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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 32. Madhurya-Rasa: Parakiya-Nayikas


C H A P T E R 3 2

Madhurya-Rasa: Parakiya-Nayikas


It was night. Vrajanatha had completed his bhajana for that day.

Putting his hari-nama-mala aside, he fell asleep. Vijaya

Kumara had honored prasada, and lay on his bed, but sleep would

not come, for he was absorbed in thought. At first he had the idea

that Goloka and Gokula were different places. Now, however, he

concluded that Goloka and Gokula are non-different. The root of

parakiya-rasa is in Goloka. But how can Krishna be upapati (paramour)

there? He could not comprehend this point.


"If Krishna is the supreme substance," he thought, "and sakti and

saktiman are non-different, even if sakti becomes separated from

saktiman, how can sakti be called parodha (married to a gopa other

than Krishna), and Krishna be called upapati (paramour)?"


At first he thought, "Tomorrow I will ask Shri Gurudeva the

question and have my doubt removed," but then he thought, "It

would be improper to ask Gurudeva anything further about Goloka.

Still, it must be cleared."


Pondering in this way, he finally fell asleep. While asleep, he

dreamt that he was in the presence of his Gurudeva, and in order

to vanquish his doubt, he was asking the very question that had

preoccupied him just before he fell asleep. Gurudeva replied, "Baba

Vijaya, Krishna is fully independent in all activities, and His unimpeded

desires are not dependent on the desires of others. His eternal

desire is that His aisvarya should be concealed and His

madhurya should be manifested. Accordingly, He assigns to His sakti

an existence separate from Himself. Consequently, His para-sakti

assumes the form of millions of attractive young gopis, all endeavoring

to render Him various services. Still Krishna is not fully satisfied

by His sakti's service while it is influenced by knowledge of

His opulence. Therefore by the wonderful influence of His

yogamaya-sakti, He provides those beautiful gopis with the

abhimana (self-conception) that they belong to separate households.

That is to say, through the influence of that sakti (yogamaya),

they consider themselves the wives of others, and simultaneously,

Krishna also assumes the relationship as their upapati (paramour).


"Out of lobha (greed) for parakiya-rasa, Krishna transcends His

atmarama-dharma (self-satisfied nature) and performs varieties of

wonderful lilas, such as rasa-lila, with those young gopis, who implicitly

believe that they are married to others. Vamsi is His priyasakhi

(dear friend) in accomplishing this activity. In order that

Krishna taste these special features the eternal parakiya-bhava is established

in Goloka. For this reason, all the pastime-forests of

Goloka and the sites of Krishna's loving play, such as Vrndavana,

remain eternally present. All the lila-sthanas (places of pastimes)

in Vraja - such as the arena of the rasa, Yamuna and Giri-Govardhana

- are in Goloka, and in this way, the moods of being married

(dampatya-bhava), and of being faithful to one's husband

(svakiyatva-bhava) are present there. Suddha-svakiyatva, the pure

conjugal mood reigns splendidly in Vaikuntha. The qualities of

svakiya and parakiya are thus considered to be inconceivably different

and non-different.


"Just see, this subject is so astounding. In Goloka, parakiya-bhava

is present only as abhimana (a conception). In Vraja, it appears to

be like an affair with another's wife, but there is actually no adultery

because the young gopis are Krishna's own sakti. Krishna is united

with them from the beginning of time; therefore, their fundamental

quality is actually perfect faithfulness to one's husband

(svakiyatva) and the quality of being married (dampatya). The gopas

such as Abhimanyu are special avataras of their respective conceptions

in Goloka. They become husbands to nourish Krishna's lila

and to make Him the leader of vilasa (pastimes) on the stage of

Vraja in the mood of an upapati. In Goloka, which is far beyond

the material world, rasa is nourished only by this conception.

Within the material universe in Gokula, all the conceptions manifest

their individual existences and assume bodies by yogamaya's

influence in order to create the experience of being married, and

then to transgress the codes of marital conduct. All this is accomplished

by the actions of yogamaya."


When Vijaya Kumara had thus heard svakiya and parakiya-tattva

explained by Gurudeva in his dream, his doubts were dispelled.

Goloka, beyond the mundane world, is factually the selfsame

bhauma (earthly) Gokula - his conviction in this fact became

steadfast, and the supremely blissful identity of vraja-rasa arose in

his heart. At the same time, he felt an awakening of implicit faith

in the nitya-asta-kaliya-lila of Vraja. Rising early the next morning,

he thought, "Shri Gurudeva has shown me unlimitedly mercy.

Now I will hear from him about the components of rasa and then

attain nistha in bhajana."


Vijaya Kumara honored prasada and came before his Gurudeva

at the prearranged time. Shedding tears of prema, he offered his

pranama. Gurudeva lovingly embraced him and said, "Baba, Krishna

has favored you with His genuine mercy. Thus I have become fortunate

simply by seeing you." As he said this, the powerful influence

of prema made his mind unsteady.


After a short time, when Gosvamiji regained external perception,

Vijaya Kumara offered his sastanga-pranama, and said,

"Prabhu, I do not know Krishna's mercy; I only know your mercy.

Now I have given up trying to realize Goloka. I am fully satisfied in

the endeavor to attain realization of Vraja. I want to thoroughly

understand the fascinating varieties of vraja-rasa. Kindly tell me,

can the unmarried gopis who maintained the mood that Krishna was

their husband be called svakiya or not?"


Gosvami: Those unmarried gopis of Gokula were svakiya at that

time because of their nistha in the mood of approaching Krishna as

their husband, but their intrinsic mood is parakiya. Although their

svakiya mood is not natural, their svakiya relationship is perfected

in that particular condition in Gokula lila because Krishna accepted

them as His wives by the gandharva-vivaha-riti (the custom of

marriage by the exchange of garlands).


Vijaya: Prabhu, in due course, I will ask many questions, one after

the other. I want to understand all the topics of Shri Ujjvala-nilamani

in the sequence in which they have been presented. First, I wish

to learn all about nayaka (heroes). There are four types of nayaka,

namely, anukula, daksina, satha and dhrsta. Please describe the

anukula (favorable) nayaka.


Gosvami: The anukula-nayaka is He who gives up the desire for

other attractive maidens because of extreme attachment to only

one nayika (heroine). The bhava of Shri Ramacandraji towards Shri

Sita-devi and of Shri Krishna towards Shrimati Radhikaji is that of

the anukula-nayaka.


Vijaya: I want to know the identity of the various bhavas - such as

anukula - of the four types of nayaka, such as dhirodatta. Kindly

describe the symptoms of the dhirodatta-anukula-nayaka.


Gosvami: The dhirodatta-anukula-nayaka is grave, humble, forgiving,

compassionate, resolute, steadfast in his vows, free from vanity,

modest and extremely munificent. Still, He renounces all

those qualities for the sake of His nayika, and goes to meet with

her in secret.


Vijaya: Please tell me the symptoms of dhira-lalita-anukula-nayaka.


Gosvami: The dhira-lalita-nayaka is by nature a connoisseur of rasa,

ever-youthful, expert in joking, and free from anxiety. The dhiralalita-

anukula-nayaka has all these, combined with the symptom

of enjoying uninterrupted pleasure.


Vijaya: What is dhira-santa-anukula-nayaka?


Gosvami: The dhira-santa-anukula-nayaka is naturally serene and

tolerant, wise, and considerate.


Vijaya: Kindly explain the symptoms of the dhiroddhata-anukulanayaka.


Gosvami: When the nayaka who is envious, proud, deceitful, easily

angered, and boastful is favorable, He is called dhiroddhataanukula-



Vijaya: What is a daksina-nayaka?


Gosvami: The word daksina means "simple and honest." A daksinanayaka

is He who does not give up respect, awe, and submissive

love for His previous beloved, even when He gives His heart to

another nayika. One who is equally disposed towards many heroines

is also called a daksina-nayaka.


Vijaya: What are the symptoms of a satha-nayaka?


Gosvami: A satha-nayaka is endearing in the presence of His beloved,

but He secretly commits grave offenses by acting in an unloving

manner behind her back.


Vijaya: What are the characteristics of a dhrsta-nayaka?


Gosvami: A dhrsta-nayaka is completely fearless and expert at lying,

even though everyone can clearly see the signs of His having

enjoyed the company of another beloved.


Vijaya: Prabhu, how many different types of nayaka are there altogether?


Gosvami: As far as we are concerned, Krishna is the only nayaka. There

is no one besides Him. That one Krishna is purna (perfect) in

Dvaraka, purnatara (more perfect) in Mathura, and purnatama

(most perfect) in Vraja. He is both pati (husband) and upapati (paramour)

in all three of these places. Thus He is (2x3)= 6 types of

nayaka. Furthermore, because of the four categories beginning with

dhirodatta, He embodies (6x4) = 24 types. Then again, these types

are divided into anukula, daksina, satha and dhrsta, so there are

(24x4)= 96 types of nayaka. Now you should know that there are

24 types of nayaka in svakiya-rasa, and 24 types of nayaka again in

parakiya-rasa. In vraja-lila, svakiya-rasa is a contracted bhava, and

parakiya-rasa predominates. Thus, the 24 types of nayaka in

parakiya-rasa are eternally and splendidly manifest in Shri Krishna in

Vraja. He is perceived as whatever type of nayaka is necessary to

perform any particular part in any aspect of a lila.


Vijaya: Prabhu, I have realized the various qualities of nayaka and

nayika. Now I want to know how many types of assistants (sahayaka)

the nayaka has.


Gosvami: The nayaka has five types of assistants, namely ceta, vita,

vidusaka, pitha-mardda, and priya-narma-sakha. They are all expert

in using joking words; they are always intensely devoted to Krishna

with anuraga (deep love); they know how to behave according to

the occasion and circumstance; they are expert; and they are adept

in the art of pleasing the gopis when they become angry, as well as

giving confidential advice. All five types of assistants have these



Vijaya: What are the attributes of the ceta assistants?


Gosvami: They are expert in discovering anything, they perform

secret tasks, and their disposition is somewhat bold and arrogant.

In Gokula, sakhas such as Bhangura and Bhrngara perform the

activities of Krishna's ceta.


Vijaya: Who are called vita?


Gosvami: Krishna's vita, such as Kadara and Bharati Bandha, are

extremely talented in activities such as dressing and decorating

Krishna. They are cunning, skilled in conversation and expert in

manipulating others.


Vijaya: Who are the vidusakas?


Gosvami: The vidusakas are fond of eating and quarreling. They

are expert at making others laugh with their comical gestures,

words and dress. Madhumangala and gopas such as Vasanta are

prominent among Krishna's vidusakas.


Vijaya: Who is in the category of pitha-mardda?


Gosvami: Shridama is Krishna's pitha-mardda. Though his qualities

are just like those of a nayaka, he conducts all his activities according

to the order of the nayaka.


Vijaya: What are the symptoms of the priya-narma-sakhas?


Gosvami: They are privy to extremely confidential secrets and have

taken shelter of the bhavas of the sakhis. Subala and Arjuna are

prominent among Krishna's priya-narma-sakhas. Thus they are the

best of all Krishna's friends. Among these five - ceta, vita, vidusaka,

pitha-mardda and priya-narma-sakha - the cetas are in dasya-rasa,

the pitha-marddas are in vira-rasa, and the rest are in sakhya-rasa.

The cetas are servants (kinkara) and the other four are sakhas.


Vijaya: Are there no female assistants (sahayakas)?


Gosvami: Yes, there are, and they are called dutis (messengers).


Vijaya: How many types of duti are there?


Gosvami: There are two kinds: svayam-duti and apta-duti. Kataksa

(the sidelong glance) and vamsi-dhvani (the sound of Krishna's flute)

are svayam-dutis.


Vijaya: Aha! Who are the apta-dutis?


Gosvami: Vira is proficient in speaking bold words, and Vrnda is

expert in persuasive flattery. They are both Shri Krishna's apta-dutis.

The svayam-dutis and apta-dutis are extraordinary dutis. Apart from

them, there are ordinary messengers such as lingini, daiva-jna and

silpa-karini. I will describe them elaborately later in the context

of nayikas and dutis.


Vijaya: I have understood the mood and attributes of Shri Krishna as

nayaka, and I have also heard that Shri Krishna performs nitya-lila in

both pati and upapati bhava. He performs pastimes in Dvaraka in

pati-bhava, and in vraja-puri in upapati-bhava. Our Krishna is upapati,

so it is essential for us to know about the vraja-ramanis, the charming

young gopis.


Gosvami: Most of the damsels of Vraja with whom Vrajendranandana

Syamasundara performs pastimes are in parakiya-bhava,

because madhura-rasa does not fully develop without parakiya. The

rasa of the charming ladies of Dvaraka-puri remains limited by

their marital relationship, whereas the rasa of the female residents

of Vraja, who possess that suddha-kama from which Krishna derives

the utmost happiness, is unrestricted (akuntha).


Vijaya: What is the purport of this?


Gosvami: Shri Rudra, who is highly knowledgeable in the subject

of srngara-rasa, states that the supreme weapons of Kandarpa (Cupid)

are obstacles such as the contrary moods of women (vamata),

and the extreme difficulty in meeting with women (durlabhata)

because of the prohibitions that society imposes. Canakya Pandita

has stated that the nayaka's heart becomes more deeply attached

when He is forbidden to meet His beloved and when the doe-eyed

beloved is difficult to attain. Look! Although Krishna is atmarama,

at the time of rasa-lila, He manifested Himself in as many svarupas

as there were gopis, and then performed lila with them. Every

sadhaka should follow rasa-lila. Here the special instruction is that,

if the sadhakas desire auspiciousness, they should enter this rasalila

as a bhakta, but they should never imitate Krishna. In other words,

they should enter this lila only by becoming a follower of a gopi, by

adopting the mood of gopi-bhava.


Vijaya: Can you kindly explain more elaborately the subject of



Gosvami: Nandanandana Krishna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, is a

gopa, and He does not perform amorous pastimes with anyone except

with the gopis. The sadhaka who is eligible for srngara-rasa

should engage in krishna-bhajana with the same bhava with which

the gopis render loving service to Shri Krishna. In the course of his

bhajana, the sadhaka should meditate on himself as a vraja-gopi. The

sadhaka should consider himself the maidservant of some extremely

fortunate vraja-vasini (female resident of Vraja), and under

her guidance, should render services to Radha-Krishna. One

cannot possibly awaken rasa unless one considers oneself parodha,

that is, married to a gopa other than Krishna. It is this parodha-

abhimana, the self-conception of being married to a gopa other than

Krishna, that is the specific dharma of the vraja-gopis. Shri Rupa

Gosvami has written:



na jatu vrajadevinam patibhih saha sangamah

Shri Ujjvala-nilamani,

Krishna vallabha prakarana (19)


The vraja-devis who, through the influence of yogamaya,

consider themselves married to gopas other than Krishna,

never come in physical contact with their dharmika wedded

husbands. At the time of the gopis' abhisara (rendezvous

with Krishna) and so on, the gopas in their houses see forms

of the gopis that exactly resemble their own wives. These

forms are fabricated by yogamaya so that the gopas will think

to themselves, "Our wives are right here at home," and they

never have any opportunity to be jealous or to feel enmity

towards Krishna.


The vraja-devis never had physical contact with their lawfullywedded

husbands, who were all contrived by yogamaya. Each of

the vraja-gopis' husbands is only the manifestation from their respective

bhavas in the Goloka lila. Their marriages are also nothing

but an implicit conviction created by yogamaya. The gopis are

not actually married to other gopas, but the abhimana, or self-conception,

of being married to other gopas is eternally present. If it

were not so, it would naturally be impossible for the unprecedented

parakiya-rasa to manifest because of contrariness (vamata), inaccessibility

(durlabhata), obstructions, social prohibitions, fear and

so on. The nayika-bhava of vraja-rasa cannot be attained without

such a conception. Laksmiji of Vaikuntha is an example of this.


Vijaya: What is the bhava of knowing oneself as parodha?


Gosvami: A gopi thinks, "I am a girl who was born in the house of

a vraja-gopa, and when I grew up to be a young adolescent, I was

given in marriage to a youthful gopa." Only through this type of

conviction does the intense yearning to meet intimately with

Krishna become powerful. Gopi-bhava means to attribute (aropa) to

oneself the mood of being a gopa's wife who has not yet given birth

to a child.


Vijaya: If the sadhaka is male, how can he attribute gopi-bhava to



Gosvami: People only consider themselves male because they are

under the influence of the illusory nature imposed by maya. Except

for Krishna's eternal male associates, the pure, inherent spiritual

nature of all others is female. Really, there are no male and

female characteristics in the spiritual structure, but the sadhaka

can attain eligibility to be a vraja-vasini when he is impelled by

svabhava and a steadfast abhimana. Only those who have ruci for

madhura-rasa are eligible to become vraja-vasinis. If one performs

sadhana according to one's ruci, one will attain a perfected state

that corresponds exactly to the nature of that sadhana.


Vijaya: What are the glories of being a gopi married to a gopa other

than Krishna?


Gosvami: The vraja-gopis who are married to others naturally become

mines of superabundant beauty and extraordinarily powerful

transcendental virtues when the intense hankering to meet

intimately with Krishna arises in their hearts. They also become

decorated with the exquisite loveliness of prema. The sweetness

of their rasa exceeds that of all the saktis of Bhagavan, headed by

the goddess of fortune Laksmi.


Vijaya: How many kinds of vraja-sundari (beautiful damsels) are



Gosvami: There are three types: sadhana-para, devi, and nityapriya.


Vijaya: Are there also different types of sadhana-para-sundari?


Gosvami: Yes, there are two types of sadhana-para-sundari: yauthiki

and ayauthiki.


Vijaya: Who are the yauthiki?


Gosvami: The yauthiki sundaris have taken birth in Vraja together

in a group, after being absorbed in the sadhana for vraja-rasa. In

other words, they are members of a particular group. There are two

kinds of yauthiki: muni-gana and upanisad-gana.


Vijaya: Which munis have taken birth in Vraja as gopis?


Gosvami: Some munis offered worship to Gopala, but were unable

to attain siddhi (perfection). After having darsana of Shri

Ramacandra's beauty, they further endeavored in sadhana in accordance

with their cherished desire. Thus, they accepted gopibhava

and took birth as gopis. Padma Purana refers to them in this

way, and Brhad-Vamana Purana states that some of them attained

perfection at the beginning of the rasa-lila.


Vijaya: How did the Upanisads take birth as gopis in Vraja?


Gosvami: The Maha-Upanisads personified, who were gifted with

extremely fine discrimination, became thoroughly astonished

when they saw the gopis' good fortune, and after performing severe

austerities with sraddha, they attained birth in Vraja as gopis.


Vijaya: Who are ayauthiki?


Gosvami: There are two types of sundaris celebrated by the name

ayauthiki: long-standing (pracina) and new (navina). They are exceptionally

attached to gopi-bhava, and perform sadhana with intense

eagerness and natural anuraga. Some take birth alone, and

others in groups of two, three, or even more at the same time. The

pracina ayauthiki-gopis attained salokya (living on the same planet)

together with the nitya-priya gopis a long time ago. The navinaayauthiki

gopis come to Vraja by taking birth in the species of devas,

humans, and other beings. They gradually become pracina, and

attain salokya in the way I have already mentioned.


Vijaya: I have understood the subject of sadhana-para. Now please

be so kind as to explain to me about the devis.


Gosvami: When Krishna descends among the devas in Svarga by His

amsa, amsas of His nitya-kantas also manifest as devis in order to

satisfy Him. Those very devis take birth in krishna-lila as the daughters

of gopas and become the prana-sakhis of the nitya-priya-gopis

of whom they are amsas - in other words, of their own amsanis.


Vijaya: Prabhu, when does Krishna take birth by His amsa in the

species of devas?


Gosvami: Krishna takes birth from Aditi's womb by His svamsa form

as Vamana, and by His vibhinnamsas (separated expansions), He

becomes the devatas. Siva and Brahma are not born from the womb

of a mother, and although they are not in the category of ordinary

jivas who have fifty qualities to a minute degree, they are still only

vibhinnamsa. Those fifty qualities are certainly present in Brahma

and Siva to a somewhat greater extent, and in addition they have

five more qualities that are not found in the ordinary jivas. Therefore,

these two are called the chief devatas. Ganesa and Surya are

also situated in the same category as Brahma for the same reason,

but all the other devas are classified as jivas . All the devatas are

Krishna's vibhinnamsas, and their wives (devis) are the vibhinnamsas

of cit-sakti. Just before Krishna's appearance, Brahma ordered them

to take birth to satisfy Krishna, and following his order some of them

took birth in Vraja and others in Dvaraka, according to their different

tastes and sadhana. The devis who take birth in Vraja because

of intense eagerness to attain Krishna are the prana-sakhis of

the nitya-priya-gopis.


Vijaya: Prabhu, the Upanisads attained birth as gopis, but kindly

tell me, do any other presiding devis of the Vedas also accept birth

in Vraja?


Gosvami: It is written in the srsti-khanda of Padma Purana that

Gayatri, who is Veda-mata, the mother of the Vedas, also took birth

as a gopi and attained Shri Krishna's association. From that time, she

assumed the form of kama-gayatri.


Vijaya: But isn't kama-gayatri without any beginning (anadi)?


Gosvami: Kama-gayatri is certainly anadi, and this anadi-gayatri

first manifested in the form of Veda-mata. Later, by the influence

of sadhana, and seeing the good fortune of many Upanisads, she

took birth in Vraja along with the Gopala Upanisad. Although the

form of kama-gayatri is eternal, she exists splendidly in an eternal

and separate form as Veda-mata Gayatri.


Vijaya: All those, such as the Upanisads, who took birth in Vraja

had the abhimana of being the daughters of gopas, and they accepted

Krishna as their own husband with the conception that He

was a gopa-nayaka. Krishna became their husband at that time by

the custom of gandharva-vivaha. I have understood this much. However,

Krishna's eternal beloved consorts are His associates from time

without beginning, so is Krishna's relationship of upapati with them

only a contrivance of maya?


Gosvami: It is certainly one type of creation of maya, but not of

jada-maya, the illusory energy exhibited in the material world.

Jada-maya can never touch krishna-lila. Although vraja-lila is within

the material world, it is completely beyond the jurisdiction of jadamaya.

Another name for cit-sakti is yogamaya, and in krishna-lila this

very yogamaya acts in such a way that one who is influenced by

jada-maya sees that krishna-lila in an external form. Yogamaya brings

to Vraja the parodha-abhimana of Goloka with each of the nityapriyas,

and gives that abhimana form a separate individual existence.

Then, by arranging for the marriages between the nitya-priyagopis

and those separate existences,1 she makes Krishna upapati.




1 All the abhimanas of Goloka are manifest in tangible forms in

Vraja, such as Abhimanyu.





The omniscient purusa and the all-knowing saktis who are absorbed

in their respective rasa accept these bhavas. This indicates

the superiority of rasa and the super-excellence of the fully independent

iccha-sakti. There is no such eminence in Vaikuntha and

Dvaraka. When the prana-sakhis attain salokya along with the nityapriya

gopis, their restricted pati-bhava broadens and becomes

upapati-bhava. This is their ultimate achievement.


Vijaya: This siddhanta is quite extraordinary. My heart has become

refreshed. Now kindly explain to me about the nitya-priya gopis.


Gosvami: Shri Gaurachandra could not have revealed such esoteric

principles through my mouth if there were no qualified listener

present such as your good self. Look here, in various places, Shri

Jiva Gosvami, who is all-knowing (sarva-jna), has deliberated on

this subject in a very confidential manner, which one can understand

by reading his commentaries and literatures such as Krishnasandarbha.

Shri Jiva Gosvami was always afraid that if unqualified

persons came to know about these very esoteric principles, they

might later take shelter of a corrupted form of dharma. At that time,

Shri Jiva Gosvami felt anxious about all the faults, such as rasabhasa

and the distortion of rasa, that are seen in so-called Vaishnavas today.

He could not prevent this misfortune, although he was so

careful. You should not speak this siddhanta in the presence of

others, except for those who are qualified to receive it. Now I will

describe the nitya-priya gopis.


Vijaya: Who are the nitya-priya gopis? Although in the past I have

studied many sastras, now my sole desire is to drink this nectar from

the lotus mouth of Shri Gurudeva.


Gosvami: Like Krishna, the nitya-priya gopis in Vraja are the abodes

of all qualities, such as beauty and cleverness. Radha and

Candravali are most prominent among them. They have been referred

to in the Brahma-samhita (5.37).



tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih

goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


When the ananda-amsa of the sac-cid-ananda-para-tattva

agitates the cid-amsa, and is then enthused by the separately

manifest hladini pratibha (splendor), then Shrimati

Radhika, along with Her sakhis who are all extensions of

Her spiritual form, become manifest. I perform bhajana of

that Govinda, who is the supreme, original Soul of all souls.

He eternally resides in Goloka-dhama with those damsels,

who are all endowed with the sixty-four arts.


The nitya-priya gopis have been mentioned in this statement of

Brahma, which is the essence of all the Vedas. They are nitya, which

means that they are a manifestation of cit-sakti and are thus beyond

time and space - this is truth. There, nitya-lila is an expression

of the sixty-four arts: kalabhih svamsa-rupabhih saktibhih. Although

there are different meanings given by the acaryas in other

commentaries on Brahma Samhita, I have explained Shri Svarupa

Damodara Gosvami's extremely confidential commentary. This

secret treasure is hidden in the vault of the hearts of Shri Rupa-

Sanatana and Shri Jiva Gosvamis.


Vijaya: I am intensely eager to hear the various names of the nityapriya



Gosvami: Sastras such as the Skanda Purana and Prahlada-samhita,

have mentioned names such as Radha, Candravali, Visakha, Lalita,

Syama, Padma, Saibya, Bhadrika, Tara, Vicitra, Gopali, Dhanistha,

and Pali. Another name of Candravali is Somata, and Shrimati

Radhika is also called Gandharva. Vraja-gopis such as Khanjanaksi,

Manorama, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Krishna, Sari, Visarada, Taravali,

Cakoraksi, Sankari and Kumkuma are also famous in this world.


Vijaya: What is their relationship with each other?


Gosvami: These gopis are yuthesvaris (group leaders). There are not

one or two groups, but hundreds, and in each of them, there are

hundreds of thousands of beautiful, individual gopis. All of the

above mentioned gopis, from Shrimati Radhika to Kumkuma, are

yuthesvaris. Visakha, Lalita, Padma and Saibya have been described

in the sastras more elaborately than the others. Among these

yuthesvaris, the eight gopis beginning with Radha have been called

pradhana, because they are most fortunate.


Vijaya: Visakha, Lalita, Padma, and Saibya are pradhana gopis, and

they are especially expert in nourishing Krishna's pastimes. Why

have they not been accepted as distinct yuthesvaris?


Gosvami: They are so qualified that although it would be proper

to call them yuthesvaris, Lalita and Visakha remain so enchanted

by Shrimati Radhika's supremely blissful bhava that they do not want

to call themselves independent yuthesvaris. Among them, some are

followers of Shrimati Radhika, and others are followers of



Vijaya: I have heard that Lalita has a gana (sub-group). What type

of group is it?


Gosvami: Shrimati Radhaji is prominent amongst all the yuthesvaris.

Some of the gopis in Her dependent yuthas are attracted to Shri

Lalitaji's special bhava, and call themselves Lalita gana. Other gopis

refer to themselves as Visakha gana, and so on. The asta-sakhis

headed by Lalita and Visakha are the heroines of Shrimati

Radhika's various ganas. If one is very fortunate, one can acquire

the qualification to enter Shrimati Lalita's gana.


Vijaya: In which sastra can the names of these gopis be found?


Gosvami: Their names are found in sastras such as Padma Purana,

Skanda Purana and the Uttara khanda of Bhavisya Purana. Many

names are also mentioned in Satvata-tantra.


Vijaya: Shrimad-Bhagavatam is the crest-jewel of all sastras in the

entire universe, so it would have been a matter of great joy if these

names were mentioned there.


Gosvami: Shrimad-Bhagavatam is a tattva-sastra, but it is also an ocean

of rasa. From the point of view of the rasika-bhaktas, Shrimad-

Bhagavatam is filled with the complete deliberation on rasa-tattva,

as if an ocean were contained in a single jar. Shri Radha's name and

the bhavas and identities of all the gopis have been described there

in a highly confidential way. If you reflect thoroughly upon the

slokas of the Tenth Canto, you can find everything. Shri Sukadeva

Gosvami has described this subject in a confidential way to keep


unqualified people at a distance. Vijaya, what will be the result of

giving chanting beads and full and explicit descriptions to one

and all? The reader can understand the confidential topics only

as far as his conceptions are advanced. Therefore, one quality of a

genuine pandita is that he can reveal in a hidden way subjects that

are not fit to be revealed in the presence of everyone. Qualified

people understand them only as far as their adhikara allows. There

is no knowledge of the factual vastu without shri-guru-parampara.

One may acquire knowledge in other ways, but it will have no effect.

You can only attain the complete rasa of Shrimad-Bhagavatam

after thoroughly understanding Ujjvala-nilamani.


In this way, after a long period of questions and answers, that

day's istagosthi was completed. Vijaya returned to his residence,

meditating incessantly on the subjects that he had heard. As all

the vicara (considerations) in relation to nayaka and nayika awakened

in the field of his heart, he became absorbed in paramananda,

and as he remembered the discussion about vamsi and svayam-duti,

a stream of tears flowed from his eyes. At that time, the pastime

that he had seen in the grove on his way to Sundaracala the previous

night appeared vividly upon the screen of his heart.