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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 31. Madhurya-Rasa: Krsna's Svarupa, the Nayaka, & Svakiya-Nayikas


C H A P T E R 3 1

Madhurya-Rasa: Krishna's Svarupa,

the Nayaka, & Svakiya-Nayikas


It was a very pleasant time in the autumn season. One night, at

about ten o'clock, the earth had put on a sari of cool and gentle

moonlight, and her beauty had become intensely attractive. Vijaya

Kumara was reading Ujjvala-nilamani and pondering deeply on the

subject matter when his gaze suddenly fell upon the auspicious

radiance of the moonlight. His heart became filled with an indescribable

rapture, and he thought, "This is a very beautiful time.

Why not go immediately and have darsana of Sundaracala? I have

heard that whenever Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had darsana of

Sundaracala, He saw a sphurti of vraja-dhama." Thinking like this,

he set off alone in the direction of Sundaracala. By this time, Vijaya

Kumara was taking instructions in the practice of bhajana in pure

madhura-rasa. His thoughts only flowed towards hearing about

Krishna's vraja-lila and specifically, Shri Krishna's pastimes with the

gopis; any other topics had become tasteless to him.


He passed Balagandi and made his way towards Sraddhabali. As

he saw the small forests on either side, a sphurti of Vrndavana

manifested before his eyes. He became overwhelmed with prema,

and said, "Aho! I am so very fortunate! I am having darsana of that

vraja-bhumi, which is extremely difficult to attain, even for the

devatas such as Brahma. How beautiful these forest bowers are!

Look at this kunja-vana! Oh! What am I seeing? Within this

mandapa of madhavi-malati creepers, the master of my life, Shri Krishna,

is sitting with the gopis and laughing and joking with them!" Vijaya

Kumara became very restless. Abandoning fear and consideration

of formalities, he ran at full speed in that direction, not even aware

of his body and mind. However, after going just a short distance,

he fainted and fell to the ground unconscious. A gentle breeze

began to serve him, and after a short time he regained his external

senses. He looked in all directions, but the vision was nowhere to

be seen. After some time, he returned to his dwelling, grief-stricken,

and lay down on his bed without saying anything to anyone.


Vijaya was exceedingly delighted by the sphurti of vraja-lila. In

his heart, he thought, "Tomorrow, at the lotus feet of Shri Gurudeva,

I will submit a description of the confidential mystery that I have

seen tonight." However, the next moment he recalled that one

should not tell others, if by great fortune one happens to see the

confidential aprakrta-lila. Reflecting like this, he gradually fell



The next day, after honoring prasada, he went to the house of

Kasi Misra, offered his sastanga pranama to his Gurudeva, and sat

before him. Shri Gurudeva embraced him affectionately and inquired

about his well-being.


Vijaya Kumara was very happy to see his Gurudeva. Composing

himself, he said, "Prabhu, by your unlimited grace my human life

has become successful. Now, I long to know some confidential

tattvas in regard to shri-ujjvala-rasa. I have been reading Ujjvalanilamani,

and there are certain parts whose purport I cannot comprehend.

May I ask you some questions about it?


Gosvami: Vijaya, you are my beloved disciple. You are quite welcome

to ask whatever questions you wish to, and I will try to answer

them as far as I can.


Vijaya: Prabhu, of the mukhya rasas, madhura-rasa has been called

the rasa that gives rise to an abundance of mysteries. And why not?

Since the qualities of the other four rasas - santa, dasya, sakhya,

and vatsalya - are eternally present in madhura-rasa, whatever

astonishing and wonderful qualities they lack are perfectly and

beautifully established in madhura-rasa. Consequently, madhurarasa

is without any doubt superior to all others. Madhura-rasa is

quite inappropriate for those who take shelter of the path of impersonal

renunciation, because their hearts are dry. At the same

time, those who are attracted to mundane sense gratification also

find madhura-rasa difficult to understand, because it is exactly the

opposite of mundane nature. The madhura-rasa of Vraja is not easy

to attain because it is completely different from srngara-rasa within

the material world. So why does the aprakrta-madhura-rasa appear

just like the despicable mundane rasa between men and women in

material existence?


Gosvami: Vijaya, you know well that all the varieties in the mundane

sphere are a reflection of the varieties in the transcendental

sphere, and the material world itself is also the reflection of the

spiritual world. There is a profound secret in this, namely, that

the nature of the reflected experience is naturally reversed. Whatever

is most exalted in the original existence or form becomes most

abominable in the reflection, and whatever is lowest in the original

form is seen as highest in its reflected existence. Every part

and limb of a body appears in a reversed form in its reflection in a

mirror; similarly, the parama-vastu (supreme transcendental Reality)

is reflected by the influence of His own inconceivable sakti. The

shadow of that sakti has expanded itself in full detail in the form of

mundane existence. Consequently, all the characteristics of the

parama-vastu appear in their reversed form in material existence.


Transcendental rasa, which is the very nature of parama-vastu,

is reflected in this insentient material world as the abominable,

mundane rasa. The astonishing, matchless, variegated happiness

in the parama-vastu is its own innate rasa, but when it is reflected

in the inert plane, the conditioned jiva imagines that this principle

has material designations and attributes. He then decides

that the spiritual substance is only formless and featureless

(nirvisesa), and imagines that, since variety is absent in the

nirvisesa-tattva, all kinds of variety must be essentially mundane.

Consequently, he cannot comprehend the eternal nature of transcendental

existence, which is free from all material attributes

because it is totally beyond them. This is the inevitable result of

using logic to try to understand the truth.


Actually, the parama-vastu is full of astonishing varieties because

it is the embodiment of all rasa. Since spiritual varieties are

reflected in mundane rasa, one can take help from the varieties of

mundane rasa to infer the existence and qualities of the spiritual

rasa that is beyond one's sense perception. The varieties of rasa in

the parama-vastu are as follows: In the spiritual world, the santadharma

that embodies santa-rasa is in the lowest position; above

this is dasya-rasa, and above that sakhya-rasa; above sakhya-rasa is

vatsalya-rasa; and madhura-rasa reigns splendidly above all. In the

material world, everything is in the reversed order, so madhurarasa

is on the lowest level, vatsalya is above it, sakhya is above

vatsalya, and santa-rasa is the highest of all.


The position and activities of the reflection of madhura-rasa in

the mundane world are extremely petty and shameful. Consequently,

people who deliberate on rasa-tattva from the mundane

perspective conclude that madhura-rasa is wretched and contemptible.

Actually, in the spiritual world, it is completely pure, immaculate

and full of astonishing sweetness. There the meeting of Krishna

with His various types of sakti as purusa-prakrti is completely pure

and the origin of all truth.


In the material world, the mundane behavior between men and

women is indeed shameful. However, there is no transgression of

dharma in the spiritual world because Krishna is the only purusa and

all the cit-tattvas in this rasa are prakrti. In the material world, one

jiva becomes the enjoyer and another jiva becomes the enjoyed,

and they want to relate with each other in that way. This affair

becomes abhorrent and shameful because it is completely opposed

to fundamental tattva. In tattva, one jiva is not the enjoyer of another

jiva. On the contrary, Shri Krishna is the only enjoyer and all

jivas are to be enjoyed by Him. The situation in which the jiva becomes

the enjoyer is against his eternal dharma. Actually, there is

no doubt that this state of affairs is utterly shameful and despicable.

From the perspective of reality and its reflection, it is inevitable

that the behavior of mundane men and women will appear to be

identical to Krishna's immaculate pastimes, even though one is thoroughly

base and the other is supremely valuable and meaningful.


Vijaya: Prabhu, now that I have heard this unprecedented

siddhanta and conception, my purpose has been accomplished. My

self-evident conviction has now become firm and all my doubts

are dispelled. I have now understood the position of madhura-rasa

within the spiritual world. Aho! Just as the very word madhurarasa

means sweet, its transcendental bhava also gives rise to such

supreme bliss (paramananda). Who is so unfortunate as one who

finds satisfaction in santa-rasa when there is a rasa such as madhurarasa?

Prabhu, I wish to hear the elaborate and full explanation of

the philosophy and principles of the confidential madhura-rasa.


Gosvami: Listen, Baba! Krishna is the visaya of madhura-rasa, His

dearly beloved gopis are the asraya, and both together are the

alambana of this rasa.


Vijaya: What is the beautiful form of Krishna as the visaya of this



Gosvami: Aho, what a sweet question! Krishna's complexion is the

hue of a monsoon cloud. He is charming and sweet, and He has all

auspicious bodily characteristics. He is a strong, budding youth,

and an eloquent and endearing speaker. He is intelligent, splendid,

sober, skillful, clever, happy, grateful, sincere, and He is controlled

by love. He is profound, super-excellent, and famous. He

steals the hearts of young damsels, and He is ever-fresh. He enjoys

incomparable pastimes, He is exquisitely beautiful, and He is the

most dearly beloved who plays upon His vamsi. Krishna is the only

person who has these qualities. The beauty of His two lotus feet

has crushed to dust Kandarpa's pride. His sidelong glance enchants

the hearts of all, and He is a treasury of playful pastimes.


Vijaya: I have fully realized that Shri Krishna with His aprakrta form

and qualities is the only nayaka of the supremely wonderful, transcendental

madhura-rasa. Previously, I studied various sastras, and

I used logic and reasoning to meditate on the form of Krishna, but

my faith in His form did not become firmly established. However,

through your mercy, bhakti based on ruci has arisen within my heart.

Since my heart has been purified by devotion, I am continuously

experiencing the sphurti of Krishna there, day and night. Even

though I leave Krishna, Krishna does not leave my heart. Aho! How

merciful He is! Now I really understand:


sarvathaiva duruho 'yam abhaktair bhagavad-rasah

tat-padambuja-sarvasvair bhaktair evanurasyate

vyatitya bhavana-vartma yas camatkara-bhara-bhuh

hrdi sattvojjvale badham svadate sa raso matah


(Southern Division 5.78-79)


Only the suddha-bhaktas who accept Shri Krishna's lotus feet

as their all-in-all can experience this bhagavad-rasa. One

can never experience this rasa or realize it if his heart does

not have the slightest scent of bhakti, if he is full of mundane

sentiments, or if his samskaras have molded his nature

so that he is addicted to logic.


Prabhu, I have realized that rasa is the supremely pure and wondrous

bhava that arises in the heart when it is illuminated by

suddha-sattva, and that it transcends the limit of a human being's

power of contemplation. Rasa is the entity of the spiritual world,

and it is absent in the mundane world. It manifests upon the pure

existence (satta) of the jiva who is by nature an atomic particle of

consciousness (cit-kana). This rasa is experienced in the state of

bhakti-samadhi. One who has Shri Gurudeva's mercy and can discriminate

between suddha-sattva (pure goodness) and misra-sattva

(mixed goodness) will have no doubt about this at all.


Gosvami: What you have said is absolutely true. Now, I will ask

you a question to dispel many of your doubts. Simply by answering

it, you will realize a transcendental tattva. Tell me, what is the difference

between suddha-sattva and misra-sattva?


Vijaya Kumara offered sastanga-dandavat-pranama at Shri

Gurudeva's feet, and said humbly, "Prabhu, by your mercy, I will

explain it to the best of my ability. Please correct me if I make any

mistake. That which has existence is called satta, and a substance

that has an actual position, form, quality and activity can be

called sattva. Suddha-sattva is sattva that has no beginning or end,

and whose form is eternally new. It is not contaminated by the

divisions of past and future time, and it always remains thoroughly

astonishing. Suddha-sattva includes all aspects of existence

that are the products of the pure spiritual energy (suddhacit-



"In maya, which is the shadow of the cit-sakti, there is transformation

of time as past and future. All aspects of existence in this

maya contain the rajo-dharma (function of the mode of passion)

of maya, for they have a beginning. They also contain the tamodharma

(function of the mode of ignorance) for they have an end.

Misra-sattva refers to aspects of mayika-sattva that have a beginning

and an end.


"Now, the pure jiva is suddha-sattva, and his form, qualities, and

activities are also composed of suddha-sattva. However, since the

suddha-jiva was conditioned, the two qualities of maya - rajo-guna

and tamo-guna - have become mixed with his pure sattva. Therefore

the conditioned jiva is called misra-sattva (mixed existence or

mixed goodness).


Gosvami: Baba, you have presented an extremely subtle siddhanta.

Now tell me, how is the heart of the jiva illuminated by suddha-sattva?


Vijaya: The suddha-sattva (pure existence) of the jiva does not

manifest clearly as long as he remains conditioned in the material

world. He realizes his svarupa to the extent that this suddha-sattva

arises, but he cannot attain this result by any sadhana of karma or

jnana. The reason is as follows. No bodily impurity can be eradicated

by another substance that is itself impure. Mundane karma

is impure by nature, so how can it remove the contamination of

mayika impurity on the jiva? As for jnana, it is like fire, for it burns

the impurity and at the same time it obliterates the fundamental

sattva (existence) along with it. How can this give rise to the happiness

that comes from having cleansed the impurity? Thus,

suddha-sattva can only appear through bhakti, which arises by the

mercy of Krishna and the Vaishnavas. When bhakti appears, suddhasattva

illuminates the heart.


Gosvami: It is a pleasure to give instructions to a person as qualified

as you. Now, what else do you wish to inquire about?


Vijaya: You have already explained that there are four types of

nayaka: dhirodatta, dhira-lalita, dhira-santa, and dhiroddhata. Which

one of these is Krishna?


Gosvami: All of these four types of heroic characteristics are present

in Krishna. The mutually contradictory bhavas that are seen in these

four types of nayaka are all present in nayaka Krishna, through His

acintya-sakti, and He has the sakti to maintain all the rasas at once.

These bhavas act according to Krishna's desire. Krishna, who is endowed

with the characteristics of all four types of nayaka, also has another

fascinating and secret peculiarity, which only extraordinarily

qualified persons are eligible to know.


Vijaya: Since you have already bestowed your great mercy upon

me, kindly tell me this tattva also.


Vijaya Kumara's eyes filled with tears as he said this, and he fell

at Gosvamiji's feet. Gosvamiji lifted him up and embraced him.

His own eyes also filled with tears, as he said in a voice choked

with emotion, "Baba, the confidential mystery is that in madhuraMADHURA-

rasa Krishna is two distinct types of nayaka: He is husband (pati) and

paramour (upapati) as well."


Vijaya: Prabhu! Krishna is our eternal pati. He should only be called

pati, so why is there the relationship of upapati?


Gosvami: This is a profound mystery. Spiritual affairs are like mysterious

jewels, but among them parakiya-madhura-rasa is like the



Vijaya: Bhaktas who have taken shelter of madhura-rasa engage in

bhajana with the bhava that Krishna is their pati. What is the deep

import of considering Krishna one's upapati?


Gosvami: No rasa whatsoever appears if one conceives of para-tattva

as impersonal and worships it in an impersonal mood (nirvisesabhava).

This process denies the validity of Vedic statements such

as raso vai sah: "That supreme Absolute Truth is the personification

of all rasa"(Chandogya Upanisad 8.13.1). Nirvisesa-bhava is

useless because of its severe lack of happiness. However, from another

angle of vision the experience of rasa can develop progressively

in accordance with the variety of savisesa-bhava. You should

understand that rasa is the primary tattva of the para-tattva. The

savisesa-bhava called isvara-bhava, in which one relates to the Supreme

as Controller, is somewhat superior to nirvisesa-bhava, and

the prabhu-bhava of dasya-rasa is higher than the isvara-bhava of

santa-rasa. Sakhya-bhava is more elevated than dasya-bhava, vatsalyabhava

is still more superior, and madhura-rasa is the topmost of all.

Just as there is a sequence among these bhavas, each being better

than the previous one, similarly parakiya-madhura-rasa is superior

to svakiya.


There are two tattvas: atma (one's own) and para (others as

asraya). The natural tendency to be fixed in the self (atma-nistha

dharma) is called atmaramata (the satisfaction from being situated

in the self), and in this atmaramata, rasa has no assistance from

any separate entity. Krishna has this quality of being eternally selfsatisfied.

However, at the same time, the quality of enjoying with

the assistance of others (pararamata-dharma) also exists in Him

eternally. The aggregate of contradictory characteristics is present

together simultaneously in parama-purusa, Shri Krishna. This is the

intrinsic and constitutional nature of the Supreme Absolute Truth

(para-tattva). In one aspect of krishna-lila there is atmaramata, while

in its counterpart, the quintessence of pararamata reigns splendidly

to its fullest extent. The summit of this pararamata is parakiyabhava.

Parakiya-rasa is the astonishing rasa that appears when the

nayaka and nayika are united by raga (attraction), even though the

relationship between them is para-bhava (bhava of accepting para

- another's consort).


From atmaramata to parakiya-madhura-rasa is the full spectrum

of rasa. As rasa is drawn in the direction of atmaramata, it gradually

becomes dry, whereas to the extent that it is drawn towards

parakiya, it attains its fully blossomed state. When Krishna is the

nayaka, parakiya-rasa can never be disgraceful, whereas if any ordinary

jiva becomes the nayaka, the consideration of dharma and

adharma arises, and parakiya-bhava then becomes extremely base.

Thus, poets have determined that the meeting between a male paramour

and a married woman is utterly contemptible. However, Shri

Rupa Gosvami has said that, although alankara-sastra has described

the upapati as detestable and contemptible, this only applies to a

mundane (prakrta) nayaka. No such conclusion can apply to Shri

Krishna, who is directly the transcendental source of all avataras.


Vijaya: Kindly tell me about the distinct characteristic of pati.


Gosvami: A pati is one who has accepted the hand of a bride in



Vijaya: Please explain the characteristics of upapati and parakiya.


Gosvami: The upapati is a man who is driven by intense attachment

to transgress dharma and accept a parakiya as his most dearly

beloved. A parakiya is a woman who neglects the dharma of this

world and the next, transgresses the regulations of marriage, and

completely offers herself to a man other than her husband. There

are two types of parakiya, namely unmarried (kanya) and married



Vijaya: What are the symptoms of svakiya?


Gosvami: A chaste woman who has been married according to the

regulative principles, and who is always absorbed in following the

orders of her husband, is called svakiya.


Vijaya: Who are svakiya and who are parakiya for Shri Krishna?


Gosvami: The married ladies of Dvaraka Puri are svakiya, and the

young gopis of Vraja are mainly parakiya.


Vijaya: Where are these two types of consort situated in the



Gosvami: This is a very confidential matter. You know that the

domain of the para-tattva comprises four quarters. Three quarters

of His opulences (vibhuti) are manifest in the spiritual realm, and

one quarter is in the mundane realm. Thus, the entire realm of

maya, consisting of fourteen planetary systems, is situated in one

quarter of His vibhuti. The River Viraja lies between the material

and spiritual worlds, the world of maya being situated on this side

of it, and the spiritual world on the other side. Brahma-dhama,

which is composed of effulgence, surrounds the spiritual world (citjagat)

on all sides. Apart from that, when one penetrates beyond

the Viraja, the spiritual sky (paravyoma) is seen as samvyoma-rupa

Vaikuntha. There, aisvarya is prominent and Narayana reigns as

the Lord of lords, attended by unlimited transcendental majestic

saktis. In Vaikuntha, Bhagavan has svakiya-rasa, and the shri, bhu,

and nila-saktis serve Him as svakiya consorts. Above Vaikuntha lies

Goloka. In Vaikuntha, the svakiya consorts of the city (pura) remain

absorbed in their respective appropriate services. In Goloka,

the young ladies of Vraja serve Krishna in their particular rasa.


Vijaya: If Goloka is Krishna's highest dhama, then why have the

wonderful glories of Vraja been extolled?


Gosvami: Places such as Vraja, Gokula and Vrndavana are within

Shri Mathura-mandala. Mathura-mandala and Goloka are non??

different from each other (abheda-tattva). When this one phenomenon

is situated in the highest region of the cit-jagat, it is

known as Goloka, and when it is manifested within this material

universe, it is known as Mathura-mandala. Thus, it is celebrated

simultaneously in these two svarupas.


Vijaya: How is that possible? I don't understand.


Gosvami: Such phenomena are possible only by Krishna's acintyasakti.

All the activities within the jurisdiction of acintya-sakti are

beyond comprehension and argument. That eternal abode of

Goloka is called Mathura-dhama in the prakata-lila within the

world of gross elements (prapanca), and this very same place is

called Goloka in aprakata-lila. Krishna's transcendental pastimes are

eternal, and Goloka is eternally manifest in the nitya-jagat. Those

who have become eligible to have darsana of the pure spiritual substance

see Goloka. Not only that, but they can have darsana of

Goloka in Gokula itself. However, the jiva whose intelligence is

material cannot attain the darsana of Goloka. Even though Gokula

is Goloka, jivas with mundane intelligence see Gokula as an ordinary

place of this material world consisting of five gross elements.


Vijaya: What is the qualification to have the darsana of Goloka?


Gosvami: Shri Sukadeva Gosvami has said:


iti sancintya bhagavan mahakaruniko vibhuh

darsayamasa svam lokam gopanam tamasah param

satyam jnanam anantam yad brahma-jyotih sanatanam

yad dhi pasyanti munayo gunapaye samahitah

Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.28.14-15)


Although the gopas are eternally perfect, they nonetheless

descend to this world as assistants in Krishna's pastimes. The

sadhana-siddha-gopas were the followers of those nityasiddha-

gopas. These sadhana-siddha-gopas thought, "Due to

ignorance, the jivas in this world identify themselves with

their material bodies. Thus they are hankering with many

types of desires, and they engage in various types of work

in order to fulfill them. As a result, they wander aimlessly

accepting repeated birth in higher and lower species. We

are also engaged in the same activity".


Considering this, the greatly compassionate Bhagavan Shri

Krishna, who has inconceivable majestic opulence, granted

to those gopas darsana of His parama-dhama, Goloka, which

is beyond the dense darkness of maya. The variety in that

dhama is eternal, absolute reality, full of unlimited spiritual

pastimes. That dhama is eternally self-illuminated with the

effulgence of brahma, and it is perceived by the hosts of sages

and sadhakas through trance in the stage beyond the influence

of the three gunas.

[above verses 10.28.14-15]


Baba, one cannot have darsana of Goloka without Krishna's mercy.

Krishna bestowed mercy on the vraja-vasis and granted them darsana

of Goloka. This Goloka is the excellent transcendental abode

beyond material nature, and its variegatedness is the embodiment

of eternal truth and endless spiritual pastimes. The spiritual

effulgence of the brahmajyoti exists there eternally as the brilliant

radiance (prabha) of His limbs. When the sadhaka is free from all

mundane connections with matter, he can have darsana of that

special tattva.


Vijaya: Can all liberated personalities have darsana of Goloka?


Gosvami: Even among millions of liberated souls, a bhakta of

Bhagavan is very rare. In brahma-dhama the jivas who become liberated

by the practice of astanga-yoga and brahma-jnana, enjoy

forgetfulness of the self. Just as a man in a state of deep sleep

(susupti) remains completely inactive, being bereft of power to

perceive, to understand, to desire and so forth, similarly, the jivas

who attain brahma-dhama are oblivious to their own atma, so they

remain like inanimate lumps. What to speak of them, even bhaktas

absorbed in aisvarya cannot see Goloka. Bhaktas with a mood of

aisvarya render service to an opulent form of the Lord in Vaikuntha

according to their respective bhavas. Even one who engages in

krishna-bhajana in vraja-rasa can only have darsana of Goloka if he is

so fortunate that Krishna bestows mercy upon him and releases him

from the maya's endless bondage.


Vijaya: Well, if only this type of liberated bhakta can see Goloka,

why has Goloka been described in sastras such as Shri Brahmasamhita,

Hari-vamsa and the Padma Purana? If Krishna's mercy is only

available through vraja-bhajana, what was the point of mentioning



Gosvami: Those vraja-rasika-bhaktas whom Krishna elevates to

Goloka from this world of five gross elements (prapanca) can see

Goloka completely. Furthermore, suddha-bhaktas in vraja-bhava can

also see Goloka to a certain extent. There are two types of bhaktas:

sadhaka and siddha. Sadhakas are not qualified to see Goloka. Again,

there are two types of siddha-bhaktas, namely vastu-siddha-bhaktas

and svarupa-siddha-bhaktas. Vastu-siddha-bhaktas are brought directly

to Goloka by Krishna's mercy, whereas svarupa-siddha-bhaktas

see the svarupa of Goloka, but they are still situated in the prapanca

(material existence), and not directly in Goloka. By Krishna's mercy,

their eyes of bhakti are in the process of gradually opening, thus

there are many grades of eligibility in this group. Some see a little,

some see something more, and others see more still. To the extent

that Krishna is merciful to them, they will see Goloka. As long as

they are in the sadhana stage of bhakti, whatever darsana they attain

of Gokula is tinged with some mayika-bhava. After crossing

the stage of sadhana and reaching the level of bhava, their darsana

is somewhat pure, and when they arrive at the stage of prema, they

begin to have darsana to the full extent.


Vijaya: Prabhu, in what respects are Goloka and Vraja different

from each other?


Gosvami: Everything that one sees in Vraja is present in Goloka,

but the various aspects appear somewhat different because of

differences in the nistha of the observer. In fact, there is no difference

between Goloka and Vrndavana; they appear differently to

different observers, depending on their different vision. Extremely

ignorant people see everything in Vraja as material. The vision of

a person in rajo-guna is somewhat more auspicious compared to

this, and those who are situated in sattva-guna have darsana of

suddha-sattva according to their ability to see. Everyone's vision

is different according to their adhikara.


Vijaya: Prabhu, I have some realization, but will you kindly give

an example to clarify the subject further? A material object cannot

serve as a complete example to illustrate spiritual subjects, but

still, even a partial indication can give rise to a full realization.


Gosvami: This is a very difficult problem. We are forbidden to reveal

our own confidential realization to others. When you also

have some confidential realization by Krishna's mercy, you should

always keep it hidden. I will explain this subject to you only as far

as our previous acaryas have revealed it, and by Krishna's mercy, you

will be able to see the rest yourself. Perception in Goloka is purely

spiritual, and there is not the slightest tinge of material perception.

To nourish rasa there, the cit-sakti has manifested varieties

of bhava in many places, and amongst them there is one spiritual

conception known as abhimana. For instance, Krishna has no beginning

and no birth in Goloka, but to assist the lila, vatsalya-rasa

is personified there by the conception (abhimana) in the spiritual

existence of fatherhood and motherhood in the forms of Nanda

and Yasoda. Again, wonderful varieties of srngara-rasa, such as

separation (vipralambha) and meeting (sambhoga), exist in this conception

(abhimana) form. Although the actual situation in

parakiya-bhava is suddha-svakiya, the self-conceptions (abhimana)

of paramour beloved (parakiya) and paramour lover (upapati) are

eternally present in it.


Just see! All these abhimana are completely convincing in Vraja,

for they are exhibited in a gross outward form by the potency of

yogamaya. For example, in Vraja, Yasoda labors to give birth to

Krishna in her maternity room, and the nitya-siddha-gopis have a

parakiya-abhimana that arises from their marriages to husbands

such as Abhimanyu and Govardhana-gopa. In other words, the

abhimana of Goloka are all visible in Vraja in very tangible forms,

which are managed by yogamaya from the exceedingly subtle, original

reality. There is not even the slightest trace of falsity in Vraja,

and it resembles Goloka in all respects. Differences in vision arise

only according to the degree of material obstruction of the observer.


Vijaya: Then should one meditate on the appropriate aspects of

asta-kaliya-lila by proper deliberation?


Gosvami: No, it is not like that. One who has darsana of vraja-lila

should remember asta-kaliya-lila according to his realization. By

Krishna's mercy, the lila manifests itself in the sadhaka's heart through

the power of his bhajana. It is not necessary to try and improve the

bhavas of the lila by one's own endeavors.


Vijaya: Yadrsi bhavana yasya siddhir bhavati tadrsi. According to this

logic, the perfection that one attains corresponds exactly to the

type of meditation performed at the time of sadhana, so it seems

that one must perform purified, immaculate meditation on Goloka.


Gosvami: What you are saying is correct. All the perceptions in

Vraja are pure reality, and not even a single one is contrary to this;

otherwise, there would be a fault. Perfection occurs when sadhana

becomes pure, and the purer one's meditation is at the time of

sadhana, the faster one attains siddhi. You should endeavor in such

a way that your sadhana may be accomplished beautifully, but still,

it is beyond your power to purify your sadhana. Only Krishna,

through His acintya-sakti, can do this. If you try to do it yourself,

you will become entangled in the thorny thickets of jnana, but if

Krishna bestows His mercy, there will be no such injurious result.


Vijaya: Today I have become fortunate. I want to ask one further

question. Is the abode of the Dvaraka consorts only in Vaikuntha,

or in Goloka as well?


Gosvami: The endless ananda of the cit-jagat is attained in

Vaikuntha; there is no attainment higher than Vaikuntha. Cities

such as Dvaraka are there and the young ladies of those cities

reside in their own palaces', rendering service to Krishna. The

only ones who are situated in the madhura-rasa of Goloka are

the vraja-ramanis. All the pastimes that are in Vraja are in

Goloka. However, it is mentioned in Gopala-tapani Upanisad

that Rukminiji is situated in svakiya-rasa in Mathura Puri, which

is in Goloka.


Vijaya: Prabhu, do all the activities in Goloka occur in the same

sequence as I see them in Vraja?


Gosvami: Yes, they all exist there in the same order, but without

the divisions based on mayika conceptions. However, all such

mayika conceptions have their own supremely pure spiritual origins,

which I cannot explain. This you can understand only by

the power of your bhajana.


Vijaya: The whole of mundane existence (prapanca) becomes

completely dissolved at the time of the universal dissolution

(maha-pralaya), so in what sense is vraja-lila eternally present?


Gosvami: Vraja-lila is eternal from both the prakata and aprakata

perspective. The present perception (samprata-pratiti) of vrajalila

is eternally existing in one of the unlimited universes, which

revolve in cyclic order like a wheel. A particular lila now present

in one brahmanda appears the next moment in another brahmanda.

Thus, that particular lila is aprakata-lila in the first brahmanda,

but it is present in the next brahmanda as prakata-lila. In this way,

all types of prakata-lila are eternal. Even in the aprakata state, all

the lilas are eternally present.


Vijaya: If prakata-lila occurs in all the brahmandas, does vrajadhama

exist in each brahmanda?


Gosvami: Yes, it does. Goloka is a self-manifesting phenomenon

which is present in every universe as the abode of krishna- lila.

Goloka also manifests itself in the heart of all suddha-bhaktas.


Vijaya: Why does Mathura-mandala remain manifest in a universe

where the lila is non-manifest (aprakata)?


Gosvami: The aprakata-lila is eternally present in the dhama, which

remains to bestow mercy upon the bhaktas who reside there.


That day's discussion drew to a close. While returning to his

residence, Vijaya Kumara repeatedly meditated upon his seva in