|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 32. Madhurya-Rasa: Parakiya-Nayikas|
C H A P T E R 3 2
It was night. Vrajanatha had completed his bhajana for that day.
Putting his hari-nama-mala aside, he fell asleep. Vijaya
Kumara had honored prasada, and lay on his bed, but sleep would
not come, for he was absorbed in thought. At first he had the idea
that Goloka and Gokula were different places. Now, however, he
concluded that Goloka and Gokula are non-different. The root of
parakiya-rasa is in Goloka. But how can Krishna be upapati (paramour)
there? He could not comprehend this point.
"If Krishna is the supreme substance," he thought, "and sakti and
saktiman are non-different, even if sakti becomes separated from
saktiman, how can sakti be called parodha (married to a gopa other
than Krishna), and Krishna be called upapati (paramour)?"
At first he thought, "Tomorrow I will ask Shri Gurudeva the
question and have my doubt removed," but then he thought, "It
would be improper to ask Gurudeva anything further about Goloka.
Still, it must be cleared."
Pondering in this way, he finally fell asleep. While asleep, he
dreamt that he was in the presence of his Gurudeva, and in order
to vanquish his doubt, he was asking the very question that had
preoccupied him just before he fell asleep. Gurudeva replied, "Baba
Vijaya, Krishna is fully independent in all activities, and His unimpeded
desires are not dependent on the desires of others. His eternal
desire is that His aisvarya should be concealed and His
madhurya should be manifested. Accordingly, He assigns to His sakti
an existence separate from Himself. Consequently, His para-sakti
assumes the form of millions of attractive young gopis, all endeavoring
to render Him various services. Still Krishna is not fully satisfied
by His sakti's service while it is influenced by knowledge of
His opulence. Therefore by the wonderful influence of His
yogamaya-sakti, He provides those beautiful gopis with the
abhimana (self-conception) that they belong to separate households.
That is to say, through the influence of that sakti (yogamaya),
they consider themselves the wives of others, and simultaneously,
Krishna also assumes the relationship as their upapati (paramour).
"Out of lobha (greed) for parakiya-rasa, Krishna transcends His
atmarama-dharma (self-satisfied nature) and performs varieties of
wonderful lilas, such as rasa-lila, with those young gopis, who implicitly
believe that they are married to others. Vamsi is His priyasakhi
(dear friend) in accomplishing this activity. In order that
Krishna taste these special features the eternal parakiya-bhava is established
in Goloka. For this reason, all the pastime-forests of
Goloka and the sites of Krishna's loving play, such as Vrndavana,
remain eternally present. All the lila-sthanas (places of pastimes)
in Vraja - such as the arena of the rasa, Yamuna and Giri-Govardhana
- are in Goloka, and in this way, the moods of being married
(dampatya-bhava), and of being faithful to one's husband
(svakiyatva-bhava) are present there. Suddha-svakiyatva, the pure
conjugal mood reigns splendidly in Vaikuntha. The qualities of
svakiya and parakiya are thus considered to be inconceivably different
"Just see, this subject is so astounding. In Goloka, parakiya-bhava
is present only as abhimana (a conception). In Vraja, it appears to
be like an affair with another's wife, but there is actually no adultery
because the young gopis are Krishna's own sakti. Krishna is united
with them from the beginning of time; therefore, their fundamental
quality is actually perfect faithfulness to one's husband
(svakiyatva) and the quality of being married (dampatya). The gopas
such as Abhimanyu are special avataras of their respective conceptions
in Goloka. They become husbands to nourish Krishna's lila
and to make Him the leader of vilasa (pastimes) on the stage of
Vraja in the mood of an upapati. In Goloka, which is far beyond
the material world, rasa is nourished only by this conception.
Within the material universe in Gokula, all the conceptions manifest
their individual existences and assume bodies by yogamaya's
influence in order to create the experience of being married, and
then to transgress the codes of marital conduct. All this is accomplished
by the actions of yogamaya."
When Vijaya Kumara had thus heard svakiya and parakiya-tattva
explained by Gurudeva in his dream, his doubts were dispelled.
Goloka, beyond the mundane world, is factually the selfsame
bhauma (earthly) Gokula - his conviction in this fact became
steadfast, and the supremely blissful identity of vraja-rasa arose in
his heart. At the same time, he felt an awakening of implicit faith
in the nitya-asta-kaliya-lila of Vraja. Rising early the next morning,
he thought, "Shri Gurudeva has shown me unlimitedly mercy.
Now I will hear from him about the components of rasa and then
attain nistha in bhajana."
Vijaya Kumara honored prasada and came before his Gurudeva
at the prearranged time. Shedding tears of prema, he offered his
pranama. Gurudeva lovingly embraced him and said, "Baba, Krishna
has favored you with His genuine mercy. Thus I have become fortunate
simply by seeing you." As he said this, the powerful influence
of prema made his mind unsteady.
After a short time, when Gosvamiji regained external perception,
Vijaya Kumara offered his sastanga-pranama, and said,
"Prabhu, I do not know Krishna's mercy; I only know your mercy.
Now I have given up trying to realize Goloka. I am fully satisfied in
the endeavor to attain realization of Vraja. I want to thoroughly
understand the fascinating varieties of vraja-rasa. Kindly tell me,
can the unmarried gopis who maintained the mood that Krishna was
their husband be called svakiya or not?"
Gosvami: Those unmarried gopis of Gokula were svakiya at that
time because of their nistha in the mood of approaching Krishna as
their husband, but their intrinsic mood is parakiya. Although their
svakiya mood is not natural, their svakiya relationship is perfected
in that particular condition in Gokula lila because Krishna accepted
them as His wives by the gandharva-vivaha-riti (the custom of
marriage by the exchange of garlands).
Vijaya: Prabhu, in due course, I will ask many questions, one after
the other. I want to understand all the topics of Shri Ujjvala-nilamani
in the sequence in which they have been presented. First, I wish
to learn all about nayaka (heroes). There are four types of nayaka,
namely, anukula, daksina, satha and dhrsta. Please describe the
anukula (favorable) nayaka.
Gosvami: The anukula-nayaka is He who gives up the desire for
other attractive maidens because of extreme attachment to only
one nayika (heroine). The bhava of Shri Ramacandraji towards Shri
Sita-devi and of Shri Krishna towards Shrimati Radhikaji is that of
Vijaya: I want to know the identity of the various bhavas - such as
anukula - of the four types of nayaka, such as dhirodatta. Kindly
describe the symptoms of the dhirodatta-anukula-nayaka.
Gosvami: The dhirodatta-anukula-nayaka is grave, humble, forgiving,
compassionate, resolute, steadfast in his vows, free from vanity,
modest and extremely munificent. Still, He renounces all
those qualities for the sake of His nayika, and goes to meet with
her in secret.
Vijaya: Please tell me the symptoms of dhira-lalita-anukula-nayaka.
Gosvami: The dhira-lalita-nayaka is by nature a connoisseur of rasa,
ever-youthful, expert in joking, and free from anxiety. The dhiralalita-
anukula-nayaka has all these, combined with the symptom
of enjoying uninterrupted pleasure.
Vijaya: What is dhira-santa-anukula-nayaka?
Gosvami: The dhira-santa-anukula-nayaka is naturally serene and
tolerant, wise, and considerate.
Vijaya: Kindly explain the symptoms of the dhiroddhata-anukulanayaka.
Gosvami: When the nayaka who is envious, proud, deceitful, easily
angered, and boastful is favorable, He is called dhiroddhataanukula-
Vijaya: What is a daksina-nayaka?
Gosvami: The word daksina means "simple and honest." A daksinanayaka
is He who does not give up respect, awe, and submissive
love for His previous beloved, even when He gives His heart to
another nayika. One who is equally disposed towards many heroines
is also called a daksina-nayaka.
Vijaya: What are the symptoms of a satha-nayaka?
Gosvami: A satha-nayaka is endearing in the presence of His beloved,
but He secretly commits grave offenses by acting in an unloving
manner behind her back.
Vijaya: What are the characteristics of a dhrsta-nayaka?
Gosvami: A dhrsta-nayaka is completely fearless and expert at lying,
even though everyone can clearly see the signs of His having
enjoyed the company of another beloved.
Vijaya: Prabhu, how many different types of nayaka are there altogether?
Gosvami: As far as we are concerned, Krishna is the only nayaka. There
is no one besides Him. That one Krishna is purna (perfect) in
Dvaraka, purnatara (more perfect) in Mathura, and purnatama
(most perfect) in Vraja. He is both pati (husband) and upapati (paramour)
in all three of these places. Thus He is (2x3)= 6 types of
nayaka. Furthermore, because of the four categories beginning with
dhirodatta, He embodies (6x4) = 24 types. Then again, these types
are divided into anukula, daksina, satha and dhrsta, so there are
(24x4)= 96 types of nayaka. Now you should know that there are
24 types of nayaka in svakiya-rasa, and 24 types of nayaka again in
parakiya-rasa. In vraja-lila, svakiya-rasa is a contracted bhava, and
parakiya-rasa predominates. Thus, the 24 types of nayaka in
parakiya-rasa are eternally and splendidly manifest in Shri Krishna in
Vraja. He is perceived as whatever type of nayaka is necessary to
perform any particular part in any aspect of a lila.
Vijaya: Prabhu, I have realized the various qualities of nayaka and
nayika. Now I want to know how many types of assistants (sahayaka)
the nayaka has.
Gosvami: The nayaka has five types of assistants, namely ceta, vita,
vidusaka, pitha-mardda, and priya-narma-sakha. They are all expert
in using joking words; they are always intensely devoted to Krishna
with anuraga (deep love); they know how to behave according to
the occasion and circumstance; they are expert; and they are adept
in the art of pleasing the gopis when they become angry, as well as
giving confidential advice. All five types of assistants have these
Vijaya: What are the attributes of the ceta assistants?
Gosvami: They are expert in discovering anything, they perform
secret tasks, and their disposition is somewhat bold and arrogant.
In Gokula, sakhas such as Bhangura and Bhrngara perform the
activities of Krishna's ceta.
Vijaya: Who are called vita?
Gosvami: Krishna's vita, such as Kadara and Bharati Bandha, are
extremely talented in activities such as dressing and decorating
Krishna. They are cunning, skilled in conversation and expert in
Vijaya: Who are the vidusakas?
Gosvami: The vidusakas are fond of eating and quarreling. They
are expert at making others laugh with their comical gestures,
words and dress. Madhumangala and gopas such as Vasanta are
prominent among Krishna's vidusakas.
Vijaya: Who is in the category of pitha-mardda?
Gosvami: Shridama is Krishna's pitha-mardda. Though his qualities
are just like those of a nayaka, he conducts all his activities according
to the order of the nayaka.
Vijaya: What are the symptoms of the priya-narma-sakhas?
Gosvami: They are privy to extremely confidential secrets and have
taken shelter of the bhavas of the sakhis. Subala and Arjuna are
prominent among Krishna's priya-narma-sakhas. Thus they are the
best of all Krishna's friends. Among these five - ceta, vita, vidusaka,
pitha-mardda and priya-narma-sakha - the cetas are in dasya-rasa,
the pitha-marddas are in vira-rasa, and the rest are in sakhya-rasa.
The cetas are servants (kinkara) and the other four are sakhas.
Vijaya: Are there no female assistants (sahayakas)?
Gosvami: Yes, there are, and they are called dutis (messengers).
Vijaya: How many types of duti are there?
Gosvami: There are two kinds: svayam-duti and apta-duti. Kataksa
(the sidelong glance) and vamsi-dhvani (the sound of Krishna's flute)
Vijaya: Aha! Who are the apta-dutis?
Gosvami: Vira is proficient in speaking bold words, and Vrnda is
expert in persuasive flattery. They are both Shri Krishna's apta-dutis.
The svayam-dutis and apta-dutis are extraordinary dutis. Apart from
them, there are ordinary messengers such as lingini, daiva-jna and
silpa-karini. I will describe them elaborately later in the context
of nayikas and dutis.
Vijaya: I have understood the mood and attributes of Shri Krishna as
nayaka, and I have also heard that Shri Krishna performs nitya-lila in
both pati and upapati bhava. He performs pastimes in Dvaraka in
pati-bhava, and in vraja-puri in upapati-bhava. Our Krishna is upapati,
so it is essential for us to know about the vraja-ramanis, the charming
Gosvami: Most of the damsels of Vraja with whom Vrajendranandana
Syamasundara performs pastimes are in parakiya-bhava,
because madhura-rasa does not fully develop without parakiya. The
rasa of the charming ladies of Dvaraka-puri remains limited by
their marital relationship, whereas the rasa of the female residents
of Vraja, who possess that suddha-kama from which Krishna derives
the utmost happiness, is unrestricted (akuntha).
Vijaya: What is the purport of this?
Gosvami: Shri Rudra, who is highly knowledgeable in the subject
of srngara-rasa, states that the supreme weapons of Kandarpa (Cupid)
are obstacles such as the contrary moods of women (vamata),
and the extreme difficulty in meeting with women (durlabhata)
because of the prohibitions that society imposes. Canakya Pandita
has stated that the nayaka's heart becomes more deeply attached
when He is forbidden to meet His beloved and when the doe-eyed
beloved is difficult to attain. Look! Although Krishna is atmarama,
at the time of rasa-lila, He manifested Himself in as many svarupas
as there were gopis, and then performed lila with them. Every
sadhaka should follow rasa-lila. Here the special instruction is that,
if the sadhakas desire auspiciousness, they should enter this rasalila
as a bhakta, but they should never imitate Krishna. In other words,
they should enter this lila only by becoming a follower of a gopi, by
adopting the mood of gopi-bhava.
Vijaya: Can you kindly explain more elaborately the subject of
Gosvami: Nandanandana Krishna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, is a
gopa, and He does not perform amorous pastimes with anyone except
with the gopis. The sadhaka who is eligible for srngara-rasa
should engage in krishna-bhajana with the same bhava with which
the gopis render loving service to Shri Krishna. In the course of his
bhajana, the sadhaka should meditate on himself as a vraja-gopi. The
sadhaka should consider himself the maidservant of some extremely
fortunate vraja-vasini (female resident of Vraja), and under
her guidance, should render services to Radha-Krishna. One
cannot possibly awaken rasa unless one considers oneself parodha,
that is, married to a gopa other than Krishna. It is this parodha-
abhimana, the self-conception of being married to a gopa other than
Krishna, that is the specific dharma of the vraja-gopis. Shri Rupa
Gosvami has written:
na jatu vrajadevinam patibhih saha sangamah
Krishna vallabha prakarana (19)
The vraja-devis who, through the influence of yogamaya,
consider themselves married to gopas other than Krishna,
never come in physical contact with their dharmika wedded
husbands. At the time of the gopis' abhisara (rendezvous
with Krishna) and so on, the gopas in their houses see forms
of the gopis that exactly resemble their own wives. These
forms are fabricated by yogamaya so that the gopas will think
to themselves, "Our wives are right here at home," and they
never have any opportunity to be jealous or to feel enmity
The vraja-devis never had physical contact with their lawfullywedded
husbands, who were all contrived by yogamaya. Each of
the vraja-gopis' husbands is only the manifestation from their respective
bhavas in the Goloka lila. Their marriages are also nothing
but an implicit conviction created by yogamaya. The gopis are
not actually married to other gopas, but the abhimana, or self-conception,
of being married to other gopas is eternally present. If it
were not so, it would naturally be impossible for the unprecedented
parakiya-rasa to manifest because of contrariness (vamata), inaccessibility
(durlabhata), obstructions, social prohibitions, fear and
so on. The nayika-bhava of vraja-rasa cannot be attained without
such a conception. Laksmiji of Vaikuntha is an example of this.
Vijaya: What is the bhava of knowing oneself as parodha?
Gosvami: A gopi thinks, "I am a girl who was born in the house of
a vraja-gopa, and when I grew up to be a young adolescent, I was
given in marriage to a youthful gopa." Only through this type of
conviction does the intense yearning to meet intimately with
Krishna become powerful. Gopi-bhava means to attribute (aropa) to
oneself the mood of being a gopa's wife who has not yet given birth
to a child.
Vijaya: If the sadhaka is male, how can he attribute gopi-bhava to
Gosvami: People only consider themselves male because they are
under the influence of the illusory nature imposed by maya. Except
for Krishna's eternal male associates, the pure, inherent spiritual
nature of all others is female. Really, there are no male and
female characteristics in the spiritual structure, but the sadhaka
can attain eligibility to be a vraja-vasini when he is impelled by
svabhava and a steadfast abhimana. Only those who have ruci for
madhura-rasa are eligible to become vraja-vasinis. If one performs
sadhana according to one's ruci, one will attain a perfected state
that corresponds exactly to the nature of that sadhana.
Vijaya: What are the glories of being a gopi married to a gopa other
Gosvami: The vraja-gopis who are married to others naturally become
mines of superabundant beauty and extraordinarily powerful
transcendental virtues when the intense hankering to meet
intimately with Krishna arises in their hearts. They also become
decorated with the exquisite loveliness of prema. The sweetness
of their rasa exceeds that of all the saktis of Bhagavan, headed by
the goddess of fortune Laksmi.
Vijaya: How many kinds of vraja-sundari (beautiful damsels) are
Gosvami: There are three types: sadhana-para, devi, and nityapriya.
Vijaya: Are there also different types of sadhana-para-sundari?
Gosvami: Yes, there are two types of sadhana-para-sundari: yauthiki
Vijaya: Who are the yauthiki?
Gosvami: The yauthiki sundaris have taken birth in Vraja together
in a group, after being absorbed in the sadhana for vraja-rasa. In
other words, they are members of a particular group. There are two
kinds of yauthiki: muni-gana and upanisad-gana.
Vijaya: Which munis have taken birth in Vraja as gopis?
Gosvami: Some munis offered worship to Gopala, but were unable
to attain siddhi (perfection). After having darsana of Shri
Ramacandra's beauty, they further endeavored in sadhana in accordance
with their cherished desire. Thus, they accepted gopibhava
and took birth as gopis. Padma Purana refers to them in this
way, and Brhad-Vamana Purana states that some of them attained
perfection at the beginning of the rasa-lila.
Vijaya: How did the Upanisads take birth as gopis in Vraja?
Gosvami: The Maha-Upanisads personified, who were gifted with
extremely fine discrimination, became thoroughly astonished
when they saw the gopis' good fortune, and after performing severe
austerities with sraddha, they attained birth in Vraja as gopis.
Vijaya: Who are ayauthiki?
Gosvami: There are two types of sundaris celebrated by the name
ayauthiki: long-standing (pracina) and new (navina). They are exceptionally
attached to gopi-bhava, and perform sadhana with intense
eagerness and natural anuraga. Some take birth alone, and
others in groups of two, three, or even more at the same time. The
pracina ayauthiki-gopis attained salokya (living on the same planet)
together with the nitya-priya gopis a long time ago. The navinaayauthiki
gopis come to Vraja by taking birth in the species of devas,
humans, and other beings. They gradually become pracina, and
attain salokya in the way I have already mentioned.
Vijaya: I have understood the subject of sadhana-para. Now please
be so kind as to explain to me about the devis.
Gosvami: When Krishna descends among the devas in Svarga by His
amsa, amsas of His nitya-kantas also manifest as devis in order to
satisfy Him. Those very devis take birth in krishna-lila as the daughters
of gopas and become the prana-sakhis of the nitya-priya-gopis
of whom they are amsas - in other words, of their own amsanis.
Vijaya: Prabhu, when does Krishna take birth by His amsa in the
species of devas?
Gosvami: Krishna takes birth from Aditi's womb by His svamsa form
as Vamana, and by His vibhinnamsas (separated expansions), He
becomes the devatas. Siva and Brahma are not born from the womb
of a mother, and although they are not in the category of ordinary
jivas who have fifty qualities to a minute degree, they are still only
vibhinnamsa. Those fifty qualities are certainly present in Brahma
and Siva to a somewhat greater extent, and in addition they have
five more qualities that are not found in the ordinary jivas. Therefore,
these two are called the chief devatas. Ganesa and Surya are
also situated in the same category as Brahma for the same reason,
but all the other devas are classified as jivas . All the devatas are
Krishna's vibhinnamsas, and their wives (devis) are the vibhinnamsas
of cit-sakti. Just before Krishna's appearance, Brahma ordered them
to take birth to satisfy Krishna, and following his order some of them
took birth in Vraja and others in Dvaraka, according to their different
tastes and sadhana. The devis who take birth in Vraja because
of intense eagerness to attain Krishna are the prana-sakhis of
Vijaya: Prabhu, the Upanisads attained birth as gopis, but kindly
tell me, do any other presiding devis of the Vedas also accept birth
Gosvami: It is written in the srsti-khanda of Padma Purana that
Gayatri, who is Veda-mata, the mother of the Vedas, also took birth
as a gopi and attained Shri Krishna's association. From that time, she
assumed the form of kama-gayatri.
Vijaya: But isn't kama-gayatri without any beginning (anadi)?
Gosvami: Kama-gayatri is certainly anadi, and this anadi-gayatri
first manifested in the form of Veda-mata. Later, by the influence
of sadhana, and seeing the good fortune of many Upanisads, she
took birth in Vraja along with the Gopala Upanisad. Although the
form of kama-gayatri is eternal, she exists splendidly in an eternal
and separate form as Veda-mata Gayatri.
Vijaya: All those, such as the Upanisads, who took birth in Vraja
had the abhimana of being the daughters of gopas, and they accepted
Krishna as their own husband with the conception that He
was a gopa-nayaka. Krishna became their husband at that time by
the custom of gandharva-vivaha. I have understood this much. However,
Krishna's eternal beloved consorts are His associates from time
without beginning, so is Krishna's relationship of upapati with them
only a contrivance of maya?
Gosvami: It is certainly one type of creation of maya, but not of
jada-maya, the illusory energy exhibited in the material world.
Jada-maya can never touch krishna-lila. Although vraja-lila is within
the material world, it is completely beyond the jurisdiction of jadamaya.
Another name for cit-sakti is yogamaya, and in krishna-lila this
very yogamaya acts in such a way that one who is influenced by
jada-maya sees that krishna-lila in an external form. Yogamaya brings
to Vraja the parodha-abhimana of Goloka with each of the nityapriyas,
and gives that abhimana form a separate individual existence.
Then, by arranging for the marriages between the nitya-priyagopis
and those separate existences,1 she makes Krishna upapati.
1 All the abhimanas of Goloka are manifest in tangible forms in
Vraja, such as Abhimanyu.
The omniscient purusa and the all-knowing saktis who are absorbed
in their respective rasa accept these bhavas. This indicates
the superiority of rasa and the super-excellence of the fully independent
iccha-sakti. There is no such eminence in Vaikuntha and
Dvaraka. When the prana-sakhis attain salokya along with the nityapriya
gopis, their restricted pati-bhava broadens and becomes
upapati-bhava. This is their ultimate achievement.
Vijaya: This siddhanta is quite extraordinary. My heart has become
refreshed. Now kindly explain to me about the nitya-priya gopis.
Gosvami: Shri Gaurachandra could not have revealed such esoteric
principles through my mouth if there were no qualified listener
present such as your good self. Look here, in various places, Shri
Jiva Gosvami, who is all-knowing (sarva-jna), has deliberated on
this subject in a very confidential manner, which one can understand
by reading his commentaries and literatures such as Krishnasandarbha.
Shri Jiva Gosvami was always afraid that if unqualified
persons came to know about these very esoteric principles, they
might later take shelter of a corrupted form of dharma. At that time,
Shri Jiva Gosvami felt anxious about all the faults, such as rasabhasa
and the distortion of rasa, that are seen in so-called Vaishnavas today.
He could not prevent this misfortune, although he was so
careful. You should not speak this siddhanta in the presence of
others, except for those who are qualified to receive it. Now I will
describe the nitya-priya gopis.
Vijaya: Who are the nitya-priya gopis? Although in the past I have
studied many sastras, now my sole desire is to drink this nectar from
the lotus mouth of Shri Gurudeva.
Gosvami: Like Krishna, the nitya-priya gopis in Vraja are the abodes
of all qualities, such as beauty and cleverness. Radha and
Candravali are most prominent among them. They have been referred
to in the Brahma-samhita (5.37).
tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
When the ananda-amsa of the sac-cid-ananda-para-tattva
agitates the cid-amsa, and is then enthused by the separately
manifest hladini pratibha (splendor), then Shrimati
Radhika, along with Her sakhis who are all extensions of
Her spiritual form, become manifest. I perform bhajana of
that Govinda, who is the supreme, original Soul of all souls.
He eternally resides in Goloka-dhama with those damsels,
who are all endowed with the sixty-four arts.
The nitya-priya gopis have been mentioned in this statement of
Brahma, which is the essence of all the Vedas. They are nitya, which
means that they are a manifestation of cit-sakti and are thus beyond
time and space - this is truth. There, nitya-lila is an expression
of the sixty-four arts: kalabhih svamsa-rupabhih saktibhih. Although
there are different meanings given by the acaryas in other
commentaries on Brahma Samhita, I have explained Shri Svarupa
Damodara Gosvami's extremely confidential commentary. This
secret treasure is hidden in the vault of the hearts of Shri Rupa-
Sanatana and Shri Jiva Gosvamis.
Vijaya: I am intensely eager to hear the various names of the nityapriya
Gosvami: Sastras such as the Skanda Purana and Prahlada-samhita,
have mentioned names such as Radha, Candravali, Visakha, Lalita,
Syama, Padma, Saibya, Bhadrika, Tara, Vicitra, Gopali, Dhanistha,
and Pali. Another name of Candravali is Somata, and Shrimati
Radhika is also called Gandharva. Vraja-gopis such as Khanjanaksi,
Manorama, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Krishna, Sari, Visarada, Taravali,
Cakoraksi, Sankari and Kumkuma are also famous in this world.
Vijaya: What is their relationship with each other?
Gosvami: These gopis are yuthesvaris (group leaders). There are not
one or two groups, but hundreds, and in each of them, there are
hundreds of thousands of beautiful, individual gopis. All of the
above mentioned gopis, from Shrimati Radhika to Kumkuma, are
yuthesvaris. Visakha, Lalita, Padma and Saibya have been described
in the sastras more elaborately than the others. Among these
yuthesvaris, the eight gopis beginning with Radha have been called
pradhana, because they are most fortunate.
Vijaya: Visakha, Lalita, Padma, and Saibya are pradhana gopis, and
they are especially expert in nourishing Krishna's pastimes. Why
have they not been accepted as distinct yuthesvaris?
Gosvami: They are so qualified that although it would be proper
to call them yuthesvaris, Lalita and Visakha remain so enchanted
by Shrimati Radhika's supremely blissful bhava that they do not want
to call themselves independent yuthesvaris. Among them, some are
followers of Shrimati Radhika, and others are followers of
Vijaya: I have heard that Lalita has a gana (sub-group). What type
of group is it?
Gosvami: Shrimati Radhaji is prominent amongst all the yuthesvaris.
Some of the gopis in Her dependent yuthas are attracted to Shri
Lalitaji's special bhava, and call themselves Lalita gana. Other gopis
refer to themselves as Visakha gana, and so on. The asta-sakhis
headed by Lalita and Visakha are the heroines of Shrimati
Radhika's various ganas. If one is very fortunate, one can acquire
the qualification to enter Shrimati Lalita's gana.
Vijaya: In which sastra can the names of these gopis be found?
Gosvami: Their names are found in sastras such as Padma Purana,
Skanda Purana and the Uttara khanda of Bhavisya Purana. Many
names are also mentioned in Satvata-tantra.
Vijaya: Shrimad-Bhagavatam is the crest-jewel of all sastras in the
entire universe, so it would have been a matter of great joy if these
names were mentioned there.
Gosvami: Shrimad-Bhagavatam is a tattva-sastra, but it is also an ocean
of rasa. From the point of view of the rasika-bhaktas, Shrimad-
Bhagavatam is filled with the complete deliberation on rasa-tattva,
as if an ocean were contained in a single jar. Shri Radha's name and
the bhavas and identities of all the gopis have been described there
in a highly confidential way. If you reflect thoroughly upon the
slokas of the Tenth Canto, you can find everything. Shri Sukadeva
Gosvami has described this subject in a confidential way to keep
MADHURA-RASA: PARAKIYA-NAYIKAS ?? 703
unqualified people at a distance. Vijaya, what will be the result of
giving chanting beads and full and explicit descriptions to one
and all? The reader can understand the confidential topics only
as far as his conceptions are advanced. Therefore, one quality of a
genuine pandita is that he can reveal in a hidden way subjects that
are not fit to be revealed in the presence of everyone. Qualified
people understand them only as far as their adhikara allows. There
is no knowledge of the factual vastu without shri-guru-parampara.
One may acquire knowledge in other ways, but it will have no effect.
You can only attain the complete rasa of Shrimad-Bhagavatam
after thoroughly understanding Ujjvala-nilamani.
In this way, after a long period of questions and answers, that
day's istagosthi was completed. Vijaya returned to his residence,
meditating incessantly on the subjects that he had heard. As all
the vicara (considerations) in relation to nayaka and nayika awakened
in the field of his heart, he became absorbed in paramananda,
and as he remembered the discussion about vamsi and svayam-duti,
a stream of tears flowed from his eyes. At that time, the pastime
that he had seen in the grove on his way to Sundaracala the previous
night appeared vividly upon the screen of his heart.
THUS ENDS THE THIRTY-SECOND CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,