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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > Glossary of Terms







Abhidheya - comes from the verbal root abhidha, which means "to

set forth or explain," and the word abhidheya literally means "that

which is worthy of explanation." The means by which krishna-prema

can be achieved is the fundamental truth (tattva) that is most worthy

of explanation. The means by which the ultimate goal is

achieved, is the practice of sadhana-bhakti.

Abhimana - egoism; the self-conception with which one identifies.

Acarya - spiritual preceptor, one who teaches by example.

Acchadita-cetana - covered consciousness. This refers to living beings

such as trees, creepers, shrubs, stones, and other non-moving

beings whose consciousness is barely detectable.

Acira-sthayi - unenduring, impermanent.

Acit-vastu - unconscious objects.

Adharma - irreligion; failure to carry out one's socio-religious duties

prescribed in the sastra.

Adhikara - eligibility or authority by conduct and temperament to

perform a particular kind of work.

Adhina-tattva - the fundamental truth concerning the jivas who,

being eternally related to Shri Bhagavan as parts to the whole, are

adhina (subordinate) to His will; one of the aspects of sambandhajnana.

Advaita-jnana - knowledge of non-duality. Although in the true

sense this refers to the Supreme Absolute Personality of Godhead

who is devoid of all duality, the Mayavada conception of advaitajnana

is that the ultimate substance, brahma, is devoid of form,

qualities, personality, and variegatedness.

Advaita-siddhi - the perfectional stage of oneness aspired for by

those who cultivate an awareness of indistinct brahma.

Advaita-vada - the doctrine of non-dualism, monism - the doctrine

that emphasizes the absolute oneness of the living entities

with God. This is often equated with the Mayavada theory that

everything is ultimately one; that there is no distinction whatsoever

between the Supreme Absolute and the individual living entities;

that the Supreme is devoid of form, personality, qualities, and

activities; and that perfection is to merg oneself into the all-pervading

impersonal brahma. This doctrine was propagated by Shri

Sankaracarya (see Glossary of Names).

Advaita-vadi - one who advocates the doctrine of monism (see


Agama - is a part of Veda which deals with the science of Tantra.

Ahamkara - lit. aham (I) kara (am the doer) i.e. the false ego.

Ahamta - literally means 'I-ness'; egoism; self-consciousness.

Aihika - that which relates to iha (the here and now); that which

relates to this material world.

Aihika- sukha - material enjoyment pertaining to this world.

Aisi- sakti - divine potency, which is known as tatastha-sakti. Aisi

comes from the word Isa the Supreme Lord, Master or Controller

(see tatastha-sakti).

Aisvarya - opulence, splendor, magnificence, majesty, supremacy.

In regard to bhakti this refers to devotion which is inspired by the

opulence and majesty of the Lord especially in His feature as Lord

Narayana. This type of devotion restricts the intimacy of exchange

between Shri Bhagavan and His bhaktas.

Akarma - the non-performance of auspicious activities or prescribed


Akhanda - undivided, uninterupted, without a break, like the flow

of a stream of honey.

Akincana - one who considers he has nothing but Krishna. Having

nothing at all, utterly destitute materially. When referring to a

Vaishnava, this usually denotes an ascetic who is devoid of the spirit

of material enjoyment and accepts only the bare necessities for his

maintenance. Vaishnavas like the Pandavas who live in the midst of

family and material opulence only for the service of Bhagavan and

who are devoid of any desire for material enjoyment consider that

nothing belongs to them. Everything belongs to Shri Bhagavan. They

are akincana Vaishnavas.

Alam al-mashal - an Islamic term for the spiritual world.

Alankara - ornaments, embellishments etc.

Alankara-sastra - books concerning the literary embellishment of

worldly poetry, etc.

Amnaya - the teachings of the Vedas received through guruparampara

are known as amnaya.

Amutrika-sukha - enjoyment which pertains to the next life, particularly

enjoyment in the celestial planets yet to be attained after

the performance of pious activities.

Ana al-ƒaqq - the Islamic equivalent of the Vedic aphorism aham

brahmasmi, "I am brahma."

Anadi-bahirmukha - the condition of the jivas in material existence

of being diverted from Krishna from a time without beginning.

Ananda - spiritual bliss, ecstasy, joy, happiness; that which Shri

Bhagavan relishes through His hladini-sakti (see hladini).

Ananya - having no other object; undistracted; devoted to only

one worhipable Lord, no one else.

Ananya-bhakti - exclusive or pure devotion; devotion which is not

mixed with any other desires and has no objective other than Shri


Anartha - unwanted desires in the heart which impede one's advancement

in bhakti. These anarthas are of four types: (1)

duskrtottha, those arising from past sins; (2) sukrtottha, those arising

from previous pious activities; (3) aparadhottha, those arising

from offenses; and (4) bhakty-uttha, those arising in relationship

to bhakti.

Anartha-nivrtti - the clearing of all unwanted desires in the heart.

This is the third stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti,

which occurs by the influence of sadhu-sanga and bhajana-kriya.

Anga - limb, division, part; the various practices of bhakti such as

hearing and chanting are referred to as angas (of bhakti).

Anitya - temporary; not permanent or eternal.

Anitya-dharma - impermanent religion; does not accept the existence

of the Supreme Lord or the eternality of the soul.

Antaranga-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's internal potency (see svarupasakti).

Antarmukha - the inward tendency. Having one's attention focused

inwards towards the soul and spiritual enlightenment.

Antyaja - a person of the lowest class, outside of the varnasrama

system; literally antya means 'born last' and ja means 'those people'.

Anubhava - one of the five essential ingredients of rasa. The actions

which display or reveal the spiritual emotions situated within

the heart are called anubhavas. The anubhavas are thirteen in number:

1) nrtya (dancing), 2) vilunthita (rolling on the ground), 3) gita

(singing), 4) krosana (loud crying), 5) tanu-motana (writhing of the

body), 6) hunkara (roaring), 7) jrmbhana (yawning), 8) svasa-bhua

(breathing heavily), 9) loka-anapeksita (giving up concern for public

image), 10) lalasrava (salivating), 11) atta-hasa (loud laughter),

12) ghurna (staggering about), and 13) hikka (a fit of hiccups).

Anu- chaitanya - infinitesimal spiritual consciousness, represented

by the jivas.

Anu-cit-vastu - infinitesimal spiritual substance; the jivas, who are

conscious entities but minute in size.

Anudita-viveka - one whose spiritual discrimination is not awakened;

the spiritually unconscious.

Anukalpa - refers to acceptance by the bhakta of anu (a small

amount) kalpa (for minimum capability), meaning a quantity of

food (which is not in the category of grains, beans etc.) to maintain

sufficient energy for hari-seva.

Anu-padartha - infinitesimal object.

Anuraga - (1) attachment in general. (2) spiritual attachment. (3) a

specific stage in the development of prema which has been defined

in Ujjvala-nilamani (14.146) as follows: "Despite regularly meeting

and being already well-acquainted with the beloved, an everfresh

sentiment of intense attachment causes the beloved to be newly

experienced at every moment as if one had never before any experience

of such a person. The attachment which inspires such a feeling

is known as anuraga."

Anusilana - constant practice, study, or cultivation, especially the

culture of spiritual activities.

Aparadha - offenses committed against the holy name, the

Vaishnavas, the guru, the sastras, the holy places, the Deity and so

on. The verbal root radh means to give pleasure or satisfy and the

prefix apa means taking away. Thus the word aparadha signifies all

activities that are displeasing to Bhagavan and His bhaktas.

Apara-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's inferior or material potency.

Apauruseya - that which is not created by (purusa) man; divine;

that which is transcendental in nature, emanating directly from

Shri Bhagavan; the Vedas.

Aprakrta - transcendental, beyond the influence of material nature,

beyond the perception of the mind and senses, not created

by any human, beyond the material world, situated in Krishna's

transcendental abode, extraordinary, divine, pure, or consisting

of spiritual consciousness and bliss.

Aprarabdha- karma - the accumulated stock of reactions to activities

which are lying in a dormant condition and waiting to bear

fruit at some time.

Apurva - unprecedented, extraordinary, unparalleled.

Apsara - the heavenly wives of the Gandharvas; exceptionally beautiful

dancing girls in the court of Indra.

Apurna-jagat - the finite world; the material world.

Arati - the ceremony of offering articles to a Deity, such as incense,

lamp, flowers, and a fan, accompanied by the chanting of devotional


Arcanam - to worship the Deity in a temple with all different

types of paraphernalia. When this worship is conducted internally,

it is known as manasi-puja. Arcanam is one of the nine primary

angas of bhakti.

Aropa- siddha- bhakti - endeavors which by nature are not purely

constituted of bhakti. The performer of aropa-siddha-bhakti imposes

bhakti onto his activities, meaning he is performing an activity

that isn't one of the nine limbs of bhakti (navadha-bhakti),

or that isn't pure enough to be classified as suddha-bhakti, but he

is thinking that his activity is bhakti. Examples of personalities

performing aropa-siddha-bhakti are: Harischandra and Maharaja


Artha-pancaka - Shri Ramanuja's views on the following five subjects

1) sva-svarupa (the constitutional nature of the individual

self), 2) para-svarupa (the constitutional nature of the individual

self in relation to other living beings), 3) upaya-svarupa (the means

of achieving the highest goal of life - bhakti), 4) purusartha-svarupa

(the highest goal of life) and 5) virodhi-svarupa (the hinderances to

spiritual life).

Arundhati-darsana-nyaya - Arundhati is a very small star, which is

situated close to the Vasistha star in the Saptarsi constellation

(the Great Bear). In order to view it, its location is first determined

by looking at a bigger star beside it, then if one looks carefully one

can see Arundhati close by.

Aryan - is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root r meaning 'to go

ahead' or 'progress'. Thus arya means one who is on the progressive

path of spiritual advancement. Those who follow the varnasrama

system; those who are advanced in terms of social and religious

culture i.e. Hindus.

Asakti - attachment. This especially refers to attachment for the

Lord and His eternal associates. Asakti occurs when one's liking for

bhajana leads to a direct and deep attachment for the person who is

the object of that bhajana. This is the sixth stage in the development

of the creeper of bhakti, which is awakened upon the maturing

of one's ruci for bhajana.

Asampurna - incomplete.

Asrama - (1) one of the four stages of life - student, married, retired,

or renounced - in which one carries out corresponding socio-religious

duties in the system known as varnasrama. (2) a hermitage,

usually in the association of others, which is established to facilitate

spiritual practices.

Asraya - (1) shelter, support, refuge, protection, container. (2) the

receptacle of prema; Krishna's bhaktas. Krishna may also become the

receptacle of prema for His bhaktas.

Asraya-alambana - the receptacle of love for Krishna, the bhaktas.

This is an aspect of vibhava, one of the five essential ingredients of

rasa (see vibhava). Although the word asraya also conveys the same

meaning as asraya-alambana, it may often be used in the general

sense of shelter or support. The word asraya-alambana, however, is

specifically used to indicate the receptacle of prema as one of the

necessary ingredients of rasa. It is not used in any other sense.

Asta-kaliya-lila - the pastimes which Krishna performs with His associates

in eight periods of the day. Sadhakas who are engaged in smarana,

or remembrance, meditate on these pastimes. The periods are as follows

(times are approximate): 1) nisanta-lila, pastimes at the end of

night (3:36 am-6:00 am); 2) prata-lila, pastimes at dawn (6:00 am-8:24

am); 3) purvahna-lila, morning pastimes (8:24 am-10:48 am); 4)

madhyahna-lila, midday pastimes (10:48 am-3.36 pm); 5) aparahna-lila,

afternoon pastimes (3:36 pm-6:00 pm); 6) sayahna-lila, pastimes at

dusk (6:00 pm-8:24 pm); 7) pradosa-lila, evening pastimes (8:24 pm-

10:48 pm); and 8) nakta-lila, midnight pastimes (10:48 pm-3:36 am).

Astanga-yoga - the yoga system consisting of eight parts: yama (control

of the senses), niyama (control of the mind), asana (bodily

postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of

the mind from sensory perception), dharana (steadying the mind),

dhyana (meditation), and samadhi (deep and unbroken absorption

on the Lord in the heart).

Asubha-karma - activities producing inauspicious results.

Asvamedha-yajna - a horse-sacrifice of antiquity in which vast wealth

is spent. Formerly the brahmanas were so highly qualified by purity

and in the skill of chanting mantras that the life of the animal would

be rejuvenated. By performing one hundred such sacrifices one

could attain the post of Indra. This sacrifice is forbidden in the age

of Kali as there are no qualified brahmanas to perform it properly.

Atattvika- sraddha - unreal faith; faith which is based on a false conception

of God, which gives rise to self-interested activities rooted

in pride and material desires. Belief which is not rooted in sastra.

Atirikta - separate; apart from.

Atma - the soul; it may also refer to the body, mind, intellect, or the

Supreme Self. It usually refers to the jiva soul.

Atma- nivedanam - to offer one's very self to Krishna. When one

offers oneself to the Lord, he no longer acts for his independent

pleasure. One engages body, mind, life, and everything in the service

of Shri Bhagavan. This is one of the nine primary angas of


Atyantiki laghu gopis - are yuthesvaris and also nitya-sakhis. Sakhis

such as Kusumika can be called atyantika-laghus, because they are

gentle in all respects and they are insignificant in comparision

with the other sakhis.

Aupacarika - figurative, metaphorical, attributive (see upacara).

Avaidha - that which is opposed to sastric injunctions.

Avaidha-karma - actions which defy the regulations of sastra.

Avastava-vastu - things which are not eternally existing; worldly


Avidya - ignorance, spiritual ignorance, illusion. Ignorance is of

four kinds: to mistake that which is impermanent to be permanent,

that which is full of misery to be blissful, that which is impure to be

pure, and that which is not the self to be the self. Avidya is one of

the five types of klesa, or miseries, destroyed by bhakti.

Avistata - being overpowered by something, or deeply absorbed in

it. Thus, when the bhakta is completely overpowered with affection

for Krishna by the continuous flow of remembrance of His lila,

that state is called raga.


Babaji - a term of respect which is given loosly (frequently improperly),

to sadhus and Vaishnavas, particularly those who have

given up all connection with household life. In the setting of this

book, this term specifically refers to the Vaishnava followers of

Shriman Mahaprabhu, who have given up all the duties and designations

of varnasrama society and who engage almost exclusively

in chanting hari-nama. Actual babajis live as strict renunciates,

they do not accept the external garb of sannyasis because sannyasa

is part of varnasrama. They do not wear the sacred thread of the

brahmanas because they have entered into bhavavastha and are

engaged in raga-marga. Such characteristics are to be accepted

only by those on the highest platform of eligibility, who retire

from the world to immerse themselves in private bhajana.

Baddha-dasa - the state of bondage; the state of the jivas in material


Baddha-jiva - the conditioned soul who is bound by matter. With

regard to the origin of the baddha-jiva this passage states that

Bhagavan's eternal associates in the spiritual world do not have

any contact with and are completely unaffected by the material

energy. Only some of the jivas that emanate from Maha-Vishnu

come into the material world. The original Bengali is as follows:

goloka-vrndavanastha evam paravyoma-stha baladeva o sankarsanaprakatita

nitya-parsada jiva-sakala ananta; tanhara upasya-sevaya

rasika; sarvada svarupartha-visista; upasya-sukhanvesi upasyera prati

sarvada unmukha jiva saktite cit-saktite bala labha kariya tanhara

sarvada balavan; mayara sahita tahandera kona sambandha nai;

mayasakti baliya kona sakti achena, tahao tanhara avagata nana; ye

hetu tanhara cit-mandala-madhyavarti evam maya tanhadera nikata

haite aneka dure; tanhara sarvadai upasya-seva-sukhe magna; dukha,

jada-sukha o nija-sukha ity adi kakhani janena na. tanhara nitya-mukta

premai tanhadera jivana; soka, marana au bhaya ye ki vastu, taha

tanhara janena na.

karanabdha-sayi-maha-visnura mayara prati iksana-rupa kiranagata

anu-chaitanya-gana o ananta; tanhara maya-parsva-sthita baliya

mayara vicitrata tanhadera darsana-patharuda-purve ye jivasadharanera

laksana baliyachi, se samasta laksana tanhadera ache,

tathapi atyanta anu-svabhava-prayukta sarvada tatastha-bhave citjagatera

dike evam maya-jagatera dike drstipata karite thakena. e

avasthaya jiva atyanta durbala, kenana, - justa va sevye-vastura krpalabha

karatah cid-bala labha karena nai. inhadera madhye ye saba jiva

maya-bhoga vasana karena, tanhara mayika-visaye abhinivista haiya

mayate nitya-baddha. yanhara sevya-vastur cidanusilana karena,

tanhara sevya-tattvena krpara sahita cid-bala labha karatah cid-dhame

nita hana; baba! amara durbhaga, krsnera nityadasya bhuliya

mayabhinivesa dvara mayabadha achi; ataeva svarupartha-hina haiyai

amadera e durdasa.

Baddhavastha - same as baddha-dasa.

Bahiranga-sakti - the external or material potency of Bhagavan,

also known as maya-sakti. This potency is responsible for the

creation of the material world and all affairs pertaining to the

material world. Because Bhagavan never directly contacts the

material energy, this potency is known as bahiranga, external.

Bahirmukha - having one's face turned away; having one's attention

diverted away from some object. This is commonly used with

the word Krishna (see Krishna-bahirmukha).

Bahudaka - the second of four stages of sannyasa. When a sannyasi

advances beyond the kuticaka stage, he no longer accepts anything

from home; instead he collects his necessities from many places. This

system is called madhukari, which literally means 'the profession of

bumblebees'. As bumblebees collect honey from many flowers, so a

sannyasi should beg from door to door but not accept very much from

any particular house. The bahudaka stage has been mentioned in

Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this sloka, Shrila

Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura defines the ascetic in this stage as,

one who has relegated the performance of karma to a secondary

position and who gives prominence to transcendental knowledge.

Banda - an Islamic term for servitor.

Behesht - an Islamic term for the Lord's spiritual abode, paradise, or


Bhagavan - the Supreme Lord; the Personality of Godhead. In the

Vishnu Purana (6.5.72-74) Bhagavan is defined as follows: suddhe

mahavibhuty akhye pare brahmani varttate maitreya bhagavac-chabda

sarva-karana-karane; sambharteti tatha bhartta bha-karo 'rthadvayanvita

neta gamayita srasta ga-kararthas tatha mune; aisvaryasya

samagrasya dharmasya yasasah shriyah jnana-vairagyayos caiva sannam

bhaga itingana - "The word bhagavat is used to describe the Supreme

brahma who possesses all opulences, who is completely pure,

and who is the cause of all causes. In the word bhagavat, the syllable

bha has two meanings: one who maintains all living entities

and one who is the support of all living entities. Similarly, the

syllable ga has two meanings: the creator, and one who causes all

living entities to obtain the results of karma and jnana. Complete

opulence, religiosity, fame, beauty, knowledge, and renunciation

are known as bhaga, or fortune." (The suffix vat means possessing.

Thus one who possesses these six fortunes is known as Bhagavan.)

Bhagavata- pravrtti - the tendency of the jiva to seek out and serve

the Supreme Person, Bhagavan.

Bhagavat- tattva - the fundamental conclusions which regard the

Absolute Truth, Bhagavan.

Bhajana - (1) the word bhajana is derived from the verbal root

'bhaj' which is defined in the Garuda Purana (Purva-khanda 231.3):

bhaj ity esa vai dhatu sevayam parikirtitah tasmat seva budhaih prokta

bhakti sadhana-bhuyasi - "The verbal root bhaj is used specifically

in the sense of seva, or service. Therefore, when sadhana is performed

with the consciousness of being a servant, it is called

bhakti." According to this sloka, krishna-seva, or loving devotional

service to Krishna is called bhakti. Such service is the intrinsic attribute

of bhakti or bhajana. Therefore whatever services are performed

in this consciousness may be referred to as bhajana. (2) in

the general sense bhajana refers to spiritual practices; especially

hearing, chanting, and meditating upon the holy name, form,

qualities, and pastimes of Shri Krishna.

Bhajana- kriya - taking up the practices of bhakti, such as hearing

and chanting. There are sixty-four primary angas of bhakti, of which

the first four are to take shelter of the lotus feet of shri-guru; to

receive diksa and siksa; to serve one's guru with great affection;

and to follow the path of sadhus. Without adopting these practices,

there is no question of making any advancement in bhajana.

This is the second stage in the development of the creeper of

bhakti which occurs by the influence of sadhu-sanga.

Bhajananandi - one who is absorbed in the bliss of bhajana; one

whose inclination is primarily for bhajana.

Bhakta - a devotee.

Bhakti - the word bhakti comes from the root bhaj, which means to

serve (see bhajana). Therefore the primary meaning of the word bhakti

is to render service. Shri Rupa Gosvami has described the intrinsic

characteristics of bhakti in Shri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11) as

follows: anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam anukulyena

krishnanu-silanam bhaktir uttama - "Uttama-bhakti, pure devotional

service, is the cultivation of activities that are meant exclusively for

the benefit of Shri Krishna, in other words, the uninterrupted flow of

service to Shri Krishna, performed through all endeavors of body, mind,

and speech, and through expression of various spiritual sentiments

(bhavas). It is not covered by jnana (knowledge of nirvisesa-brahma,

aimed at impersonal liberation) and karma (reward-seeking activity),

yoga or austerities; and it is completely free from all desires

other than the aspiration to bring happiness to Shri Krishna."

Bhakti-devi - the goddess of devotion. All potencies of the Lord

have personified forms. In Madhurya-kadambini (1.3) Shrila

Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura explains that bhakti is the svarupasakti

of Bhagavan and that she is yadrccha, which means that bhakti

has her own will. Being sva-prakasa, self-manifest, she is not dependent

on any other agency in order to manifest in a person's heart. In

the Bhagavatam (1.2.6) it is said: yato bhaktir adhoksaje ahaituky

apratihata - "that by which causeless and uninterrupted bhakti for

Lord Adhoksaja arises." The word ahaituky in this sloka indicates

that bhakti has no cause. The only cause of bhakti is bhakti herself.

Shrila Cakravartipada analyzes the meaning of this statement. He

says that bhakti situated in the heart of a bhava-bhakta is the only

cause for her manifesting in others. Since Krishna is under the control

of His unalloyed bhaktas, He has invested such power in them.

Therefore sadhana is not the true cause of bhakti's appearance.

Bhakti-devi, being self-willed, manifests bhakti in the heart when

she is pleased with the bhakta's unalloyed service attitude. Ultimately

this indicates that Bhakti-devi acts through the agency of

Krishna's bhaktas who are situated in the stage of bhava. When they

see the sincerity of the sadhaka-bhakta, the bhakti which is one with

the very nature of their hearts is transmitted into the hearts of the

sadhakas. Other than this, there is no cause for bhakti's appearance.

Bhakti- kanda - a division of the Vedas relating to bhakti, which is

performed exclusively for the benefit of Shri Bhagavan.

Bhakti- lata - the creeper of devotion. Bhakti is likened to a creeper

which grows in the bhakta's heart until it matures and produces the

fruit of love for Krishna. The bija, or seed, of this creeper is characterized

as krishna-seva-vasana, the desire to serve Shri Krishna. This desire

is sown in the heart of the bhakta by the grace of shri-gurudeva and it

manifests externally as sraddha, faith in the conclusions of the

sastra. After its intitial inception in the form of the bhakti-lata-bija,

the creeper develops through eight successive stages culminating

in prema. These stages are sadhu-sanga, bhajana-kriya, anartha-nivrtti,

nistha, ruci, asakti, bhava, and prema. Each of these are separately

described in this glossary.

Bhakti-lata-bija - the seed of the creeper of devotion. This refers to

the inception of the desire to serve Shri Shri Radha-Krishna in a particular

capacity which is known as krishna-seva-vasana. Within this

seed is the undeveloped conception of bhava. This seed externally

manifests as sraddha, or faith in the instructions and goal described

by the sastras. When this seed is watered by the methods of hearing,

chanting, and service to Vaishnavas, it grows into a luxurious plant

and ultimately delivers its fruit of love of God.

Bhakti- posaka- sukrti - pious activities which foster bhakti. This specifically

refers to the association of bhaktas and activities connected

to bhakti (see sukrti).

Bhakty-abhasa - externally resembles bhakti but does not have the

true characteristics of bhakti. There are two types of bhakty-abhasa.

Chaya-bhakty-abhasa is attained by association with suddha-bhaktas

during kirtana, recitation of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, or other devotional

performances. Pratibimba-bhakty-abhasa is the semblance of bhakti

that occurs in the hearts of those who adopt the angas of bhakti

with a desire for bhukti (material enjoyment) and mukti (liberation).

The stage of chaya-bhakty-abhasa is the result of great fortune,

Bharata-varsa - India (see Glossary of Places).

Bhava-bhakti - the initial stage of perfection in devotion. A stage

of bhakti in which suddha-sattva, or the essence of Shri Krishna's internal

potency consisting of spiritual knowledge and bliss, is transmitted

into the heart of the practicing bhakta from the heart of one

of His eternal associates and softens the heart by different kinds of

tastes. It is the first sprout of prema, or pure love of God. Bhavabhakti

is the seventh of the eight stages of development of the

bhakti-lata, the creeper of devotion.

In Shri Brhad-Bhagavatamrta there are five divisions of bhava accepted

amongst bhaktas: 1) jnana-bhakta (e.g. Bharata Maharaja), 2)

suddha-bhakta (e.g. Ambarisa Mahaaraja), 3) prema-bhakta (e.g.

Hanuman), 4) prema-para-bhakta (e.g. the Pandavas headed by

Arjuna), and 5) prematura-bhakta (atura means 'very eager for', or

agitated out of prema e.g. the Yadavas headed by Uddhava).

Bhavuka - (1) a bhakta at the stage of bhava who is thus able to

taste spiritual sentiments. (2) This word is sometimes used in a

slightly derogatory sense to refer to those who are prone to emotional

displays without possessing the true characteristics of krishnarati,

or bhava.

Bhedabheda-prakasa - a manifestation simultaneously distinct yet

not separate from Shri Bhagavan.

Bhoga - material enjoyment. Unoffered foodstuffs.

Bhogi - one who indulges in material enjoyment without restriction;

one who seeks material enjoyment as his life's aspiration.

Bhukti - material enjoyment.

Bhuta - one of the five elements; any living being; a spirit, ghost or


Bija - a seed (see bhakti-lata-bija).

Brahmacari - the first asrama or stage of life in the varnasrama

system; unmarried student life.

Brahma-gayatri - a Vedic mantra which is chanted at the three

junctures of the day by brahmanas.

Brahma-jnana - knowledge of impersonal brahma; knowledge aiming

at impersonal liberation.

Brahma-jnani - see jnani.

Brahma - the spiritual effulgence emanating from the transcendental

body of the Lord; the all-pervading, indistinct feature of the

Absolute. Depending on the context, this may sometimes refer to

the Supreme brahma, Shri Krishna, who is the source of brahma.

Brahmana - the highest of the four varnas or castes in the varnasrama

system; a priest or teacher.

Brahmani - a female brahmana; the wife of a brahmana.

Brahma-pravrtti - the tendency of the jiva to seek the all-pervading


Brahma-vada - the doctrine of indistinct nirvisesa-brahma which

has as its goal the merging of the self into Krishna's effulgence.

Brahma-vadi - one who follows the doctrine of brahma-vada.

Brhat-chaitanya - infinite spiritual consciousness, represented by


Brhat-cit-vastu - vast or infinite spiritual substance; Shri Krishna.

Buddhi-apeksa - the consideration that takes place through one's

intelligence of the sublime nature of madhura rasa and which in

turn assists in creating lobha.

But-parast - (Muslim) idolatry; worship of material elements, spirits,

or ordinary living beings.


Chaitanya - consciousness; the Universal soul or spirit.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu - Shri Krishna appearing in the mood of a bhakta

(see Glossary of Names).

Candala - an outcaste race known to eat dogmeat; one born in such

a race.

Cetana - conscious; an animate being.

Chaya-bhakty-abhasa - a shadow-like semblance of bhakti. This

refers to the activities of neophytes or ignorant people which

resemble bhakti, but which do not have the actual characteristics

of suddha-bhakti. Because these people engage in activities of bhakti

only when associating with real bhaktas, this semblance of bhakti

is connected with true bhakti, but it is transient in nature and is

therefore compared to a shadow.

Chaya-namabhasa - a shadow-like semblance of the pure name. This

refers to a stage of chanting in which the pure name is obscured by

ignorance and anarthas just as the sun, when covered by clouds,

does not manifest its full brilliance.

Chaya-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's shadow potency known as maya which

binds the living entities in the material world.

Cid-anubhava - direct experience or realization of spirit, one's spiritual

nature, or the spiritual dimension including Krishna's name,

form, qualities, pastimes, and abode.

Cid-anuraga - spiritual attachment; attachment for Shri Bhagavan,

His bhaktas, and things related to Him.

Cid-anusilana - spiritual practice or cultivation; the culture of pure

spiritual reality.

Cid-vastu - transcendental or cognitive substance.

Cid-vikrama - see cit-sakti.

Cinmaya - possessing full spiritual nature and consciousness; composed

of pure cognition; spiritual.

Cit - consciousness; pure thought; spirit; spiritual cognition or perception.

Citta - the heart, thoughts, mind and consciousnes.

Cit-dharma - spiritual nature or the characteristic function of a

conscious being.

Cit-jagat - the spiritual world. The world of pure spiritual consciousness.

Cit-kala - spiritual time which exists eternally in the present without

any intervention of past or future.

Cit-kana - a particle of spiritual consciousness; a conscious entity

who is spiritual in nature yet minute. This refers to the individual

jiva souls.

Cit-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's internal potency by which His transcendental

pastimes are accomplished (see svarupa-sakti).

Cit-samadhi - spiritual trance or deep internal perception of spiritual



Daivi-maya - the divine potency of Krishna which acts in the material

world to bewilder the living entities who are seeking material

enjoyment separate from their eternal and natural relationship

with Krishna. This external potency consists of the three qualities of

nature: goodness, passion, and ignorance.

Damaru - a drum played by Lord Siva; a small two-headed drum

shaped like an hour-glass which, held in one hand, is played by

twisting one's wrist. The swinging actions causes a ball at the end

of each of two strings which are attached to the drum to hit the

drum ends at each turn.

Dandavat-pranama - prostrated obeisances; literally, falling like a

danda (stick) to offer obeisances.

Darsana - seeing, meeting, visiting with, beholding. This word is

used primarily in reference to beholding the Deity or advanced

bhaktas. Darsana also means doctrine or philosophical system, as in


Dasa - a servant; a servant of Krishna.

Dasa - state, condition; disposition; phase, stage.

Dasa-mula - 'ten-roots'. In the Ayur-veda, the science of herbal

medicine, there are ten roots which, when combined together

produce a tonic which sustains life and counteracts disease. Similarly,

there are ten ontological principles. When these are properly

understood and realized, they destroy the disease of material

existence and give life to the soul. The first of these principles is

known as pramana, the evidence which establishes the existence

of the fundamental truths. The other nine principles are known

as prameya, the truths which are to be established.

The pramana refers to the Vedic literature and in particular to

the Shrimad-Bhagavatam. The Bhagavatam is the essence of all the

Vedas; it reveals the most intimate loving feature of the Lord‚ as

well as the soul's potential to unite with the Lord and His eternal

associates in their play of divine loving exchange.

Of the nine prameyas, the first seven relate to sambandha-jnana,

knowledge of the interrelationship between Shri Bhagavan, His

energies, and the living beings, both conditioned and liberated.

The eighth prameya relates to abhidheya-jnana, knowledge of the

means by which the living entity can become established in an

eternal loving relationship with Him. The ninth prameya relates

to prayojana, the ultimate goal to be attained by pursuit of the

transcendental path. That goal is known as krishna-prema, and it

takes on infinite varieties when manifest in the different bhaktas

possessing variegated moods of divine love.

Dasi - a female maidservant of Krishna or Shrimati Radhika.

Dasya - (1) the second of the five primary relationships with the

Lord which is established in the stages of bhava or prema; love or

attraction to Krishna which is expressed in the mood of a servant.

(2) in this world the general relationship of practicing bhaktas

toward Him is known as krishna-dasya or bhagavad-dasya. This means

simply to recognize that one's true identity is to be a servant of


Dasyam - one of the angas of sadhana-bhakti; to render service with

the pure egoism of being a servant of Krishna. Only when one renders

service with this attitude, giving up false conceptions of the

self, can one's bhajana practices attain perfection. According to

Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.183) there are two kinds of dasya: in its

beginning form, dasya means to offer all of one's activities to Shri

Bhagavan, and in its mature stage, dasya means to render all kinds

of services to Him with the feeling that 'I am a servant of Shri Krishna,

and He is my master.' This attitude is called kainkarya. Dasyam is

one of the nine primary angas of bhakti.

Deva-bhasa - 'the language of the gods', the language spoken in the

celestial planets; Sanskrit.

Devas - celestial deities; beings situated in the celestial planets

who are endowed with great piety, tremendous lifespans, and superior

mental and physical prowess. They are entrusted with specific

powers for the purpose of universal administration.

Devatas - same as devas.

Devi-bhagavata and Devi-gita - (chapter 9) are two books that the

saktas promote as proving that Devi is the supreme personality.

However, the great acaryas and later scholars have not accepted

them as authoritative.

Dhama - a holy place of pilgrimage; the abode of the Lord where He

appears and enacts His transcendental pastimes.

Dharma - from the verbal root dhr meaning 'to sustain'; lit. that

which sustains; 1) the natural, characteristic function of a thing;

that which cannot be separated from its nature; 2) religion in

general. 3) the socio-religious duties prescribed in sastra for different

classes of persons in the varnasrama system; one's fixed

occupation in relation to the highest ideals known to man. Dharma

is aspired for by persons who not only desire enjoyment in this

world, but who hanker for something more, like Svarga. For this it

is necessary to follow the religious codes outlined in sastra. By

following the religious duties prescribed according to varnasrama,

one can enjoy happiness in this life and attain Svarga. The performance

of dharmika duties is foremost for such people, and therefore

their purusartha (goal of life) is known as dharma.There are

many types of dharma. Stri-dharma (a woman's dharma) refers to

the duties, behaviour etc., that sustain the proper nature of a

woman. Similarly, dharmas such as purusa-dharma, brahmanadharma,

sudra-dharma; and sannyasa-dharma, are described in

dharma-sastras. Ultimately, however, dharma means the natural

attraction of the part for the whole, the jiva for Krishna. All of these

other dharmas are only related to this temporary body, therefore,

in the midst of performing them, one must cultivate atma-dharma,

the soul's eternal occupation as servant of Krishna, so that one can

reach the point, either now or tomorrow, of sarva-dharman

parityajya, giving up all secondary dharmas and taking full shelter

of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.

Dharma-sastra - religious sastras, such as Manu-samhita, delineating

the codes of behavior for human beings.

Dharma-visaya - the object of the soul's spiritual function; the

object of prema; Shri Krishna.

Diksa - receiving initiation from a spiritual master. In the Bhaktisandarbha

(Anuccheda 283) Jiva Gosvami has defined diksa as follows:

divyam jnanam yato dadyat kuryat papasya sanksayam tasmad

dikseti sa prokta desikais tattva-kovikaih - "Learned exponents of

the Absolute Truth declare that the process by which the spiritual

master imparts divya-jnana to the disciple and eradicates all

sins is known as diksa." He then explains divya-jnana, or divine

knowledge: divyam jnanam hy atra shrimati mantre bhagavat svarupajnanam

tena bhagavata-sambandha-visesa-jnanam ca - "Divya-jnana

is transcendental knowledge of the Lord's form and one's specific

relationship with the Lord contained within a mantra." This

means at the time of intiation, the guru gives the disciple a mantra

which, in course of time, reveals the particular form of the Lord

who is the object of one's worship and the bhakta's specific relationship

with the Lord in one of the relationships of dasya, sakhya,

vatsalya, or madhurya.

Diksa-guru - initiating spiritual master. One who gives a mantra

in accordance with the regulations of sastra to a qualified candidate

for the purpose of worshiping Shri Bhagavan and realizing

Him through that mantra is known as a diksa or mantra-guru.

Diksa-mantra - the mantras given by the guru at the time of initiation.

These mantras include the maha-mantra, brahma-gayatri, gurumantra,

guru-gayatri, gaura-mantra, gaura-gayatri, gopala-mantra,

and kama-gayatri. The guru's internal mood of service to Radha

and Krishna is transmitted through the medium of these mantras.

This is indicated in the following sloka from Bhakti-sandarbha

(Anuccheda 237): yo mantrah sa guruh saksat yo guru sa hari svayam

gurur yasya bhavet tustas tasya tusto harih svayam - "The mantra

(which is given by the guru) is itself the guru, and the guru is

directly the Supreme Lord Hari. He with whom the spiritual master

is pleased also obtains the pleasure of Shri Hari Himself." These

mantras are invested with divya-jnana, or transcendental knowledge

of Krishna's form and one's specific relationship with Him (see

also diksa and mantra).

Divya-nama - the transcendental name of Shri Krishna.

Divya-lila - transcendental pastimes.

Dravya - objects such as a table, a chair, and so on.

Drdha-niscaya - firm determination or resolve.

Dhrstata - a state of being reckless, bold or courageous. In chapter

twenty-one it is refering to those gopis who have left their husbands

and sons, and have abandoned all the rules and regulations

of varnasrama-dharma. The Dvaraka mahisis do not want to leave

all these things; they want to follow their husbands, and the rules

and regulations of varnasrama-dharma. That is why it is said here

that they give up the quality of dhrstata and serve Krishna just like

a housewife. Those who have left all these things and who have

the quality of dhrstata are called sakhis

Durjati - degraded birth or caste.

Durjati-dosa - the defect of a degraded birth; the defect of having

taken birth in a sinful or outcaste family. Such a defect is due to


Duskrti - impious or sinful deeds.

Dvija - anyone among the brahmanas, ksatriyas, or vaisyas who has

received a 'second birth' through the upanayana-samskara of being

invested with the sacred thread, which prepares one for studying

the Vedas.

Ekadanda - a staff which is carried by the renunciates belonging to

the monistic school and, in particular, the followers of Shri

Sankaracarya. The staff consists of only one rod which symbolizes

their goal of attaining oneness with nirvisesa-brahma.

Ekadashi - is the eleventh day of the waxing or waning moon. Suddha

Ekadashi means that the whole eleventh day of the moon elapses

during the period between one sunrise and the next. Viddha Ekadashi

means that the eleventh day of the moon begins on one solar day

(sunrise to sunrise) and finishes on the next solar day, that is after

sunrise on the next day. In case of viddha Ekadashi, the observances

are made on the Dvadasi i.e. the twelfth day of the moon.


Folklore - (in reference to chapter seventeen), there is a saying: "To

make money by counting the waves." The explanation is as follows.

In ancient times, there was a rich vaisya, who became famous all

over the country as someone who could make money in any circumstances.

Some envious people poisoned the ears of the local King,

and managed to convince him to send the businessman far away,

where he would have no opportunity to make any money. The King

decided to send him to a lonely place near the sea. But this vaisya,

true to his character, sat on the beach counting the waves! Whenever

a vessel passed across the sea, he would stop it by waving his

arms, and then say, "You are not allowed to cross. The King has

appointed me to count the waves here, and your vessel is disturbing

them." He would argue back and forth, and only relent when he

had extracted a bribe. In this way, he became a rich man again.


Ganapatya - a worshiper of Ganesa.

Gandharvas - celestial beings situated in the higher planets who

are especially noted for their expertise in singing and music.

Ganga - the holy river, Ganga, also known as the Ganges (see Ganga

in the Glossary of Places).

Gathana - the formation, structure, or composition of a thing.

Gaudiya Vaishnava Acaryas - prominent teachers in the line of Lord


Gaudiya Vaishnava Sampradaya - the school of Vaisnavism following

in the line of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Gauna - literally means "that which possesses qualities" or "that

which is secondary." Relates to a quality, having qualities; connected

to the three gunas (qualities of material nature); subordinate,

secondary, unessential.

Gaurabda - a year in the era beginning from the appearance of Shri

Gauranga Mahaprabhu (corresponding to 1486 AD).

Gaura-lila - the divine pastimes of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who

is identical to Shri Krishna.

Gaura-Nama-Rasa - transcendental taste which comes from chanting

the holy name of Lord Gaura.

Gayatri-mantra - a sacred mantra repeated by brahmanas at the three

junctures of the day. The gayatri mantra is personified as a goddess,

the wife of Brahma and mother of the four Vedas (see diksa-mantra).

Ghata - a landing-stage (as on the bank of a river, pond, and so on).

Ghata-akasa - is the space that one can see in a pot. (Maha-akasa is

the great unlimited sky).

Godruma - one of the nine divisions of Navadvipa (see Glossary of


Gopas - the cowherd boys who serve Krishna in the mood of intimate

friendship. This may also refer to the elderly gopas headed by Nanda

Maharaja who serve Krishna in the mood of parental affection.

Gopis - the young cowherd maidens of Vraja headed by Shrimati

Radhika who serve Krishna in the mood of amorous love. This may

also refer to the elderly gopis headed by mother Yasoda who serve

Krishna in the mood of parental affection.

Go-sala - shelter for the cows.

Gosvami - one who is the master of his senses; a title for those in

the renounced order of life. This often refers to the renowned followers

of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who adopted the lifestyle of mendicants.

Descendants of the relatives of such Gosvamis or of their

sevaites often adopt this title merely on the basis of birth. In this

way, the title Gosvami has evolved into use as a surname. Leading

temple administrators are also sometimes referred to as Gosvamis.

Grhastha - the word stha means "to reside." The word grha means

"house," and also refers to the family members who inhabit a house;

as a verb, it means "to grasp, take on, or accept." The second asrama

or stage of life in the varnasrama system; family life.

Grhastha-tyagi - one who has renounced household life.

Gulli-danda - a game played with a bat and stick.

Guna - (1) in relationship to Krishna this refers to His transcendental

qualities which are heard, described, and meditated upon by

bhaktas as part of the practice of sadhana-bhakti. (2) qualities of

objects such as hardness and softness. (3) qualities in general such

as compassion, tolerance, and mercy. (4) the three ropes (binding

qualities) known as - sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas


Gunavatara - the primary presiding deities of the tri-gunas (three

gunas), Vishnu, Brahma and Siva presiding over the qualities of sattva,

rajas, and tamas respectively.


Hamsa - the third stage of sannyasa, as mentioned in Shrimad-

Bhagavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this sloka, Shrila

Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura defines an ascetic in the hamsa

stage as jnana-abhyasa-nistha, one established in the cultivation of

transcendental knowledge.

Hari - a name for Shri Krishna (see Glossary of Names).

Hari-katha - narrations of the holy name, form, qualities, and pastimes

of Shri Hari.

Hari-nama - the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. Unless

accompanied by the word sankirtana, it usually refers to the practice

of chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra to oneself on a strand

of tulasi beads.

Hari-vasara - the day of Lord Hari; this refers especially to Ekadashi;

it also refers to other holy days such as Janmastami and Ramanavami

(check this Glossary for explanation of these terms).

Havisya - rice dried in the sun, cooked with water and mixed with


Heya - undesirable; fit to be given up; contemptible, base, vile.

Hladini - this refers to svarupa-sakti which is predominated by

hladini (see svarupa-sakti). Hladini is the potency which relates to

the ananda, or bliss, aspect of the Supreme Lord. Although the

Supreme Lord is the embodiment of all pleasure, hladini is that

potency by which He relishes transcendental bliss and causes others

to taste bliss. When visuddha-sattva is predominated by hladini,

it is known as guhya-vidya, or confidential knowledge. This guhyavidya

has two faculties: bhakti and that which bestows bhakti. It is by

these two agencies that bhakti, which consists of priti (prema), is

manifest. Bhakti which is of the nature of priti is itself a special

feature of guhya-vidya.


Ibada - an Islamic term for divine worship.

Ignorance five types -Lord Brahma first creates these five types of

ignorance (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.12.2.). Because of the desire to enjoy

maya, the jiva develops the false ego that he can enjoy material

sense gratification, and then the five types of ignorance - tamah

(not knowing anything about the spirit soul), moha (the illusion of

the bodily concept of life), maha-moha (madness for material enjoyment),

tamisra (forgetfulness of one's constitutional position due

to anger or envy) and andha-tamisra (considering death to be the

ultimate end) - cover his pure, atomic nature.

Isanugata - those who are devoted or surrendered to Isa (Shri

Bhagavan); the Vaishnavas.

Ishqh - an Islamic term for love (spiritual or mundane).

Ista-deva - one's worshipful deity; the particular form of Krishna toward

whom one is attracted and who is the object of one's love and


Isvara - the Supreme Lord or Supreme Controller.

Itihasa - (1) history in general. (2) a book which contains instructions

on dharma, artha, kama, and moksa, and narrations of ancient

events (dharmartha-kama-moksanam upadesa-samanvitam purva-vrta

katha-yuktam itihasam pracaksate). This definition is quoted in

Gaudiya-Vaishnava-abhidhana. (3) the fifth Veda. According to both

sruti and smrti, the Itihasa and the Puranas are considered the fifth

Veda. Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.12.39) states, itihasa-puranani pancamam

vedam; and (1.4.20), itihasa puranan ca pancamo veda ucyate. In his

commentary on (1.4.20), Jiva Gosvami quotes the Mahabharata

(Moksa-dharma 340.21), vedan adhyapayamasa mahabharata-pancaman

iti, "Vyasa taught the Vedas along with the fifth of their number,

the Mahabharata." Similarly in Manu-smrti (3.232) it is said,

akhyananitihasams ca. In his Manu-vartha-muktavali commentary on

this sloka, Kulluka Bhatta (a celebrated commentator on Manusmrti

from the twelfth century) states, itihasan mahabharatadin, "The

word itihasan refers to the Mahabharata and other literature."

These references establish that the word itihasa specifically refers

to the Mahabharata. Within the Mahabharata is found the

Bhagavad-Gita, which is accepted as the essence of all the Vedas

even by Shri Sankaracarya, who states in the introduction to his

Gita commentary, tad idam gita-sastram samasta-vedartha-sarasangraha-

bhutam, "This Gita-sastra is the essence of the purport of

all the Vedas." This further confirms that the itihasa is part of the

body of Vedic literature. Sruti itself (Chandogya Upanisad 7.1.2) declares

that the Itihasa and Puranas are the fifth Veda among the

body of Vedic literature, itihasam puranam pancamam vedanam vedam.


Jada - inanimate object; worldly, material.

Jada-anuraga - attachment for mundane material objects.

Jada-sakti - the material or external potency also known as maya.

Jadiya-kala - material time which is designated by the divisions of

past, present, and future.

Jaiva-dharma - the constitutional function of the jiva; unadulterated

love for the Supreme Lord.

Jangama - moving living beings such as animals, birds, insects, aquatics,

and humans.

Janma - birth, origin.

Janmastami - the appearance day of Lord Shri Krishna which occurs on

the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of the month of Bhadra

(August-September). According to the Vishnu Purana, however,

Janmastami occurs on the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of

the month of Sravana (July-August). The reason for this difference

is that in some years the mukhya-candra-masa, or principal lunar

month falls in Sravana. The mukhya-candra-masa refers to a lunar

month which ends with a conjunction of planets, whereas gaunacandra-

masa refers to a lunar month which ends with an opposition

of planets. When the mukhya-candra-masa occurs in Sravana,

Janmastami falls in that month instead of Bhadra.

Japa - loud chanting or soft utterance of the holy names of Krishna to

oneself; usually referring to the practice of chanting hari-nama on

tulasi beads. The word japa comes from the verbal root jap which

means to utter or whisper repeatedly (especially prayers or incantations).

In the Sabda-kalpa-druma, japa has been defined as the utterance

of mantras either within the heart or verbally. In Haribhakti-

vilasa (17.155-159) Shrila Sanatana Gosvami describes japa in

the following words:

"In the Nrsimha-Purana it is said that japa-yajna is of three kinds:

(1) vacika (verbal), (2) upamsu (in a whisper), and (3) manasika

(within the mind). When a mantra is pronounced very distinctly

either in a high, low, or resonant voice it is known as vacika-japa.

When a mantra is uttered slowly with slight movement of the lips

and can be heard only by one's own ears it is known as upamsu-japa.

When one meditates on the meaning of the mantra by application

of the intelligence going repeatedly from one syllable to the next

and from one word to the next it is known as manasika-japa."

Jati - caste, race, or species.

Jati-bheda - caste distinction; the difference between various castes

or species.

Jism - an Islamic term for matter.

Jiva - the eternal individual living entity who, in the conditioned

state of material existence, assumes a material body in any of the

innumerable species of life.

Jnana - (1) knowledge, (2) knowledge which leads to impersonal

liberation: this concerns the atma's distinction from matter and its

identity with brahma.

Jnana-adhikara - eligibility for knowledge leading to liberation.

Jnana-kanda - a division of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of

the one, undifferentiated spirit known as brahma.

Jnana-mudra - the traditional posture of the hand formed with the

tip of the thumb touching the tip of the index finger.

Jnana-nistha - those who are fixed in the pursuit of monistic knowledge

aiming at liberation.

Jnana-viddha - vaishnava-dharma which is adulterated with jnana,

knowledge directed toward the attainment of impersonal liberation.

Jnana-yoga - the path of spiritual realization through a philosophical

search for truth.

Jnani - one who pursues the path of jnana, or knowledge, directed

toward impersonal liberation.


Kali-yuga - the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy which began

five thousand years ago (see yuga).

Kamya-karma - religious rites performed to obtain some specific

material benefit.

Kanistha-bhakta - the neophyte practitioner of bhakti.

Karatalas - small brass hand cymbals used for devotional songs.

Karma - (1) any activity performed in the course of material existence.

(2) pious activities leading to material gain in this world or in

the heavenly planets after death. (3) fate; former acts leading to

inevitable results.

Karma-adhikara - eligibility for pious action leading to material gain.

Karma-kanda - a division of the Vedas which relates to the performance

of ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites directed toward material

benefits or liberation.

Karma-viddha - vaishnava-dharma which is adulterated with karma,

activities directed toward material benefits.

Karma-yoga - the path to God realization through dedication of

the fruits of one's work to God.

Karmi - one who pursues the Vedic path of karma directed toward

material gain or elevation to the heavenly planets.

Karya-sakti - the potency by which activity is carried out.

Kaudi - a small shell used as currency

Kaya-vyuha - direct expansions. All the four types types of Shrimati

Radhika's sakhis are nitya-siddha, and they are direct expansions

(kaya-vyuha) of Shrimati Radhika's own svarupa. She eternally manifests

eight bhavas as the eight principle sakhis and Her four different

types of service moods as the four different types of sakhis - namely,

priya-sakhis, narma-sakhis, prana-sakhis, and parama-prestha sakhis.

All these sakhis are kaya-vyuha direct expansions, whereas the

sadhana-siddha gopis are not expansions. The queens in Dvaraka

fall into a different category of expansion known as vaibhava-prakasa,

and the Laksmis in Vaikuntha are vaibhava-vilasa expansions of

Shrimati Radharani. The wives of Vamana and other avataras in

Devaloka are also expansions. Durga-devi in this world is a material


Kayastha - a particular caste in Hindu society; those born from a

ksatriya father and a sudra mother. They are generally well-educated,

and many work as writers. The kayasthas claim to be descendents

of Citragupta (the scribe of Yamaraja).

Kazi - a Muslim magistrate, usually the ruler of a town or city (like

a mayor).

Khicari - a savory dish of rice and dahl boiled together with ghee

and spices.

Khoda - an Islamic term for God.

Kirtana - congregational singing of Krishna's holy names, sometimes

accompanied by music. This may also refer to loud individual chanting

of the holy name, as well as oral descriptions of Bhagavan names,

forms, qualities, associates, and pastimes. Kirtana is the most important

of the nine angas of bhakti.

Krishna-bahirmukha - being oblivious to Krishna due to having one's

attention focused outwardly toward the material world; ignorance

of Krishna and enthrallment with material enjoyment.

Krishna-dasya - service to Krishna; the dharma, or spiritual function of

the jiva. In its perfectional state this refers to prema.

Krishna-lila - the divine pastimes of Shri Krishna (see lila).

Krishna-prema - pure love for Krishna (see prema).

Krishna-unmukha - those whose attention is focused upon Krishna.

Krishna-vimukhata - the state of having one's attention turned away

from Krishna; the state of absorption in the material world.

Ksatriya - the second of the four varnas, or castes, in the varnasrama

system; an administrator or warrior.

Ksayonmukha - the decline or diminution of any object or thing;

the stage in which a jiva's relationship with the material world

gradually diminishes due to engagement in spiritual practice.

Ksudra-cetana - possessing minute consciousness; the living


Kunja - a grove or bower; a natural shady retreat with sides and a

roof formed mainly by trees and climbing plants.

Kuticaka - the first of four stages of sannyasa. According to the

Vedic system, when one first renounces family life, the ascetic will

construct a cottage (kutira) just outside his village and will accept

the necessities for his maintenance from his family members or the

villagers. This stage has been referred to in Shrimad-Bhagavatam

(3.12.43). In Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura's commentary

on the afore-referenced sloka, he defines the kuticaka stage as

svasrama-karma-pradhana, predominated by the performance of

karma which pertains to one's own asrama, or stage of life.

Kutira - a cottage or hut.


Laukika - worldly, mundane, secular, pertaining to the material


Laukika-jnana - worldly knowledge, knowledge of worldly phenomena.

Laukika-sraddha - worldly regard; faith which is based on custom

or tradition and not on a deep understanding of the sastra.

Lila - divine sportive pastimes. Shri Bhagavan's activities, whether

in the matter of the creation of the material world or in the matter

of transcendental exchanges of love with His bhaktas, are never

under the influence of karma or material nature. They are all manifestations

of His self-willed potencies and are therefore known as

lila, divine sport or play. These pastimes are heard, described, and

meditated upon by bhaktas as part of the practice of sadhana-bhakti.

Lila-avatara - Krishna's lila (pastime) manifestations e.g.

Nrsimha,Varaha, Kurma etc.

Lila-katha - descriptions or narrations of the Lord's divine pastimes.

Linga-sarira - the subtle material body consisting of mind, intelligence,

and ego.

Lobhamayi-sraddha - means that the bhakta wants to serve Krishna

in one of the four rasas: dasya, sakhya, vatsalya or madhurya, following

in the footsteps of the vraja-vasis. He should be greedy to attain

this. That is called lobhamayi-sraddha.

Lota - a thin steel container for water.


Madhavi - a fragrant flower which is white when it blossoms and

turns pink during the course of the day; the vine of the madhavi


Madhukari - collecting alms from door to door in the manner of a

bee who collects honey (madhu) by going from flower to flower.

Madhurya - sweetness or beauty. In regard to bhakti this refers to

devotion which is inspired by attraction to Krishna's sweet and intimate

feature as a beautiful young cowherd boy. This type of devotion

allows for the greatest exchange of love between Him and His


Madhurya-rati - love or attachment toward Krishna which is expressed

in the mood of a lover.

Madhyahna - the third period of the day; mid-day, noon (see astakaliya-


Madhyama-bhakta - the practitioner of bhakti who is on an intermediate


Mahabhava - the highest stage of prema or divine love. In Ujjvalanilamani

(14.154) mahabhava is defined: "When anuraga reaches a

special state of intensity, it is known as bhava or mahabhava. This

state of intensity has three characteristics: (1) anuraga reaches the

state of sva-samvedya, which means that it becomes the object of its

own experience, (2) it becomes prakasita, radiantly manifest, which

means that all eight sattvika-bhavas become prominently displayed,

and (3) it attains the state of yavad asraya-vrtti, which means that

the active ingredient of this intensified state of anuraga transmits

the experience of Radha and Krishna's bhava to whomever may be

present and qualified to receive it. This includes both the sadhaka

and siddha-bhaktas."

Mahajana - a great personality who teaches and sets an example for


Mahanta - the head of a monastery or temple.

Mahaprabhu - the Supreme Lord, Shri Krishna Chaitanya (see Chaitanya

in the Glossary of Names).

Maha-akasa - is the great, unlimited sky or space.

Mahaprasada - see prasada.

Mahatma - magnanimous or great soul; a title of respect offered to

those elevated in spiritual consciousness.

Mahavakya - principal statements or utterances of the Upanisads.

Pranava (om) is the true mahavakya of the Vedas as established in

Chapter Twelve. However, Shri Sankaracarya has widely broadcast

four aphorisms as mahavakyas. Therefore, the word mahavakya has

come to be associated with these expressions: aham brahmasmi, "I

am brahma," (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad, 1.4.10); tat tvam asi svetaketo,

"O Svetaketo, you are that" (Chandogya Upanisad, 6.8.7); prajnanam

brahma, "The supreme knowledge is brahma," (Aitareya Upanisad,

1.5.3); and sarvam khalv idam brahma, "All the universe is brahma."

(Chandogya Upanisad, 3.14.1.)

Mala - see tulasi-mala.

Malphut - an Islamic term for ignorance.

Malati - a kind of jasmine flower or its plant.

Mamaji - maternal uncle.

Mamata - literally means 'my-ness'; attachment or possessiveness.

Mamata for material objects or persons is the cause of bondage,

whereas mamata for guru, Vaishnavas, and spiritual objects is the

cause of liberation; in the spiritual world mamata is one of the

characteristics of prema.

Mana - consists of the bhavas (such as Shrimati Radhika's jealous

anger) that prevent the nayaka and nayika from meeting freely, although

they are together, and attracted to each other.

Mantra - a mystical sloka composed of the names of Shri Bhagavan

which addresses any individual deity. Mantras are given to a disciple

by a guru at the time of diksa. The question may be raised that

since bhagavan-nama is independent, how can mantras, which are

composed of the names of the Lord (bhagavan-nama), be dependent

upon diksa? Shrila Jiva Gosvami has discussed this question in Bhaktisandarbha

(Anuccheda 284). He says that mantras are bhagavannamatmika.

This means that mantras are composed of the names of

Bhagavan. The difference is that mantras also contain some special

words like nama, svaha, and klim. Shri Bhagavan and the rsis have

invested mantras with special power by which those mantras reveal

one's own specific relationship with Krishna. Therefore it may seem

that mantras are endowed with some special potencies that are not

invested in nama. A contradiction arises because if bhagavan-nama

(which is lacking these special attributes) is able to bestow the

supreme object of attainment (parama-purusartha) without any need

for diksa, how is it that mantras are dependent on diksa when they

are even more powerful than nama?

Shrila Jiva Gosvami analyzes that by the constitutional nature of

mantras, they are not dependent on diksa. Nonetheless, people in

general are influenced by the bodily conception and their hearts

are polluted with abominable desires. In order to curb these tendencies,

the rsis have established regulations to be followed in the

arcana-marga. Otherwise, by constitutional nature, there is no difference

between nama and mantra in the matter of their independence

of any formalities.

Nama, being non-different from nami, or Bhagavan Himself, is

already invested with all potencies. Therefore in actuality, the glory

of nama is superior to that of mantras. Yet Jiva Gosvami says that

the diksa-mantras are invested with the power to reveal the sadhakas'

specific relationship with the Lord - shri bhagavata samam atmasambandha-

visesa-pratipadakas ca (Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda

284). The same thing is stated in Anuccheda 283: divyam-jnanam hy

atra shrimati mantre bhagavat-svarupa-jnanam tena bhagavata

sambandha-visesa-jnanam ca (see diksa). This means that when a

guru who is situated on the platform of bhava gives diksa, the man

tras are invested with the knowledge of Bhagavan's svarupa and

knowledge of one's specific relationship with Him. Therefore, those

who are desiring to attain the prema-seva of Shri Krishna in Vraja in

one of the four relationships of dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, or madhura

should accept diksa-mantras from a guru who is established in one

of these moods.

Manu-samhita - a religious sastra spoken by the forefather of mankind

Manu, delineating the codes of behavior for all human beings.

Maya - illusion; that which is not; Shri Bhagavan's external potency

which influences the living entities to accept the false egoism of

being independent enjoyers of this material world.

Maya-sakti - the potency that creates bewilderment, which is responsible

for the manifestation of the material world, time, and

material activities.

Mayavada - the doctrine of illusion; a theory advocated by the

impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya which holds that the Lord's

form, this material world, and the individual existence of the living

entitities are maya or false.

Mayavadi - one who advocates the doctrine of illusion (see


Maya-vikrama - see maya-sakti.

Mayika-tattva - the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavan's deluding

potency, which relates to the material world. One of the

aspects of sambandha-jnana.

Mimamsa - a philosophical doctrine which has two divisions: (1)

purva or karma-mimamsa founded by Jaimini, which advocates that

by carrying out the ritualistic karma of the Vedas, one can attain

the celestial planets, and (2) uttara-mimamsa founded by Badarayana

Vyasadeva, which deals with the nature of brahma. (See purvamimamsa

and uttara-mimamsa).

Mimamsaka - a philosopher. One who adheres to the mimamsa

philosophical doctrine of which there are two divisions. This usually

refers to those who follow the karma-mimamsa of Jaimini.

Mimamsa-sastra - (1) a sastra which ascertains fundamental philosophical

truths through analytical examination. (2) sastra dealing

with a branch of Vedic philosophy (see mimamsa).

Misra - mixed, adulterated.

Mithya-abhimana - false egoism; identification with the gross and

subtle material bodies.

Mleccha - derived from the sanskrit root mlech meaning to utter

indistinctly (sanskrit) - a foreigner; non-Aryan; a man of an

outcaste race; any non-Sanskrit-speaking person who does not conform

to the Hindu social and religious customs.

Moksa - see mukti.

Mrdanga - a double-headed clay drum which is used in the performance

of devotional songs.

Mujarrad - an Islamic term for spirit or consciousness.

Mukta-dasa - the liberated state.

Mukta-jiva - the liberated soul; those who are liberated from the

influence of material nature while still residing in this world, or

those who reside in the spiritual world.

Mukti - liberation from material existence. There are five types of

liberation: sarupya (obtaining the same form as Bhagavan), samipya

(living in close proximity to Bhagavan), salokya (living on the

same planet as Bhagavan), sarsti (having the same opulence as

Bhagavan), and sayujya (becoming one with Shri Bhagavan either

by merging into His body or by merging into His brahma effulgence).

The last type is vehemently rejected by the bhaktas. Although the

other four types of mukti are sometimes accepted by bhaktas as

they are not entirely incompatible with bhakti, they are never

accepted by those who are fixed on attaining unalloyed love for

Shri Krishna in Vraja.

Mukulita-cetana - budding consciousness. This refers to human

beings whose consciousness is superior to that of lower life-forms,

but who are devoid of morality and ethics. It also refers to those

who have a conventional sense of morality, but who have no faith

in God.

Mullah - Muslim religious scholar

Mumuksa - the desire for liberation.

Mumuksu - a person who is seeking liberation.

Murti - the Deity form of Shri Bhagavan.



Nagara - a town or city.

Nagara-sankirtana - act of singing religious songs in procession

through a city or village.

Naimittika-dharma - the temporary or circumstantial function of

an object or conscious being; that which relates to one's acquired

nature; circumstantial duty or religion.

Naimittika-karma - occasional religious duties induced by specific


Naimittika-sukrti - pious actions which bear temporary results; pious

actions leading to material enjoyment, opulence, acquisition of

knowledge, and mystic powers.

Naisthika-brahmacari - one who accepts a life-long vow of celibacy.

Naitika - that which is related to morality and ethics (see niti).

Nama - the holy name of Krishna, chanted by bhaktas as the main limb

of the practice of sadhana-bhakti.

Nama-bhajana - the practice of chanting the holy name softly to

oneself on tulasi beads.

Namabhasa - a semblance of the holy name. The stage of chanting

in which one is becoming cleared of sins and offenses but has not

yet attained pure chanting.

Nama-aparadha - offensive chanting of the holy name, or chanting

of the holy name which is subject to the ten kinds of nama-aparadha.

(see Chapter 24).

Nama-rasa - transcendental taste which comes from chanting the

holy name.

Nama-sankirtana - the practice of chanting the holy name of Krishna,

especially congregational chanting.

Namaskara - offering obeisance, or the act of offering adoration,

praise, or reverence. Obeisance to Shri Bhagavan is of four types:

(1) abhivadana, salutation or bowing; (2) astanga, prostrated obeisance

performed with eight parts of the body (two hands, two

feet, two knees, the chest, and the forehead); (3) pancanga, obeisance

performed with five parts of the body (two knees, two arms,

and the forehead); and (4) kara-sira-samyoga, obeisance by joining

the hands to the head and bowing.

Nami - Shri Bhagavan; the person addressed by the name.

Namaz - a system of Muslim prayer

Nara-matram - refer to all human beings, regardless of caste, creed,

or material designation.

Narayana - an expansion of Krishna. The opulent Lord of Vaikuntha.

Navadha-bhakti - nine primary types of bhakti: sravanam, kirtanam,

visnu-smaranam, pada-sevanam, arcanam, vandanam, dasyam,

sakhyam, and atma-nivedanam - hearing, chanting, and remembering

the glories of Krishna, serving His lotus feet, worshiping Him, praying

to Him, carrying out His orders in the mood of a servant, making

friends with Him, and offering one's very self to Him (see under

the individual headings for more information on each of these).

Nimitta - a cause, reason, motive, instrument, or agent.

Nirapeksa - a Vaishnava who is detached from all material enjoyment

and the designations associated with varnasrama; literally

means independent, or one who is without needs.

Nirbheda - undifferentiated; that which is devoid of distinguishing

characteristics or qualities; often used as an adjective to describe

the impersonal brahma.

Nirbheda-brahma-jnani - one who seeks to attain the impersonal

brahma through the process of monistic knowledge.

Nirguna - free from the influence of the material qualities of goodness,

passion, and ignorance. In relationship to Shri Krishna, this

implies that He is endowed with transcendental qualities.

Nirvana - extinction, disappearance, dissolution; final emancipation

from matter and re-union with the Supreme Spirit; Mayavada

conception - absolute extinction or annihilation of individual


Nisanta-lila - Krishna's daily pastimes are divided into eight periods.

Nisanta-lila takes place at the end of night just prior to dawn

(see asta-kaliya-lila).

Nisarga - the acquired nature of a thing; that nature which is

acquired through long association or identification; the distorted

nature of a thing.

Nistha - firm faith; steadiness in one's devotional practices. This

is the fourth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti.

Nistha occurs after the elimination of the major portion of one's


Niti - moral science, ethics, social morality, moral conduct or behavior;

political wisdom or science.

Nitya - eternal; invariable; daily; that which has no beginning and

no end.

Nitya-dharma - the eternal characteristic function of a thing, or

that which relates to its eternal constitutional function.

Nitya-karma - daily obligatory religious duties.

Nitya-satya - eternal truth or reality.

Nitya-sukrti - pious deeds which bear eternal results; pious deeds

which foster the eternal function of bhakti, such as the association

of bhaktas and contact with acts of devotion.

Nitya-tattva - eternal truth, reality or philosophical principle.

Nivrtti-marga - the path of detachment or abstinence from material

fruitive action and ritualistic religion.

Nyaya - the philosophy dealing with a logical analysis of reality,

also known as nyaya-darsana. This system of philosophy was founded

by Maharsi Gautama (see Gautama in the Glossary of Names). The

nyaya-darsana accepts sixteen principles: 1) pramana (evidence; the

means to obtain factual knowledge), 2) prameya (that which is to be

ascertained by real knowledge), 3) samsaya (doubt about the point

to be discussed), 4) prayojana (a motive for discussing the point in

question), 5) drstanta (citing instances or examples), 6) siddhanta

(demonstrated conclusion of an argument), 7) avayava (component

parts of a logical argument or syllogism), 8) tarka (persuasive reasoning),

9) nirnaya (deduction, conclusion, or application of a conclusive

argument), 10) vada (thesis, proposition, or argument), 11)

jalpa (striking disputation or reply to defeat the argument of the

opposition), 12) vitanda (destructive criticism; idle carping at the

assertions of another without attempting to prove the opposite

side of the question) 13) hetv-abhasa (fallacy; the mere appearance

of a reason), 14) chala (deceitful disputation; perverting the sense

of the opposing party's words), 15) jati (logic based merely on false

similarity or dissimilarity), and 16) nigraha-sthana (a weak point in

an argument or fault in a syllogism).

According to nyaya-darsana, misery is of nineteen types: the material

body, the six senses including the mind, the six objects of the

senses, and the six transformations - birth, growth, production,

maintenance, dwindling, and death. In addition to these, happiness

is considered as the twentieth form of misery because it is

simply a transformed state of distress. The naiyayikas, adherents of

the nyaya-darsana, accept four types of evidence: pratyaksa (direct

perception), anumana (inference), upamana (comparison), and sabda

(the authority of the Vedas).

The nyaya-darsana accepts the existence of eternal infinitesimal

particles known as paramanu. These, they claim, are the fundamental

ingredients from which the creation has sprung. But in order for

the creation to take place, there is need of an administrator who is

known as Isvara, Shri Bhagavan. Bhagavan creates the world by setting

the atomic particles in motion. Like these atomic particles,

Isvara is eternal and without beginning. Although the naiyayikas

accept the existence of Isvara, they do not believe that He personally

carries out the creation. He is merely the primeval cause. By His

desire, the atoms are set into motion whereupon they create all the

subtle and gross elements from which the creation comes about.

According to the nyaya-darsana, the jivas are innumerable, eternal,

and without beginning. The naiyayikas do not think that the

jivas are of the nature of consciousness, but that they are only substantive

entities which may be associated with intellectual, volitional,

or emotional qualities as a result of a proper combination of

causes and conditions. The nyaya-darsana advocates that the jiva

and Isvara are two entirely separate truths. The jiva's material existence

is due to karma. The creation occurs under the influence of

karma, and within the creation the jivas suffer the reactions of their

karma. Isvara's sole function is to set the creation in motion and to

reward the results of karma.

The naiyayikas say that the jiva can attain liberation from material

existence through philosophical knowledge of the sixteen principles.

They define mukti as complete cessation of material misery.

There is no factual happiness in mukti. In this liberated condition

the jiva is as if unconscious.

Nyaya-sastra - the sastras dealing with a logical analysis of reality.

The precepts of nyaya are mostly explained through analogies drawn

from an analysis of common objects such as a clay pot (ghata) and a

piece of cloth (pata), so these words are repeatedly encountered in

discussions of nyaya.


Pada-sevanam - literally means to serve the feet. However, the question

arises as to how a sadhaka can serve the feet of the Lord. Therefore

in his Krama-sandarbha commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam,

Jiva Gosvami has defined pada-sevanam as follows: pada-sevayam

pada sabdo bhakty eva nirdista tata sevayam sadaratvam vidhiyate - "In

the term pada-seva the word pada refers only to bhakti. The word

seva indicates that this bhakti, or service, should be done with great

love and respect." To take darsana of the Deity, to touch the Deity,

to do parikrama of the Deity, to follow the Deity in a procession, to

visit the Lord's temples or holy places such as the Ganga,

Purusottama-ksetra, Dvaraka, and Mathura; to observe festivals,

and to serve the Vaishnavas and tulasi are all included in pada-sevanam.

This is one of the nine primary angas of bhakti.

Panca-mahapapa - killing a brahmana, drinking intoxicating liquors,

theft, committing adultary with the wife of shri-guru and associating

with anyone guilty of these crimes.

Pancopasana - worship of the five deities - Surya, Ganesa, Sakti,

Siva, and Vishnu.

Pandita - Panda means 'the intelligence of one who is enlightened

by knowledge of the sastra', and the word pandita refers to one who

has such intelligence.

Papa - sin.

Parabrahma - the Supreme brahma, the source of the brahma

effulgence, Shri Bhagavan.

Parak-vrtti - the tendency to be focused outward toward the external

world or toward the senses and sense objects.

Paralaukika - concerning the next world; extra-mundane; spiritual.

Parama-dharma - the supreme or ultimate function of the jiva.

Parama-guru - grand-spiritual master; the guru of one's guru.

Paramahamsa - the fourth and final stage of sannyasa, which has

been referred to as niskriya (freedom from all material obligations)

in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this sloka,

Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has defined niskriya as praptatattva,

realization of the Supreme Absolute Truth.

Paramartha - the highest truth; spiritual knowledge; the highest

object of attainment.

Paramarthika - that which relates to the supreme spiritual truth or

ultimate reality; real, essential, true; that which relates to a higher


Paramatma - the Supersoul situated in the hearts of all living entities

as the witness and source of remembrance, knowledge, and


Paramatma- pravrtti - the tendency of the jiva to seek Krishna in the

heart, who is known as Paramatma.

Para-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's superior potency which has three divisions:

cit, tatastha, and maya.

Paravyoma - means 'the spiritual sky'. Generally this refers to the

region of the spiritual sky where the Vaikuntha planets reside.

Patha-sala - literally means a school in which four subjects (patha)

are taught. These four subjects refer to the study of the four Vedas

or the four subjects - Sanskrit grammar, rhetoric, logic, and philosophy.

Phalgu-vairagya - futile renunciation; renunciation which is unfavorable

to bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.256):

"When people who desire liberation give up objects which are related

to Krishna, considering them to be material, their renunciation

is known as phalgu-vairagya." Shrila Jiva Gosvami has explained in

his commentary that this especially refers to giving up prasada, or

remnants of food and other articles offered to Him. This giving up

of prasada is of two types: never requesting Krishna's prasada, and

refusing it when it comes unsolicited. The second one in particular

is considered to be an offense and therefore unfavorable to bhakti.

Pinda - riceballs or flour cake offered to the Pitris, or deceased

ancestors; a sraddha oblation.

Prabhu - master or Lord.

Prabhu-tattva - the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavan, who

is the master of the living entities and of material nature. This is

one of the aspects of sambandha-jnana.

Pradesika - regional, territorial, provincial. This comes from the

word pradesa, a province. When it is used in reference to particular

statements of the Vedas, it means that which is limited to a particular

context, or that which defines only a partial aspect of a concept.

This is in contrast to mahavakyas which are statements defining

the underlying essence of the entire Vedas (see mahavakya in this


Prahara - a day is divided into eight periods known as prahara, each

roughly three hours in duration.

Prakasa - a particular type of manifestation of Bhagavan. When a

single form is manifest in many places simultaneously and each of

these forms is identical in terms of bodily features, qualities, and

pastimes, such a manifestation is called prakasa.

Prakrta-bhakta - an unrefined or undeveloped bhakta. This is a term

which refers to the kanistha, or neophyte bhakta‚ who worships the

Deity with faith but who renders no service to the Krishna's bhaktas.

Prakrti - (1) nature, the material world, the power that creates and

regulates the world. (2) matter as opposed to purusa, spirit. (3) the

primordial female energy, a woman or womankind.

Prakrti Devi - the goddess of nature.

Prana-natha - literally means the Lord of one's life, but it carries the

sense of one who is infinitely more dear than life itself.

Prani - a living or sentient being. Prani comes from the word prana

which means the breath of life or vital air. That which is living,

breathing, or possessed of vital air is called prani.

Prapatti - surrender or submission to Shri Bhagavan.

Prarabdha-karma - the results of previous activities which have

already begun to bear fruit.

Prasada - literally means mercy; especially refers to the remnants of

food offered to the Deity; may also refer to the remnants of other

articles offered to the Deity such as incense, flowers, garlands, and


Pratibimba-bhakti-abhasa - a reflective semblance of bhakti. This

refers to those who adopt the practices of bhakti with a desire for

material enjoyment and especially liberation. Because these people

have no faith in Krishna and no desire to please Him, their semblance

of bhakti is of the nature of an image which is disconnected from its

object, and is therefore compared to a reflection.

Pratyak-vrtti - the tendency to be focused inward toward the soul.

Pravrtti-marga - the path of fruitive action or ritualistic religion

which yields material piety and the facility to enjoy this material


Prayojana - a goal or object of attainment. In terms of bhakti, this

refers to the ultimate goal, krishna-prema.

Prema - (1) love for Krishna which is extremely concentrated, which

completely melts the heart, and which gives rise to a deep sense of

mamata or possessiveness in relation to the Lord (this is the general

definition of prema given in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, 1.4.1). (2)

When rati becomes firmly rooted and unchecked by any obstacle it

is known as prema. When some cause arises that could conceivably

ruin the relationship between the lover and beloved and yet their

bond remains completely unaffected, such an intimate loving relationship

is known as prema. When prema is augmented, it is gradually

transformed into sneha, mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga, and bhava.

(Ujjvala-nilamani, 14. 59, 63).

Prema-bhakti - a stage of bhakti which is characterised by the appearance

of prema (see above); the perfectional stage of devotion;

the eighth and fully blossomed state of the bhakti-lata.

Prema-dharma - the religion which has as its goal the attainment of

unalloyed love for Shri Krishna.

Premadhikara - eligibility for the unalloyed loving service of Shri


Priti - love for Krishna which is also known as prema or bhakti. Jiva

Gosvami has defined priti in Priti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 65): tasya

hladinya eva kapi sarvanandatisayini vrttir-nityam bhakta-vrndesv eva

niksipyamana bhagavat-prityakhyaya varttate - "When the eternal

pleasure-giving faculty of the hladini potency, which alone has the

power to bring supreme delight to Krishna, manifests in the bhakta's

heart, it is known as bhagavat-priti, or love for Bhagavan." The symptom

of this priti is an uninterrupted desire to please the object of

priti, Shri Krishna.

Prthak - distinct; different.

Puranas - the eighteen historical supplements to the Vedas.

Purna-Brahma - the complete brahma who is the Supreme Personality

of Godhead, Bhagavan. Bhagavan is purna, the complete reality.

brahma, because it is the bodily effulgence of Bhagavan, is an aspect

of that reality.

Purna-cetana - possessing full consciousness; Shri Bhagavan.

Purna-sakti - complete potency.

Purna-vikasita-cetana - fully blossomed consciousness. This refers

to the bhava-bhaktas, or those who have awakened deep attachment

and love for Bhagavan.

Purusa - (1) the primeval being as the soul and original source of

the universe, the Supreme Being or Soul of the universe. (2) the

animating principle in living beings, the soul, spirit as opposed to

prakrti, or matter. (3) a male or mankind.

Purusartha - the goals of human attainment. In the Vedic sastras

these are classified into four categories: dharma, religious duty; artha,

acquisition of wealth; kama, satisfaction of material desires; and

moksa, liberation from material existence. Beyond all of these is the

development of unalloyed love for the Supreme Lord, who is the

embodiment of spiritual bliss and transcendental rasa. This is

known as parama-purusartha, the supreme object of attainment.

Purva-mimamsa - the philosophy established by Maharsi Jaimini,

also known as jaimini-darsana (see Jaimini in the Glossary of Names).

To thoroughly examine a topic and arrive at a conclusion is known

as mimamsa. Mimamsa comes from the verbal root man, to think,

reflect, or consider. Because in his book, Maharsi Jaimini has established

the correct interpretation of the Vedic statements and how

they may be decided through logical analysis, this book is known as

mimamsa-grantha. The Vedas have two divisions: purva-kanda (the

first part), dealing with Vedic karma; and uttara-kanda (the latter

part), dealing with the Upanisads or Vedanta. Since Jaimini's book

deals with an analysis of the first part of the Vedas, it is called purva??

mimamsa. As Jaimini's philosophy deals exclusively with an analysis

of Vedic karma, it is also known as karma-mimamsa.

Jaimini has minutely examined how Vedic ritualistic karma is

to be performed and what its results are. He has accepted the

Vedas as apauruseya (not created by any man), beginningless, and

eternal. His philosophy is established on the basis of the Vedas.

However, he has given prominence only to Vedic karma. He states

that the jivas are meant to performVedic karma only. By proper

performance of Vedic karma, one can obtain parama-purusartha,

the supreme goal, which in his opinion refers to the attainment

of the celestial planets.

In Jaimini's view, the visible world is anadi, without beginning,

and it does not undergo destruction. Consequently, there is no

need for an omniscient and omnipotent Isvara to carry out the

creation, maintenance, and destruction of the world. Jaimini accepts

the existence of pious and sinful karma. According to his

doctrine, karma automatically yields the results of its own actions.

Therefore, there is no need for an Isvara to award the results

of karma.

Putra - a son; one who delivers his forefathers from the hell known

as put.


Raga - a deep attachment which is permeated by spontaneous and

intense absorption in the object of one's affection. The primary

characteristic of raga is a deep and overpowering thirst for the

object of one's affection. The desire for water is called thirst. When

the body is deprived of water, thirst arises. The greater the thirst,

the greater the longing for water. When this thirst reaches the

point that without water one can no longer maintain the body, it is

known as an overpowering thirst. Similarly, when the loving thirst

to please the object of one's affection becomes so intense that in

the absence of such service one is on the verge of giving up his life,

it is known as raga.

Raga-marga - the path of raga, or spontaneous attachment; see


Ragamayi bhakti - bhakti which is permeated with raga, or spontaneous

affection. Ragamayi bhakti is not within sadhana. It refers to

the stage after prema has arisen. In the beginning, there is prema,

which then develops into sneha, mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga, bhava

and mahabhava. When prema attains the state of raga it is called

ragamayi. It comes after one takes his birth in the womb of a gopi

and attains the association of Krishna's ragatmika-bhaktas. By that

association, first prema will come and then it will gradually evolve

to the stage of raga and on up to mahabhava. The word trsna used

here means 'thirst' to drink Krishna, His form (rupa), taste (rasa),

smell (gandha), sound (sabda) and touch (sparsa). The word

premamayi is a general term that can indicate the stage of prema

anywhere in its development from the stage of sneha right up to

the stage of mahabhava.

Raganuga-bhakti - bhakti which follows in the wake of the ragatmika

nature present in the hearts of the Lord's eternal associates in

Vraja is known as raganuga-bhakti.

Raganuga-prakrti - nature which impels one to follow the soul's

spontaneous attraction toward Krishna. When the intelligence is

liberated from the bondage of maya, human nature no longer needs

to be governed by rules and prohibitions; rather, it is prompted by

spontaneous love. The raganuga nature is the unadulterated nature

of the jiva. It is svabhava-siddha (the perfected state of the

self), chinmaya (transcendental), and jada-mukta (free from bondage

to dull matter).

Raganuga-sadhana - Shri Rupa Gosvami's conclusions regarding the

method for performing raganuga-bhajana are stated in Bhaktirasamrta-

sindhu (1.2.294-296) as follows: "One should constantly

remember one's dearest nava-kisora Shri Nanda-nandana and the

beloved associates of Krishna who are possessed of sajatiya-bhava or

the identical mood for which one aspires. One should always reside

in Shri Vraja-dhama with great attachment for hearing topics regarding

Krishna and His devotees. If one is physically unable to live in

Vraja, one should do so mentally. This is the method of raganugabhakti-

sadhana." Shri Rupa Gosvami continues: "A sadhaka who has

lobha for raganuga-bhakti should serve Shri Krishna both in the sadhaka??

rupa and the siddha-rupa in accordance with the bhava of the Vrajaparikaras

who possess the same mood for which he aspires. The angas

of bhakti such as sravana, kirtana, shri guru-padaasraya, and others in

regard to vaidhi-bhakti, are also useful and necessary in raganugabhakti.

But judicious sadhakas will adopt only those angas which

nourish their specific bhava, avoiding those which hamper it."

Examples of the angas of bhakti in regard to raganuga-sadhana are

as follows: Sravanam in madhura-rasa means that one will hear how

a maidservant serves Lalita, Visakha, Radha and Krishna. Kirtana

means that one will learn how to do pati-vancanam, that is speaking

sweet words to the husband in order to cheat him and go to participate

in the lila of Radha and Krishna. Smaranam means to remember

how Lalita and Visakha are rendering service to Shrimati Radharani.

Pada-sevanam means to take Shrimati Radharani to meet with Krishna

at night. Arcanam is done with the corner of the eyes. When Krishna

is returning from the cow-pastures with the cowherd boys and the

cows, all the gopis are standing at their doorsteps doing arcana with

the corner of their eyes. Everything is there; the flame is there,

water is there, sneha, mana, pranaya and everything else is there.

Krishna also accepts their worship with the corner of His eyes. This

is called arcana. Atma-nivedanam means gopijana-vallabhaya svaha:

"I am the maidservant of Radha and Krishna, and I am offering my

entire being to Them."

Ragatmika - one in whose heart there naturally and eternally exists

a deep spontaneous desire to love and serve Shri Krishna; one whose

bhakti is permeated with raga. This specifically refers to the eternal

residents of Vraja, who are attracted to Shri Krishna in a mood of

intimate love, free from any conception of the Lord's opulence or

majesty (aisvarya-jnana).

Rajas - (See rajo-guna).

Rajasika - of the nature of rajo-guna.

Rajo-guna - the quality or nature of living beings which is

characterised by intense activity and passion.

Rama-navami - the appearance day of Shri Rama which occurs on the

ninth day of the light lunar fortnight of the month of Caitra


Ranjakata - in chapter twenty-one ranjakata is used to mean attraction.

The special implication is that a person's heart becomes

'colored', or dyed very thoroughly by an object due to his strong

attachment for it. That is the state of raga. When the person sees

the beautiful object, his vision at once becomes drawn to it, and

his heart becomes colored. Then, even if the beautiful object goes

out of his sight, still his heart continues to perceive it everywhere.

The coloring of the heart is called ranjakata and the strong

attachment that is established in the heart when the consciousness

becomes dyed in this way is known as raga.

Rasa - (1) the spiritual transformation of the heart which takes

place when the perfectional state of love for Krishna, known as rati,

is converted into liquid emotions by combination with various

types of transcendental ecstasies. In Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.5)

bhakti-rasa is defined: "When the sthayibhava, or the permanent

emotion of the heart in one of the five primary relationships of

neutrality, servitude, friendship, parental affection, or conjugal

love, mixes with vibhava, anubhava, sattvika-bhava, and vyabhicaribhava,

thus producing an extraordinary taste in the heart of the

bhakta, it is called bhakti-rasa."

The explanation of bhakti as rasa is the unique contribution of

Shrila Rupa Gosvami. The common view is that rasa applies to the

emotional experience of poetry or drama. This theory of rasa originated

from the Natya-sastra of Bharata Muni, a famous work on

Sanskrit poetics and drama. Rupa Gosvami's explanation of how

rasa is generated is exactly in accordance with Bharata Muni's definition;

yet he has explained the experience of rasa in terms of

bhakti, or love for Krishna. Thus, there is both a transcendental and

secular conception of rasa.

(2) the state of aesthetic consciousness.

Rasaraja - the emperor of rasa; one who is supreme in relishing the

mellows of rasa; this is a name for Shri Krishna who is akhila-rasamrtamurti,

the embodiment of the essence of all rasa.

Rasika-bhakta - one who is able to relish bhakti-rasa within his

heart. At the stage of bhava, a bhakta's heart becomes infused with

suddha-sattva from the heart of one of Krishna's eternal associates

in Vraja. This suddha-sattva is then known as krishna-rati, the first

dawning of divine love. When this permanent sentiment of love

combines with other ecstatic emotions, it generates the unique

experience of bhakti-rasa. One who is eligible to taste this rasa is

known as a rasika-bhakta.

Rati - (1) attachment, fondness for. (2) a stage in the development

of bhakti which is synonymous with bhava (see bhava-bhakti).

Riramsa - means the desire to taste Krishna for one's own enjoyment,

not for Krishna's pleasure. If that riramsa is to please Krishna, then it

comes in the category of kama and prema. Riramsa should be present

in kamanuga, whether it is tat-tad-bhava-icchamayi or sambhogaicchamayi;

riramsa is present in both. Riramsa is present in tad-tadbhava-

icchamayi, but it is tasted when the gopis and Krishna meet

together. And in sambhoga-icchamayi, the gopis are meeting with

Krishna in order to please Him. Riramsa is also present in Kubja, but

only to satisfy herself. Riramsa is not for one's personal enjoyment

in sambhoga-icchamayi and tat-tad-bhava-icchamayi.

If one has this riramsa toward Krishna and is practicing strictly

according to vaidhi-bhakti then he will attain to the class of Krishna's

queens in Dvaraka. In vaidhi-bhakti one worships Laksmi-

Narayana. Sadhakas who have riramsa towards Krishna will attain

Krishna, but their kama will be of the nature of Dvaraka, so they will

follow the mahisis (queens). Vaidhi means to be married by sastravidhi.

In the vaidhi-bhava, one desires to have Krishna as one's husband.

One may desire the Krishna of Vraja, but there is no marriage

in Vraja. Therefore, one cannot obtain Vraja bhava; instead, one

will attain Dvaraka.

Rsi - a great sage learned in the Vedas.

Ruci - taste. This is the fifth stage in the development of the creeper

of bhakti. Ruci develops after one has acquired steadiness in bhajana.

At this stage, with the awakening of actual taste, one's attraction to

spiritual matters, such as hearing, chanting, and other such devotional

practices, exceeds one's attraction to any type of material


Ruh - an Islamic term for the soul.

Ruh-mujarrad - an Islamic term for the liberated soul.



Sac-cid-ananda - that which is composed of sat (eternal existence),

cit (full spiritual consciousness), and ananda (spiritual bliss); often

refers to the transcendental form of Shri Krishna.

Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```ð`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞 - a name for Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; the son of mother

Saci (see Chaitanya).

Sadhaka - one who follows a spiritual discipline to achieve a specific

goal. In this book this especially refers to a practitioner of


Sadhana - the method one adopts in order to obtain a specific goal

is called sadhana. Without sadhana one cannot obtain sadhya, the

goal of one's practice. There are many different types of sadhana

corresponding to various goals. Those who desire material enjoyment

adopt the path of karma as their sadhana. Those who desire

liberation adopt the path of jnana as their sadhana. Those who

aspire for the eternal loving service of Shri Krishna adopt the path of

bhakti as their sadhana. The sadhana of bhakti refers to spiritual practices

such as hearing, chanting, and so on.

Sadhana-bhakti - the practising stage of devotion; a stage of bhakti

in which the various spiritual disciplines performed for the satisfaction

of Shri Krishna are undertaken through the medium of the

senses for the purpose of bringing about the manifestation of bhava,

or spiritual prema.

Sadhana-catustaya - four types of sadhana (mentioned in Chapter

twelve) which are; nityanitya-vastu-viveka (discriminating between

eternal and temporary objects); 2) ihanutra-phala-bhoga-viraga (detachment

from enjoying the results of this life and the next life); 3)

sama-damadi sat-sampatti (the six types of opulences headed by control

over the mind and senses); and 4) mumuksa (the desire for


Sadhu - derived from the verbal root sadh meaning to go straight to

the goal (like an arrow), or to succeed, thus the sadhu means one

who is straight forward and speaks the truth unaffected by social

convention, as does sadhana mean the process of going straight to

the goal. Although in a general sense this may be translated as a

religious person or a bhakta, it refers to bhaktas who are highly ad??

vanced. Such bhaktas are also known as mahat (great souls) or

bhagavata (bhaktas who embody the characteristics of Bhagavan).

Their symptoms are described as follows (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.5.2-

3): mahantas te sama-citta prasanta vimanyava suhrda sadhavo ye, ye va

mayise krta-sauhrdartha janesu dehambhara-vartikesu grhesu jayatmajaratimatsu

na priti-yukta yavad-arthas ca loke - "The mahat or great

souls are endowed with the following qualities: They see all jivas

with equal vision. They are fully peaceful because their intelligence

is firmly fixed in Krishna. They are devoid of anger. They are

well-wishing friends to all jivas. They are sadhus, meaning that they

never consider others' faults. They are firmly established in a loving

relationship with the Supreme Lord, and they consider prema

to be the supreme object of attainment. They do not consider any

other object to be worthy of interest. They have no attachment for

people who are absorbed in material enjoyment, nor for wife, children,

wealth, or home. They have no desire to accumulate wealth

beyond what is necessary to maintain their body for the service of

Shri Krishna."

Sadhu-sanga - the association of highly advanced bhaktas who possess

the qualities described above. The word sadhu-sanga does not

mean merely to be in the proximity of advanced bhaktas; it means to

seek them out, to remain with them, to offer them obeisances, to

serve them as far as possible, to hear spiritual instructions from

them, to perform spiritual practices under their direction, to follow

in their footsteps, and to conduct one's life according to their


In Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.91) Shrila Rupa Gosvami specifically

defines what type of sadhu-sanga we should seek out - sajatiyasaye

snigdhe sadhau sangah svato vare. He says that we should associate

with bhaktas who are significantly more advanced than ourselves,

who are soft hearted, and who are established in the mood of service

to Krishna for which we individually aspire. This is the first

development of the creeper of bhakti after its inception in the form

of sraddha.

Sadhya - the object or goal which is desired by a person and for the

attainment of which he undergoes a suitable process, is known as

sadhya. There are many different types of sadhyas, or objects of attainment,

and these are generally grouped into four categories:

dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kama (material

enjoyment), and moksa (liberation). The sadhya-vastu, or object

of attainment, for the bhaktas is bhagavat-priti, love for the Supreme

Lord. This is also known as prema. Bhakti or prema, being an

eternal function of Shri Bhagavan's svarupa-sakti, is not produced by

anything. Yet, when the bhakta's heart is purified by performing

sadhana-bhakti, it becomes fit to receive the manifestation of His

hladini or pleasure giving potency. At that time Krishna manifests

this potency in the bhakta's heart and it becomes known as bhagavatpriti

(see priti and purusartha).

Sadhya, susiddha, siddha and ari - These are four kinds of dosa

(faults) calculated according to jyotisa-sastra concerning the nature

of a sisya in accordance with his purva-karma. Some of them

appear to be good qualities, but from the absolute perspective, anyone

who takes a material birth has fault. In this context sadhya

indicates that the candidate has the adhikara to attain prema-bhakti

if he endeavors fully in this life. Susiddha has the adhikara to attain

perfection with very little endeavor and siddha has somewhat less

adhikara than him. Ari indicates that the sisya has so many ari

(inauspicious planets) in his chart that almost any endeavor he

makes for bhakti will simply create further hindrances. However,

when these four kinds of sisyas accept krishna-mantra from sad-guru

all of their hindrances can be removed.

Sagnika-brahmana - is a brahmana who keeps a perpetual fire burning

in his house for the sake of performing yajna.

Saiva - a worshiper of Shri Siva.

Sakhi - a female friend, companion, or attendant.

Sakhya - love or attachment for the Lord which is expressed in the

mood of a friend; one of the five primary relationships with Krishna

which are established in the heart when the sadhaka has attained

the stage of bhava or prema.

One of the angas of sadhana-bhakti; the worship of the Lord

while one is in the stage of sadhana in the mood of being a friend

of the Lord. Although Shri Bhagavan possesses all opulences and

majesty, a bhakta who thinks of the Lord as his friend and endeavors

to please Him in this way exhibits this mood of friendship

toward the Lord. In the summer season, thinking that his worshipful

Lord must be suffering greatly from the heat, the sadhaka

will fan Him and offer Him sandalwood and other fragrant and

cooling substances. When one does so, he demonstrates a mood

of friendship toward the Lord. The difference between dasyam

and sakhyam is that sakhyam is imbued with visrambha-seva, the

mood of intimacy, free from any formal restraint. This is one of the

nine primary angas of bhakti.

Sakta - a worshiper of Sakti or Durga.

Sakti - (1) power or potency. (2) the wife of Lord Siva, also known

as Durga, who presides over the material energy; one of the five

deities worshiped by the pancopasakas.

Saktyavesa-avatara - an empowered incarnation; a jiva who, due

to submission to Bhagavan becomes avesa (empowered) by Him to

act powerfully on His behalf.

Samadhi - meditation or deep trance either upon the Paramatma

or upon Krishna's lila.

Samaja - human society; a meeting, assembly, congregation or community.

Samajika - that which relates to society and social ideas (see samaja).

Sambandha-jnana - knowledge regarding sambandha-tattva, the

mutual relationship between the Lord, the living entities, and

the material energy. The word sambandha means connection, relationship,

and binding. The living entities are eternally and inseparably

connected to the Supreme Lord, who is therefore the

true object of relationship. The general relationship between the

living entities and Shri Bhagavan is one of servant and served. But

in the perfectional stage of bhakti, one becomes established in a

specific relationship with the Lord either as a servant, friend,

parent, or beloved.

Sambandha-tattva - the principle regarding the mutual relationships

between Bhagavan, the living entities, and the material energy.

Sambhoga - full pleasure. Experienced in the loving dealings between

Krishna and His associates in Vraja. The object of these deal

ings, which embody a wonderful, ecstatic sentiment of rejoicing,

is solely to give pleasure to each other.

Samhita-sastras - religious sastras which delineate the laws for human


Sampradaya - (samyak + pradaya): that process or path that bestows

the Supreme Absolute Truth thoroughly and perfectly. A line of

disciplic succession; established doctrine transmitted from one

teacher to another; a particular system of religious teaching. The

Padma Purana predicts the advent of four authorized lines of

Vaishnava disciplic succession as well as their founding acaryas in

the age of Kali: ata kalau bhavisyanti catvarah sampradayinah shribrahma-

rudra-sanaka vaishnavah ksiti-pavana - "In the age of Kali

four Vaishnava sampradayas will purify the earth. These are known

as the Shri (Laksmi), Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka (Catuhsana)


These sampradayas are renowned by the names of the acaryas

who established their doctrines in recent times (Padma Purana):

ramanujam shri svicakre madhvacaryam caturmukha shri visnusvaminam

rudro nimbadityam catuhsana - "Laksmidevi accepted Ramanuja,

Caturmukha Brahma accepted Madhvacarya; Rudra accepted

Vishnusvami; and Catuhsana, the four Kumaras, accepted Nimbaditya

as the respective heads of their sampradayas."

Although Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu claimed a link with the

Madhva sampradaya, His line is distinguished as the Gaudiya

sampradaya (the sampradaya established in the land of Gauda). Because

He is Shri Bhagavan Himself He has presented the highest

conceptions of love of God which were previously unknown to any

of the sampradayas.

Samsara - (1) material existence; the cycle of repeated birth and

death. (2) householder life; domestic life.

Samskara - (1) a sacred or sanctifying ceremony. (2) reformation or

training of the mind; impression on the mind of any previous experience

or acts done in a former state of existence.

Samvit - this refers to svarupa-sakti which is predominated by

samvit (see svarupa-sakti). Samvit is the potency which relates to

the cit, or cognizant, aspect of Shri Bhagavan. Although Bhagavan

is the embodiment of knowledge, samvit is the potency by which

He knows Himself and causes others to know Him. When the

samvit potency is prominent in visuddha-sattva, it is known as

atma-vidya, knowledge of the individual self and Bhagavan. This

atma-vidya has two faculties: (1) jnana, knowledge itself; and (2)

jnana-pravartaka, one who or that which promotes knowledge.

The worshiper's knowledge is manifest by these two faculties.

Knowledge of absolute reality is possible only with the help of


Sandhini - this refers to svarupa-sakti which is predominated by

sandhini (see svarupa-sakti). Sandhini is the potency which relates

to the sat, or existential aspect of Shri Bhagavan. This is the potency

by which He maintains His own existence and the existence

of others. When the sandhini potency is prominent in

visuddha-sattva, it is known as adhara-sakti, the all-accomodating

potency. The spiritual abode of the Lord and His associates are

manifest by this adhara-sakti.

Sandhya - evening - the junction of day and night.

Sandhya-arati - the ceremony of worshiping a Deity with various

types of paraphernalia such as incense, flowers, and a ghee lamp,

performed at evening twilight with the chanting of devotional

hymns and musical accompaniment.

Sandhya-vandana - the chanting of Vedic mantras such as brahmagayatri

at dawn, noon and sunset.

Sankhya - the path of knowledge involving an analysis of spirit and

matter. This philosophy is atheistic in nature. It was propagated by

the sage Kapila, who is different from the avatara of the Lord known

as Kapila, the son of Kardama and Devahuti. The sage Kapila, who

was born in the dynasty of Agni, is referred to in the Mahabharata

(Vana-parva 221.21): kapilam paramarsin ca yam prahur yataya sada

agni sa kapilo nama sankhya-yoga pravartaka - "That person whom

the renunciates proclaim as the founder of the sankhya-yoga system

is the great sage Kapila who appeared in the dynasty of Agni."

Sankirtana - congregational chanting of the names of Krishna.

Sankucita-cetana - contracted consciousness. This refers to animals,

birds, insects, and aquatics. Their consciousness is more de

veloped than that of the non-moving entities, yet inferior to human

consciousness. Sankucita-cetana is mainly limited to the activities

of eating, sleeping, mating, fearing, moving about of their

own volition, fighting with other animals over territory and possessions

which they claim as their own, and becoming angry in the

face of encroachment. Beings at this stage of consciousness have no

knowledge of the next life and no tendency to inquire about God.

Sannyasa - the fourth asrama, or stage of life in the varnasrama

system; renounced ascetic life.

Sannyasi - a member of the renounced order.

Saranagati - also known as saranapatti; surrender; approaching for

refuge or protection. In Bhakti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 236)

saranagati is described:

anukulyasya sankalpa pratikulyasya varjanam

raksisyatiti visvaso goptrtve varanam tatha

atma-niksepa karpanye sad-vidha saranagati

There are six symptoms of self-surrender: acceptance of that

which is favorable to bhagavad-bhajana, rejection of that which is

unfavorable, firm faith in the Lord as one's protector, deliberate

acceptance of the Lord as one's guardian and nourisher, submission

of the self, and humility.

Sarartha-darsini - commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Shrila

Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura gives the following commentary

on slokas 11.20.27-30, 32-33: "In the first two slokas quoted above,

the nature of a person who is in the beginning stage of eligibility

for bhakti is described. By the association of sadhus one develops a

taste for hearing hari-katha. At that time he loses interest in all

other activities, and begins to chant shri-nama with firm determination.

However, due to his previous habits and conditioning, he is

unable to give up material enjoyment and the desire for such enjoyment.

Yet even while engaged in such enjoyment he knows that it

is offensive and he condemns it.

"What is meant by drdha-niscaya, firm determination? 'Whether

my attachment for family, home, and so on is destroyed or increased,

whether I experience ten million impediments in bhajana or none,

even if I am impelled to lust, or must go to hell for my offenses, I will

never give up bhakti. I will not agree to adopt karma or jnana, even if

Brahma himself comes to recommend it.' This is known as drdhaniscaya.

From the outset, the more one's bhajana is firmly resolved

for bhakti, the less it will be distracted by unfavorable things.

"Will the bhakta remain obstructed by desires for material enjoyment?

No. This is answered by Shri Bhagavan in the next two slokas.

'By hearing and repeating hari-katha, all desires for material enjoyment

within the bhaktas heart are gradually destroyed. When the

sadhaka worships Me, I come and sit in his heart, at which time his

faults can no longer remain. Why? Because it is not possible for

material desires to sit in the same heart with Me, just as it is impossible

for the sun and darkness to be present in the same place. The

knot of the false ego is pierced without delay, all doubts are dispersed,

and the desires for karma are annihilated. This is My eternal


"A bhakta thus develops faith in hearing hari-katha, and having

abandoned faith in the pursuits of karma and jnana, he loses interest

in such activities. But suppose for some improbable reason he

were to desire the fruits of such activities - then what? This is

answered in the next two slokas. 'The benedictions of elevation to

the celestial planets, liberation, the attainment of My supreme

abode, as well as whatever else is obtained by fruitive activities,

austerity, knowledge, renunciation, yoga practice, charity, religiosity,

or other beneficial methods of sadhana, are easily obtained by

My bhaktas through the power of bhakti-yoga.'"

Sarira - the body; bodily frame.

Sariraka-bhasya - the commentary on Vedanta-sutra by Shri

Sankaracarya; Inquiry into the Nature of the Embodied Spirit (see

Sankaracarya in the glossary of names).

Saririka - that which relates to the material body and its acquisitions

(see sarira).

Sarva-darsi - one who is all-seeing; one who sees that Bhagavan is

the complete Absolute Truth and the source of brahma and


Sarva-kalika - activities which are applicable for all time.

Sastra - Scripture especially the Vedic scriptures.

astriya-sraddha - conviction based on deep faith in the sastras in

the practice of bhakti.

Sat-karma - pious deeds recommended in the karma-kanda section

of the Vedas.

Sat-sanga - see sadhu-sanga.

Satta - existence.

Sattva-guna - the quality or nature of living beings which is

characterised by wisdom and purity.

Sattvika - of the nature of sattva -guna.

Sattvika-bhava - one of the five essential ingredients of rasa; eight

symptoms of spiritual ecstasy arising exclusively from visuddhasattva,

or in other words, when the heart is overwhelmed by emotions

in connection with the five primary moods of affection for

Krishna or the seven secondary emotions. The eight symptoms that

constitute sattvika-bhava are: (1) stambha (becoming stunned), (2)

sveda (perspiration), (3) romanca (standing of the hairs on end), (4)

svara-bhanga (faltering of the voice), (5) kampa (trembling), vaivarna

(pallor or change of color), (7) asru (tears), and (8) pralaya (loss of

consciousness or fainting).

Satya - truth, reality; demonstrated conclusion.

Saura - a worshiper of Surya, the sun god.

Sautramani-yajna - a particular sacrifice in honor of Indra which is

described in the Yajur Veda. It is said that by performing this yajna,

one obtains a place in the heavenly planets. Although drinking

wine is forbidden for brahmanas, this yajna involves the acceptance

of wine in a manner that does not result in a brahmana's falldown.

Savisesa-vada - the doctrine which acknowledges that the Absolute

Truth is a transcendental personality possessing non-material

form, features, and attributes.

Savisesa-vadi - one who adheres to the doctrine of savisesavada.

Seva - service, attendance on, reverence, devotion to.

Sevaite - priests or servants of a Deity.

Shallow earthen plate - (quoted in chapter 10) Vaishnavas who now

live at Gadigacha in Navadvipa, who look upon the world as a

shallow earthen plate. The shallow earthen plate is a lid for a water

pot. Even if the pot is very large, it can only hold a small quantity of

water. i.e. Nyayaratna is saying although the earth is a vast container,

it was reduced to a shallow lid by the immense scholarship

and authority of the Vaishnavas of Godruma.

Siddha - (1) realized or perfected. (2) liberated souls who reside in

the spiritual world. (3) a liberated soul who accompanies Bhagavan

to the material world to assist in His pastimes, or one who has

attained the perfectional stage of bhakti (prema) in this life, whose

symptoms are described in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.180):

avijnatakhila klesa sada krishnashrita kriya siddha syu santata prema

saukhyasvada parayana - "One who is always fully immersed in activities

related to Shri Krishna, who is completely unacquainted with

impediments or material distress, and who incessantly tastes the

bliss of prema is called a siddha-bhakta."

Siddhanta - philosophical doctrine or precept; demonstrated conclusion;

established end; admitted truth.

Siddhi - eight mystical perfections attained through yoga (see yogasiddhi).

Siddhi-kami - one who covets mystic powers (see yoga-siddhi).

Siksa - instructions received from a teacher; as one of the limbs of

bhakti, this specifically refers to instructions received from a guru

about bhakti.

Siksa-guru - the person from whom one receives instructions on

how to progress on the path of bhajana is known as siksa-guru, or

instructing spiritual master. After hearing instructions from the

sravana-guru, the person from whom one hears about the fundamental

truths of Bhagavan, a desire may arise to engage in bhajana. If

such a desire arises, the person whom one approaches in order to

learn how to perform bhajana is known as a siksa-guru. The sravanaguru

and siksa-guru are usually one and the same person as stated in

the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 206 - atha sravana-guru bhajanasiksa-

gurvo prayakam-ekatam-iti tathaivaha.

Siva - a qualitative expansion of Shri Bhagavan (see Glossary of


Siva-ratri - a festival in honor of Siva which is observed with a fast

during the day and night of the fourteenth day of the dark half of

the month of Phalguna (February-March).

Smaranam - rememberance and meditation upon Krishna's names,

forms, qualities, and pastimes. Smaranam should be done in connection

with nama-sankirtana. There are five stages in the process

of smarana known as smarana, dharana, dhyana, dhruvanusmrti, and

samadhi: (1) a little investigation or examination of Shri Hari's names,

forms, and so on is called smarana; (2) to withdraw the mind from

all external objects and fix it in a general way upon the name, form,

etc. of Shri Hari is called dharana; (3) to contemplate the Lord's

names, forms, etc. in a concentrated manner is called dhyana; (4)

when that rememberance proceeds in an uninterrupted manner

like a continuous flow of nectar, it is called dhruvanusmrti, and (5)

that meditation in which the object of one's contemplation is the

only thing manifest in the heart is called samadhi. Smaranam is one

of the nine primary angas of bhakti.

Smarta - an orthodox brahmana. One who rigidly adheres to the

smrti-sastras (in particular, the dharma-sastras or codes of religious

behavior), being overly attached to the external rituals without

comprehending the underlying essence of the sastra. They are distinct

from the Vaishnava smartas and smrti-sastras such as Hari-Bhakti


Smarta-karma - social and religious rites prescribed by the smrtisastras.

Smrti - (1) that which is remembered (2) tradition as distinguished

from sruti, revelation. The body of sacred literature which is remembered

(in contradistinction to sruti, or that which is directly

heard by or revealed to the rsis). These include the six Vedangas,

the dharma-sastras such as Manu-samhita, the Puranas, and the


Sneha - affection. In chapter twenty-one two kinds of sneha are

being described by Babaji Mahasaya. He says that sneha is related

to sakhya-bhava, this does not mean in the intimate sense of relationship.

That kind of sakhya-bhava comes under the category of

sambandha-rupa. Sakhya-bhava in this chapter means the ordinary

type of sakhyam, which comes in the nine items of bhakti that

Prahlada Maharaja mentions in Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Here sakhyam

is in vaidhi-bhakti, and it means to serve Krishna with an ordinary

sense of friendliness (sakhya-bhava), and to know Krishna as a friend

(sakha). Since this comes under the jurisdiction of vaidhi-bhakti,

it is not part of raganuga-bhakti. The other kind of sneha comes in

the category of prema (sneha, mana, pranaya, etc.), and therefore

cannot be performed in raganuga-sadhana, but it can come in

ragatmika-bhakti. It cannot be followed. It can only develop in

prema after vastu-siddhi, when the bhakta has taken birth in the

womb of a vraja-gopi, and so it cannot be practiced in raganugasadhana-


Sraddha - faith. This refers to faith in the statements of the sastras

which is awakened after accumulating pious devotional activities

over many births. Such faith is aroused in the association of saintly

bhaktas and it is the external manifestation of the seed of the creeper

of bhakti. The inner essence of that seed is the conception which is

planted in the heart of the disciple to serve Shri Shri Radha-Krishna in

a particular capacity (see also bhakti-lata-bija).

Sraddha - a ceremony in honor of and for the benefit of deceased

relatives. The forefathers are offered pinda, an oblation of rice and

meal, which endows them with a body suitable to attain pitr-loka,

the planet of the forefathers. There they enjoy a high standard of

material enjoyment.

Sravana-guru - the person from whom one hears instructions regarding

the fundamental truths of Shri Bhagavan, His energies, the

living entities, and bhakti is known as the sravana-guru.

Sravanam - hearing the transcendental descriptions of Bhagavan's

names, forms, qualities, pastimes, and associates from the mouths

of advanced bhaktas. One of the nine most important angas of


Shri Bhasya - The commentary which Reveals the Transcendental

Beauty and Opulence of the Lord; a commentary on Vedanta-sutra

by Shri Ramanujacarya.

Sruti - (1) that which is heard. (2) revelation, as distinguished from

smrti, tradition; infallible knowledge which was received by Brahma

or by the great sages in the beginning of creation and which descends

in disciplic succession from them; the body of literature

which was directly manifest from the Supreme Lord. This applies

to the original four Vedas (also known as the nigamas) and the


Sthavara - non-moving living entities like trees, creepers, shrubs,

and stones.

Sthayibhava - one of the five essential ingredients of bhakti-rasa;

the permanent sentiment of love for the Lord in one of the five

primary relationships of tranquility, servitude, friendship, parental

affection, or conjugal love. This dominant emotion of the heart in

one of the five primary relationships is also known as mukhya-rati,

primary attachment. The sthayibhava can also refer to the dominant

sentiment in the seven secondary mellows of laughter, wonder,

heroism, compassion, anger, fear, and disgust. In that case it is

known as gauna-rati, secondary attachment.

Sthula-sarira - the gross material body consisting of physical elements.

Subha-karma - activities producing auspicious results.

Suddha-abhimana - pure egoism; the conception of being a servant

of Krishna.

Suddha-bhakta - a pure bhakta; one who performs suddha-bhakti.

Suddha-bhakti - pure devotion; devotion which is unmixed with

fruitive action or monistic knowledge, and which is devoid of all

desires other than the exclusive pleasure of Krishna; this is also known

as uttama-bhakti.

Suddha-bhava - the pure or genuine state of bhava-bhakti; the genuine

spiritual emotions which manifest at the state of bhava.

Suddha-jiva - the pure spiritual entity in his liberated state free

from material designations.

Suddha-jnana - knowledge of the relationship between Bhagavan,

the jivas, and maya.

Suddha-nama - pure chanting of the holy name. When one is freed

from all offenses and anarthas, the pure holy name descends and

appears on the fully purified and transcendental senses - known

thus as suddha-nama.

Suddhavastha - the pure or liberated state of the jiva.

Sudra - the lowest of the four varnas, or castes, in the varnasrama

system; artisans and laborers.

Sukrti - piety, virtue; pious activity. Sukrti is of two types: nitya,

eternal, and naimittika, temporary. The sukrti by which one obtains

sadhu-sanga and bhakti is nitya-sukrti. It is eternal because it

produces eternal fruit. Bhakta-sanga, or the association of bhaktas,

and bhakti-kriya-sanga, or contact with acts of devotion, are nityasukrti.

These activities are said to be nitya-sukrti and not bhakti

proper when they are performed accidentally or without pure

sraddha. When this type of sukrti acquires strength after many

lifetimes, sraddha develops toward sadhu-sanga and ananya-bhakti.

The sukrti by which one obtains material enjoyment and impersonal

liberation is naimittika-sukrti. It is temporary because it produces

temporary results. Karma, yoga, and jnana are all naimittikasukrti.

Naimittika-sukrti does not have the power to awaken faith

in transcendental objects, such as the Lord's holy name,

mahaprasada, bhakti, and the Vaishnavas.

Sunyavada - the doctrine of nihilism or voidism, which has as its

goal complete annihilation of the self.

Sura - a god, divinity, deity, sage; this specifically refers to the

devas situated in the celestial planets. The brahmanas are known

as bhu-sura, gods on earth, because they represent the Supreme


Svabhava - the true nature of a thing which forms an essential part

of its composition.

Svabhavika-anuraga - the spontaneous attraction that one experiences

toward the Supreme Lord and His bhaktas when one becomes

established in one's pure spiritual nature.

Sva-dharma - (1) one's 'own duty'; the true eternal spiritual function

of the self. (2) in regard to varnasrama-dharma, this refers to

the temporary duties prescribed in accordance with one's social

caste. Thus sva-dharma is used in both the absolute and relative


Svarasiki - in chapter twenty-one is used in the sense of undivided

remembrance of Krishna's lila. When raga has awakened in

the heart of the bhakta, then Krishna's lila automatically manifests

in his heart in a continuous flow, without cessation or interruption.

Such a condition is called svarasiki.

Svarupa-sakti - Shri Bhagavan's divine potency. It is called svarupasakti

because it is situated in His form. This potency is chinmaya, fully

conscious, and thus it is the counterpart and antithesis of matter.

Consequently it is also known as cit-sakti, potency which embodies

the principle of consciousness. Because this potency is intimately

connected with the Lord, being situated in His form, it is further

known as antaranga-sakti, the internal potency. Because it is superior

to His marginal and external potencies both in form and glory,

it is known as para-sakti, the superior potency. Thus, by its qualities,

this potency is known by different names - svarupa-sakti, citsakti,

antaranga-sakti, and para-sakti.

The svarupa-sakti has three divisions: (1) sandhini, the potency

which accommodates the spiritual existence of Krishna and all of

His associates; (2) samvit, the potency which bestows transcendental

knowledge of Him; and (3) hladini, the potency by which

Krishna enjoys transcendental bliss and bestows such bliss upon

His bhaktas (see sandhini, samvit, and hladini).

The supreme entity known as Parabrahma is composed of saccid-

ananda. These features (eternal existence, full-cognizance,

and supreme bliss) can never be separated from each other. Similarly

sandhini, samvit, and hladini are always found together. No

one of these potencies can ever be separated from the other two.

However, they are not always manifest in the same proportion.

When sandhini is prominent in visuddha-sattva, it is known as

svarupa-sakti predominated by sandhini. When samvit is prominent,

it is known as svarupa-sakti predominated by samvit. And

when hladini is prominent, it is known as svarupa-sakti predominated

by hladini.

Svarupa-siddhi - the stage in which a bhakta's svarupa, or internal

spiritual form and identity, becomes manifest. This comes at the

stage of bhava-bhakti.

Svarupata-jada-mukti - liberated from matter in terms of the revelation

of one's svarupa. This refers to svarupa-siddhi, the stage in

which bhava manifests in the bhakta's heart from the heart of one

of the Lord's eternal associates. At this stage one's internal spiritual

identity becomes manifest and the intelligence is freed from

the influence of matter, yet one's relationship with the material

world remains intact due to the presence of the material body.


Tamas - (see tamo -guna).

Tamasika - of the nature of tamo-guna.

Tamo-guna - the quality or nature of tamasika jivas which is characterized

by indolence and ignorance.

Tantras - the verbal root tan means "to expand", so tantra is that

which expands the meaning of the Vedas. A class of Vedic literature

dealing with a variety of spiritual topics and divided into three

branches: the Agamas, Yamala, and principal Tantras; a class of works

teaching magical and mystical formularies, mostly in the form of

dialogues between Siva and Durga. These are said to expound upon

five subjects: (1) the creation, (2) the destruction of the world, (3)

the worship of the gods, (4) the attainment of all objects, especially

of six superhuman faculties, and (5) the four methods of union with

the supreme spirit by meditation.

Tantrika - one who is completely versed in the mystical science of

the Tantras.

Tapasya - asceticism; austerity.

Tarkibi - an Islamic term for the conditioned soul.

Tata - the border region between land and water; a shore. A marginal


Tatastha-sakti - the marginal or jiva potency of Shri Bhagavan. Because

the jiva-sakti is included neither within the svarupa-sakti nor

within maya-sakti, it is known as tatastha-sakti, the marginal potency.

The word tata means a shore or bank, like the shoreline of an

ocean; and the verbal root stha means to be situated. The shore is

not part of the ocean, yet it is not part of the land which borders

the ocean. One situated on the shoreline is known as tatastha. He is

situated neither within the ocean, nor on the land.

In his Paramatma-sandarbha, Jiva Gosvami has described the

tatastha-sakti as follows: "The jiva-sakti is known as tatastha-sakti

for two reasons. First of all it cannot be included within mayasakti

for it is beyond maya-sakti. Secondly, although jiva-sakti is

overcome by ignorance, the defect of being overcome in this way

cannot touch the Paramatma situated in his heart. This is understood

by the following analogy. We see that some portion of the

sun's rays can be covered by shade or clouds, but the sun itself

cannot be covered. Similarly, the individual soul, who is

vibhinnamsa, a separated part of Him, can be covered by maya, but

Krishna Himself can never be covered.

"From this it may be understood that the jiva-sakti is separate

from the svarupa-sakti also for the following reason. Svarupa-sakti

is present in the Paramatma. If the jiva-sakti were included within

the svarupa-sakti, then the defect of the jivas being overcome by

ignorance would be transposed upon the svarupa-sakti situated

within the Paramatma as well, and ultimately upon the Paramatma

Himself. Since that is not the case, it is evident that the jiva-sakti

is not included within svarupa-sakti. Consequently, because the

jiva-sakti is included neither within svarupa-sakti nor within mayasakti,

it is known as tatastha-sakti."

Tatastha-vikrama - see tatastha-sakti.

Tatkalika - activities which are relative to a particular period of time.

Tattva - truth, reality, philosophical principle; the essence or substance

of anything.

Tattvika-sraddha - real faith; faith which is based on the understanding

of tattva and which prompts one to dedicate one's entire

being to attain the Supreme Lord.

Thakura - a term addressing Shri Bhagavan and the Deity. Other

great personalities such as Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura are sometimes

so called, implying that they have become saksad-dharitva,

qualitatively as good as God through their full dedication to


Tilaka - clay markings worn on the forehead and other parts of the

body by Vaishnavas, signifying their devotion to Lord Krishna or Vishnu,

and consecrating the body as the Lord's temple.

Tridanda - a staff which is carried by the Vaishnava sannyasis. It

consists of three rods symbolizing engagement of body, mind, and

words in the service of the Lord. These three rods may also signify

the eternal existence of the servitor (the bhakta), the object of

service (Bhagavan), and service, thus distinguishing Vaishnava

sannyasa from the mayavada ekadanda sannyasa.

Tulasi - a sacred plant whose leaves and blossoms are used by

Vaishnavas in the worship of Lord Krishna; a partial expansion of


Tulasi-mala - a strand of wooden beads made of the tulasi plant,

used like a rosary by Vaishnavas for counting their chanting of

harinama; a necklace of small tulasi beads, known as kanthi-mala,

worn on the neck by Vaishnavas to indicate their devotion to Shri

Krishna and acceptance of diksa.

Tyagi - a renunciate or ascetic.


Uddipana-vibhava - an aspect of vibhava which refers to those things

which stimulate rememberance of Shri Krishna, such as His dress and

ornaments, the spring season, the bank of the Yamuna, forest groves,

cows, peacocks, and so on. Vibhava is one of the five essential ingredients

of rasa (see vibhava).

Udita-viveka - one whose spiritual discrimination has been awakened;

the spiritually awake.

Upacara - a figurative expression; assignment of meaning, quality,

or appellation to something, metaphor.

Upakarana - (1) ingredient, constituting material, instrument. (2)

the upakaranas of rasa are the ingredients which combine to produce

rasa; namely, sthayibhava, vibhava, anubhava, sattvika-bhava, and

vyabhicari-bhava. (3) upakarana may also refer to the paraphernalia

which is offered to the Deity.

Upanayana - a ceremony in which a guru initiates a boy into one of

the three twice-born classes by investing the boy with the sacred

thread, and teaching him the Brahma-gayatri mantra, whereupon

he becomes eligible to study the Vedas under his guru. This is one of

the Vedic samskaras, or purificatory ceremonies.

Upasana - spiritual practices, especially worship of the Deity.

Upasana literally means 'to sit near'. Thus upasana refers to all

those activities by which one approaches the Lord in order to

offer worship.

Urddhva-pundra-tilaka - the vertical clay markings of the Vaishnavas

worn on the forehead and other parts of the body to symbolize their

devotion to Lord Krishna or Vishnu.

Uttama-bhakta - the topmost practitioner of bhakti.

Uttara-mimamsa - the philosophy established by Vyasadeva dealing

with the latter division of the Vedas (see Vyasa in the Glossary

of Names). After thorough analysis of the Upanisads, which comprise

the latter portion of the Vedas, and the smrti-sastras which

are supplements to the Upanisads, Vyasadeva summarized the philosophical

conclusions of those treatises in his Brahma-sutra. This

Brahma-sutra, or Vedanta-sutra, is also known as vedanta-darsana or


Like the other philosophical systems, vedanta-darsana accepts

certain fundamental principles. The principles of the vedantadarsana

are not the imagination of Vyasadeva, but are established

on the basis of the apauruseya-veda-sastras, which are understood

to have been spoken directly by Shri Bhagavan. The statements of

Bhagavan are by definition completely free from the defects of

mistakes, illusion, cheating, and imperfect senses. On the other

hand, the fundamental principles which are accepted in the other

systems are products of their authors' imaginations. The other

systems are based on man-made sastras, composed by greatly learned

sages. As a result they are subject to the defects of human limitation.

The vedanta-darsana accepts brahma as the supreme fundamental

truth. What is the nature of that brahma? The first sutra of vedantadarsana

states: athato brahma-jijnasa - "Now, therefore, inquiry

should be made into brahma." The entire vedanta-darsana is presented

in order to answer this inquiry. In the course of analyzing

what brahma is, one also becomes acquainted with the truths of the

jivas, the creation, liberation, and other such topics. As this is a vast

subject matter, only a brief introduction has been given here.


Vaidha-dharma - duties which have been prescribed by the Vedas or

their corollary sastras.

Vaidhi-bhakti - devotion prompted by the regulations of sastra.

When sadhana-bhakti is not inspired by intense longing, but is instigated

instead by the discipline of the sastra, it is called vaidhi-bhakti.

Vaidhi-prakrti - the nature of the sadhaka which impels him to

follow the rules and regulations of sastra. As long as the intelligence

is under the control of maya, human nature must be regulated

by rules and prohibitions. Thus, in this condition the vaidhi

nature will certainly be in effect.

Vaidhi-pravrtti - the proclivity to follow the religious codes of sastra.

Vairagya - detachment or indifference to this world; a spiritual

discipline involving the acceptance of voluntary austerities to

achieve detachment from the sense objects.

Vaisesika - a later division of the nyaya school of philosophy, also

known as vaisesika-darsana. It was founded by Kanada Rsi and

differs from the nyaya system of Gautama (see Kanada in the Glossary

of Names). Kanada accepted six principles: (1) dravya (elementary

substances which are nine in number - earth, water,

fire, air, ether, time, space, the soul, and the mind), (2) guna (characteristics

of all created things such as form, taste, smell, sound,

and tangibility), (3) karma (activity), (4) samanya (universality;

the connection of different objects by common properties), (5)

visesa (individuality; the essential difference between objects),

and (6) samavaya (inseparable concomitance; the relation which

exists between a substance and its qualities, between a whole and

its parts, or between a species and its individuals).

According to the vaisesika-darsana the jivas are innumerable.

The merit or demerit attaching to a man's conduct in one state of

existence and the corresponding reward or punishment which he

receives in another is called adrsta (that which is beyond the

reach of consciousness or observation). Due to the force of this

unforseen accumulated karma, the jiva falls into the cycle of creation

and undergoes birth, death, happiness, and distress. When

the jiva obtains philosophical knowledge of the six principles, his

adrsta is destroyed and he can attain liberation from the bondage

of material existence. The vaisesikas define mukti as final release

from material misery. There is no direct mention of Isvara in the

aisesika-darsana of Kanada.

Vaisesika-jnana - knowledge of worldly phenomena; classification

of such phenomena into various categories such as dravya (objects),

guna (qualities) and so on.

Vaishnava - literally means one whose nature is 'of Vishnu' in other

words, one in whose heart and mind only Vishnu or Krishna resides. A

bhakta of Shri Krishna or Vishnu.

Vaishnava-dharma - the constitutional function of the soul which

has as its goal the attainment of love for Krishna. This is also known

as jaiva-dharma, the fundamental nature of living beings, and nityadharma,

the eternal function of the soul.

Vaisya - the third of the four varnas or castes in the varnasrama

system; agriculturalists and businessmen.

Vanaprastha - the third asrama or stage of life in the varnasrama

system; retired life which entails freedom from family responsibilities

and the acceptance of spiritual vows.

Vandanam - principally refers to the offering of prayers or the recitation

of Sanskrit slokas composed by suddha-bhaktas. Akrura attained

perfection through vandana, offering prayers.

Vandanam may also be divided into another three categories:

(1) kayika, by the body; (2) vacika, by speech; and (3) manasika, by

the mind. Although vandanam is actually included within arcana

(worship), it has been listed as an independent anga to show its

importance. To offer obeisance with one hand, to offer obeisance

directly facing the Deity, behind the Deity, or with one's right

side facing the Deity are all considered to be offenses. Vandanam

is one of the nine primary angas of bhakti.

Vantasi - one who eats his own vomit. This refers to one who

abandons household life and formally enters the renounced order,

but who again establishes connection with women.

Varna - one of the four social orders, castes - priest, administrator,

businessman, or laborer - in which one carries out corresponding

socio-religious duties in the system known as varnasrama.

Varnasrama-dharma - the Vedic social system, which organizes

society into four occupational divisions and four stages of life

(varnas and asramas).

Vastava-vastu - any really existing or abiding substance; that which

is grounded in transcendence; Bhagavan, His atomic parts (the jivas),

and His potency (maya).

Vastu - an object, thing, or substance; that which has existence.

Vastu-siddhi - the stage in which the vastu, or substantive entity

known as the jiva is fully liberated from matter. After giving up the

material body, the living entity who has already attained svarupasiddhi

enters into Shri Krishna's manifest lila, where he or she receives

the association of Krishna and His eternal associates for the

first time. There one receives further training from His eternal

associates. When one becomes established in the mood of their

prema and one's eternal service to Krishna, one gives up all connection

with this world and enters His spiritual abode. At this point

the jiva becomes situated in his pure identity as a vastu, known as


Vastuta-jada-mukti - liberated in terms of one's constitutional

make-up as a vastu, or conscious living entity; permanent release

from the encasement of the gross and subtle bodies which cover

the atma and facilitate the jiva's interaction with the material

energy; complete freedom from all contact with matter and the

material world. This refers to vastu-siddhi.

Vatsalya - love or attachment for Shri Krishna expressed in the mood

of a parent.

Vedanta - the end of Vedic knowledge. The Upanisads are the

latter portion of the Vedas, and the Vedanta-sutra summarizes the

philosophy of the Upanisads in concise statements. Therefore,

the word Vedanta especially refers to the Vedanta-sutra (see uttaramimamsa).

Shrimad-Bhagavatam is considered to be the natural commentary

on Vedanta-sutra by the same author, Vyasadeva. Therefore,

in the opinion of the Vaishnavas, Shrimad-Bhagavatam is the

culmination or ripened fruit of the tree of all Vedic literature.

Vibhava - the causes for tasting bhakti-rasa. These are of two types:

(1) alambana, the support (this refers to Krishna and His bhaktas

who possess in their hearts spiritual love known as rati which can

be transformed into rasa by combination with the other four ingredients

of rasa); and (2) uddipana, the stimulus (objects conGL

O S S A R Y OF TE R M S ???941

nected to Krishna which arouse one's spiritual love for Him and

cause that love to be transformed into rasa).

Vibhinnamsa - Shri Bhagavan's separated portions; the living entities.

Viddha-Vaishnava-dharma - religious practices which go by the name

of Vaishnava dharma but which are adulterated with karma and jnana.

Vidhi - rule, law, religious injunction or regulation.

Vidhi-marga - the path of bhakti which follows rules and regulations.

Vidya - knowledge, learning, science, philosophy.

Vidyadhara - a class of supernatural beings who possess magical

powers and knowledge of various heavenly arts and sciences, especially

singing and dancing.

Vidyadhari - females of the above class of supernatural beings.

Vigraha - (1) individual form, shape, or embodiment. (2) the Deity

form of Krishna.

Vijnana - realized knowlege; knowledge distinguishing one thing

from another; science.

Vikarma - prohibited acts; actions against the codes of sastra.

Vikasita-cetana - budding consciousness. This refers to human

beings who have an increased sense of morality and have also

awakened faith in God. It also refers to those who have developed

a taste for the practice of sadhana-bhakti in accordance with the

directions of sastra.

Vilasa - (1) pastimes, especially the playful amorous pastimes of

Shri Shri Radha-Krishna in Vraja. (2) a particular type of manifestation

of the Lord. That form which, although manifesting different

bodily features for the purpose of accomplishing particular

pastimes, is almost identical with its original root form, is known

as vilasa.

Vina - a stringed musical instrument of melodious sound, the

favorite instrument of Narada Muni and of various other celestial


Vipaksa-vaisistya - is a specific incident that is either seen (drsta)

or is inferred (anumati) about relating with vipaksa (an opposing


Visaya - an object of the senses, anything perceptible by the senses;

any object of affection, concern, or attention; sensual enjoyment.

Visaya-jnana - knowledge of material objects, knowledge acquired

through the senses.

Visayalambana - the object of the transcendental senses on which

there is alambana (dependence) for the advancement of prema. This

is an aspect of vibhava, which is one of the five essential ingredients

of rasa (see vibhava).

Visayi - a materialistic person, a sensualist.

Visesa-guna - special characteristic quality. The special characteristic

quality of a truly abiding entity, or vastava-vastu, is its svabhava.

Vishnu - the Supreme Lord of the cosmos (see Glossary of Names).

Vishnu-maya - Shri Bhagavan's external potency, also known as Durga.

Visrambha - lit. vigita means 'completely devoid of' and srambha

means 'awarness of his majesty or greatness' i.e. complete intimacy

without feelings of inferiority or worship. (1) loosening, absence of

restraint, confidence, trust, intimacy, love. (2) In his Locana -rocani

commentary on Ujjvala-nilamani (14.108) Jiva Gosvami has defined

visrambha as the feeling of complete identification with the beloved

such that one's identity is not separate from that of the beloved.

In his Ananda-candrika commentary on the same sloka,

Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has defined visrambha as deep faith,

devoid of formality. Visrambha impels one to think that one's life,

mind, intelligence, body, and possessions are one in all respects

with the life, mind, intelligence, and body of the beloved.

Visrambha-guru-seva - service to guru which is imbued with deep

faith and intimacy (see visrambha). Service devoid of formality.

Complete absence of any feeling of separateness from the guru.

This type of service is possible only in an advanced stage.

Visuddha - completely pure; beyond the influence of material nature.

Visuddha-sattva - the state of unalloyed goodness; the quality of

existence which is beyond the influence of material nature. Shridhara

Svami has defined visuddha-sattva in his commentary on a sloka

from the Vishnu Purana (1.2.69): tad evam tasyas try-atmakatve siddhe

yena svaprakasata-laksanena tad-vrtti-visesena svarupam va svarupa

sakti-visistam vavirbhavati, tad-visuddha-sattvam tac-canya-nirapeksas

tat-prakasa iti jnapam jnana-vrttikatvat samvid eva, asya mayaya

sparsabhavat visuddhatvam - "The Lord's cit-sakti is known as svaprakasa.

The term sva-prakasa means that it reveals itself and illuminates

others also. Just as when the sun rises it makes itself known

and illuminates other objects, so when cit-sakti arises in the heart,

one can then understand the nature of cit-sakti and come to know

oneself according to one's true spiritual identity.

"Because the cit-sakti is sva-prakasa, its vrtti is also sva-prakasa.

The word vrtti literally means function, which refers to the active

agency through which the cit-sakti operates. The cit-sakti is composed

of hladini, sandhini, and samvit. The particular svaprakasavrtti

of this three-fold cit-sakti which reveals Bhagavan, His form,

and the transformations of His cit-sakti, such as His associates

and dhama, is known as visuddha-sattva. In other words, visuddhasattva

is the self-revealing agency of the cit-sakti, through which

the Bhagavan and His paraphernalia are revealed to the bhaktas.

Because it has no contact with the external energy, it is known as


Visvasa - belief, trust, faith, confidence.

Viveka - discrimination; conscience; judgment; spiritual knowledge.

Viveki - one who discriminates; one whose spiritual consciousness

is awakened.

Vraja-rasa - the mood of ecstatic love for Krishna which inundates

the hearts of Krishna's eternal associates in Vraja (see rasa).

Vyabhicari-bhava - one of the five essential ingredients of rasa;

thirty-three internal spiritual emotions which emerge from the

nectarean ocean of sthayibhava, cause it to swell, and then merge

back into that ocean. These include emotions like despondency,

jubilation, fear, anxiety, and concealment of emotions. They are

of two kinds: dependent (paratantra) and independent (svatantra).

Dependent emotions are those that are under the control of either

mukhya or gauna-rati. Mukhya dependent emotions are either

superior (vara) or inferior (avara). The superior mukhya dependent

emotions are those that (a) arise in connection with rati,

and also (b) nourish the rati. Of these, the direct (saksat) superior

mukhya emotions nourish mukhya-rati, and the separated

(vyavahita) superior mukhya emotions nourish gauna-rati.

The inferior (avara) mukhya dependent emotions are those that

arise in connection with rati, but do not nourish either the mukhya

or the gauna-rati.

The independent vyabhicari-bhavas (svatantra), are those that

are not controlled either by the mukhya or gauna-rati. These are

divided into the following three categories:

(1) Rati-sunya: emotions that arise in people who do not have


(2) Raty-anusparsana: emotions that do not have the quality of

krishna-rati, but which contact rati later, due to some particular


(3) Rati-gandhi: emotions that manifest a trace of rati, even

though they are independent.

Vyabhicari-bhavabhasa - refers to vyabhicari-bhavas that are observed

in improper or inappropriate persons or things. There are

two types: antagonistic (pratikulya) and improper (anaucitya).

Antagonistic vyabhicari-bhavas are emotions that arise in people

who are hostile to Shri Krishna, and who have no rati. There are two

types of improper abhasa: non-existence (asatyatva) and incapability

(ayogyatva). When a bhakta experiences some emotion toward

Krishna and projects that feeling upon non-moving living

entities or animals as if they were experiencing that emotion, the

abhasa is said to exhibit non-existence in the case of the nonmoving

entities and incapability in the case of animals. However,

these distinctions do not apply to Krishna's eternal associates in

Vraja, who serve Him in species such as trees, plants, and animals.

Vyakula - agitated and restless

Vyavahara - behavior, conduct, social customs, practice.

Vyavaharika - routine, common, ordinary; relating to practical life

and social customs.


Yaga - offering oblations; any ceremony in which offerings or oblations

are presented.

Yajna - a sacrifice in which a deity is propitiated by the chanting of

prayers and mantras and the offering of ghee into the sacred fire.

Yati - an ascetic; one who has restrained his passions and abandoned

his involvement with material civilization.

Yavana - a barbarian, a Muslim, i.e. one who does not follow

suddhacara, (pure lifestyle), one who eats flesh, takes intoxicants

and does other degraded activities. This term sometimes refers to

any foreigner or to those excluded from varnasrama society.

Yoga - (1) union, meeting, connection, combination. (2) a spiritual

discipline aiming at establishing one's connection with the Supreme.

There are many different branches of yoga such as karma-yoga, jnanayoga,

and bhakti-yoga. Unless specified as such, the word yoga usually

refers to the astanga-yoga system of Patanjali (see astanga-yoga).

Yogi - one who practices the yoga system with the goal of realization

of the Paramatma or of merging into the Lord's personal body.

Yuga - an age of the world. Four ages are described in the Vedas:

Krta or Satya, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali. The duration of each yuga

is said to be respectively 1,728,000; 1,296,000; 864,000; and 432,000

years. The descending numbers represent a corresponding physical

and moral deterioration of mankind in each age. The four

yugas comprise an aggregate of 4,320,000 years and constitute a

maha-yuga, or great yuga.

Yugala - a couple or pair.

Yugala-kisora - the divine youthful couple, Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.

Yukta-vairagya - appropriate renunciation; renunciation which is

suitable for entrance into bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasamrtasindhu

(1.2.255): "When one is detached from material sense enjoyment,

but accepts in appropriate proportion objects which are favorable

to one's bhakti, and shows special inclination toward things

which are directly related to Krishna, such as mahaprasada, his renunciation

is known as yukta-vairagya." (See phalgu-vairagya with which

this is contrasted.)


Zamindar - a landowner, landlord (responsible for property taxes

to the government).