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C H A P T E R 3 3
Madhurya-Rasa: Shri Radha's Svarupa,
Five Types of Sakhis, & Messengers
One day, Vijaya Kumara and Vrajanatha took bath in
Indradyumna Sarovara, and upon returning to their residence,
they honored prasada together. Vrajanatha then set off to
have darsana of Shri Haridasa Thakura's samadhi, while Vijaya
Kumara came before the lotus feet of his Gurudeva at Shri Radha-
Kanta Matha. When he saw that the time was appropriate, he posed
some questions about Shrimati Radhika: "Prabhu, Shri Vrsabhanunandini
is our be-all and end-all and our very life's breath. I cannot
express it. I do not know why my heart melts when I just hear
the name of Shri Radhika. Although Shri Krishna is our only refuge,
still I only like to taste the playful pastimes that He performs with
Shri Radhika. My mind does not want to hear any krishna-katha that
does not mention Shrimati Radhika's name or discuss Her pastimes.
What can I say? Now I am not at all pleased to introduce myself as
Vijaya Kumara Bhattacarya. I am overjoyed to call myself Shri
Radhika's palya-dasi. Another surprising thing is that I have no
desire to speak vraja-lila-katha to those who are krishna-bahirmukha
(reluctant to serve Krishna). I want to get up and flee from any assembly
where those who are not rasika describe the glories of Shri
Gosvami: You are fortunate! As long as one does not have complete
conviction in being a vraja-ramani, he is not qualified to enter
into the descriptions of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna's lila-vilasa. What to
speak of those in male forms, even a devi has no eligibility for Radha-
I have already discussed Krishna's beloved consorts with you.
Radha and Candravali are the foremost amongst them, and they
both have millions of yuthas of fresh adolescent gopis. At the time
of the maha-rasa hundreds of millions of charming young gopis took
part in the rasa-mandala and expanded its beauty.
Vijaya: Prabhu, let Candravali have her millions of yuthas, but
please show mercy to me and tell me about Shrimati Radhika's glories,
so that my contaminated ears may be purified and filled with
rasa. I have taken full shelter of you.
Gosvami: Aha Vijaya, of Radha and Candravali, Shri Radhaji is
mahabhava-svarupa (the complete embodiment of the highest love),
and She therefore excels Candravali in all qualities, and in all
matters. Look, in the Tapani sruti, She has been called Gandharva.
In the Rk-parisista (supplement to the Rg Veda), there is a description
of the immense brilliance of Madhava when He is with Radha.
In the Padma Purana, Naradaji has also said, "Just as Shrimati
Radhika is the most beloved of Krishna, similarly Her kunda is also
equally dear to Him. Of all the gopis, Shri Radharani is the most
dear to Krishna." What an unprecedented and astonishing tattva this
radha-tattva is! Among all the various saktis of Bhagavan, the
supermost maha-sakti is called hladini. Radhika is mahabhavasvarupa,
the embodiment of the condensed essence of that hladini.
Vijaya: What an exceptional tattva! Now please describe Shri
Gosvami: In all respects Shrimati Radha is the most beautiful of all
Shri Krishna's beloved consorts (susthu-kanta-svarupa), and She is
adorned with sixteen srngara (decorations) and twelve abharana
Vijaya: What is the meaning of susthu-kanta-svarupa?
Gosvami: Shri Radha's svarupa is so beautiful that there is no necessity
of decorative embellishments. Her unparalleled loveliness
is expanded by Her hair, which is a mass of elegant curls, by Her
lotus face, by Her large, restless eyes, and by Her beautiful breasts.
The extraordinary beauty of Her svarupa is increased many times
over by Her slender waist, by Her two exquisite shoulders that are
slightly lowered, and by Her flower-bud hands, which are embellished
by the jewels of Her finger nails. There is no comparison to
Her beauty in all the three worlds.
Vijaya: What are the sixteen srngaras?
Gosvami: Her sixteen srngaras are Her bath, the radiance of the
jewel decorating the tip of Her nose, Her blue garments, the belt
about Her waist, Her braid, Her earrings, the sandalwood paste
smeared on Her limbs, the arrangement of flowers in Her hair, Her
garland, the lila-kamala (play-lotus) in Her hand, the tambula in
Her mouth, the dot of kasturi on Her chin, the kajala around Her
eyes, the pictures drawn in mrgamada (musk) on Her rosy cheeks,
the red lac on Her feet, and the tilaka on Her forehead. Shrimati
Radhika is always beautified by these types of decoration.
Vijaya: What are the twelve abharanas?
Gosvami: The twelve abharanas that decorate Shri Radha's limbs
are the exceptionally brilliant jewelled tiara upon Her head, Her
golden earrings, the golden belt upon Her hips, the golden necklace,
the valli and golden salaka on Her ears, the bracelets on Her
wrists, the ornament on Her neck, the rings on Her fingers, Her
pearl necklace, Her armlets, the jewelled ankle bells on Her feet,
and the rings on Her toes.
Vijaya: Please show compassion to me by describing Shri Radha's
Gosvami: Like Shri Krishna, Shrimati Radha also has innumerable
qualities, among which twenty-five are prominent.
1. She is sweet (madhura), that is, She is incomparably beautiful
2. She is an ever-fresh youth.
3. Her eyes are restless and inclined to give sidelong glances.
4. She has a radiant, gentle and sweet smile.
5. She has beautiful lines, indicating auspiciousness.
6. She maddens Krishna with the fragrance of Her bodily limbs.
7. She is expert in the musical arts.
8. She speaks sweetly.
9. She is expert in making jokes.
10. She is very polite and modest.
11. She is merciful
12. She is cunning.
13. She is expert in all duties.
14. She is shy.
15. She is always steadfast on the path of righteous conduct.
16. She is patient.
17. She is grave, so that it is very difficult to understand the
import of Her mind.
18. She is fond of enjoying pastimes.
19. She is acutely eager to manifest the supermost excellence
20. When the residents of Gokula see Her, their hearts immediately
overflow with prema.
21. Her fame pervades the entire universe.
22. She is the object of affection for Her superiors (guru-jana).
23. She is controlled by the intense love (pranaya) of Her sakhis.
24. She is prominent among all Krishna's sakhis.
25. Kesava always remains submissive to Her orders.
Vijaya: I want to know in detail about the elegant lines that indicate
Her immense good fortune.
Gosvami: According to the Varaha-samhita, Jyotisa-sastra, Kasikhanda,
and the Puranas such as the Matsya Purana and Garuda
Purana, these are the auspicious signs on Her left foot: 1) There is
a barleycorn at the base of Her big toe, 2) below that is a cakra. 3)
Below the middle toe is a lotus flower, and 4) below the lotus is a
banner, and 5) a flag. 6) There is a line curving up from the middle
of the sole to the right side of the middle toe. 7) Below Her little
toe is an elephant-goad.
The signs on Her right foot are as follows. 1) At the root of Her
big toe is a conch-shell, 2) on Her heel is a fish, and 3) below Her
little toe is an altar. Above the fish are 4) a chariot, 5) a mountain,
6) an earring, 7) a club, and 8) the mark of a sakti.
On Her left hand, 1) a long-life line extends from the point where
the index finger and the middle finger meet, to below the little
finger. 2) Another line begins from below the long life-line, and
extends to the place between the index-finger and the thumb. 3)
Below the thumb, a curved line extends from the wrist to the space
between the thumb and index-finger to meet with the middle line.
4-8) On the tip of Her thumb and each of Her fingers is a cakra.
The three lines plus the five cakras makes eight signs all together.
9) Then, below the ring-finger is an elephant, 10) below the lifeline
is a horse, 11) below the middle line is a bull, and below the
little finger are 12) an elephant goad, 13) a fan, 14) a Shri tree, 15) a
victory-column, 16) an arrow, 17) a javelin, and 18) a garland.
On the right hand, just as on the left, there are three lines beginning
with the life-line. In addition, there is a conch-shell on
the tip of Her thumb and each of Her fingers. That makes eight
signs altogether. 9) Below the index finger is a camara, and 10) below
the little finger are an elephant goad, 11) a palace, 12) a
dundubhi drum, 13) a lightning bolt, 14) two carts, 15) an archer's
bow, 16) a sword, and 17) a waterpot.
Since there are seven signs on the left foot, eight on the right,
eighteen on the left hand and seventeen on the right, altogether
there are fifty auspicious signs indicating supreme fortune.
Vijaya: Are these symptoms not possible in others?
Gosvami: These qualities are present in the jivas to a very slight
degree, and somewhat more in the devis, but they are all fully manifest
in Shri Radhika. All of Shri Radhika's qualities are aprakrta
(transcendental), because these qualities are not present purely
and completely in anybody in the mundane world, even in goddesses
such as Gauri.
Vijaya: Aha! Shrimati Radhika's virtues are inconceivable. One can
realize them only by Her mercy.
Gosvami: How can I express Her glories? What is there to compare
with the beauty and qualities that perpetually bewilder even Krishna
Vijaya: Prabhu, please describe Shrimati Radhika's sakhis.
Gosvami: Shrimati Radhika's yutha is the best of all. Every young
gopi in that group is adorned with all transcendental virtues. They
directly attract even Krishna with their qualities, playful glances and
Vijaya: How many types of sakhis does Shrimati Radhika have?
Gosvami: There are five types: 1) sakhi, 2) nitya-sakhi, 3) prana-sakhi,
4) priya-sakhi, and 5) parama-prestha-sakhi.
Vijaya: Who are the sakhis?
Gosvami: The sakhis include Kusumika, Vrnda and Dhanistha.
Vijaya: Who are the nitya-sakhis?
Gosvami: Kasturi, Mani-manjari and others are nitya-sakhis.
Vijaya: Who are the prana-sakhis?
Gosvami: The prana-sakhis include Sasimukhi, Vasanti, and Lasika.
They have attained forms and qualities similar to those of
Vrndavanesvari, Shrimati Radhika.
Vijaya: Who are the priya-sakhis?
Gosvami: Kurangaksi, Sumadhya, Madanalasa, Kamala, Madhuri,
Manjukesi, Kandarpa-sundari, Madhavi, Malati, Kama-lata, Sasikala,
and many others are priya-sakhis.
Vijaya: Who are the parama-prestha-sakhis?
Gosvami: Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campaka-lata, Tunga-vidya,
Indu-lekha, Rangadevi, Sudevi - these eight are pradhana and
parama-prestha-sakhis. Their prema for Radha-Krishna is developed
to the highest degree. They please Radha and Krishna by
sometimes showing more love for Krishna, and sometimes showing
more for Radha.
Vijaya: I have understood the meaning of yutha. Now please tell
me about gana.
Gosvami: In every yutha, there are several further divisions, which
are called gana. For example in the yutha of Shrimati Radhika, the
sakhis who follow Lalita are known as Lalita gana.
Vijaya: The parodha-bhava (paramour mood) of the gopis of Vraja
is a very important characteristic. But in what circumstances does
parodha-bhava not indicate a desirable state?
Gosvami: In this mundane world, all femininity and masculinity
is only a designation. According to the result of peoples' karma
(activities) under the influence of illusion, one is now a woman
and another a man. People in maya have many petty and adharmika
desires, so the rsis have forbidden a man to associate with any
woman except the one to whom he is married according to the
injunctions of sastra. Poets and authors of mundane alankara have
also rejected the paramour mood, in order to make others understand
that this instruction of the rsis is compatible with dharma.
The rasa of the transcendental pastimes is nitya-rasa, whereas the
srngara-rasa of males and females who are products of the material
energy is merely its perverted reflection. The mundane display of
srngara-rasa is extremely limited and subject to regulative principles,
and that is why the parodha-bhava of the insignificant mundane
nayikas has been rejected. However, Shri Krishna is sac-cidananda,
so when He is the only purusa or nayaka, whatever meeting
takes place with a paramour in order to nourish rasa is not
subject to criticism. In this tattva, there is no place for conventional
marriage, which is an extremely insignificant, illusory designation.
The criticism of paramours is proper in worldly literature,
but it cannot be applied to the young maidens of Gokula when
Goloka-bihari manifests both His supreme parakiya-rasa and
Goloka in this world.
Vijaya: Please tell me what are the excellent characteristics that
are exhibited by the young gopis of Gokula due to their krishna-prema?
Gosvami: The cowherd damsels of Gokula accept Krishna only to be
Nanda Maharaja's son, since He appears to be that and nothing
more. The bhavas and characteristics that arise from this conviction
are not a subject matter for abhaktas (non-devotees), who are
addicted to logic, and they are rarely understood even by bhaktas.
Shri Nandanandana is not lacking in aisvarya-bhava, but it remains
practically hidden, because madhurya is always in the ascendant.
For example, when the gopis were afflicted with feelings of separation
from Krishna, He played a joke by hiding His two-armed form
from them and manifesting a four-armed form, but they did not
pay attention to it. Then, as soon as He came before Shri Radhikaji,
the four-armed form disappeared and His two-armed form became
manifest again. This is the result of Shri Radha's extremely confidential
Vijaya: I have become so fortunate by hearing this. Prabhu, now
please describe the different types of nayika.
Gosvami: There are three types of nayikas, namely svakiya, parakiya
and samanya. I have already described the transcendental rasa of
the svakiya and parakiya-nayikas, and now I will explain about the
samanya-nayika. Panditas of mundane alankara (rhetoric) have ascertained
that samanya-nayikas are prostitutes. They are simply
avaricious. They do not hate the nayaka who has no good qualities,
and they do not really love the virtuous nayaka. They only
love money. Consequently, their srngara-rasa is not actually
srngara-rasa, but only a semblance. Nonetheless, the maidservant
Kubja of Mathura is included in the category of parakiya as a
samanya-nayika because of some qualification in her bhava, even
though her relationship with Krishna lacks srngara rasa.
Vijaya: What is her qualification in bhava?
Gosvami: Kubja never had rati for anyone as long as she was deformed,
but when she saw Krishna's beauty, the desire arose in her
heart to anoint Krishna's limbs with sandal-paste in the mood of a
beloved. For this reason she can be called parakiya. However, her
rati is inferior to that of the mahisis because, unlike the queens of
Dvaraka, she showed little desire to make Krishna happy. She tugged
at Krishna's upper garment and fervently beseeched Him to enjoy
with her, but because of self-interest or because the desire for her
own pleasure was mixed with the bhava of a beloved, her rati is
considered sadharani (ordinary).
Vijaya: In cid-rasa there is a distinction between svakiya and
parakiya-nayikas. If there are any more distinct categories within
these two, then please be merciful and describe them.
Gosvami: In the spiritual rasa, both kinds of nayika - namely svakiya
and parakiya - have three divisions: mugdha, madhya and pragalbha.
Vijaya: Prabhu, just now by your mercy, cid-rasa entered for a
moment within my heart, and you appeared to me as a vraja-gopi. I
have no idea what became of my illusory purusa-bhava (male mood).
Now I am becoming increasingly eager to know about the various
bhavas of the nayikas. Although I have attained ramani-bhava, I do
not know the appropriate activities of the ramanis. Thus remembering
your transcendental form, I am inquiring at your lotus feet
about the process of rendering krishna-seva. Now please tell me, who
is the mugdha nayika (innocent heroine)?
Gosvami: These are the symptoms of the bewildered and innocent
nayika, who has newly discovered her youthfulness (nava-yauvana):
She desires union with Krishna (kamini), but in loving affairs she
acts in a contrary way. Her friends control her. Although she is
extremely shy in the intimate activities of sensual love, still she
tries her best to arrange for sambhoga with her lover in a covered
way, hiding from the view of others. When the nayaka commits an
offense, she gazes at Him with tearful eyes, and neither responds
with endearing words, nor rebukes Him; she does not even show
Vijaya: What are the characteristics of the madhya nayika?
Gosvami: These are the symptoms of the madhya: Her impulse for
passionate love is very strong, but she is also shy. She is a fresh
budding youth (nava-yauvana), and in her speech there is a touch
of arrogance. She experiences erotic union with Krishna until she
becomes bewildered and faints. When she is in mana, she is sometimes
soft and sometimes harsh. There are three categories of
madhya nayika, according to their behavior when mana arises: dhira,
adhira and dhiradhira. The nayika who jokingly speaks crooked words
with her beloved after He has offended her is called dhira madhya;
the nayika who furiously rebukes her priya-vallabha with harsh
words is called adhira madhya; and the nayika who tearfully uses
crooked words against her priya-vallabha is called dhiradhira madhya.
The supreme excellence of all rasa is evident only in the madhya
nayika, because of the mixture of mugdha and pragalbha in her
Vijaya: Kindly describe the symptoms and nature of the pragalbha
Gosvami: The pragalbha nayika is in full-blown youth (purnayauvana).
She is blinded by pride and extremely eager for sensual
love. She is expert in fully expressing a variety of bhavas, and she
is qualified to overwhelm her lover with prema-rasa. Her words and
deeds are extremely profound (gambhira) and mature, and when
her mana is aroused, her behavior is very harsh. Pragalbha nayikas
display three types of behavior at the time of mana: dhira, adhira
and dhiradhira. The dhira pragalbha either becomes apathetic in
amorous pastimes, or else she treats her beloved with extreme respect
outwardly, while hiding her real bhavas. The adhira pragalbha
becomes harsh, threatens and scolds her lover, and punishes Him
with loud abuse. The dhiradhira pragalbha has virtues like those of
the dhiradhira madhya nayika.
Madhya and pragalbha nayikas are both divided into two further
categories, namely jyestha (senior) and kanistha (junior). Thus,
there are jyestha-madhya and kanistha-madhya, jyestha-pragalbha and
kanistha-pragalbha. The distinction between jyestha and kanistha
depends entirely on the degree of the nayika's pranaya for her lover.
Vijaya: Prabhu, how many types of nayika are there altogether?
Gosvami: There are fifteen types of nayika. There is only one type
of kanya (unmarried nayika), because they are only mugdha. The
other nayikas are classified as mugdha, madhya and pragalbha; and
of these, the madhya and pragalbha are both sub-divided into three
further categories: dhira, adhira and dhiradhira. This means that
there are seven types of svakiya nayika, and also seven types of
parakiya-nayika, so altogether there are (7+ 7+1) = 15 types of nayika.
Vijaya: How many avasthas (conditions or situations) do the
Gosvami: There are eight avasthas: abhisarika (trysting), vasakasajja
(prepared and perfumed), utkanthita (impatiently hankering),
khandita (jealous), vipralabdha (disappointed), kalahantarita (anguished
due to separation by quarrel), prosita-bhartrka (separation
from the beloved) and svadhina-bhartrka (contols her lover). These
eight conditions occur in the fifteen types of nayika that I have
Vijaya: Who is the abhisarika?
Gosvami: The abhisarika arranges a tryst (abhisara) with her lover
at an appointed place, and goes there to rendezvous with Him. The
jyotsna-abhisarika goes for abhisara dressed in white garments during
the bright fortnight of the moon (sukla-paksa), and the tamo
'bhisarika dresses herself in black clothes during krishna-paksa (the
dark fortnight). At the time of going for abhisara, she is absolutely
silent and gorgeously decorated from head to toe, as if out of shyness.
She contracts Her bodily limbs, and she is accompanied by
one affectionate sakhi.
Vijaya: Please tell me about the vasaka-sajja nayika.
Gosvami: The vasaka-sajja nayika ornaments and perfumes her body
and prepares and decorates the place of meeting in eager anticipation
of her lover's arrival, determined to engage in smara-krida (the
games of Kamadeva). Hoping that her lover will come when He
gets the opportunity, she gazes down the path along which her
lover will approach, glorifies her lover, and hears His lila-katha in
the company of her sakhis, and at every moment eagerly waits for a
messenger to bring news of her lover - all these are the activities
of the vasaka-sajja.
Vijaya: Please describe the utkanthita.
Gosvami: When the nayaka is late for the rendezvous through no
fault of His own, the restless nayika who becomes excessively impatient
and eager to meet her lover is called utkanthita. Her heart
burns in agony, her body trembles, she speculates as to why her
lover has not come, she loses all desire to do anything, and she
describes her own sorry plight, shedding tears of lamentation -
these are the activities of the utkanthita nayika.
The condition of vasaka-sajja also ultimately transforms into
that of utkanthita. When the vasaka-sajja has been waiting since
the arranged time of her kanta's arrival, and sees that He has not
come, she changes her mind and thinks, "Perhaps He could not
come because of the influence of another nayika." Bereft of the
company of her most beloved kanta, she grows excessively eager
and restless. She is then called utkanthita nayika.
Vijaya: Who is the khandita nayika?
Gosvami: The khandita nayika is one whose nayaka finally appears
long after the appointed time for meeting, during the last prahara (3
hours) of the night, bearing the signs of amorous pastimes with another
nayika. At that time, the khandita nayika takes very long, drawnout
breaths due to anger, and does not speak a word to her beloved.
Vijaya: Who is called vipralabdha?
Gosvami: Sometimes, by the will of providence, the nayaka is unable
to come for one reason or another, even after fixing the time
and place of the tryst by a signal or hint. The nayika who is severely
afflicted by pangs of separation from her beloved at that time is
called vipralabdha. She shows many different types of behavior, such
as decrying her own worthlessness, becoming anxious, lamenting,
weeping bitterly, sighing deeply, and fainting.
Vijaya: What are the symptoms of a kalahantarita?
Gosvami: The kalahantarita nayika severely reprimands her pranavallabha,
and then spurns Him, even after He falls at her feet before
all of her friends. She is called kalahantarita because of her activities
and emotions, such as delirious, incoherent speech; anguish;
debility of body and mind; and taking long, drawn-out breaths.
Vijaya: Who is called prosita-bhartrka?
Gosvami: The prosita-bhartrka nayika's lover has gone to a distant
land. She has many activities including melancholy, inertia, anxiety,
and not sleeping, dressing or bathing herself.
Vijaya: Who is svadhina-bhartrka?
Gosvami: The nayika whose priyatama is submissive to her and who
always stays with her is called svadhina-bhartrka. She has many
activities, such as enjoying pastimes with Him in the forest, playing
in the water with Him, and picking flowers.
Vijaya: So the condition of svadhina-bhartrka must be the source
of immense joy.
Gosvami: The svadhina-bhartrka nayika whose beloved cannot leave
her for even a moment because of being controlled by her prema is
called madhavi. Among the eight types of nayika, three - the
svadhina-bhartrka, vasaka-sajja and abhisarika - are cheerful at heart,
and adorned with ornaments and other decorations. The remaining
five nayikas - namely khandita, vipralabdha, utkanthita, prositabhartrka
and kalahantarita - do not have any ornaments and finery.
Their hearts are afflicted with anxiety, and they lament bitterly,
resting their left cheek on their left hand.
Vijaya: How can such suffering exist in krishna-prema? What is the
meaning of this affliction?
Gosvami: Since krishna-prema is chinmaya (transcendental), this apparent
suffering is also only another astonishing variety of
paramananda. The affliction experienced in the material world is
actually a source of acute distress, whereas in the cit-jagat it is simply
a transformation of ecstatic ananda. When one tastes this suffering,
it gives rise to the immense happiness of chinmaya-rasa.
However, this cannot be expressed by words.
Vijaya: What are the degrees of prema that these nayikas possess?
Gosvami: The nayikas have been divided into three categories -
uttama, madhyama, and kanistha - according to their degree of prema
for Vrajendranandana. Krishna feels bhava for any particular nayika
to the degree that that nayika feels bhava for Him.
Vijaya: What are the symptoms of uttama?
Gosvami: The uttama nayika can abandon all her dharmas as if they
were an insignificant piece of straw for the sake of giving her beloved
just a moment's happiness. Even if the nayaka makes this
type of nayika unhappy, she does not become jealous; and her heart
is torn asunder if anyone tells her that her beloved is unhappy,
even if it is not true.
Vijaya: Please describe the symptoms of the madhyama.
Gosvami: Her heart simply becomes dejected when she hears about
the unhappiness of her beloved.
Vijaya: What are the symptoms of the kanistha?
Gosvami: The kanistha nayika is fearful of obstacles - such as the
shame arising from public opinion - that might prevent her from
Vijaya: How many types of nayika are there altogether?
Gosvami: Altogether, there are 360 types of nayika. First, there are
the fifteen types that I mentioned before, and these fifteen types
have been further divided into eight types each. (15 x 8) = 120 types,
and each of these is again classified as kanistha, madhyama, and
uttama. (120 x 3) = 360 types of nayika.
Vijaya: Now that I have heard an account of the nayikas, I have
become eager to know about the mutual distinctions between the
yuthesvaris. Please be causelessly merciful and explain this to me.
Gosvami: Yuthesvaris are divided into svapaksa, vipaksa and tatastha.
After that, there are three more divisions, according to the degree
of saubhagya (good fortune): adhika (great), sama (moderate) and
laghvi (light). These are again divided into three further categories:
prakhara (harsh), madhya (moderate) and mrdvi (soft). The
nayika who boldly expresses her sorrow and anger in words is called
prakhara. The mrdvi nayika speaks sweetly, and the nature of the
madhya nayika is situated between these two.
The adhika nayikas are divided into two sections, namely
atyantiki (extreme) and apeksiki (comparative). One who has no
superior and no equal is called atyantika-adhika. This applies only
to Shrimati Radha. She is madhya and She has no equal in Vraja.
Vijaya: Who are the apeksika-adhikas?
Gosvami: Apeksika-adhika nayikas are yuthesvaris who are superior
to one or several other yuthesvaris.
Vijaya: Who are atyantiki laghu?
Gosvami: Atyantiki laghu is the nayika to whom all other nayikas
are superior. All nayikas are laghu compared to atyantiki adhika.
Except for the atyantiki laghu, all yuthesvaris are adhika. Thus, there
is no question of the atyantiki-adhika-yuthesvari being equal or
inferior to anyone else, and similarly, there is no question of the
atyantiki-laghu being superior to anyone else. There is only one
type of sama-laghu. The madhya yuthesvari is of nine types arising
from the categories of adhika, prakhara and so on.
Therefore, there are twelve divisions among the yuthesvaris:
1) atyantiki-adhika, 2) sama-laghu, 3) adhika-madhya, 4) sama-madhya,
5) laghu-madhya, 6) adhika-prakhara, 7) sama-prakhara, 8) laghuprakhara,
9) adhika-mrdvi, 10) sama-mrdvi, 11) laghu-mrdvi, and 12)
Vijaya: Now I would like to know about the different types of dutis
Gosvami: The nayikas who are afflicted with an intense hankering
to meet with Krishna require the help of messengers (dutis), who
are of two kinds: svayam-duti and apta-duti.
Vijaya: What is the nature of the svayam-duti?
Gosvami: When the nayika is bewildered by anuraga (deep attachment),
her excessive eagerness sometimes vanquishes her shyness,
so that she becomes shameless, and personally expresses her bhava
to her nayaka. This is called svayam-duti. The expression can be of
three kinds - with the body (kayika-abhiyoga), in words (vacikaabhiyoga),
and with the eyes (caksusa-abhiyoga).
Vijaya: What is a vacika-abhiyoga?
Gosvami: Vacika-abhiyoga is only a hint or suggestion (vyanga).
There are two types of suggestion: the suggestion through intonation
(sabda-vyanga), and the suggestion in the meaning (arthavyanga).
Sometimes the suggestion is made by referring to Krishna,
and sometimes by referring to something nearby.
Vijaya: What are the suggestions of which Krishna is the subject?
Gosvami: There are two types of suggestions of which Krishna is the
subject: saksat (direct) and vyapadesa (by deceit).
Vijaya: What is the direct suggestion?
Gosvami: Direct suggestions are categorized as garva (proud statement),
aksepa (accusation) and yanca (directly begging). There are
Vijaya: What is a suggestion expressed through an accusation
Gosvami: One type of suggestion expressed through an accusation
is based on the sound of the words, and another on the meaning.
There is no necessity of giving examples to illustrate this, because
you are conversant with alankara (rhetoric).
Vijaya: Very well. What is a suggestion expressed by begging
Gosvami: The suggestions expressed as begging are divided into
two types: svartha and parartha. Svartha-yanca means to express only
one's own request, and parartha-yanca means that one's request is
expressed by someone else. Within these two categories, there are
distinct suggestions either through intonation (sabda-vyanga) or
through meaning (artha-vyanga). When the bhava is mixed in with
the words, it is known as an indication (sanketika-yanca).
Vijaya: I have understood the saksat-vyanga. In those direct abhiyoga
statements in the speech of the nayikas to Krishna, there are suggestions
in intonation (sabda-vyanga) and suggestions in meaning
(artha-vyanga). Their use is seen in drama and other theatrical performances,
and poets have manifested them through their oratory
genius. Now kindly explain the meaning of vyapadesa.
Gosvami: The word vyapadesa is a technical term derived from the
word apadesa in alankara-sastra. Vyapadesa means 'by deceit', that
is, one expresses a confidential meaning on the pretext of saying
something else. The purport is that one speaks to Krishna in such a
way that the obvious meaning conveys one idea, but there is a
hidden entreaty to render some service. This method of communication
is called vyapadesa, and it performs the work of a duti.
Vijaya: So, vyapadesa is a kind of deceptive statement, whose secret
meaning expresses the sense of begging for loving service. Now
Gosvami: There is a type of expression called purusa-visaya-gataviyoga.
This occurs when one thinks, "Krishna is present, and although
He is hearing, He is not really hearing," and begins to converse
with a nearby animal or bird. This is also divided into two
types: the suggestion arising from the sound of the words, and the
suggestion arising from the meaning of the words.
Vijaya: I have understood this by your mercy. Now, please tell me
what the bodily suggestions are.
Gosvami: Bodily abhiyoga is performing activities in Krishna's presence,
such as snapping one's fingers, standing up suddenly on
some pretext, covering one's limbs out of fear and shyness, writing
on the ground with one's toe, scratching one's ear, applying
tilaka, dressing oneself, gesturing with one's eyebrows, embracing
one's sakhi, scolding one's gopi friend, biting one's lips, stringing
a necklace, making a sound with one's ornaments, exposing
one's armpit, writing Krishna's name, and twining creepers around
Vijaya: Please tell me about suggestions with the eyes (caksusaabhiyoga).
Gosvami: Laughing with the eyes, half-closing the eyes, making
dancing movements with the eyes, ogling, squinting, looking with
the left eye, and sidelong glancing - these are all suggestions with
Vijaya: I have understood svayam-duti. You have just given a hint
to convey some idea about these messengers, and I have understood
that they are of innumerable varieties. Now, please tell me about
Gosvami: These dutis never commit a breach of confidence, or
disclose the secrets to which they are privy, even if their life-airs
are about to depart. They are affectionate and extremely cunning
in the art of conversation. Only those youthful gopis who are endowed
with all virtues are the dutis of the vraja-sundaris.
Vijaya: How many types of apta-duti are there?
Gosvami: There are three types: amitartha, nisrstartha and patrahari.
Amitartha is a duti who understands certain hints or signals,
and then arranges for the nayaka and nayika to meet. Nisrstartha is
a sakhi who causes the meeting of the lover and beloved by employing
persuasive arguments and reasoning, and the patra-hari is
one who only delivers a message.
Vijaya: Are there any other kinds of apta-duti?
Gosvami: Silpa-karini (artists), daiva-jna (astrologers), lingini (ascetics),
paricarika (maid servants), dhatreyi (nurses), vana-devi (goddesses
of the forest) and sakhis are also included in the category of
dutis. Silpa-karini use their artistic paintings to induce the lovers
to meet. The daiva-jna dutis arrange meetings by explaining their
astrological predictions. Lingini dutis, for example Paurnamasi,
wear the garments of tapasvinis (female ascetics). Several sakhis,
including Lavanga-manjari and Bhanumati, are paricarika dutis.
Shrimati Radhika's nursemaids are dhatreyi dutis. The vana-devis are
presiding deities of the forest of Vrndavana (adhisthatri-devis). The
sakhis mentioned previously are also dutis, and they perform their
function by expressing their messages openly, or by indirect hints
and suggestions. To do this, they employ all kinds of devices such
as vyapadesa (deceit), sabda-mula (tone of words), artha-mula (direct
word meaning), prasamsa (praise), and aksepa (allegations).
When Vijaya Kumara had heard this explanation, he offered his
dandavat-pranama to the lotus feet of Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami.
Taking his leave, he returned to his residence, reflecting along the
way upon all that he had heard.
THUS ENDS THE THIRTY-THIRD CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
"MADHURA-RASA: SRI RADHA'S SVARUPA, FIVE TYPES OF SAKHIS,