Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > Glossary of Places







Agradvipa - a town about six miles south of Katoya (Katwa). It is

situated on the west side of the Ganga, about 26 miles northwest of

Mayapura, in the Barddhaman district. Shri Govinda, Shri Madhava,

and Shri Vasudeva Ghosa lived here. The samadhi of Shri Govinda

Ghosa is located in Agradvipa. Govinda Ghosa Thakura established

the Deity of Shri Gopinatha on the east bank of the Ganga near


Alakananda - one of the four great branches of the river Ganga (the

others are the Bhagirathi, Mandakini, and Bhogavati). When the

Alakananda meets the Bhagirathi in northern Uttara Pradesh, the

river becomes known as the Ganga. It again divides in Bengal. In

Bengal, one branch of the Ganga, which has now dried up, was

called the Alakananda. This Alakananda formerly flowed south

through Navadvipa-mandala. The bed of this river lies directly across

the Ganga from the present town of Navadvipa, where it runs east

for two miles and then turns south. From this point it runs between

Godrumadvipa and Madhyadvipa.

Ambika-Kalna - a place about 30 km south of the present city of

Navadvipa. This is where Shri Gauridasa Pandita, Shri Hrdaya Chaitanya,

Shri Paramananda Gupta, and Shri Suryadasa Pandita lived. It is situated

on the west bank of the Ganga directly across from Santipura,

where Shri Advaita Acarya lived. Shriman Mahaprabhu used to visit

the house of Gauridasa Pandita in Kalna.

Amraghata - a village in Godrumadvipa also known as Amghata. It

is on the east side of the Ganga, about midway between Svarupaganja

and Devapalli. Once while Shriman Mahaprabhu was performing

sankirtana with His associates, He arrived at this place.

After several hours of sankirtana, the devotees' hunger and thirst

was aroused. Shri Mahaprabhu planted a mango seed which immediately

grew into a tree full of ripened mangoes, which had neither

seeds nor skins. The mangoes were fragrant and their taste was

sweeter than nectar. Shriman Mahaprabhu and Shri Nityananda

Prabhu relished those fruits along with Their associates. This place

is thus known as Amghata, the place of mangoes.

Antardvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place embodies

the devotional practice of atma-nivedanam, surrendering

one's very self to Shri Krishna. Antardvipa is situated in the antar

(heart or middle) of the eight-petaled lotus of Navadvipa. At the

center of Antardvipa is Shri Mayapura, and at the very core of

Mayapura is Yogapitha, the place where Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu


Lord Brahma felt despondent after disturbing Krishna's pastimes

in Vraja by stealing His cows and cowherd friends. He performed

austerities in Antardvipa, knowing that Gauranga would descend

there in Kali-yuga. Gauranga manifested before Brahma and gave

him the benediction that Brahma would appear as the great bhakta,

Haridasa Thakura. Taking birth in a Yavana family, he would not be

disturbed by pride. Because Mahaprabhu revealed His internal

(antar) feelings to Brahma at this place, the island is known as



Baragachi - also known as Bahiragachi. It is situated two miles from

the Muragacha railway station, which is about 20 km north of Krishnanagara

on the east side of the Ganga. According to Chaitanyabhagavata

(Antya 5.710-711), this place is famous for its connection

with Shri Nityananda Prabhu: visese sukrti ati badagachi-grama

nityananda-svarupera viharera sthana, badagachi gramera janeka

bhagyodaya taha kabhu kahite na pari samuccaya - "The village of

Baragachi is especially virtuous because Nityananda Prabhu performed

many pastimes there. It is simply impossible to describe the

great fortune of this village."

Bhagirathi - another name for the Ganga River. The river Ganga is

a celestial river. Because this river was brought to the earth by the

austerities and prayers of King Bhagiratha, she is also known as

Bhagirathi. Initially, where the Ganga starts near Gangotri, she is

known as the Bhagirathi. When the Bhagirathi meets the

Alakananda, she becomes known as the Ganga. In West Bengal, the

Ganga divides into the Padma River and the Bhagirathi. The

Bhagirathi flows south through Navadvipa and on to the Bay of

Bengal. Some distance south of Santipura, the Bhagirathi becomes

known as the Hugli.

Bharata-varsa - one of nine tracts of land which form the divisions

of Jambudvipa. It is named after King Bharata, the son of Rsabhadeva.

India is now known as Bharata, although in the ancient histories

this appellation referred to the entire earth plant.

Bhuh - (Bhu-loka) the planet earth.

Bhuh-mandala - the middle planetary system within the universe.

Bhuvah - (Bhuvar-loka) the second of seven divisions of planets:

Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svarga, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and

Satyaloka. This planet is situated between the earth and the sun

planet. It is attained by siddhas and munis.

Bilva-puskarini - also known as Bael-pukura. Shri Nilambara

Cakravarti, the maternal grandfather of Shriman Mahaprabhu, lived

at this place. It is situated near the northern border of Simantadvipa

and forms part of the area known as Simuliya.

Brahmaloka - the planet of Shri Brahma situated above Tapoloka at

the upper limit of the universe. This planet is also known as


Brahmana-puskarini - presently known as Bamana-pukura. According

to Shri Narahari dasa's Parikrama-paddhati, the place now known

as Bamana-pukura was formerly called Brahmana-puskara: bamanapukure

punya-grama, brahmana-puskara e vidita purva nama. According

to a book named Citre Navadvipa, part of Bamana-pukura

is included in Antardvipa and part in Simantadvipa. Bamanapukura

is presently situated north of the Yogapitha and east of

the Bhagirathi. From the description in the beginning of Chapter

Twelve it appears that Brahmana-puskarini was situated just

south of Bilva-puskarini, and together these two areas made up

the district known as Simuliya. This must have been the case

either at the time this book was written (1896) or at the time the

story is set (c.1600). On the 1916 map of Shridhama Navadvipa,

however, we see that there is a considerable distance between

Bael-pukura and Bamana-pukura, and Bamana-pukura is south of

the Bhagirathi. This type of shift of the land and modification of

the names of places is a common feature of the Navadvipa area,

largely due to the ever-changing course of the Ganga and its

branches flowing through Navadvipa-mandala.


Campahatta - a place in the southwest part of Rtudvipa, also known

as Campahati. It was formerly known as Campakahatta because

there was a market (hatta) there that sold the flowers of the

Campaka trees that grow profusely in this area. It is considered

non-different from the Khadiravana forest of Vrndavana. The

great poet Jayadeva Gosvami wrote the Gita-Govinda while residing

in Campahatta.


Devapalli - a town three miles south-west of Krishna-nagara in

Godrumadvipa where all the devas resided. In Satya-yuga, Lord

Nrsimhadeva rested at Devapalli after killing Hiranyakasipu. This

place is also thus known as Nrsimhapalli. There is an ancient

Deity of Nrsimhadeva at this place, said to date back to Satyayuga.


Gadigacha - often equated with the entire region of Godruma-dvipa.

In Citre Navadvipa, Shriyukta Sarad-indu Narayana Raya has stated

that Godruma is called Gadigacha in the Apabhramsa language. In

Chapter Ten of this book, Gadigacha is referred to as a small area

within Godruma-dvipa where the Vaishnavas of Pradyumna-kunja

were living. On the 1916 map of Shridhama Navadvipa, Gadigacha is

also portrayed as a small area of Godrumadvipa.

Ganga - derived from the verbal root gam (to go) meaning Go!

Go! or 'swift goer'. The holy river, Ganga, which flows southeast

from the Himalayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal; also known

as the Ganges, Jahnavi, Bhagirathi, and Alakananda (see these

entries in this Glossary).

Gauda-bhumi - the land of Gauda. According to the Sakti-sangama

Tantra this corresponds to West Bengal, and includes some parts of

modern day Bangladesh and Orissa (extending as far as

Bhuvanesvara). In ancient times the residents of this tract of land

were known as Gaudiyas. After the appearance of Shri Gauranga,

the term Gaudiya was especially applied to the devotees of

Gauranga, for almost everyone in this land had become His bhakta.

Godruma - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa, situated east of

the Bhagirathi and south of the Jalangi. It is bordered by

Simantadvipa on the north side and by Madhyadvipa on the west.

This place is so named because Surabhi, a cow (go) of divine origin,

worshiped Shri Gauranga here under the shade of a large banyan

tree (druma). Each of the nine divisions of Navadvipa embodies

one of the nine principal practices of bhakti, such as hearing

about, chanting, and remembering the names, form, qualities and

pastimes of Shri Krishna. Godrumadvipa personifies the practice of

kirtanam, chanting.

Goloka Vrndavana - the highest realm of the spiritual world. This

is the abode of Shri Krishna where He is manifest in His original and

topmost feature as a cowherd boy, surrounded by His intimate and

loving servitors, the gopas and gopis of Vraja.

Gora-hrada - a pond near the Gadigacha area where Shri Gora (Go-

Govinda, Ra-Radha) sported.

Govardhana - a sacred mountain situated in the middle of Vrajamandala

about 26 km north-west of Mathura. This mountain is

also known as Shri Giriraja (the king among mountains). He is

identical with Shri Krishna and is also known as haridasa-varya, the

best devotee of Shri Hari, for He facilitates Shri Krishna's pastimes

with His intimate friends and especially the most sacred pastimes

with the gopis. Govardhana Hill lies in the shape of a peacock,

with Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda as His eyes.



Indraloka - the planet of Indra in the celestial planets (svarga); a

place of great opulence and heavenly pleasure.

Indrapuri - the capital city of Indra in svarga, the celestial planets.


Jahnavi - a name for the Ganga, which reveals her connection with

Jahnu Rsi. Jahnu Rsi was sitting by the Ganga chanting his gayatrimantra,

when his acamana cup fell into the river and was swept away

by the current. Out of anger, Jahnu Rsi opened his mouth and

drank all the water in one gulp. King Bhagiratha, who had endeavored

with great difficulty to bring the Ganga to earth to deliver his

deceased relatives, was overwhelmed with anxiety and worshiped

the sage for several days. Jahnu Rsi then released the Ganga from

his body. Because of this incident, the Ganga is known as Jahnavi,

the daughter of Jahnu.

Jahnudvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place embodies

the devotional practice of vandanam, offering prayers and

obeisances. It is non-different from Bhadravana in Vraja. Jahnu Rsi

performed penances and meditation here and obtained darsana of

Shri Gauranga (see also Jahnavi and Jahnu-nagara).

Jahnu-nagara - the place where the sage, Jahnu Rsi, performed meditation

and swallowed the Ganga River. This area is also known as

Jahnudvipa and Jan-nagara.

Jambudvipa - the innermost of seven concentric islands which form

the divisions of Bhu-mandala. Jambudvipa is itself divided into

nine varsas, or tracts of land, the most famous of which is Bharatavarsa

(India). According to some opinions, this roughly corresponds

to Asia (Gaudiya-Vaishnava-Abhidhana).

Janaloka - a planet situated above Maharloka. It is obtained by the

naisthika brahmacaris, those who accept a life-long vow of celibacy

(unlike the upakurvana brahmacaris who enter the grhastha-asrama

after completing their studies). At the time of the partial devastation

of the universe, occurring at the end of Brahma's day, the three

worlds, Bhu, Bhuva, and Svarga, are consumed by flames. Although

Maharloka, the planet immediately above Svarga, is not destroyed,

the residents of Maharloka are afflicted by the heat which is raging

below, and thus they go to Janaloka. The residents of Janaloka are

not troubled by the flames which destroy the lower planets at the

time of partial annihilation, yet they do experience unease when

witnessing the devastation that takes place on the planets beneath



Kalna - see Ambika-Kalna.

Kancana-palli - also known as Kancra-para. This is the place where

Shri Vasudeva datta Thakura and Kavi Karnapura (the son of

Sivananda Sena) used to live. The parents of Sivananda Sena's

wife are also from this village. It is located on the east side of the

Ganga, approximately parallel to Saptagrama.

Kasi - 'the city of light'; another name for Varanasi. This ancient

city is located on the bank of the Ganga between Delhi (710 km)

and Calcutta (680 km). Kasi is 125 km downstream from Allahabad.

It is a famous place of pilgrimage, especially for the devotees of Lord

Siva. Kasi is celebrated as a place of learning and is a center of

Sanskrit scholarship, and particularly of advaita-vedanta and

mayavada philosophy.

Khola-bhanga-danga - the place where the Chand Kazi's men broke

a mrdanga and prohibited the performance of sankirtana.

Koladvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. Much of Koladvipa

is situated on the west bank of the Ganga, but a small portion is

located on the east bank. This place embodies the devotional practice

of pada-sevanam, serving the Lord's lotus feet. It is also known

as Kuliya Paharpura. Koladvipa is so named because Krishna's boar

incarnation, Shri Varahadeva (also known as Koladeva), manifested

here to a brahmana who was worshiping Him.

Kuliya - also known as Kuliya-grama and Kuliya Paharpura. It is

situated in Koladvipa on the West bank of the Bhagirathi. The

present day city of Navadvipa was formerly known as Kuliya-grama.

Shri Madhava dasa Cattopadhyaya (Chakauri Cattopadhyaya) lived

in this village. He was the father of Shrila Vamsivadanananda

Thakura. This place is also called aparadha-bhanjana-pata, the place

where offenses are destroyed. When Shriman Mahaprabhu came to

Kuliya on the way from Puri to Vrndavana, He stayed at the house

of Madhava dasa for seven days. During that time, He delivered

two great offenders, Gopala Cakravarti and Devananda Pandita,

as well as many others who came to see Him.


Madhyadvipa - one of the nine divisions of Navadvipa situated on

the east side of the Bhagirathi. It is bordered by Koladvipa on the

west side and by Godrumadvipa on the north and east sides. It was

here that in Satya-yuga, the seven rsis (Bhrgu, Marici, Atri,

Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasistha) worshiped Gauranga with

austerities and prayers on the order of their father, Brahma. Being

pleased with their prayers, Shri Gauranga appeared before the rsis

at mid-day (madhyahna). This place is thus known as Madhyadvipa.

Madhyadvipa embodies the devotional activity of smaranam, remembering

shri-hari-nama, His form, qualities, and pastimes.

Maharloka - a planet situated above Svargaloka. This place is obtained

by upakurvana brahmacaris, students of the Vedas who honor

their teacher with a gift after completing their studies and before

becoming grhasthas. The maharsis (great sages) who are progenitors

of the universe reside on this planet. One obtains this planet

by performing sacrifices, undergoing the yoga discipline and other

similar practices which are far superior to the pious activities by

which one becomes eligible for Svargaloka. When there is a partial

devastation of the universe at the end of Brahma's day, the

three worlds, Bhu, Bhuva, and Svarga, are destroyed, but the higher

planets beginning from Maharloka remain intact.

Mayapura-dhama - the appearance place of Shri Chaitanya

Mahaprabhu, situated in Antardvipa within the greater region of

Navadvipa. Mayapura is located on the east bank of the Ganga.

Navadvipa forms an eight-petaled lotus. In the whorl of this lotus

lies Antardvipa, at the very center of which is Mayapura. The

actual appearance place of Shri Chaitanya is situated within

Mayapura and is known as Yogapitha, the seat of the Lord's eternal

transcendental pastimes.

Mithila - the ancient state ruled by King Janaka, the father of

Sita. This state extended from Camparanya to the Gandaki river.

It is now part of Nepal and includes the present city of Janakapura,

the birthplace of Sita. Janakapura is said to be the site of Shri Rama

and Sita's wedding.

Modadrumadvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa.

Modadrumadvipa is situated on the west side of the Bhagirathi to

the north of Jahnudvipa. This place is also known as Mamgachi

and as Mahapata. Narayani (the mother of Shri Vrndavana dasa

Thakura), Shri Vasudeva datta, and Shri Saranga Murari used to

live here. Shri Vrndavana dasa Thakura, the writer of Chaitanyabhagavata,

took birth in Modadrumadvipa.

In Satya-yuga, Shri Rama along with Sita and Laksmana came

here during Their exile. Shri Ramacandra built a hut here underneath

a large banyan tree and they lived happily for some time.

This place is therefore known as Modadrumadvipa, the place where

Shri Rama lived with great delight under a banyan tree (moda means

happiness or delight and druma means a tree). Shri Rama disclosed

to Sita that in Kali-yuga He would appear in Navadvipa with a

splendid golden complexion as the son of Saci Mata and that she

would appear as His wife, Shri Vishnupriya. This place embodies the

devotional practice of dasyam, becoming a servant of the Lord.


Nadiya - a large district which encompasses the nine islands of


Nandagrama - the village of Nanda Maharaja, the father of Shri

Krishna. It is situated about sixty kilometers northwest of Mathura.

Nanda Maharaja and his community lived there before Krishna's

appearance. Prior to Krishna's appearance, they moved to Gokula.

When Krishna was seven years old, the family moved back to this

place and built their house on top of a large hill known as

Nandisvara-parvata (Lord Sivaji, the Lord of Nandi, in the form

of this hill). Krishna lived there from the age of seven until He was


Nandana-kanana - Indra's heavenly garden of paradise.

Navadvipa - the village (or town) of Navadvipa. This is one village

within the greater area of Navadvipa-mandala (see below). In

this book both the village of Navadvipa and Navadvipa-mandala

have been referred to simply as Navadvipa. Therefore the reader

must apply discrimination according to context to understand

when the author is referring to the village and when he is referring

to the territory of Navadvipa. In Chapter Eleven the village

of Navadvipa is called Pracina (Old) Navadvipa. There it is said

that Pracina Navadvipa was situated across the Ganga from the

village of Kuliya. Similarly in Chapter Seven it is said that Kuliyagrama

was across the Ganga from Navadvipa. In Chapter Eleven it

is said that Kuliya was situated on the western bank of the

Bhagirathi in the Koladvipa district of Navadvipa-mandala. From

these descriptions it is clear that Pracina Navadvipa was located

on the east bank of the Ganga and therefore corresponds to the

present-day site of Shri Mayapura. Kuliya-grama, situated on the

west bank of the Ganga, corresponds to the present town of

Navadvipa (see Kuliya for further confirmation of this point).

Therefore, wherever the village of Navadvipa is mentioned in

this book, it refers to Pracina Navadvipa and not to the present

town of Navadvipa.

Navadvipa-mandala - the sacred nine-island region about 130 kilometers

north of Calcutta, where Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's

early pastimes were manifest. Navadvipa consists of nine islands

which resemble an eight-petalled lotus flower. Antardvipa is at

the center of this lotus. Each of the nine divisions of Navadvipa

represents one of the nine primary angas of bhakti. These divisions

and their corresponding angas are as follows: (1) Antardvipa

(atma-nivedanam, surrendering one's very self), (2) Simantadvipa

(sravanam, hearing), (3) Godrumadvipa (kirtanam, chanting), (4)

Madhyadvipa (smaranam, remembering Shri Krishna's transcendental

names, form, qualities, and pastimes), (5) Koladvipa (padasevanam,

serving Shri Krishna's feet), (6) Rtudvipa (arcanam, worshiping),

(7) Jahnudvipa (vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances),

(8) Modadrumadvipa (dasyam, becoming a servant), and

(9) Rudradvipa (sakhyam, becoming a friend).

Nrsimhapalli - see Devapalli.


Pracina Navadvipa - the old village of Navadvipa, located on the

east bank of the Ganga. This corresponds to the present site of

Shri Mayapura (see Navadvipa for clarification).

Purvasthali - this is a place located in the western part of



Radha-kunda - 'the pond of Shri Radha', situated 26 km northwest

of Mathura. Considered to be the most sacred place of pilgrimage

for all Gaudiya Vaishnava, Radha-kunda is the direct embodiment

of Shrimati Radhika. The most confidential pastimes of Radha and

Krishna take place here.

Rtudvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. Rtudvipa is situated

west of both the Ganga and Koladvipa, and south of

Jahnudvipa. This place embodies the devotional practice of

arcanam, worshiping Shri Krishna. The word rtu means season. The

six seasons headed by spring manifest here in personified forms

and, on the pretext of conversing among themselves, they worship

Shri Gauranga in order to broadcast His transcendental pastimes.

Rtudvipa corresponds to Shri Radha-kunda in Vrndavana.

As Radha and Krishna go daily to Radha-kunda to enact Their midday

pastimes, Shri Gauranga and His associates come to Rtudvipa

daily to perform their noon pastimes.

Rudradvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. According to

the 1916 map of Shridhama Navadvipa, Rudradvipa is divided in three

by the Bhagirathi. This place embodies the devotional mood of

sakhya, friendship with Shri Krishna. It is so named because the eleven

Rudras (expansions of Lord Siva) reside here. Shri Vishnusvami, the

acarya of the Rudra sampradaya, visited this place, and both Lord

Siva and Shri Gauranga appeared before him. Shri Siva gave Vishnusvami

the benediction that he (Vishnusvami) would propagate a pure

sampradaya, which would be named after himself. Mahaprabhu

gave him the benediction that at the time of His own appearance

as Shri Gauranga, Vishnusvami would take birth as Shri Vallabhacarya.


Samudragarh - a place in the southwestern side of Rtudvipa. It is

located on the southern-most border of Navadvipa-dhama.

Dvaraka-puri and Ganga-sagara are directly present here. The

great king and bhakta of Krishna, Samudra Sena, had his capital

here. When Bhima was touring east India on behalf of his brother,

Yudhisthira, to collect tributes for the Rajasuya sacrifice, Samudra

Sena opposed him, knowing that if he put Bhima into difficulty,

Shri Krishna would come to his rescue. Krishna did appear, not to Bhima

but before the King on the battlefield, first in His original form

and then as Shri Gauranga. The ocean (samudra) also traveled to

this place through the medium of the Ganga to have darsana of

Shri Gauranga.

Santipura - the city where Advaita Acarya, Shri Harsa, and

Gopalacarya lived. It is situated on the east side of the Ganga

about 20 kilometers south of Krishna-nagara, which is about 12 kilometers

due east of the present town of Navadvipa. Directly across

the Ganga from Santipura is Kalna. After taking sannyasa, Shriman

Mahaprabhu went to the house of Advaita Acarya in Santipura,

after being misled by Nityananda Prabhu into thinking that He

had arrived in Vrndavana.

Saptagrama - an ancient mercantile city about 50 km north of

Calcutta on what is now the bed of the Sarasvati River.

Saptagrama is located west of the Ganga and south of Ambika-

Kalna. As the name suggests, this city encompasses seven settlements:

Saptagrama (or, in the opinion of some, Sabdakara),

Vamsavati, Sivapura, Vasudevapura, Krishnapura (or, in the opinion

of some, Candapura), Nityanandapura, and Sankha-nagara

(or Baladaghati). The village of Triveni is also included in

Saptagrama. Shri Uddharana Datta Thakura lived here. His father,

Shrikara Datta, was a wealthy gold merchant. Raghunatha dasa

Gosvami lived in Krishnapura, Kalidasa lived in Sankha-nagara,

and Balarama Acarya and Yadunandana Acarya lived in


Sarasvati a sacred river which flows in several different branches.

It is said to mix with the Ganga and Yamuna at Prayaga. The

Sarasvati formerly flowed through the area known as Saptagrama

to the south of the present town of Navadvipa, but it has now

dried up (Gaudiya-Vaishnava-Abhidhana).

Simantadvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place is

also known as Simuliya. It is situated east of the Bhagirathi and

north of the Jalangi, and it is at the northern border of Navadvipa.

This place embodies the devotional practice of sravanam, hearing

the glories of Shri Krishna's names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. In

Satya-yuga, Parvati worshiped Shri Gauranga here on the inspiration

of her husband, Lord Siva. When Gauranga appeared before

her, she took the dust from His feet and placed it on the part in

her hair (simanta). As a result, this place became known as


Simuliya - another name for Simantadvipa, or a section of

Simantadvipa extending from Brahmana-puskarini to Bilvapuskarini.

This area is situated in the north of Navadvipa-mandala

on the east side of the Bhagirathi.

Shrivasa-angana - the courtyard of Shrivasa Thakura situated in

Mayapura just next to the birth place of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

After Mahaprabhu received diksa from Shrila Isvara Puri in Gaya,

He returned to Navadvipa and began the sankirtana movement.

During this time He performed ecstatic kirtana every night with

His intimate associates at Shrivasa-angana. Shrivasa-angana of

navadvipa-lila is non-different from the rasa-sthali of vrndavana-lila.

Sva - (Svarga-loka) the heavenly planets (see svarga-loka).

Svarga-loka - the heavenly planets which are characterised by

material opulence, enjoyment, and duration of life far exceeding

those of the planet earth. Svarga is attained by strictly carrying

out the pious activities recommended in the karma-kanda section

of the Vedas.

Syama-kunda - 'the pond of Shri Syamasundara', situated just next

to Shri Radha-kunda. This pond is the direct embodiment of Shri

Krishna. This place is also known as Arista-kunda, because it was

the pond Krishna made at the instigation of the gopis after He killed

the Arista (bull) asura. The gopis accused Krishna of being impure

because of having killed a bull. First Shri Krishna dug a small hole

with His heal then He called all the sacred rivers throughout the

universe, and at once they came together and entered to form this

pond. Afterward, the personified deities of those rivers prayed to be

accepted in Radha's kunda also. Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda

are considered to be the eyes of Govardhana, which lies in the

shape of a peacock. They are together the site of the topmost pastimes

of Radha and Krishna and are superlative among all holy places.


Tapoloka - a planet situated above Janaloka. Topmost sages like

the four Kumaras reside on this planet which is obtained by

naisthika- brahmacaris.


Vaikuntha - the spiritual world. The majestic realm of the spiritual

world which is predominated by Lord Narayana or His various

expansions. All the residents of Vaikuntha have eternal, spiritual

bodies. They possess four arms and a darkish complexion like

that of Bhagavan and are fully engaged in His service in pure

devotional love. Their sense of intimacy with Shri Bhagavan is

somewhat hampered, however, due to their aisvarya-bhava. Superior

to this is Goloka Vrndavana, the topmost planet of Shri Krishna,

which is characterised by madhurya and intimacy.

Vairagi-danga - a place situated in Shridhama Mayapura close to

Khola-bhanga-danga. Because many renounced Vaishnavas were

living in this place, it became known as Vairagi-danga.

Varanasi - see Kasi.

Vikramapura - a famous place in Bangladesh in the district of

Dhaka. Living here were Canda Raya and Kedara Raya, who were

among the twelve feudal princes governing Bengal during the

Muslim regime. At first they were saktas (worshipers of Durga),

but later they became disciples of Shrila Narottama Thakura.

Vraja-dhama - the one hundred sixty-eight square mile tract of

land where Shri Krishna enacted His earthly pastimes.

Vrndavana - 'the forest of Vrnda'; the famous place where Shri

Krishna enacted many of His enchanting lilas. Vrndavana is situated

approximately 12 kilometers northeast of Mathura, along

the western bank of the Yamuna river. It is one of the twelve

forests of Vraja and within it are twelve smaller forests: Atalavana

(mountain forest), Korarivana (osprey forest), Viharavana (pleasure

pastime forest), Gocaranavana (cowherding forest), Kaliyadamanavana

(subduing Kaliya forest), Gopalavana (the cowherds

forest), Nikunjavana (bower forest), Nidhuvana (treasure forest),

Radhabaga (Radha's garden), Jhulavana (swing pastime forest),

Gahvaravana (secret forest), and Papadavana (forest of harsh



Yamuna - a sacred river flowing through Vraja-mandala. She is

considered the holiest of rivers because Krishna performed many

sublime lilas in her waters with the gopis and gopas. In this world

she appears at Yamunottari in the Himalayas.Yamuna is described

as an expansion of Visakha Devi: visakhorasi ya visnor yasyam visnur

jalatmani nityam nimajjati pritya tam saurim yamunam stumah -

"Lord Vishnu daily immerses Himself and plays with great pleasure

and affection in the water of Yamuna, the liquid form of Visakha

Devi. Thus I offer prayers to Yamuna Devi, the daughter of Surya."