAbhAsam sahasrAnAmam

vande'ham raghunandanam surapatim kodaNda dIkshAgurum

rAmam sarva jagat susevita padam sItA manovallabham



1. sahasrasIrshNe vai tubhyam sahasrAkshAya te namah |

namah sahasrahastAya sahasra caraNAya ca ||


[ 1. sahasrasIrshNe namah 2. sahasrAkshAya namah

3. sahasrahastAya namah 4. sahasra caraNAya namah ]


2. namo jImUtavarNAya namaste visvatomukha |

acyutAya namastubhyam namaste seshasAyine ||


[ 5. jImUtavarNAya namah 6. visvatomukhAya namah

7. acyutAya namah 8. seshasAyine namah ]


3. namo hiraNyagarbhAya pancabhUtAtmane namah |

namo mUlaprakrtaye devAnAm hitakAriNe ||


[ 9. hiraNyagarbhAya namah 10. pancabhUtAtmane namah

11. mUlaprakrtaye namah 12. devAnAm hitakAriNe namah ]


4. namaste sarvalokesa sarva duhkha nishUdana |

sankha cakra gadA padma jatAmukuta dhAriNe ||


[ 13. sarvalokesAya namah 14. sarva duhkha nishUdanAya namah

15. sankha cakra gadA padma jatAmukuta dhAriNe namah ]


5. namo garbhAya tatvAya jyotishAm jyotishe namah |

om namo vAsudevAya namo dasarathAtmaja ||


[ 16. garbhAya namah 17. tatvAya namah 18. jyotishAm jyotishe namah

19. vAsudevAya namah 20. dasarathAtmajAya namah ]


6. namo namaste rAjendra sarva sampat pradAya ca |

namah kAruNya rUpAya kaikeyIpriyakAriNe ||


[ 21. rAjendrAya namah 22. sarva sampat pradAya namah

23. kAruNya rUpAya namah 24. kaikeyIpriyakAriNe namah ]


7. namo dAntAya sAntAya visvAmitra priyAya te |

yajnesAya namastubhyam namaste kratupAlaka ||


[ 25. dAntAya namah 26. sAntAya namah 27. visvAmitra priyAya namah

28. yajnesAya namah 29. kratupAlakAya namah ]


8. namo namah kesavAya namo nAthAya sArngiNe |

namaste rAmacandrAya namo nArAyaNAya ca ||


[ 30. kesavAya namah 31. nAthAya namah 32. sArngiNe namah

33. rAmacandrAya namah 34. nArAyaNAya namah ]


9. namaste rAmacandrAya mAdhavAya namo namah |

govindAya namastubhyam namaste paramAtmane ||


[ 35. rAmacandrAya namah 36. mAdhavAya namah

37. govindAya namah 38. paramAtmane namah ]


10. namaste vishNurUpAya raghunAthAya te namah |

namaste anAthanAthAya namaste madhusUdana ||


[ 39. vishNurUpAya namah 40. raghunAthAya namah

41. anAthanAthAya namah 42. madhusUdanAya namah ]


11. trivikrama namastestu sItAyAh pataye namah |

vAmanAya namastubhyam namaste rAghavAya ca ||


[ 43. trivikramAya namah 44. sItAyAh pataye namah

45. vAmanAya namah 46. rAghavAya namah ]


12. namo namah srIdharAya janakIvallabhAya ca |

namastestu hrshIkesa kandarpAya namo namah ||


[ 47. srIdharAya namah 48. janakIvallabhAya namah

49. hrshIkesAya namah 50. kandarpAya namah ]


13. namaste padmanAbhAya kausalyAharshakAriNe |

namo rajIvanayana namaste lakshmaNAgraja ||


[ 51. padmanAbhAya namah 52. kausalyAharshakAriNe namah

53. rajIvanayanAya namah 54. lakshmaNAgrajaya namah ]


14. namo namaste kAkutstha namo dAmodarAya ca |

vibhIshaNa paritrAtarnamah sankarshaNAya ca ||


[ 55. kAkutsthaya namah 56. dAmodarAya namah

57. vibhIshaNa paritrAtre namah 58. sankarshaNAya namah ]


15. vAsudeva namastestu namaste sankarapriya |

pradyumnAya namastubhyam aniruddhAya te namah ||


[ 59. vAsudevaya namah 60. sankarapriyAya namah

61. pradyumnAya namah 62. aniruddhAya namah]


16. sadasat bhaktirUpAya namaste purushottama |

adhokshaja namastestu saptatAla harAya ca ||


[ 63. sadasat bhaktirUpAya namah 64. purushottamAya namah

65. adhokshajAya namah 66. saptatAla harAya namah ]


17. kharadUshaNa samhartre srI nrsimhAya te namah |

acyutAya namastubhyam namaste setubandhaka ||


[ 67. kharadUshaNa samhartre namah 68. srInrsimhAya namah

69. acyutAya namah 70. setubandhakAya namah ]


18. janArdana namastestu namo hanumadAsraya |

upendra candravandyAya mArIca-mathanAya ca ||


[ 71. janArdanAya namah 72. hanumadAsrayAya namah

73. upendra candravandyAya namah 74. mArIca-mathanAya namah ]


19. namo vAli-praharaNa namah sugrIva-rAjyada |

jAmadagnya mahAdarpa HarAya haraye namah ||


[ 75. vAli-praharaNAya namah 76. sugrIva-rAjyadAya namah

77. jAmadagnya mahAdarpa harAya namah 78. haraye namah ]


20. namo namaste krshNAya namaste bharatAgraja |

namaste pitr-bhaktAya namah satrughna pUrvaja ||


[ 79. krshNAya namah 80. bharatAgrajAya namah

81. pitr-bhaktAya namah 82. satrughna pUrvajAya namah ]


21. ayodhyAdhipate tubhyam namah satrughna sevita |

namo nityAya satyAya buddhyAdi-jnAnarUpiNe ||


[ 83. ayodhyAdhipataye namah 84. satrughna sevitAya namah

85. nityAya namah 86. satyAya namah 87. buddhyAdi-jnAnarUpiNe namah ]


22. advaita brahma-rUpAya jnAna-gamyAya te namah |

namah pUrNAya ramyAya mAdhavAya cidAtmane ||


[ 88. advaita brahma-rUpAya namah 89. jnAna-gamyAya namah

90. pUrNAya namah 91. ramyAya namah

92. mAdhavAya namah 93. cidAtmane namah ]


23. ayodhyesAya sreshThaya cin-mAtrAya parAtmane |

namo'halyoddhAraNAya namaste cApa bhanjine ||


[ 94. ayodhyesAya namah 95. sreshThaya namah

96. cin-mAtrAya namah 97. parAtmane namah

98. ahalyoddhAraNAya namah 99. cApa bhanjine namah ]


24. sItArAmAya sevyAya stutyAya parameshThine |

namaste bANa-hastAya namah kodaNda-dhAriNe ||


[100. sItArAmAya namah 101. sevyAya namah

102. stutyAya namah 103. parameshThine namah

104. bANa-hastAya namah 105. kodaNda-dhAriNe namah ]


25. namah kabhanda-hantre ca vAli-hantre namos'tu te |

namastestu dasagrIva prANa samhAra kAriNe ||


[ 106. kabhanda-hantre namah 107. vAli-hantre namah

108. dasagrIva prANa samhAra kAriNe namah ]


Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu delightfully ordered Shri Murari Gupta (none other

than Hanuman) to recite some poems composed by Shri Gupta himself. Shri Murari

Gupta began to recite Ramastaka and the Lord, who was greatly pleased, at

once regarded himself as Ramacandra. With a sweet smile Prabhu wrote the

name "Ramadasa" on the forehead of Murari Gupta.


By the order of Mahaprabhu, Murarigupta recited his own composition "Shri



(1) "I adore the Supreme Lord Ramacandra who is worshipped by the

residents of the three worlds; Whose face is as beautiful as a spotless

moon, Whose ears are adorned with beautiful kundalas, shining more

brilliantly than the stars named Brhaspati and Sukra; and whose crown is

bedecked with the gleaming Kiritamani jewel which glows like the shining

rays of the sun."


(2) "I worship Shri Ramacandra, the only guru of the three worlds, Whose

eyes are as beautiful as blossoming lotus', Whose lips are like beautifully

red bimba fruit. His nose is charming and His smile defeats the soft rays of

the moon."


(3) "I worship the only guru of the three worlds, Shri Ramacandra, whose

neck is as charming as a conch, and Whose complexion is like that of a blue

lotus. His effulgent necklaces of pearl and gold are likened to the sky,

where lightening flashes next to white swan-colored clouds."


(4) "I praise Shri Ramacandra, by whose side is seated the bright golden

complexioned Sita who holds a lotus flower in Her raised hand. That lotus

clasped by Her five beautiful fingers is possessed of morethan five hundred



(5) "I sing the glories of Shri Ramacandra, the only guru throughout the

three worlds, in front of whom stands the great archer Shri Laksmana,

formerly known as Shesha (or Great Spirit), whose beautiful golden

complexion is enhanced by numerous ornaments and who is known as a devout

servant of his elder brother."


(6) "I glorify Shri Raghava, the killer of the demons Ravana, Khara,

Trisira and Kavandha. He is the destroyer of the corruptor's of Shri

Dandakaranya: the killer of Vali: and the friend of Sugriva."


(7) "I worship the only guru of the three worlds, Shri Rama, who has

taken the hand of Sita after breaking the Haradhanu. While one his way from

Mithila to Ayodhya, Shri Ramacandra, for the pleasure of his father,

destroyed the pride of Parasaurama. "


(8) To be Translated


Being pleased to hear the glories of Shri Raghunandana Rajasimha, the

Supreme Lord Gaurasundara, placed his feet on the head of Shri Murari Gupta

and wrote on his forehead, "It is My desire that henceforward you shall be

known as Ramadasa."

Murari Gupta was overwhelmed with joy and gratitude. In the morning

Prabhu and all the devotees returned to their own houses. Who can understand

the hidden meaning and true intentions behind the Lord's transcendental



From Bhati Ratnakara by Narahari Dasa, Translation by Shri Kushakratha dasa


Daaso'smi, Tridandi Bhikshu Bhaktiratna Sadhu Swami.