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Acyuta - infallible or imperishable; one who is never deviated, moved,

or shaken; one who never falls from the transcendental position; a

name for Shri Krishna.

Advaita Acarya - an intimate associate of Shriman Mahaprabhu and

one of the members of the panca-tattva. He is the combined form of

Maha Vishnu and Sada-Siva. He was a disciple of Shri Madhavendra

Puri and by age senior to Shri Chaitanya. Seeing the fallen condition

of the jivas in Kali yuga, He prayed to the Lord to descend. Shriman

Mahaprabhu appeared partly to fulfill His request.

Ahalya - the wife of the great sage Gautama Rsi. Indra, the chief of

the devas, was infatuated with the beauty of Ahalya. Once in Satyayuga,

while Gautama Rsi was away, Indra assumed the form of

Gautama by mystic power and had union with Ahalya. When

Gautama returned he could understand the whole situation

through his yogic power. Furious with his wife, Gautama cursed her

to become a stone. Ahalya was deeply aggrieved and fell crying at

Gautama's feet to beg for deliverance from the curse. Gautama consoled

her by saying that in Treta-yuga, when Bhagavan Ramacandra

would appear on the earth, He would touch the stone with His foot

and she would thus be delivered from the curse.

Normally Satya-yuga is followed by Dvapara and then Treta in

the cycle of the four yugas. Ahalya appealed to Gautama, saying

that she would not be able to bear waiting so long for the appearance

of Ramacandra. Gautama assured her that in this particular

cycle of the four yugas, Treta would follow Satya. By the desire of

Gautama Rsi, the order of the yugas was reversed. When

Glossary of Names

Ramacandra appeared, He touched that stone with His foot and

Ahalya was released from the curse. Thus Ahalya, who had assumed

the form of a stone, was liberated from the state of covered

consciousness (achadita-cetana), at which time she was reunited

with her husband.

Ananga Manjari - the younger sister of Shrimati Radhika. She is

thirteen years old and her complexion is the color of vasanta-ketaki,

a beautiful golden flower blossoming in spring. Her dress is the

color of indivara, a blue lotus flower. Her principal service is preparing

tambula for the pleasure of Radha and Krishna. In gauranga-lila

she manifests as Jahnava Devi, the consort and sakti of Shri

Nityananda Prabhu.

Angada - the son of Tara and Vali, the monkey chieftain of the

kingdom of Kiskindha. Sugriva had enlisted the help of Bhagavan

Rama to kill Vali. When Vali was on his death-bed, he offered his

son, Angada, at the feet of Shri Rama. After Vali's death, Ramacandra

appointed Sugriva as the king of Kiskindha and Angada as the

crown prince. Angada assisted Shri Rama in the battle against

Ravana. Thus, although in the body of a monkey, which is representative

of the state of sankucita-cetana (contracted consciousness),

he engaged in the process of bhakti.


Badarayana Rsi - see Vyasadeva.

Bharata - the eldest of one hundred sons of Lord Rsabhadeva, who

was a saktyavesa-avatara, an impowered incarnation of Shri Bhagavan.

Although his father was a brahmana, Bharata exhibited the nature

of a ksatriya and thus he acted in that capacity. By the desire of his

father, Bharata was enthroned as the emperor of the entire earth.

Nonetheless, he was a great bhakta of Shri Bhagavan. After ruling the

kingdom for a considerable time, detachment awakened in his heart

for the world. Dividing the kingdom and his possessions amongst

his sons, he went alone to the asrama of Pulaha Rsi in Hariharaksetra

to absorb himself in the worship of Bhagavan.

Once, after bathing in the River Gandaki close by his hermitage,

he sat down on the sacred banks of that river, and began to chant

shri-nama. He saw a thirsty doe drinking water, and looking around

cautiously. Just then, she heard the fierce roar of a lion nearby, and

out of fear jumped into the river to cross it. She was pregnant, and

due to her sudden jump the baby deer fell out of her womb into the

current of the river. The doe died after crossing the river. Bharata's

heart melted. He ran and picked up the drowning, motherless baby

deer, brought it to his hermitage, and began to take care of it with

great affection.

Bharata's affection for the baby deer gradually increased, and as

it did so, his sadhana-bhajana decreased, until he finally gave up his

devotional practices completely. One day, he could not find the

baby deer and he started lamenting "Ha deer! Ha deer!" and overwhelmed

with grief, finally gave up his life. In due course of time, he

received the body of a deer, according to his thoughts at the time of

death. However, due to the influence of the devotional practices

performed in his previous birth, he could remember the cause of his

falldown, and became repentant. Leaving his parents, he again went

to Pulaha-asrama and was delivered by hearing the holy name. This

is an example of a contracted consciousness (sankucita-cetana).

Similarly, if a renounced person or a hermit becomes attracted to

women etc., he certainly falls down from his exalted position. Some

people put forward the theory that one attains the human birth,

which is the best of all births, through a natural progression, and

that one does not fall down from it. Such a proposition is quite

wrong, and very misleading. One takes birth according to his desires,

and there is no scope for changing this principle. Bharata

demonstrated this principle through his own life.

Brahma - the first created being in the universe. Directed by Shri

Vishnu, he creates all life forms in the universe and rules the mode of



Chaitanya Mahaprabhu - also referred to as Shri Chaitanya, Shriman

Mahaprabhu, Gaura, Gaurachandra, Gaura-Hari, Gaura-kisora,

Gauranga, Gaurasundara, Gaura, Krishna-Chaitanya, Nimai Pandita,

Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞, and Visvambhara; the Supreme Lord who appeared

approximately five hundred years ago (1486 A.D.) in Navadvipa,

West Bengal. Although He is identical to Shri Krishna, He appeared

with the bhava (internal mood) and kanti (bodily complexion) of

Shrimati Radhika in order to taste the mellows of Her love for Krishna.

Assuming the mood of a bhakta, He spread love for Krishna through

the chanting of shri-hari-nama.

Catuhsana - see Kumara.

Chand Kazi - the guru of Hussain Shah and chief magistrate of

Navadvipa during the time of Shri Chaitanya. He forbade the performance

of kirtana in Navadvipa and had a mrdanga drum broken.

Later, he received the mercy of Shriman Mahaprabhu and became a

great devotee. In krishna-lila he was King Kamsa.

Chota Haridasa - one of Lord Chaitanya's intimate associates. He

accepted the renounced order and was chastised for a slight indiscretion.

Once Bhagavan Acarya requested Chota Haridasa to beg

some good quality rice from the elderly Madhavi Devi so that he

could feed Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Madhavi Devi was an exemplary

devotee of Mahaprabhu, deeply absorbed in bhajana. When

Mahaprabhu tasted the excellent quality of the rice, He inquired

where it had come from. Bhagavan Acarya explained that Chota

Haridasa had received it from Madhavi Devi. Hearing this

Mahaprabhu was silent. Later He informed the devotees that Chota

Haridasa was no longer permitted to come to Him, for He could not

bear to see the face of a renunciate who freely converses with women.

Chota Haridasa eventually went to Prayaga and gave up his life in

the Ganga. Thereafter he attained the form of a Gandharva in

Vaikuntha. In that form he would visit Mahaprabhu every night

and perform melodious kirtana for His pleasure. Chota Haridasa did

not actually commit any offense; this was simply a pastime of the

Lord with an unalloyed devotee to establish the sanctity of the

renounced order.


Dhruva -This pastime occurred at the beginning of creation. Emperor

Uttanapada, who was born in the dynasty of Svayambhuva

Manu, had two queens. The elder was named Suniti, while the

younger, who controlled the king, was called Suruci. Suniti had a

son by the name of Dhruva. Child Dhruva was deprived of his

father's affection, and could not tolerate his stepmother's tortures.

Following his mother's advice, he therefore went into the deep

forest, where he became completely absorbed in very austere and

difficult worship of the lotus-eyed Shri Hari. His prayer was not to

attain the Supreme, but to fulfill his material desire for a kingdom.

However, by the mercy of Shri Bhagavan, not only was his ambition

for a kingdom fulfilled, but he also obtained pure bhakti. If one

performs bhakti with undivided attention, even to fulfill a material

desire, one always attains all auspiciousness in the end. Dhruva is

an example of such an artharthi.

Dinanatha - the guardian and refuge of destitute souls; a name for

Shri Krishna.

Durga - the wife of Lord Siva, also known as Sakti, Mahavidya, Kali,

Syama, and Nistarini. She presides over the material energy and is

one of the five deities worshiped by the pancopasakas.

Durvasa Muni - the son of Maharsi Atri and Anusuya. A partial

expansion of Shri Rudra, a great rsi and propounder of the jnanasastras.

Like Lord Siva, he was easily angered and easily pleased. He

could give great benedictions and terrible curses. Durvasa Muni

was always surrounded by sixty thousand disciples. Consequently,

his unexpected arrival could create an awkward situation for his

host. The Muni's intimidating presence, and the difficulty of accommodating

so many disciples could cause fear of the possible

repercussion of displeasing him.


Four Kumaras - see Kumara.


Gadadhara Pandita - an intimate associate of Shri Chaitanya

Mahaprabhu. He is one of the members of the panca-tattva. He embodies

Shri Krishna's internal potency and is a manifestation of Shrimati

Radhika. After Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa, Gadadhara Pandita

accompanied Him to Puridhama. He used to recite the Shrimad

Bhagavatam for the pleasure of Shri Gauranga. Mahaprabhu wrote a

sloka in His own handwriting in Gadadhara Pandita's Bhagavad-

Gita. After Mahaprabhu's disappearance from this world, Gadadhara

Pandita could not bear the pain of separation. He departed from

this world eleven months after His disappearance.

Gajendra - the following pastime took place during the fourth

manvantara. An elephant called Gajendra was the leader of many

strong elephants, and he lived with many she-elephants in the

deep jungle in a valley of Trikuta, the King of mountains. In the

valley was a large, beautiful and inviting lake, and one day Gajendra

was fearlessly absorbed in sporting in the lake with his female elephants

and children. All of a sudden, a strong crocodile angrily

caught hold of his leg. Gajendra used all his strength to try to

release himself, but the strong elephant could not get free, even

after struggling for a thousand years. Slowly, Gajendra begun to

lose strength. When he saw that he had no other protection, he

took complete and exclusive shelter of Shri Bhagavan, and began

to chant in great distress, eloquant Sanskrit slokas learned by him

in his previous birth as King Indradyumna. Shri Bhagavan, who

carries the cakra, arrived there riding on Garuda, and released

Gajendra by cutting open the crocodile's mouth with His cakra.

In his previous life, Gajendra had been King Indradyumna of

the state of Dravida, a member of the Pandava dynasty. Once

Maharsi Agastya came to visit Indradyumna, but when he arrived

there, the king was worshiping Shri Bhagavan in deep trance, and

therefore could not greet the rsi. Due to this offense, Maharsi

Agastya cursed the king to take birth as an elephant. This is an

example of a person in distress (artta) and contracted consciousness


Ganesa - the son of Lord Siva and Parvati. He removes all material

impediments and bestows great wealth upon his worshipers; one of

the five deities worshiped by the pancopasakas.

Gangesopadhyaya - author of a famous treatise on nyaya, Tattvacintamani.

There are no authentic records regarding his birth or

place of origin, but he is believed to have been from Mithila and

to have lived in the 12th-13th century. He was a keen dialectician

and a brilliant polemicist. He made the nyaya-sastra a science and

an art of debate. He developed a new school of nyaya known as

navya-nyaya. His Tattva-cintamani is a systematic account of epistemology,

logic and philosophy of grammar. It deals almost exclusively

with the epistemology of the nyaya system with little attention

to metaphysics or ontology. The Tattva-cintamani laid the

foundation of a new system of dialectics in India. His book became

so popular that no one thereafter could be considered a

scholar of nyaya unless they wrote a commentary on this book.

The most famous commentary on Tattva-cintamani was written by

Raghunatha (Kanaibhatta) Siromani, a contemporary of Shri

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see Siromani).

Gaura - a short form of the name Gauranga.

Gaurachandra - one who has arisen like a dazzling golden moon; a

name for Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see Chaitanya).

Gaura-Hari - one who has stolen the golden complexion of Shrimati

Radhika; a name for Krishna appearing in the form of Shri Chaitanya


Gaura-kisora - the beautiful golden youth; a name for Chaitanya


Gauranga - one whose limbs have a hue of molten gold; a name for

Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who is Shri Krishna Himself, endowed with

the bhava (inner mood) and kanti (bodily complexion) of Shrimati


Gaura-Nitai - a short name for Shri Gauranga and Shri Nityananda


Gaurasundara - one who has a splendid golden form; a name for Shri

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see Chaitanya).

Gauridasa Pandita - a beloved associate of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

His father was Kamsari Misra and his mother was Shri Kamala Devi.

He had five brothers named Suryadasa, Damodara, Jagannatha,

Krishnadasa, and Nrsimha-Chaitanya. His eldest brother, Suryadasa,

had two daughters - Shrimati Vasudha Devi and Shrimati Jahnava

Devi - who became the wives of Nityananda Prabhu. Gauridasa's

wife was Vimala Devi. They had two sons, Balarama and

Raghunatha. Gauridasa lived in Ambika Kalna, on the opposite

side of the Ganga from Santipura. Just next to Gauridasa's house

there is a large tamarind tree, beneath which Shriman Mahaprabhu

and Shri Nityananda Prabhu would sit. Once Gauridasa implored

the two brothers to remain in his home forever. In order to pacify

Gauridasa, Mahaprabhu made a beautiful set of Gaura-Nitai Deities

from a nearby neem tree and presented them to him. In krishnalila

Gauridasa Pandita is Subala-sakha, one of the dvadasa-gopalas

of Vraja (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 128).

Gautama - is popularly known as Aksapada Gautama. According

to some scholars, he lived in the 5th century BC and founded the

pracina, or older, nyaya school of philosophy. He wrote Nyayasutra,

which is known as the earliest systematic literature of the

system. The traditional nyaya system as it stands today is mainly

based on this work of Gautama. The Nyaya-sutra is divided into

five adhyayas, or lessons, usually called books. Each lesson is divided

into two ahnikas, or daily portions, and these in turn contain

a number of sutras, or aphorisms. These sutras are also divided

into prakaranas, or topics, by commentators such as

Vatsyayana and Vacaspati.

Gopijana-vallabha - the lover of the gopis of Vraja; a name for Shri


Gopinatha Acarya - a great devotee of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

He was the husband of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya's sister. During

Mahaprabhu's childhood, he lived in Nadiya. He later lived with

the Bhattacarya in Puridhama while Mahaprabhu was there. He

was the first one in Puri to proclaim Shri Chaitanya as Bhagavan, for

which he was initially ridiculed by the Bhattacarya, who later obtained

the mercy of Mahaprabhu.

Govinda - a name for Krishna; one who pleases the gopis, gopas, cows,

senses, the earth, and Govardhana Hill.

Gunaraja Khana - an associate of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and

resident of Kulinagrama. He was also known as Shri Maladhara

Vasu. His father was Bhagiratha Vasu and his mother was Indumati.

He wrote a famous book known as Shri Krishna-vijaya which was

much appreciated by Mahaprabhu. Gunaraja Khana used to visit

Shri Chaitanya every year for the performance of the ratha-yatra

festival at Puri. It was there that the residents from Kulinagrama

inquired from the Lord about the characteristics of a Vaishnava.


Hari - a name for Shri Krishna which means 'One who takes away' He

takes away everything inauspicious, and who steals the hearts of

His bhaktas.


Indra - the predominating deity of the atmosphere, sky and rain, he

is a deva who is subordinate to Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, but is the

chief of all the other celestial devas.


Jagadananda Pandita - a confidential friend and eternal associate

of Shri Chaitanya. He used to perform kirtana with Shriman

Mahaprabhu. He knew nothing other than the Lord. According

to the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (51), in krishna-lila Jagadananda

Pandita has a mood like that of Satyabhama's, the chief wife of Shri

Krishna (satyabhama prakaso 'pi jagadananda panditah). As

Satyabhama always exhibited a haughty and contrary mood,

Jagadananda exhibited a similar mood in his relationship with

Mahaprabhu. He remained with the Lord in Puridhama, constantly

engaged in His service. He is the author of Shri Prema-vivarta.

Jahnava Devi - was the daughter of Suryadasa, the elder brother of

Gauridasa Pandita, and one of the two wives of Nityananda Prabhu.

According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (65-66), in krishna-lila she is

Revati, the consort of Lord Balarama, and Ananga Manjari, the

younger sister of Shrimati Radhika.

Jaimini - the founder of the purva-mimamsa system of Indian philosophy,

better known as the mimamsa system. According to modern

scholars he composed his purva-mimamsa-sutra around the

4th century BC. It deals with the investigation of the nature of

dharma and lays down the principle interpretation of the Vedic

texts on which the performance of sacrifices wholly depends. It

describes the different sacrifices and their purposes. The mimamsa

sutra consists of twelve chapters, the first of which deals with the

source of knowledge and the validity of the Vedas. It is recognized

as the basic comprehensive work of the mimamsa school of philosophy

which gave rise to a host of commentaries and sub-commentaries.

Jamavanta - also known as Jambavan and Rksaraja, a king among

bears. In Treta-yuga he was one of the ministers of the monkey

king Sugriva. In age, wisdom, strength, and moral judgment he

was superior to all. It was he who reminded Hanuman of his

strength when it came time to cross the ocean. He was the chief

minister in the war against Ravana. Shri Ramacandra took his advice

in all matters and offered him great respect. In the battle of

Lanka, when all were bewildered by the mayic power of Meghanada

(Indrajit), Jambavan remained unaffected by that maya. Both

Meghanada and Ravana fell unconscious from the blows of the

fists of Jambavan. After Rama returned to Ayodhya and was

corronated as king, He ordered Jambavan and all the monkeys to

return to their kingdom. Jambavan agreed only upon receiving

the Lord's promise that he would obtain the Lord's association

again in Dvapara-yuga. Thus when Shri Krishna appeared in Dvaparayuga,

Jambavan's desire was fulfilled.

Jiva Gosvami - the son of Shri Vallabha (Anupama), who was the

brother of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. Even as a young boy he

was deeply attracted Shri Krishna. He spent his time not in playing but

in worshiping Bhagavan with flowers, sandalwood, and other articles.

In his youth he went to Varanasi to study Sanskrit under

Madhusudana Vacaspati, a disciple of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.

After completing his studies he went to Vrndavana and took shelter

of his uncles, Shri Rupa and Sanatana. After the disappearance of

Rupa and Sanatana, he became the leader amongst all of the Vaishnava

followers of Shriman Mahaprabhu. His numerous literary contributions,

which include books such as Sat-sandarbha and Gopal-

Campu, and commentaries on Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Bhakti-rasamrtasindhu,

and Ujjvala-nilamani, have lent support with sastric evidence

to the teachings of Shri Chaitanya. According to Gauraganoddesa-

dipika (194-207) he is Vilasa Manjari in krishna-lila.



Kakkhati - Shrimati Radhika's pet female monkey.

Kali - a form of the Goddess Durga; one whose complexion is dark

or black.

Kaliya - a gigantic naga or serpent of the race of Kadru and Kasyapa.

At the time of Shri Krishna's appearance, he took up residence in the

Yamuna river and poisoned the water with his venom. Krishna chastised

Kaliya by dancing on his hoods. By the touch of Krishna's lotus

feet, Kaliya was purified and he left the Yamuna for Ramanakadvipa,

a small island adjacent to Jambudvipa.

Kanada - an ancient sage. He is the originator of the vaisesika system

of Indian philosophy (see vaisesika in the Glossary of Terms).

The word kanada primarily means "one who lives on a small particle

of food." This may have some connection to the basic tenet of the

school which says that the universe is formed of the minutest units

of matter, called anu (the Nyaya-kandali of Shridhara may be consulted

for further information on this point). Kanada is also referred

to by the synonyms of his name, e.g. Kanabhuja and

Kanabhaksa, or by his genealogical name Kasyapa. He is also known

as Uluka, which literally means an owl. Tradition explains this

name with a story that Lord Siva appeared before the sage in the

form of an owl and revealed the vaisesika system to him. It is traditionally

believed that Kanada lived and taught in Varanasi.

Kanada is credited with the authorship of the Vaisesika-sutra, the

basic text of the system, but the precise dates of his life and work

cannot be ascertained. While tradition sets him in the 8th century

BC, modern scholarship assigns the composition of the Vaisesikasutra

to the first century AD. The basic tenets of the system were

known to the early compilers of the Caraka-samhita - not only to

its final editor, Caraka, but to its original author, Agnivesa, who is

thought to have lived several centuries prior to the Christian era.

The vaisesika philosophy, as propounded in the sutra, is acknowledged

by several schools of Buddhist philosophy, particularly the

madhyamikas and the vaibhasikas. The Pali work, Milindapanha,

which was written in the 1st century AD, mentions vaisesika as an

established branch of Indian learning.

Kapiladeva - an avatara of Shri Krishna, who appeared as the son of

Kardama Muni and Devahuti. He taught the true purport of the

sankhya philosophy to his mother. In this original sankhya philosophy

of Kapiladeva there are twenty-five principles. Beyond these

there is the existence of Shri Bhagavan, who is the source of the

other principles. There was another Kapila who appeared later in

the dynasty of Agni who taught an atheistic version of the sankhya

philosophy (see Kapila above). The atheistic sankhya accepts the

twenty-five principles but denies the existence of God. The sankhya

of Kapiladeva ultimately culminates in bhakti.

Kasyapa - the son of Marici, who was one of the six sons produced

from the mind of Brahma. Kasyapa was one of the first progenitors

of the universe. He married thirteen daughters of Daksa, headed by

Aditi. The universe was filled with living beings of all different

varieties by the combination of Kasyapa and his wives. Aditi was

the mother of the devas headed by Indra. Kasyapa and Aditi performed

severe austerities to please the Lord, and as a result He

appeared as their son, Vamanadeva.

Kavi Karnapura - one of the three sons of Sivananda Sena. His

brothers were named Chaitanya dasa and Rama dasa. His real name

was Paramananda Sena, but he was given the names Puri dasa and

Karnapura by Shriman Mahaprabhu. When he was a young boy he

sucked the toe of Mahaprabhu. He was a superlative writer and

poet. He wrote many famous books, including Gaura-ganoddesadipika,

Shri Chaitanya-candrodaya-nataka, Ananda-vrndavana-campu,

Shri Chaitanya-carita-mahakavya, Arya-sataka, Krishnahnika-kaumudi,

Alankara-kaustubha, a commentary on the tenth canto of Shrimad-

Bhagavatam, and Chaitanya-sahasra-nama-stotra.

Kesava - a name for Krishna. When the word kesa is taken to mean the

Kesi demon, the word va is connected to the verbal root vadh, to

kill. In this sense, Kesava means the slayer of the Kesi demon. Another

meaning of kesa is hair. When this is combined with the

verbal root vah (to wear or possess), Kesava means one who has

beautiful long hair. Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has given

two further explanations of the name Kesava: kesan vayate

samskarotiti kesava, when kesa is combined with the verbal root ve

(to braid), Kesava means one who expertly braids and decorates the

hair of His beloved, Shrimati Radhika; and ko brahma iso mahadeva

tavapi vayase vasikarosi, the syllable ka refers to Brahma, the word isa

refers to Mahadeva and the verbal root ve here is used in the sense

of bringing under control. Thus Kesava means one who brings even

Brahma and Mahadeva under His control.

Krishna - the original Supreme Lord, Svayam Bhagavan. He is avatari,

the source of all other avataras. His partial manifestation is the

Paramatma and His bodily effulgence is the all-pervading brahma.

His body is composed of sac-cid-ananda - eternality, knowledge,

and bliss. He is the personification of all spiritual mellows, raso vai

sa. His father is Nanda Maharaja, His mother is Yasoda, His brother

is Balarama, and His eternal consort is Shrimati Radhika. He is a

charming young cowherd boy with a complexion like that of a fresh

monsoon raincloud. His wears a brilliant yellow dhoti, a peacock

feather on His crown, and a garland of fresh forest flowers. He

possesses sixty-four primary transcendental qualities, out of which

four are unique to Him alone: venu-madhurya, He attracts the entire

world and especially the gopis with the melodious sound of His

flute; rupa-madhurya, He possesses extraordinary beauty which captivates

the minds of all; prema-madhurya, He is surrounded by intimate

loving associates whose prema is completely unbounded by

reverence or formality; and lila-madhurya, He performs beautiful

and enchanting pastimes, amongst which rasa-lila is the summit.

Krishna Chaitanya - a name for Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see Chaitanya).

Krishnadasa Kaviraja - the author of Shri Chaitanya-Charitamrita. He

received the darsana of Nityananda Prabhu in a dream and was

ordered by Him to go to Vrndavana. At the repeated request of the

Vaishnavas, and after obtaining the blessings of the Madana-Gopala

Deity, he accepted the task of writing the biography of Shri Chaitanya

Mahaprabhu. He also wrote Govinda-lilamrta, a description of Radha

and Krishna's eight-fold daily pastimes, and a commentary known as

Saranga-rangada on Bilvamangala Thakura's famous book, Krishnakarnamrta.

He is Kasturi Manjari in krishna-lila.

Kumara -The four Kumaras are called Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana

and Sanat. Brahma created them in the beginning of creation

from his mind (manah). That is why they are called Brahma's

manasa-putra (sons born of his mind). Because of their profound

knowledge, they were completely detached from worldly attraction,

and they did not give any assistance in their father's task of

creation, because they had developed an inclination for impersonal

speculation (brahma-jnana). Brahma was extremely displeased

with this, and he prayed to Bhagavan Shri Hari for the

welfare of his sons. Shri Bhagavan was pleased by Brahma's prayers,

and in His Hamsa (swan) avatara, He attracted their minds away

from dry impersonal knowledge to the knowledge of pure devotional

service on the absolute platform. Because of this, Sanaka

Rsi and his brothers are known as jnani-bhaktas. They are the

originators of the Nimbaditya disciplic succession.


Lalita-Sakhi - an intimate friend of Shrimati Radhika. She is the first

and most prominent of the asta-sakhis, the eight confidential girlfriends

of Shri Radha. According to Shrila Rupa Gosvami's Shri Radha-

Krishna Ganoddesa-dipika (Baharampura edition) she is twenty-seven

days older than Shri Radha and she is also known as Anuradha. She

has a contradictory and haughty nature. Her complexion is like

gorocana, a brilliant yellow pigment. Her garments are the colors of

peacock feathers. Her mother is Saradi and her father is Visoka.

Her husband is Bhairava, who is a friend of Govardhana Malla, the

husband of Candravali. The eight principal sakhis in her yutha

(group) are Ratna-prabha, Ratikala, Subhadra, Bhadra-rekhika,

Sumukhi, Dhanistha, Kala-hamsi, and Kalapini. Lalita is the leader

of the parama-prestha-sakhis; she instructs and directs all the sakhis;

she understands all the different moods of loving affairs; and she is

expert in the tactics of union and separation in the matter of prema.

If by chance Krishna ever commits any offense toward Shri Radha,

Lalita is quick to rebuke Him, raising her head in anger.


Madhva - the chief acarya of the Brahma sampradaya; born in 1239

near Udupi. His father and mother were Shri Madhyageha Bhatta

and Shrimati Vedavidya. He accepted diksa and sannyasa at age twelve

from Acyuta-preksa. His sannyasa name was Purnaprajna. He wrote

commentaries on the Bhagavad-Gita, Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Brahmasutra,

and many other books. He established the doctrine of dvaitavada

which emphasizes the eternal distinction between the living

entities and the Supreme Lord. He preached vigorously against the

kevaladvaitavada teachings of Shri Sankaracarya.

Mahadeva - a name for Lord Siva; the great Lord or the chief among

the devas (see Siva).

Mahaprabhu - the Great Master, Shri Krishna Chaitanya (see Chaitanya).

Mahavidya - a name for the Goddess Durga. This name indicates

that because Goddess Durga is the personification of the material

energy, she is the source of all material science.

Mahesa - the great (maha) Lord or master (isa). This is a name for

Lord Siva.

Maitreyi - Yajna-valkya had two wives, namely Katyayani and

Maitreyi. When he reached the age of fifty, he called his two wives

and divided all his wealth between them saying "Be happy and

allow me to go the forest to chant and remember Krishna."

Katyayani told him, " You have given me everything. So now you

can go and practice as you desire." The second wife Maitreyi said, "

First, please answer my question. You are giving me everything. My

question is, can these things make me happy forever? You are giving

me all these things, and previously you had all these possessions.

Why are you giving them up and going to the forest? If these things

can give me eternal happiness, why did you not get happiness from

them? Why are you giving them up and going to the forest? I know

that these material things could not actually make you happy. They

only gave you momentary happiness." Yajna-valkya was satisfied to

hear his wife speaking in this way. He embraced her and said, "Truly,

you are my svadharmani, my religious wife. No ordinary person can

ask a question like this. Such a person is very rare."

He then took that wife Maitreyi with him to the forest and,

helping each other, they began to practice bhakti-yoga.

Manu - any one of fourteen principal progenitors and administrators

of the universe appearing in succession; the first of these is

known as Svayambhuva to whom the famous lawbook, Manusamhita,

is ascribed.

Mukunda - a name for Shri Krishna. The word muku is equivalent to

mukti and the verbal root da means to give or bestow. Thus, Mukunda

means the granter of liberation. Also means one whose face is

lusterous like the kunda flower.


Narada - a great sage among the devas; he is thus known as Devarsi.

He was born from the mind of Brahma. He is a liberated associate

of Shri Krishna, who travels throughout the material and spiritual

worlds broadcasting His glories. In Chaitanya lila he appears as

Shrivasa Pandit

Narayana - nara-mankind, ayana-the shelter of. Means the shelter

for mankind. An expansion of Krishna; the opulent Lord of


Nilambara Cakravarti - the father of Shri Saci Mata, and maternal

grandfather of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; a great astrologer. According

to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (104-105), in krishna-lila he was

Garga Muni and Sumukha gopa.

Nimai Pandita - Shriman Mahaprabhu's childhood name was Nimai

because He was born beneath a neem tree. In His youth He became

a great scholar, and thus He came to be known as Nimai


Nimbaditya - also known as Nimbarkacarya; the head acarya of

the Kumara sampradaya. He established the philosophical doctrine

of dvaitadvaita-vada, which delineates both the oneness and

the distinction of all things with the Lord. He performed his

bhajana at Dhruva-ksetra near Govardhana. He wrote a commentary

on Vedanta-sutra named Vedanta-saurabha, as well as Vedantakamadhenu-

dasa-sloka, Krishna-stavaraja, Guruparampara, Vedantatattva-

bodha, Vedanta-siddhanta-pradipa, Svadharmadhva-bodha,

Aitihya-tattva-siddhanta, Radhastaka, and a commentary on


Nistarini - a name of Durga-Devi meaaning she who transports

one across material existence; she who awards moksa.


Nitai - a nickname for Nityananda Prabhu.

Nityananda - a manifestation of Shri Krishna who in krishna-lila is Shri

Balarama. He appeared together with Shriman Mahaprabhu and was

the Lord's chief assistantin distributing harinama-sankirtana to the

fallen jivas of Kali-yuga. He was born in Ekacakra in 1473 on the day

of sukla-trayodasi in the month of magha (January-February). His

father was Hadai Pandita and His mother was Padmavati. According

to some, He was the disciple of Shri Madhavendra Puri, and

according to others the disciple of Laksmipati, the guru of

Madhavendra Puri.

Nrga - a great king and the son of Maharaja Iksvaku. He was exceedingly

generous. He once gave an incalculable number of exceptional

cows to a brahmana in charity. By chance one of those

cows escaped and returned to the King's herd. Unwittingly, Nrga

gave that same cow to a different brahmana. Along the way, the

first brahmana recognized the cow and was very upset. The two

brahmanas went to Nrga to settle the matter. Although the King

offered each of the brahmanas a hundred thousand cows in exchange

for the one cow, they both left feeling dissatisfied. Shortly

thereafter, the King died. When he was brought before Yamaraja,

he was given the choice to first enjoy the results of his pious

actions or to suffer the reactions to his misdeeds. He chose to first

suffer the reactions to his misdeeds. Instantly he obtained the

body of a lizard and was cast to Earth, where he was made to live in

a dried-up well.

One day in Dvapara-yuga, Nrga was found by some boys of the

Yadu dynasty. The boys went and reported this to Krishna who

then came and lifted the lizard out of the well with His left hand.

Upon being touched by the lotus-hand of Shri Krishna, Nrga was

released from the body of the lizard. He is an example of someone

who attained Krishna's mercy from the state of sankucita-cetana,

contracted consciousness.

Nrsimhadeva - the half-man, half-lion avatara of Krishna. He appeared

in a ferocious mood to protect His beloved bhakta, Prahlada

Maharaja, when Prahlada was being severely oppressed by his

demoniac father, Hiranyakasipu.



Padmanabha - one whose navel is shaped like a lotus; a name for

Krishna or Vishnu.

Pandavas - the five sons of Pandu: Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna,

Nakula, and Sahadeva. They were great devotees of Shri Krishna. They

are the heroes of the Mahabharata and were the victorious party in

the battle of Kuruksetra.

Pariksit Maharaja - the son of Abhimanyu and Uttara, and the

grandson of Arjuna. He appeared just at the end of Dvapara-yuga.

After the battle of Kuruksetra, he was the sole living descendant of

the Pandavas and Kauravas. While still in his mother's womb, Krishna

protected him from the deadly brahmastra weapon of Asvatthama.

When Pariksit was fully grown, the Pandavas installed him as emperor

and retired to the Himalayas. He was such a powerful ruler

that he was able to forestall the onset of the age of Kali. Later, by

the influence of the Lord's internal potency, he committed an act

of indiscretion against the sage Samika Rsi and was cursed by the

sage's five year old son, Srngi, to die from a snake-bite within seven

days. Pariksit calmly accepted the curse as the mercy of Shri Krishna.

He left the kingdom in the hands of his son, Janamejaya, and went

to the bank of the Ganga. Great sages from all over the world immediately

gathered there to witness his passing away. He spent his

final days hearing the narration of Shrimad-Bhagavatam from the

sage Sukadeva. Absorbed in ambrosial descriptions of Shri Krishna

and His bhaktas, Pariksit Maharaja gave up eating, drinking, sleeping,

and all fear of his imminent death.

Patanjali - a great maharsi and author of the yoga-sutra (see yoga in

the Glossary of Terms).

Patita-pavana - one who purifies and delivers the fallen souls; a

name for Shri Chaitanya and Nityananada and Shri Guru.

Prabodhananda Sarasvati - the uncle of Shri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami.

He was a resident of Ranga-ksetra and a sannyasi of the Shri Ramanuja

sampradaya. Gopala Bhatta Gosvami received diksa from him.

Prabodhananda was a worshiper of Laksmi-Narayana, but by the

mercy of Shri Gaurasundara he adopted the worship of Shri Radha-

Govinda. He wrote many books such as Shri Vrndavana-mahimamrta,

Shri Radha-rasa-sudhanidhi, Shri Chaitanya-candramrta, Sangitamadhava,

Ascarya-rasa-prabandha, Shri Vrndavana-sataka, Shri

Navadvipa-sataka, Sruti-stuti-vyakhya, Kamabija-Kamagayatrivyakhyana,

Gita-Govinda-vyakhyana, and Shri Gaura-sudhakaracitrastaka.

According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (163), in krishna-lila

Prabodhananda Sarasvati is Tungavidya, one of the asta-sakhis of

Shrimati Radhika.

Pradyumna Brahmacari - a personal associate of Shri Chaitanya

Mahaprabhu. He was a worshiper of Shri Nrsimhadeva and thus

Shriman Mahaprabhu additionally gave him the name

Nrsimhananda. In Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita Shrila Krishna Dasa Kaviraja

has narrated how within his mind Nrsimhananda Brahmacari created

a road out of valuable jewels and surrounded it by all kinds of

sublime paraphanalia (lakes and gardens etc.) so that Shri

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Prahlada - a great bhakta of Shri Krishna and son of Hiranyakasipu. As

a small boy of only five years old he was severly oppressed by his

father, Hiranyakasipu, who was bitterly opposed to Vishnu for having

killed his brother, Hiranyaksa. In spite of many threats and

attempts on his life, Prahlada remained composed and absorbed in

remembrance of Shri Krishna. He was protected in all such situations

and ultimately the Lord appeared as Nrsimhadeva to kill his demoniac

father. The history and teachings of Prahlada are renowned in

Shrimad-Bhagavatam and other scriptures.


Radha - the eternal consort of Shri Krishna and the embodiment of the

hladini potency. She is known as mahabhava-svarupini, the personification

of the highest ecstacy of divine love. She is the source of

all the gopis, the queens of Dvaraka, and the Laksmis of Vaikuntha.

Her father is Vrsabhanu Maharaja, Her mother is Kirtida, Her

brother is Shridama, and Her younger sister is Ananga Manjari. She

has an effulgent, golden complexion and She wears blue garments.

She is adorned with unlimited auspicious qualities and is the most

dearly beloved of Shri Krishna.

Radha-Syama - the divine couple Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.

Raghunandana Bhattacarya - the son of Harihara Bhattacarya and

a contemporary of Shriman Mahaprabhu. He was also known as

Smarta Bhattacarya. He wrote a lengthy book known as Astavimsati-

tattva (28 principles) dealing with the scriptural codes of

conduct for upanayana, marriage, sraddha, and many other essential

social and moral functions. Aside from this he wrote several other

smrti-sastras including Rasayatra-paddhati, Sankalpa-candrika,

Tripuskarasanti-tattva, Dvadasa-yatra-pramana-tattva, and Harismrti-

sudhakara. Kalirama Vacaspati and Radha-Mohan Gosvami

of Santipura each wrote commentaries on his Asta-vimsati-tattva.

Raghunatha dasa Gosvami - also known as Dasa Gosvami; a confidential

associate of Shriman Mahaprabhu. He was born in 1494 in

the village of Krishnapura within the Hugali district of West Bengal.

His father was Govardhana Majumadara and His uncle was

Hiranya Majumadara. His diksa-guru was Shri Yadunandana Acarya.

At an early age he gave up a beautiful wife and opulence like that

of Indra to take shelter at the feet of Shriman Mahaprabhu in

Jagannatha Puri. Mahaprabhu placed him under the guidance of

Svarupa Damodara Gosvami. After the disappearance of Shri

Chaitanya and Svarupa Damodara, he went to Vrndavana and remained

under the shelter of Shri Rupa and Shri Sanatana Gosvamis.

He stayed at Radha-kunda, constantly absorbed in bhajana. He

wrote three books: Stavavali, Danakeli-cintamani, and Mukta-carita.

In krishna-lila he is Rati Manjari.

Rama - a lila-avatara or pastime avatara of Shri Krishna; He is the

famous hero of the Ramayana. He is also known as Ramacandra,

Raghunatha, Dasarathi-Rama, and Raghava-Rama. His father was

Maharaja Dasaratha, His mother was Kausalya, and His wife was

Sita. He had three brothers named Laksmana, Bharata, and

Satrughna. The celebrated monkey Hanuman was His beloved

servant and devotee. After killing the pernicious demon, Ravana,

and rescuing Sitarani with the help of the monkey army, Rama

returned to Ayodhya and was crowned king.

Ramanuja - the celebrated Vaishnava acarya of the Shri sampradaya

who founded the Vedantic school which taught the doctrine of

visistadvaitavada, qualified non-dualism. He lived at Kancipuram

and Shri Rangam in South India in the 12th century. He is believed

to have been an incarnation of Sesa and is known also as both

Ramanujacarya and Yatiraja. He wrote commentaries on Bhagavad-

Gita, Shrimad-Bhagavatam, and Vedanta-sutra.

Rasaraja - the emperor of rasa; one who is supreme in relishing

the mellows of rasa; this is a name for Shri Krishna who is akhilarasamrta-

murti, the embodiment of the essence of all rasa.

Rupa Gosvami - an eternal associate of Shriman Mahaprabhu. He is

glorified as having established the inner desire of Shri Chaitanya

Mahaprabhu in this world. He understood the confidential moods

of Shri Krishna and broadcast them in his many books. He was personally

instructed by Mahaprabhu at Prayaga and empowered to

write books explaining the esoteric truths of uttama-bhakti. His

unique contribution was to explain how bhakti is transformed

into rasa and how rasa is the real basis of loving relationships

with Shri Krishna. Some of his prominent books are Bhakti-rasamrtasindhu,

Ujjvala-nilamani, Vidagdha-madhava, and Lalita-madhava.

According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (180), he is Shri Rupa Manjari

in krishna-lila.


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Mahaprabhu (see Chaitanya).

Sanatana Gosvami - an eternal associate of Shriman Mahaprabhu

and elder brother of Rupa Gosvami. He was personally instructed

by Mahaprabhu, who ordered him to write books explaining the

principles of bhakti and to excavate the lost places of krishna-lila in

Vraja. His Brhad-bhagavatamrta is considered to be the earliest of

the Gosvami writings and the source of inspiration for many other

works. He wrote a famous commentary on the tenth canto of

Shrimad-Bhagavatam, originally titled Vaishnava-tosani, which later

became known as Brhad-Vaishnava-tosani after Shrila Jiva Gosvami

wrote a tenth canto commentary known as Laghu-Vaishnava-tosani.

He also enumerated the basic principles of bhakti in his book Haribhakti-

vilasa. According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (181), he is

Lavanga Manjari in krishna-lila.

Sanda - one of the sons of Sukracarya and a teacher of Prahlada

Maharaja. The word sanda means a bull. Sanda embodies the nature

of one who is dull-witted in the matter of spiritual realization.

Sankara - another name for Siva (see Siva). Sometimes Sankara is

used as a short name for Sankaracarya.

Sankaracarya - a celebrated teacher of Vedanta philosophy and the

reviver of Brahmanism. He is understood to have been an incarnation

of Lord Siva. He was born in 788 and he died in 820 at the age

of thirty-two. According to some accounts of his life, he was born

approximately 200 BC. He was born into a Nambudaripada brahmana

family in the village of Kalapi or Kasala in the province of Kerala.

His father's name was Sivaguru and his mother was Subhadra. The

couple worshiped Lord Siva for a long time to obtain a son, and

thus when their son was finally born, he received the name Sankara.

His father passed away when Sankara was only three years old. By

the time he was six, Sankara was a learned scholar, and he accepted

the renounced order at the age of eight. He travelled all over India

to suppress the Buddhist doctrine and revive the authority of Vedic


Sankaracarya wrote a famous commentary on Vedanta-sutra

known as Sariraka-bhasya, Inquiry into the Nature of the Embodied

Spirit. Although he made an invaluable contribution by re-establishing

Brahmanism and the Vedic authority, which laid some

groundwork for the teachings of Shri Chaitanya, the precepts he established

are at odds with the Vedic conclusion and the Vaishnava

acaryas. He declared the Supreme brahma to be devoid of form, characteristics,

potencies, and qualities. He states that although brahma

is full of knowledge, it is not a conscious all-knowing being. Although

brahma is of the nature of transcendental bliss, it is not a

subjective experiencer of that bliss. brahma is not the creator of the

world. When that featureless brahma comes in contact with maya,

it assumes material qualities. These ideas have been strongly refuted

by all the Vaishnava acaryas.

Sapta-tala - the seven tala (palmyra) trees. In Treta-yuga the monkey

chief Vali once procured seven succulent tala fruits. He kept them

aside and went to bathe, thinking that he would enjoy them later.

Upon his return, he discovered that a poisonous snake had already

ruined them. Vali became furious and cursed the snake to obtain

the body of a tree. By the potency of this curse, the snake at once

manifested as seven Palmyra trees (sapta-tala). The father of the

snake was acutely distressed and cursed Vali in return that whoever

could pierce all seven tala trees with a single arrow would be

the cause of Vali's death. Later, Shri Ramacandra accomplished this

feat to assure Sugriva of His ability to kill Vali. In Kali-yuga when

Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu travelled to South India to deliver the

jivas of that place, He came upon the sapta-tala trees. Upon seeing

them, He became overwhelmed with prema and rushed forward to

embrace them. As soon as He did so, the trees disappeared. By the

touch of Shriman Mahaprabhu they were delivered from the state of

acchadita-cetana, covered consciousness. When the local residents

witnessed this astonishing event, they could understand that

Shriman Mahaprabhu was directly Shri Ramacandra.

Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya - an associate of Shriman Mahaprabhu;

also known as Shri Vasudeva Sarvabhauma. According to the Gaura-

Ganoddesa-dipika (119) he was formerly Brhaspati, the preceptor of

the devas. At first his residence was in Navadvipa, but he came to

Puri dhama on the invitation of King Prataparudra, and was the

chief pandita in the king's court. He was one of the foremost scholars

of his time. When Mahaprabhu came to Puri dhama, Sarvabhauma

instructed Him for one week in the impersonal conception of

Vedanta. After this, Mahaprabhu explained the true meaning of

Vedanta and bestowed His mercy upon Sarvabhauma in such a way

that the Bhattacarya could understand Shri Krishna's true identity. At

that point Sarvabhauma submitted himself unto His lotus feet.

Saunaka and rsis - Once, Saunaka and other rsis organized sacrificial

yajnas for a thousand years in the holy place of Naimisaranya,

hoping to attain the supreme benediction. After some time, they

lost all hope of attaining their desired goal in this way, but they

attained their desired perfection through the answers that Shri Suta

Gosvami (the disciple of Shri Krishna-dvaipayana Vedavyasa) gave to

their questions. The six questions that they asked him are: (1) What

is the ultimate benediction for the jivas? (2) What topic can we hear

that will please the life of all souls, Paramatma Shri Hari? (3) What

were the purposes that Vasudeva Shri Krishna desired to fulfill when

He appeared from Devaki's womb? (4) What pastimes did Bhagavan

Vasudeva perform in His different avataras? (5) Please describe the

qualities and glories of Shri Hari. (6) Where did dharma take shelter

when Shri Krishna returned to His own abode?

All these rsis took shelter of Shri Suta Gosvami as guru, although

they took birth in high-caste brahmana families, whereas he took

birth in a lower caste. When they expressed their inquisitiveness

to Shri Suta Gosvami in a simple-hearted way, this dearmost disciple

of Shri Vedavyasa answered all their questions with gentle affection.

When they heard his answers, they all attained the supreme perfection.

This is an example of an inquisitive (jijnasu) devotee.

Siromani, Raghunatha - also known as Kanai Siromani or

Kanabhatta; a contemporary of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and author

of Didhiti, the famous nyaya commentary on the Tattvacintamani

of Gangesopadhyaya. He was a student of Shri Vasudeva

Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya in Navadipa. After completing his studies,

he went to Mithila for some time and then returned to Navadipa

to open his own school of nyaya. At that time Vasudeva

Sarvabhauma was invited by King Prataparudra to come to Orissa

to be the chief pandita in his court. As a result, Siromani became

distinguished as the foremost scholar of nyaya in Navadvipa during

his time. According to the Advaita-prakasa, Siromani desired that

his Didhiti would become the most famous commentary on Tattvacintamani.

However, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had written a commentary

on Tattva-cintamani which surpassed the work of Siromani.

Seeing this, Siromani became despondent. In order to fulfill

Siromani's desire, Mahaprabhu threw His own commentary into

the Ganga. Thereafter, Siromani's commentary became celebrated

as the pre-eminent commentary on Tattva-cintamani.

Siva - a qualitative expansion of Shri Krishna who supervises the material

mode of ignorance, and who annihilates the material cosmos;

one of the five deities worshiped by the pancopasakas. His name

literally means auspicious. In the Brahma-samhita (5.45) it is described

that Shri Krishna assumes the form of Lord Siva for the purpose of

carrying out the material creation. In the Shrimad-Bhagavatam

(12.13.16) Siva is described as the best of all Vaishnavas: vaishnavanam

yatha sambhu.

Simantini-devi - is a name for Parvati, who at the instigation of her

consort Lord Siva, desired to have darsana of Gauranga

Mahaprabhu. Thus she went to see Him. After being blessed by

Him she took His footdust and placed it on her simanta (hair parting).

Thus that place bwcame famous as Simanta-dvipa. Ignorant

people call it Simuliya.

Shriman Mahaprabhu - a name for Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (see


Sukadeva - the son of Badarayana Vyasadeva and speaker of the

Shrimad-Bhagavatam to Maharaja Pariksit. In Goloka-dhama, Krishna's

eternal abode in the spiritual world, he is the parrot of Shrimati


Sugriva - the monkey chieftain in the Rsya-muka mountain, who

received Rama and Laksmana when they were searching for Sita.

He was the brother of Vali, who, due to a misunderstanding, was

vehemently inimical toward him. After taking Rama's help to kill

his brother, he summoned the monkey army to assist Rama in conquering

Ravana and recovering Sita. After the death of Ravana,

Sugriva accompanied Rama and Laksmana on their return to


Surabhi - a cow of divine origin. After Indra committed a grave

offense against Shri Krishna by flooding Gokula with torrents of rain,

he became very fearful, and thus he approached Surabhi for shelter,

knowing cows to be most dear to Krishna. The two of them went to

Navadvipa-dhama, knowing that Krishna would appear there in Kaliyuga

as Shri Gauranga. By chanting Gauranga's name, tears of love

filled their eyes and they quickly attained the darsana of Gauranga.

The Lord assured them that they would attain His service when He

would appear there. After He disappeared, Surabhi remained there

beside a banyan tree, constantly serving the lotus feet of Gauranga

by engaging in worship and bhajana.

Surya - the sun god; one of the five deities worshiped by the


Svarupa Damodara - one of the most intimate associates of Shriman

Mahaprabhu (Chaitanya-charitamrita, Antya-lila 2.105-106). His previous

name was Purusottama Acarya. After accepting sannyasa he

received the name Svarupa Damodara. He accompanied

Mahaprabhu to Puri and served Him constantly by reciting appropriate

slokas to nourish His confidential moods. He recorded

the activities of Shriman Mahaprabhu in the form of Sanskrit slokas,

which later became the basis of Chaitanya-charitamrita and other

biographical works on the life of Shri Chaitanya. In krishna-lila he is

Lalita Sakhi.

Syama - (1) a name for Shrimati Radhika, one who is absorbed in

Syama (Shri Krishna), (2) a name for the Yamuna River, (3) a short

name for Syamala, a sakhi friend of Shri Radha, (4) a form of Durga

worshiped by tantrikas.


Tala - see Sapta-tala.


Uddharana Datta - a confidential associate of Nityananda Prabhu.

He was born into a wealthy family of gold merchants in 1481 in the

town of Saptagrama. His father and mother were Shrikara Datta

and Bhadravati. His wife was Mahamaya and his son was Shrinivasa

Datta Thakura. Uddharana Datta's wife died when he was only

twenty-six. After this he abandoned his wealth and family and

wandered everywhere as a servant of Nityananda Prabhu. In krishnalila

he was the cowherd boy known as Subahu, one of the dvadasagopalas

of Vraja, the twelve intimate cowherd boyfriends of Krishna

and Baladeva, who descended with Nityananda Prabhu (Gauraganoddesa-

dipika 129).


Vamsi-vadanananda - the son of Chakauri Cattopadhyaya. At

birth, Shrila Vamsi-vadanananda Thakura was given the name

Vamsi or Vamsi dasa. He was also known as Vadana and

Vadanananda. He was born in 1494 or, according to others, in

1505, and was regarded as an incarnation of Krishna's flute. This

was later confirmed in Shri Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (179) - written

approximately 1576 - the book of Shrila Kavi Karnapura which

reveals the identities of Mahaprabhu's associates in krishna-lila.

The name Vamsi-vadana refers to Shri Krishna, the flute-player.

One who gives ananda (bliss) to Krishna by enabling Him to play

on the flute and thus attract the beloved gopis to Him is known

as Vamsi-vadanananda. Thus, although his birth name was simply

Vamsi dasa, he came to be known as Vamsi-vadanananda

Prabhu or Thakura. The names Prabhu and Thakura are titles of

respect for great personalities.

Vasudeva - the indwelling Lord of all beings, Shri Krishna who resides

everywhere and in all things. This word comes from the

verbal root vas, to reside. In another sense it means the son of

Vasudeva, derived from the Sanskrit verbal root vis to pervade;

means the all-pervading and omnipotent one.

Vishnu - the Supreme Lord of the cosmos who presides over the

material mode of goodness; the supreme amongst the five deities

worshiped by the pancopasakas.

Vishnupriya - the second wife of Shriman Mahaprabhu. Bhagavan

has three potencies known as shri, bhu, and nila. Shri Vishnupriya

Devi embodies the bhu potency. In krishna-lila she is Satyabhama

(Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 47-48). Her father was Sanatana Misra,

who was King Satrajita in krishna-lila. After Mahaprabhu accepted

sannyasa, Vishnupriya engaged constantly in chanting hari-nama.

She would set aside one grain of rice for every round of hari-nama

that she chanted. In the evening she would cook that rice and

offer it to her Deity of Shri Gauranga. She would then give half to

Saci Mata and eat the remainder.

Vishnusvami - the head acarya of the Rudra sampradaya. He established

the doctrine of suddhadvaitavada, purefied non-dualsim, in

contrast to the impure doctrine of kevaladvaitavada, the impersonal

interpretation of monism. The famous Vaishnava acarya, Shri

Vallabha, established his conclusions on the basis of the philosophical

principles laid down by Vishnusvami. Vallabhacarya is

said to be an incarnation of Vishnusvami.

Visvambhara - a name for Chaitanya Mahaprabhu which means

one who maintains and nourishes the entire universe (see


Vrnda Devi - a confidential servant of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. She

is expert in making all arrangements for Radha-Krishna's amorous

pastimes in the kunjas of Vrndavana. She is the predominating

goddess of the Vrndavana forest and her partial expansion is Tulasi-

Devi. Sometimes the name Vrnda-Devi is used simply to refer to


Vyasadeva - a great sage and empowered incarnation of the Lord.

He was also known as Badarayana, Dvaipayana, and Veda-Vyasa.

His father was Parasara and his mother was Satyavati. He was the

step-brother of Vicitravirya and Bhisma. Because of the untimely

death of Vicitravirya, Satyavati requested Vyasa to become the

husband of Vicitravirya's two childless widows. From the womb of

Ambika, Dhrtarastra was born and from the womb of Ambalika,

Pandu was born. He was also the father of Vidura by a servant girl.

In addition, by his wife Arani, Vyasadeva was the father of the

great sage Shri Sukadeva, who spoke the Bhagavata Purana to

Maharaja Pariksit. Vyasadeva compiled and arranged the Vedas,

Vedanta-sutra, the Puranas, the Mahabharata, and Shrimad-

Bhagavatam, and he also established the uttara-mimamsa system of



Yadunandana - a name for Shri Krishna meaning one who appeared in

the Yadu dynasty.

Yamalarjuna - the twin Arjuna trees. Formerly they were

Nalakuvara and Manigriva, the sons of Kuvera, the treasurer of

the devas in the heavenly planets. Once, intoxicated with sensuous

desire and accompanied by many young ladies, Nalakuvara

and Manigriva were sporting naked in the Mandakini river. The

sage Narada Muni passed by at that moment. The ladies at once

covered themselves in shame and fell at the feet of Narada to beg

his forgiveness. However, Nalakuvara and Manigriva were so intoxicated

that they took no notice of Narada. Seeing them bereft

of all sense, Narada blessed them by cursing them to take birth as

trees. Thus they were born as twin Arjuna trees in Gokula. When

Bhagavan Shri Krishna appeared in Dvapara-yuga, He delivered them

from the state of covered consciousness by touching them with

His lotus feet.