|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 38. Srngara-Rasa: Mukhya-Sambhoga & Asta-Kaliya-Lila|
C H A P T E R 3 8
Vijaya Kumara, with folded hands, inquired from his Gurudeva
about sambhoga-rasa. He replied affectionately.
Gosvami: There are two types of krishna-lila: prakata (manifest) and
aprakata (unmanifest). The states of separation (viraha) in
vipralambha-rasa that I have already described correspond to
prakata-lila. However, in aprakata Vrndavana, there is no separation
of the vraja-devis from Shri Hari, who is eternally engaged in
His variegated, blissful lila such as the rasa-lila. It is written in the
Mathura-mahatmya: "Krishna plays eternally with the gopas and gopis
there." Since the verb 'plays' (krid) is in the present tense, it is to
be understood that Krishna's lilas are eternal. Therefore, in the
aprakata-lila of Goloka or Vrndavana, there is no separation caused
by Krishna's making His residence in a distant place (dura-pravasa).
Love in union (sambhoga) exists eternally there.
The nayaka and nayikas are respectively the visaya (object) and
asraya (abode) of love, and the term sambhoga refers to the wonderful
bhava that arises from the rapture of their loving dealings -
such as seeing each other, talking together, and touching each other
- the object of which is solely to give pleasure to each other. There
are two types of sambhoga: mukhya and gauna
Vijaya: What is mukhya-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Mukhya (principal) sambhoga is the sambhoga that takes
place in the awakened state. There are four kinds of mukhya-
sambhoga: 1) sanksipta-sambhoga (brief sambhoga), which takes place
after purva-raga; 2) sankirna-sambhoga (restricted sambhoga), which
takes place after mana is pacified; 3) sampanna-sambhoga (enriched
sambhoga), which takes place after the nayaka and nayika have been
somewhat distant from each other for some time; and 4)
samrddhiman sambhoga (flourishing sambhoga), which takes place
after being separated by a long distance.
Vijaya: Please describe sanksipta-sambhoga in more detail.
Gosvami: Sanksipta-sambhoga is characterized by reverence and
shyness between nayaka and nayika. As a result, the expressions of
their mutual love - such as kissing and embracing - are brief and
Vijaya: Please explain sankirna-sambhoga.
Gosvami: In sankirna-sambhoga, the nayika's endeavors for amorous
pastimes are expressed with simultaneous feelings of pain and
pleasure. This is compared to the relish of chewing hot sugar cane;
although it is sweet, it also burns. This state results from her
remembering that the nayaka deceived her, or from seeing marks
of amorous enjoyment on the nayaka's body, or from hearing from
others about His amorous activities with other women.
Vijaya: What is sampanna-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Sampanna-sambhoga takes place when the nayaka returns
to be with the nayika after being a short distance away. There are
two types: agati and pradurbhava. Agati is the appearance of the
nayaka before the nayika during the routine of general, everyday
life; for example, the gopis have darsana of Krishna regularly in the
evening when He returns from grazing the cows. Pradurbhava refers
to Krishna's sudden appearance before the gopis when they are
extremely overwhelmed by prema. An example is Shri Krishna's sudden
appearance before the gopis when they were lamenting in separation
because He had disappeared from the rasa-lila. In pradurbhava
there is a festival of happiness arising from the fulfillment of all
one's cherished desires.
Vijaya: What is samrddhiman sambhoga?
Gosvami: It is not possible for the nayaka and nayikas to see each
other and meet together all the time, because they are subordinate
to others and are bound by social etiquette. The profuse bliss
that They experience when They meet suddenly, after being released
from the influence of external pressures, is called
samrddhiman sambhoga. There are two types of sambhoga-rasa,
namely concealed (channa), and manifest (prakasa), but there is
no need to explain them at present.
Vijaya: What is gauna-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Gauna-sambhoga refers to the particular pastimes of Shri
Krishna that are experienced during dreams. There are two kinds of
dreams: general and special. I have already described general dreams
in the context of vyabhicari-bhava. The sambhoga in special dreams
is experienced as real and supremely amazing, and it is endowed
with sthayibhavas and sancari-bhavas like those of the waking state;
in other words, it is exactly like sambhoga while one is awake.
Gauna-sambhoga has the same four divisions as mukhya-sambhoga:
1) sanksipta-sambhoga (brief sambhoga), 2) sankirna-sambhoga
(restricted sambhoga), 3) sampanna-sambhoga (enriched sambhoga),
and 4) samrddhiman sambhoga (flourishing sambhoga).
Vijaya: No factual events occur when one is dreaming, so how is
samrddhiman sambhoga at all possible in dreams?
Gosvami: The svarupa (essential nature) of a dream is the same as
that of the waking state. This is demonstrated by the example of
Usa and Aniruddha. While Usa was asleep in King Bana's inner royal
chambers at Sonitapura, she was practically experiencing the pleasure
of union with Aniruddha in her dream. At the very same time,
Aniruddha was dreaming in his sleeping chamber in Dvaraka-puri,
and was also enjoying the pleasure of vilasa with Usa. Ordinary
people of the mundane realm do not have such experiences.
We can substantiate this fact still further by the evidence of
direct perception, for there are examples of siddha-bhaktas having
supremely wonderful dreams in which they receive articles such
as ornaments which are still with them when they wake up; this
is because such dreams are themselves a reality. Similarly, Krishna
and His kantas also have unimpeded dreams in which sambhoga
actually takes place. These dreams are of two types: 1) the dream
that occurs while one is awake (jagarayamana-svapna), and 2)
the condition of wakefulness that occurs while one is dreaming
(svapnayamana-jagara). The dreams of gopis who have transcended
the fourth state, namely samadhi, and attained the fifth
state, namely prema, are not false like the dreams that are caused
by the mode of passion. Rather, the dreams of the gopis are
aprakrta, nirguna, and absolutely real. Consequently, it is perfectly
possible for samrddhiman sambhoga to take place in the
highly astonishing, aprakrta dream pastimes of Krishna and His
Vijaya: Please describe the anubhavas of sambhoga.
Gosvami: The anubhavas of sambhoga are: seeing each other
(sandarsana), talking (jalpana), touching (sparsana), blocking each
others' way in a solitary place (raha-vartma-rodhana), rasa-lila, pleasure
pastimes in Vrndavana (vrndavana-krida), playing in the
Yamuna (yamuna-jale keli), boat pastimes (nauka-vilasa), pastimes
of stealing flowers (puspa-caurya-lila), pastimes of demanding taxes
(dana-lila), hide-and-seek in the kunjas (kunje lukocuri-khela),
drinking honey wine (madhu-pana), Krishna dressing in female attire
(stri-vesa-dharana), pretending to sleep (kapata-nidra), gambling
(dyuta-krida), pulling off each others' garments (vastraakarsana),
kissing (cumbana), embracing (alingana), making nailmarks
(nakha-arpana), drinking the nectar of the lips that are like
bimba fruit (bimba-adhara-sudha-pana), and enjoying amorous
union (nidhu-vane ramana-samprayoga).
Vijaya: Prabhu, lila-vilasa is distinct from amorous union
(samprayoga). Which of these two gives more bliss?
Gosvami: There is more bliss in lila-vilasa than in samprayoga.
Vijaya: How do Shri Krishna's beloved gopis address Him in a loving
Gosvami: The sakhis address Shri Krishna with great affection as, "He
Gokulananda, He Govinda, He Gosthendra-Kula-candra (the
moon of the family of the King of cowherd men), He Pranesvara
(the Lord of my life), He Sundarottamsa (whose chest and shoulders
are very beautiful), He Nagara Siromani (O crest jewel of lovers),
He Vrndavana-candra, He Gokula-raja, and He Manohara (O
thief of my mind)."
Vijaya: Prabhu, I understand that there are two types of krishnalila,
namely prakata (manifest) and aprakata (unmanifest), but that
they are still one and the same tattva. Now, please explain to me
the types of prakata-vraja-lila.
Gosvami: There are two types of prakata-vraja-lila: nitya (eternal)
and naimittika (occasional). The Vraja pastimes that take place
during the eight periods of the day and night (asta-kaliya-lila) are
actually nitya-lila, whereas Krishna's killing Putana, and His long
sojourn away from Vraja in Mathura and Dvaraka, are naimittikalilas.
Vijaya: Prabhu, please instruct me about the nitya-lila.
Gosvami: We find two types of descriptions: one by the rsis and
the other by the Gosvamis of Vrndavana. Which of these would
you like to hear?
Vijaya: I would like to hear the description in the slokas that the
rsis have composed.
nisantah pratah purvahno madhyahas caparahnakah
sayam pradoso-ratris ca kalastau ca yatha-kramam
madhyahno yamini cobhau yan muhurttam ito smrtau
tri-muhurttam ita jneya nisanta-pramukhah pare
The asta-kaliya-lila of Vraja takes place during eight periods
of the day and night. These are 1) nisanta (the end of
the night just before dawn), 2) pratah (morning), 3) purvahna
(forenoon), 4) madhyahna (noon), 5) aparahna (afternoon),
6) sayam (late afternoon and dusk), 7) pradosa (evening),
and 8) ratri (night). The ratri-lila and madhyahna-lilas both
last for six muhurtas, while the other six periods each last
for three muhurtas.
Shri Sadasiva has explained this asta-kaliya-lila in Sanat-kumarasamhita.
He has specified which services are to be rendered at
particular times of the day, in accordance with the asta-kaliya-lila.
Thus, one should remember the appropriate lila at the appropriate
Vijaya: Prabhu, may I please hear the statements of Jagad-guru
Gosvami: Listen carefully:
parakiyabhimaninyas / tathasya ca priyah janah
pracurenaiva bhavena / ramayanti nija-priyam
Sadasiva said, "Shri Hari's beloved damsels in Vraja, who have
the sentiments of parakiya-bhava towards Him, please the
darling of their hearts with profuse moods of divya-prema.
atmanam cintayet tatra / tasam madhye manoramam
rupa-yauvana-sampannam / kisorim pramadakrtim
He Narada! You should contemplate your atma-svarupa in
the following manner. You are a kisori (pre-adolescent) gopi
and you reside in the very heart of transcendental
Vrndavana, amidst the beloved damsels of Krishna, who are
endowed with paramour sentiment for Him. You have a
charming youthful form, and enchanting, intoxicating
nana-silpa-kalabhijnam / krishna-bhoganurupinim
prarthitam api krsnena / tato bhoga-paran-mukhim
You are accomplished in many fine arts for Shri Krishna's pleasure.
Yet even if Krishna earnestly requests to meet with you,
you are ever averse to pleasure unrelated to the pleasure of
radhikanucarim nityam / tat-sevana-parayanam
krishnad 'apy adhikam prema / radhikayam prakurvatim
You are the maidservant of Shri Krishna's most beloved
consort Shrimati Radhika, and are wholly and exclusively
dedicated to Her seva. You always have more prema for Shri
Radhika than for Shri Krishna.
prityanudivasam yatnat / tayoh sangama-karinim
Everyday with much endeavor you arrange for the youthful
couple's meeting, and remain forever content with the
ecstatic bliss of Their service.
ity atmanam vicintyaiva / tatra sevam samacaret
brahma-muhurttam arabhya / yavat tu syan mahanisi
Thus, while conceiving of your atma-svarupa in this
particular way, you should painstakingly render manasi seva
in transcendental Vrndavana from brahma-muhurta to the
end of nisanta-lila (pastimes at night's end)."
Vijaya: What are the activities of nisanta-lila?
shri vrnda uvaca
madhye vrndavane ramye / pancasat-kunja-mandite
kalpa-vrksa-nikunjesu / divya-ratnamaye grhe
Shri Vrnda-devi said, "In the midst of enchanting
Vrndavana, surrounded by fifty kunjas of desire trees, lies a
bower-cottage of cintamani gems.
nidritau tisthitas talpe / nividalingitau mithah
mad-ajna-karibhih pascat / paksibhir bodhitav api
There on a bed of fragrant flowers, yugala-kisora Vrsabhanudulali
Shrimati Radharani and Vrajendra-nandana
Syamasundara Shri Krishna lie asleep in a firm embrace. Then
according to my instructions, the birds attempt to awaken
Them by a rousing chorus of melodious warbling songs.
gadhalingana-nirbhedam / aptau tad-bhanga-katarau
no matim kurvatas talpat / samutthatum manag api
However, the two lovers have become so intrinsically,
unbreakably one through Their deep embrace that even
the thought of breaking up evokes alarm. Indeed, They are
unable in the slightest to fix their minds on rising.
tatas ca sarika-sabdaih / suka-sabdais ca tau muhuh
bodhitau vividhair vakyaih / sva-talpad udatisthatam
However, by the repeated and ingenious urgings of the suka
and sarika (male and female parrots), They at last awaken
and rise from Their bed.
upavistau tato drstva / sakhyas talpe mudanvitau
pravisya kurvanti sevam / tat-kalasyocitam tayoh
Seeing Radha-Krishna sitting blissfully on the bed, the sakhis
happily approach Them and render the various services
required at that time.
punas ca sarika-vakyair / utthaya tau sva-talpatah
agatau sva-sva-bhavanam / bhity-utkanthakulau mithah
But just thereafter, through further prompting from the
sarika, the Divine Couple inevitably arise from that bed and
rush to Their respective homes, full of anxiety provoked
by the transcendental rasas of fear and restlessness."
Vijaya: What are the pratah kaliya-lila (morning pastimes)?
pratas ca bodhito matra/ talpad utthaya sa-tvarah
krtva krsno danta-kastham / baladeva-samanvitah
In the morning, Yasoda Maiya calls Krishna, who then gets
up from His bed and brushes His teeth with a twig in the
company of Shri Baladeva.
matranumodito yati / gosalam dohanotsukah
radha 'pi bodhita vipra / vayasyabhih sva-talpatah
Then with her permission, They go to the cowshed, eager
to milk Their cows. O sage, Shri Radha also leaves Her bed
in the morning, awakened by Her sakhis.
utthaya danta-kasthadi / krtva 'bhyangam samacaret
snana-vedim tato gatva / snapita lalitadibhih
After She has brushed Her pearl-like teeth with an
astringent twig, Her sakhis massage Her body with aromatic
oils. After that, She enters the bathing chamber and sits
upon an elevated asana while Lalita and the other principal
sakhis perform abhiseka of Her Divine Form.
bhusa-grham vrajet tatra / vayasya bhusayanty api
bhusanair vividhair divyair / gandha-malyanulepanaih
Next, She enters the ornament palace. There, Her sakhis
apply divine creams and scents, decorate Her with various
divine garments and ornaments, adorn Her with pleasing,
fragrant garlands and cool Her brow with the pulp of sandal.
tatas ca sva-janais tasyah / susrusam prapya yatnatah
paktum ahuyate sv-annam / sa-sakhi sa yasodaya
When Shrimati Radhika has thus received complete and attentive
service from Her sakhis, by Yasoda Maiya's request
She departs for Nanda-bhavan to cook delicious food for
Hearing this, Narada asked:
katham ahuyate devi / pakartham sa yasodaya
satisu pakatrisu ca / rohini-pramukhasv api
"He Devi. There are many expert cooks headed by Rohini
Maiya; why then does Mother Yasoda invite Radharani to
cook in Nanda-bhavan?"
durvasasa svayam datto / varas tasyai muda mune
iti katyayani-vaktrat / srutam asin maya pura
Shri Vrnda-devi said, "O Narada, I formerly heard from
Bhagavati Katyayani that Durvasa Muni bestowed the
following boon upon Shrimati Radhika:
tvaya yat pacyate devi / tad-annam mad-anugrahat
mistam svadv-amrta-sparddhim bhoktrr ayuskaram tatha
'He Devi! By my mercy, whatever food You cook will rival
the nectar of the gods. Furthermore it will bless the eater
with great longevity.'
ity ahvayati tam nityam / yasoda putra-vatsala
ayusman me bhavet putrah / svadu-lobhat tatha sati
Thus putra-vatsala Yasoda, praying, 'Let my son be longlived!'
daily invites Shrimati Radhika to Nanda-bhavan to
cook. She also has an intense greed to taste that delectable
svasranumodita sapi / hrsta nandalayam vrajet
sva-sakhi-prakara tatra / gatva pakam karoti ca
Taking permission from Her mother-in-law, Shrimati
Radhika blissfully comes to the home of Nanda
accompanied by Her sakhis to prepare the kitchen.
krsno'pi dugdhva gah kascit / dohayitva janaih paraih
agacchati pitur vakyat / sva-grham sakhibhir vrtah
"Meanwhile, Shri Krishna milks a few cows Himself and then,
on His father's order, He engages others to milk the
remaining cows and returns home with His friends.
abhyanga-mardanam krtva / dasaih samsnapito muda
dhauta-vastra-dharah sragvi / candanakta-kalevarah
Arriving home, His servants gleefully massage His divine
body with oil and bathe Him. Then they dress Him with
fresh clothes, smear His body beautifully with sandal paste,
and decorate Him with fragrant garlands.
dvi-vastra-baddha-kesas ca / grivabhalo-parisphuran
candrakara-sphurad-bhalas / tilakaloka-ranjitah
Krishna wears two garments. One covers His lower body and
one His chest. Cascading around His graceful neck and
forehead, His charming, curly hair brilliantly expands His
unprecedented, sweet beauty. On His effulgent forehead,
which resembles the half-moon, His servants draw a
charming tilaka sign which delights the eyes of all.
kankanangada-keyura / ratna-mudra-lasat-karah
muktahara-sphurad-vakso / makarakrti-kundalah
On His wrists, Shri Krishna wears bejeweled bracelets, and on
His arms, precious jeweled bangles. On His hands, signet
rings shine. On His chest, a pearl necklace glistens, and
dazzling makara-shaped sapphire earrings swing from His
muhur akarito matra / pravised bhojanalayam
avalambya karam sakhyur / baladevam anuvratah
After this, Shri Krishna hears Yasomati repeatedly calling Him.
So, surrounded by His sakhas and holding one of them by
the hand, He follows His elder brother Baladeva to the
bhojanalaya (dining hall).
bhunkte 'pi vividhannani / matra ca sakhibhir vrtah
hasayan vividhair hasyaih / sakhims tair hasati svayam
There, in His sakhas' company, He relishes all the preparations
prepared by Radhika and Her sakhis. Making many jokes,
He makes His friends laugh, and He also laughs with them.
ittham bhuktva tathacamya / divya-khattopari ksanam
visramet sevakair dattam / tambulam vibhajann adan
When He has finished His meal, He takes acamana
(mouthwash) and His servants offer Him tambula, which
He distributes among His sakhas. Thereafter, He rests on a
transcendental bed for some time and chews the tambula."
Vijaya: Please describe the purvahna-lila (forenoon pastimes).
gopa-vesa-dharah krsno / dhenu-vrnda-purahsarah
vrajavasi-janaih pritya / sarvair anugatah pathi
"Shri Krishna, attired in gopa-vesa, then leaves the village with
the cows for cow-grazing. At that time, all the vraja-vasis
follow Him some distance from the village, drawn by their
intense love and affection for Him.
pitaram mataram natva / netrantena priya-ganam
yatha-yogyam tatha canyan / sa nivarttya vanam vrajet
Speaking respectfully, Shri Krishna offers pranama to His father
and mother. At the same time, through the corner of His
eyes He glances meaningfully at His beloved gopis and thrills
their hearts. Then after paying due respect to those who
have followed Him, Vamsidhari Syama proceeds with His
sakhas towards the pastures.
vanam pravisya sakhibhih / kridayitva ksanam tatah
viharair vividhais tatra / vane vikridato muda
Having entered the forest, for some time He creates many
kinds of games and gleefully sports with His sakhas.
vancayitva ca tan sarvan / dvitraih priya-sakhair vrtah
sanketakam vrajed dharsat / priya-sandarsanotsakah
Then, cleverly engaging them in activities such as pasturing
the cows, He tricks them and leaves them all aside. He then
proceeds jubilantly with two or three priya-sakhas towards
the rendezvous (sanketa) with His beloved gopis eager to see
Vijaya: Please describe the madhyahna-lila (mid-day pastimes).
sapi krsne vanam yantam / drstva sva-grham agata
suryadi-puja-vyajena / kusumadyahrti-cchalat
"After watching Shri Krishna leave for the forest, His most
beloved consort Shrimati Radhika returns to Her home.
Then, on the pretext of performing Surya-puja or collecting
vancayitva gurun yati / priya-sangecchaya vanam
ittham tau bahu-yatnena / militva sva-ganais tatah
...She tricks Her elders in order to have sanga with Her
priyatama Syama. Accompanied by Her sakhis, She goes to
the same forest to meet Him. Thus after much endeavor,
Radha and Krishna meet again...
viharair vividhais tatra / vane vikridito muda
hindolika samarudhau / sakhibhir dolitau kvacit
...and blissfully enact various sportive paramananda-lila
together in the forest. At times, Radha and Krishna sit on a
swing and are swung by Their sakhis.
kvacid venum kara-srastam / priyayapahrtam harih
anvesayann upalabdho / vipralabdho priya-ganaih
Sometimes (while feeling slightly drowsy) Shri Hari's venu
slips from His fingers and is stolen by His priya Shri Radha.
Despite restlessly searching on all sides for it, He finally
becomes disappointed and gives up hope. At that point the
beloved gopis offer the venu into His lotus hands,
hasito bahudha tabhir / hasitas tatra tisthati
vasanta-rtuna justam / vanam khandam kvacin muda
laughing and making witty remarks. At that time Krishna
looks splendid as He delights the gopis by teasing them,
joking and countering their impudent remarks. Sometimes,
Shrimati Radhika and Shri Krishna enter a particular section
of the forest that is attended by the spring season
pravisya candanambhobhih / kunkumadi-jalair api
nisincato yantra-muktais / tat-pankair limpato mithah
There, They use silver syringes filled with colored water
mixed with fragrant substances, such as kunkuma and
candana, to drench each other; and at other times, They
smear the paste of candana, kunkuma and so on over each
sakhyo'py evam visincanti / tas ca tau sincatah punah
vasanta-vayu-justesu / vana-khandesu sarvatah
In the beauty and splendor of that forest, which is served
on all sides by soothing spring breezes, the sakhis also join
in Their transcendental sports by assisting Them to bathe
one another with that fragrant water...
tat-tat-kalocitair nana-viharaih sa-ganair dvija
srantau kvacid vrksa-mulam / asadya muni-sattama
O best of the munis, Shrimati Radha and Krishna and their
confidential sakhas and sakhis perform various blissful sports
appropriate for that time. Feeling fatigued from performing
Their pastimes in this lively way, They sit beneath a tree…
upavisyasane divye / madhu-panam pracakratuh
tato madhu-madonmattau / nidraya militeksanau
...on a divine throne and enjoy drinking nectarean honeywine
(madhu). Becoming intoxicated by that madhu, They
close Their eyes in sleep for some time.
mithah pani-samalambya / kama-bana-prasangatau
riramsur visatah kunje / skhalat-padabjakau pathi
Holding each other's hands Radha-Syama become pierced
by the arrows of Kamadeva, and desiring to enjoy with one
another, Their lotus feet stumble from the path and They
enter the kunja.
kridatas ca tatas tatra / karini-yuthapau yatha
sakhyo'pi madhubhir matta / nidraya piditeksanau
Thereafter, Shrimati Radhika and Syamasundara freely
consort with each other in the kunja, like the king of
elephants and his mate. The sakhis, who are also intoxicated
with madhu, proceed drowsily...
abhito manju-kunjesu / sarva evapi sisyire
prthag ekena vapusa / krsno'pi yugapad vibhuh
...to various charming kunjas nearby. By the influence of
His inconceivable potency, Shri Krishna manifests Himself in
many forms, and simultaneously meets individually with
sarvasam sannidhim gacchet / priyaya prerito muhuh
ramayitva ca tah sarvah / karinir gaja-rad iva
Just as an elephant infatuated by lust does not feel tired
when he unites with a number of she-elephants, at the
same time that He is giving further and futher inspiration
to Shri Radha, Shri Krishna consorts with many beloved
priyaya ca tatha tabhih / kridarthan ca saro vrajet
After such amorous sports with Shrimati Radhika and Her
confidential sakhis, They enter a lake for water sports."
vrnde shri-nanda putrasya / madhurya-kridane katham
aisvaryasya prakaso'bhut / iti me chindi samsayam
Shri Narada said, "O Vrnda, how is it possible for the aisvarya
feature to manifest in the madhurya of Shri Nandanandana's
pastimes? Please dispel this doubt."
mune madhuryam apy asti / lila-saktih hares tu sa
taya prthak kridam gopa-gopikabhih samam harih
Shri Vrnda-devi said, "O Muni, Shri Hari's madhurya is
actually His lila-sakti. With this sakti He performs His most
attractive and sweet pastimes. It is only through this
madhurya-lila-sakti that He sports at the same time with each
gopa and gopi,...
radhaya saha rupena / nijena ramate svayam
iti madhurya-lilayah / saktir na tv isata hareh
but in His own original form He sports with Shri Radha. This
is Shri Krishna's madhurya-sakti, not His aisvarya-sakti.
jala-sekair mithas tatra / kriditva sva-ganais tatah
vasah srak-candanair divyair / bhusanair api bhusitau
"After entering within the lake, Radha-Krishna and Their
sakhis begin Their play by splashing water at each other, and
then bathing each other. After that, They are decorated with
beautiful garments, fragrant garlands, candana and divine
tatraiva sarasas tire / divya-manimaye grhe
asnatah phala-mulani / kalpitani mayaiva hi
Then, within a divine bower of jewels situated on the shore
of that lake, I offer them a repast of fruits and herbal drinks
that I have prepared myself.
haris tu prathamam bhuktva / kantaya parisevitah
dvitrabhih sevito gacchec / chayyam puspa-vinirmitam
Shrimati Radhika personally serves Shri Krishna as He honors
the festive foods first. He then rests on a bed of flowers. At
that time, two or three sakhis attend Him…
tambulair vyajanais tatra / pada-samvahanadibhih
sevyamano hasams tabhir / modate preyasim smaran
...by supplying Him with betel nuts (tambula), fanning Him,
massaging His feet, and so on. As the sakhis serve Shri Krishna,
He falls asleep smiling, absorbed in thoughts of His beloved
shri-radhapi harau supte / sa-sakhi moditantara
kanta-dattam prita-mana / ucchistam bubhuje tatah
While Shri Krishna rests, Radhika and Her sakhis with great
love and delight relish the remnants of food and drink left
by Her lover.
kincid eva tato bhuktva / vrajet sayya-niketanam
drastum kanta-mukhambhojam / cakoriva nisa-karam
"After Shri Radhika has accepted a little of Krishna's remnants,
She goes to the bedroom and gazes upon the lotus face of
Her Prana-vallabha, Shri Krishna, just like the cakori bird looks
at the moon.
tambula-carvitam tasya / tatratyabhir niveditam
tambulany api casnati / vibhajanti priyalisu
The sakhis there offer Her the tambula chewed by Shri
Syamasundara. She also chews the remnants, after dividing
it among Her sakhis.
krsno'pi tasam susrusuh / svacchanda-bhasitam mithah
prapta-nidra ivabhati / vinidro'pi patavrtah
Shri Krishna is eager to hear the sweet, uninhibited talks
between Shri Radhika and Her sakhis, so He has covered His
whole body with cloth and pretends to be deeply asleep,
although He is fully awake.
tas ca keli-ksanam krtva / mithah kanta-kathasrayah
vyaja-nidram harer jnatva / kutascid anumanatah
The sakhis think that Krishna is asleep and freely make witty
remarks, laughing and cutting jokes with each other. Soon
afterwards, however, they guess that He was only
pretending to be asleep, and that He has cleverly heard
everything that they said.
vyudasya rasanam dadbhih / pasyantyo'nyonya-mananam
lina iva lajjaya syuh / ksanam ucur na kincana
Feeling ashamed, they press their tongues between their
teeth, and immersed in shyness, they look at each other's
faces in awe, unable to speak.
ksanad eva tato vastram / durikrtya tad-angatah
sadhu-nidram gato'siti / hasayanti hasanti tah
However, they very soon recover their natural state; throwing
the cloth from Krishna's body, they say, 'What a sound
sleep You are having!' This amuses Krishna, and they all laugh
evam tau vividhair hasyai / ramamanau ganaih saha
anubhuyah ksanam nidram / sukhan ca muni-sattama
"O best of the munis, in this way Radha, Krishna and the sakhis
perform a variety of playful pastimes which are full of witty
jokes and laughter, and then They enjoy blissful sleep for
upavisyasane divye / sa-ganau vistrte muda
panikrtya mitho haram / cumbaslesa-paricchadan
Thereafter, in great delight, they all sit on a divine,
capacious raised seat. Then, wagering necklaces, garments,
kisses or embraces,...
aksair vikridatah premna / narmalapa-purahsaram
parajito'pi priyaya / jitam ity vadan mrsa
...with bhavas of prema they jestingly gamble with dice.
Even though Krishna is defeated, He falsely claims that He
haradi-grahane tasyah / pravrttas tadyate taya
tathaivam taditah krishnah/ karotpala-saroruhaih
Thus He approaches to take away Radhika's necklace, but
She slaps Him. Being thus slapped by Her lotus hands,...
visanna-manaso bhutva / gantum ca kurute matim
jito'smi cet tvaya devi / grhyatam mat-panikrtam
Krishna becomes morose. Pretending that He is about to leave
the place, He says 'O Devi, I have been defeated by You.
Here, take my wager.
cumbanadi maya dattam / ity uktva ca tathacaret
kautilyam tad-bhruvor drastum / srotum tad-bhartsanam vacah
These are the kisses and other things that I staked before.'
So saying, Shri Krishna awards Shrimati Radhika Her kisses and
so on. Being eager to witness Shri Radha's crooked eyebrows
and hear Her words of chastisement to Shri Syama…
tatah sari-sukanan ca / srutva bagaharam mithah
nirgacchatas tatah sthanad / gantu-kamau grham prati
...the suka and sari birds come and begin a dispute about
the respective virtues of Radha and Krishna. After hearing
that dispute between the suka and sari, Shri Shri Radha and
Krishna depart for Their respective destinations.
krishnah kantam anujnapya / gavam abhimukham vrajet
sa tu surya-grham gacchet / sakhi-mandala-samvrta
Shri Krishna takes leave of His Prana-vallabha Shrimati Radhika,
and goes to rejoin the cows, while Shrimati Radhika goes with
Her sakhis to Surya Mandira to perform Surya-puja.
kiyad duram tato gatva / paravrtya harih punah
vipra-vesam samasthaya / yati surya-grham prati
Meanwhile, after Shri Krishna has gone a short distance, He
disguises Himself as a brahmana priest, and also sets off for
suryan ca pujayet tatra / prarthitas tat-sakhi-janaih
tadaiva kalpitair vedaih / parihasa-visaradaih
Shrimati Radhika's sakhis think that He is a pujari who will
help them to conduct their worship, and they request Him
to perform Surya-puja on their behalf. Thereupon, Shri Krishna
begins to perform Surya-puja with funny, concocted Vedic
tatas ta vyathitam kantam / parijnaya vicaksanah
ananda-sagare lina / na viduh svam na caparam
When the intelligent sakhis hear these made-up Vedic
mantras, they immediately understand that this priest is
none other than their lover Shri Krishna Himself, who is distressed
in separation from Shri Radhika. Knowing this,
drowning in the ocean of the bliss of prema, they forget their
own identity and that of others.
viharair vividhair evam / sarddhayam advayam mune
nitva grham vrajeyus tah / sa ca krsno gavam vrajet
(O Muni), when They have spent two and a half praharas
performing a variety of pastimes like this, Shrimati Radhika
and Her sakhis return to their respective homes, while Krishna
proceeds to His cows."
Vijaya: What are the aparahna-lila (afternoon pastimes)?
sangamya sva-sakhin krsno / grhitva gah samantatah
agacchati vrajam karsan / tatratyan murali-ravaih
Shri Vrnda-devi continues, "O Narada, Krishna rejoins His
sakhas and returns to Vraja. By the sweet sound of His murali,
He assembles all the cows from every direction and steals
away the hearts of the vraja-vasis.
tato nandadayah sarve / srutva venu-ravam hareh
go-dhuli-patala-vyaptam / drstva vapi nabha-sthalam
krishnasyabhimukham yanti / tad-darsana-samutsukah
When Nanda and the other vraja-vasis hear the sweet sound
of Shri Hari's venu and see the sky being covered with the
dust raised by the cows' hooves, they become very eager to
see Him and immediately proceed in that direction.
radhikapi samagatya / grhe snatva vibhusita
sampadya kanta-bhogartham / bhaksyani vividhani ca
sakhi-sangha-yuta yati / kantam drastum samutsukah
After returning to Her home, and being bathed, dressed and
ornamented by Her sakhis, Shrimati Radhika prepares various
types of foods for Her Prana-vallabha Shri Krishna and anxiously
leaves with Her sakhis to take His darsana.
raja-marge vraja-dvari / yatra sarva-vrajaukasah
krsno'pi tan samagamya / yathavad anupurvasah
When Krishna returns to the outskirts of Vraja on the way
from go-carana, all of the vraja-vasis gather on both sides of
the royal path. Shri Krishna greets everyone, and offers respect
according to age, qualities and so forth.
darsanaih sparsanair vaca / smita-purvavalokanaih
gopa-vrddhan namaskaraih / kayikair vacikair api
Some He favors by looking on them, some by embracing,
some by sweet words, and some by jubilant, sweet, smiling
glances overflowing with prema.
sastanga-pataih pitarau / rohinim api narada
netranta-sucitenaiva / vinayena priyam tatha
He Narada! Shri Krishna offers respectful namaskara both by
bodily gestures and by respectful words to all the elderly
gopas. Falling down, He offers sastanga-dandavat to the feet
of Maharaja Nanda, Yasoda Maiya, and Rohini Maiya, and
gives special delight to His beloved gopis with His krpakataksa
(merciful sweet sidelong glances).
evam tais ca yatha-yogyam / vrajaukobhih prapujitah
gavalayam tatha gas ca / sampravisya samantatah
In return, the various vraja-vasis offer Him blessings,
exchange sweet words, worship Him and so on. He then
carefully herds the cows into the go-sala.
pitrbhyam arthito yati / bhratra saha nijalayam
snatva bhuktva kincid atra / pitra matranumoditah
gavalayam punar yati / dogdhu-kamo gavam payah
Afterwards at the request of Their parents, Shri Krishna and
Dauji go to Their rooms and bathe and take a little prasada.
Then after requesting their parents' blessings, the two
divine brothers again proceed eagerly towards the go-sala
to milk the cows."
Vijaya: What are the sayam-lila (pastimes during dusk and early
tas ca dugdhva punah krishnah / dohayitva ca kascana
pitra sarddham grham yati / payo-bhara-satanugah
"Then Shri Krishna milks some of the cows Himself and
engages others in milking the rest. When this is done, He
returns to His house with His father, followed by hundreds
of servants carrying pots of milk.
tatrapi matr-vrndais ca / tat-putrais ca balena ca
sambhukte vividhannani / carvya-cosyadikani ca
Arriving home, He sits beside Nanda Maharaja, His uncles,
His cousins, Balarama and the sakhas while Yasoda, Rohini,
and other elderly gopis serve Them, and He relishes varieties
of food preparations that are chewed, sucked, licked and
Vijaya: Please tell me about the pradosa-lila (pastimes of the first
part of the night).
tan-matuh prarthanat purvam / radhayapi tadaiva hi
prasthapyante sakhi-dvara / pakvannani tadalayam
"In great excitement, Shrimati Radhika cooks varieties of
food preparations and sends them by Her sakhis to Krishna in
Nanda-bhavan, even before Her mother-in-law orders Her
to do so.
slaghayams ca haris tani / bhuktva pitradibhih saha
sabha-grham vrajet tais ca / justam bandhu-janadibhih
pakvannani grhitva tah / sakhyas tatra samagatah
bahuny eva punas tani / pradattani yasodaya
Along with His father and the sakhas, Shri Krishna repeatedly
relishes and praises the varieties of preparations sent by
Shri Radha, as well as many others given by Yasoda Maiya.
Then Krishna goes with His father, friends and relatives to
the assembly hall where singers and dancers entertain them
with sweet songs and dances.
sakhya tatra taya dattam / krsnocchistam tatha rahah
sarvam tabhih samaniya / radhikayai nivedyate
Meanwhile, the sakhis take Krishna's remnants and offer them
to Radhika in a secret place. Shrimati Radhika distributes them
amongst the sakhis in order of seniority (and deeply absorbed
in thoughts of Him She honors them with great delight).
sapi bhuktva sakhi-varga yuta tad-anupurvasah
sakhibhir mandita tisthet / abhisarttum samudyata
After enjoying those remnants, Her sakhis decorate Her very
charmingly, and She is then ready to go on abhisara (meeting
with Her priyatama Syama!)."
Vijaya: Prabhu, I am becoming very eager to hear about ratri-lila
(the night pastimes).
prasthapyate maya kacid / ata eva tatah sakhi
tathabhisaritabhis ca / yamunayah samipatah
kalpa-vrkse nikunje'smin / divya-ratnamaye grhe
sita-krishna-nisayogya / vesayitva sakhi-yuta
Shri Vrnda-devi said, "I send a certain sakhi from here to
Shrimati Radhika, who accompanied by Her sakhis then
comes to a divine, bejeweled bower inside the nikunja. It is
situated on the banks of Yamuna, densely covered by kalpa
vrksa trees. According to the messenger sakhi's indication,
Shrimati Radhika dresses in clothes that suit the brightness
of the moon. During the dark fortnight (krishna-paksa), She
dresses in dark clothes, while in the bright fortnight (suklapaksa),
She wears light or white clothes.
krsno'pi vividhas tatra / drstva kautuhalam tatah
katyayanya manojnani / srutvapi gitakany api
Meanwhile, Krishna sits in His father's assembly hall,
watching various types of wonderful shows and listening
to katyayani-sangita songs that captivate the mind.
dhana-dhanyadibhis tams ca / prinayitva vidhanatah
janair aradhito matra / yati sayya-niketanam
After that, He suitably rewards and satisfies the performers
with wealth or grains, accepts worship from Nanda
Maharaja's subjects, and proceeds with His mother towards
matari prasthitayan tu / bahir gatva tato grhat
sanketitam kantayatra / samagacched alaksitah
After Yasoda Maiya has put Krishna to sleep, she leaves His
room and goes to rest in her own room. Thereupon, Krishna,
who was only pretending to be asleep, silently leaves His
room, taking care not to be noticed by anyone,
militva tav ubhav atra / kridato vana-rajisu
viharair vividhai rasa-lasya-gita-purahsaraih
He goes to join His consort at the assigned meeting (sanketa)
place. There, They perform various pastimes headed by
singing and rasa dancing together in the forest with Their
sarddham yama-dvayam nitva / ratrav eva vidhanatah
visve susupatuh kunje / paksibhis tav alaksitau
"After spending almost two and a half praharas of the night
and performing various other pastimes of the rasa-lila, (such
as bathing in Yamuna), the two Moieties enter Their kunja
unnoticed by the sleeping birds.
ekante kusumaih klipte / keli-talpe manohare
suptavatisthatam tatra / sevyamanau nijalibhih
In that solitary kunja, Radha and Krishna lie down on a sublime
bed of flowers, just suitable for Their mind-captivating,
amorous pastimes. Then they rest while Their most
confidential sakhis render appropriate services."
Vijaya, this is the most celebrated Shri Krishna's asta-kaliya-lila, in
which the ingredients of all types of rasa are present. The various
types of rasas that I have discussed with you previously are all
present in this lila. You should keep rendering your service at your
assigned place, at the appointed time, in your appointed group,
and with your specific relationship.
When Vijaya Kumara had heard all these descriptions from Shri
Guru Gosvami's lotus mouth, he became overwhelmed with bhava.
Tears of prema rolled down his cheeks, and the hairs on his body
stood on end. He spoke a few words in a faltering voice, and then
fell unconscious at Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami's lotus feet. Sometime
later, when he regained consciousness, Shri Gopala Guru
Gosvami embraced him with great affection, and stroked his head.
Streams of tears also fell from Shri Guru Gosvami's eyes.
Eventually, realizing that it was very late at night, Vijaya Kumara
offered dandavat-pranama at Shri Guru Gosvami's lotus feet, composed
himself, and walked slowly to his place. Now rasa-katha began
to appear in his heart day and night.
THUS ENDS THE THIRTY-EIGHTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
"SRNGARA-RASA: MUKHYA-SAMBHOGA & ASTA-KALIYA-LILA"