|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 29. Rasa-Tattva: Anubhavas in Santa, Dasya, & Sakhya Rasas|
C H A P T E R 2 9
Rasa-Tattva: Anubhavas in Santa, Dasya,
& Sakhya Rasas
Vrajanatha and Vijaya Kumara considered their situation care
fully and decided that they would spend Caturmasya in Puri
and hear about all the aspects of rasa-tattva from Shri Gopala Guru.
When Vrajanatha's grandmother heard the glories of residing in
Puri during Caturmasya, she also agreed with their suggestion. From
then on, they regularly went to receive darsana of Shri Jagannathadeva,
morning and evening, took bath in Narendra Sarovara, and
visited the important holy places in and around Puri. In addition
to this, they had darsana of Shri Jagannathadeva with great
devotion whenever a special service, ceremony or dressing took
place. In this way, they passed their time in a very regulated and
sublime manner. They expressed their innermost feelings before
Shri Gopala Guru.
When they expressed their intentions to Shri Guru Gosvami,
he was delighted and said, "I have already developed such thick
parental affection for you both within my heart that I think I will
feel great distress when you leave. The longer you stay here, the
more pleased I will be. One can easily attain a sad-guru, but it is
not easy to find a sat-sisya."
Vrajanatha very humbly requested, "Please be so kind as to explain
rasa-tattva in such a way that we can easily understand the
vibhavas and other features of the various rasas."
Gosvami: It is an exceedingly beautiful subject. Listen carefully
and I will happily speak whatever Shri Gaurasundara inspires me
o speak. First comes santa-rasa, in which the sthayibhava is santirati.
The ananda in brahmananda of the nirvisesa-vadis is extremely
limited and feeble, and so is the atmananda of the yogis. The ananda
of realizing Isa (isvara) is somewhat superior to these, and realization
of the svarupa of isvara is the cause of much satisfaction and
bliss. The support (alambana) of santa-rasa is the four-armed form
of Narayana, who has qualities such as supremacy and opulence.
Santa-rati has its abode in peaceful personalities (santa-purusa),
namely, those who are atmarama, and ascetics who have faith in
The four Kumaras - Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanat-kumara and
Sanandana - who wander in the forms of bala-sannyasis, are prominent
among those who are atmarama. At first, they were inclined
towards nirvisesa-brahma, but later they became attracted to the
sweetness of Bhagavan's form, and they engaged in the worship of
that murti which is the condensed embodiment of cit (transcendence).
Ascetics who enter into santa-rasa have performed appropriate
renunciation (yukta-vairagya), by which they have already
vanquished all obstacles and dispelled all attachment to the objects
of the senses. However, they still have desire for liberation.
The uddipana (stimuli) of santa-rasa are as follows: hearing all
the prominent Upanisads; residing in a solitary place; discussing
and deliberating on tattva; establishing the predominance of the
knowledge potency (vidya-sakti); honoring the universal form
(visva-rupa); associating with those devoted to Shri Hari, and who
also cultivate empirical knowledge and philosophical speculation
(jnana-misra-bhaktas); and reflecting upon the tattva of the
Upanisads in the company of equally learned persons. Further
uddipanas are the fragrance of tulasi offered to Bhagavan's lotus
feet; the sound of the conch-shell; sacred mountains and forests;
siddha-ksetra; the Ganga; the inclination to diminish contact with
the objects of sense gratification (that is, the desire to vanquish
all sinful reactions); and contemplating the conception of the alldevouring
influence of time. These are the vibhavas (impetuses for
tasting) of santa-rasa.
Vrajanatha: What are the visible symptoms (anubhavas) of this rasa?
Gosvami: Some of the anubhavas of santa-rasa, which are specific
(asadharana) to those who have santi-rati, are staring at the tip of
the nose; behaving as an ascetic beyond all codes of social conduct
(avadhuta); walking with the vision extended not more than
four cubits ahead; exhibiting the jnana-mudra; holding no malice
towards those who are inimical to Bhagavan; the absence of excessive
affection toward the premi-bhaktas of Bhagavan; a mood of
honor and reverence towards liberation and the disintegration
of material existence; indifference; freedom from feelings of proprietorship
and false ego (mamata); and observing silence. Yawning,
contorting the limbs, instructions on bhakti, offering pranama
and stava-stuti to Hari are some of the common emotions of santarasa.
Vrajanatha: What are the sattvika transformations in santa-rasa?
Gosvami: Almost all the sattvika-vikaras - such as the standing of
romanca (the bodily hairs), sveda (perspiration), and stambha (becoming
stunned) - are visible in this rasa. The only exception is
pralaya (fainting and falling unconscious on the ground). However,
these sattvika transformations do not extend to the stage of
Vrajanatha: Which of the sancari-bhavas are evident in this rasa?
Gosvami: The sancari-bhavas that are commonly seen in santa-rasa
are: remorse and nirveda (self-disparagement), patience, jubilation,
conviction or understanding, remembrance, despondency, ardent
desire, absorption and excitement, and argument.
Vrajanatha: How many types of santi-rati are there?
Gosvami: Santi-rati is the sthayibhava in santa-rasa, and it is divided
into two types: equal (sama) and condensed (sandra). Sama santi-rati
occurs in asamprajnata-samadhi (the stage where the practitioner has
achieved trance, but the atma has not yet reached the platform of
perceiving his own svarupa), wherein jubilation, trembling, and
horripilation are manifest in the body due to experiencing a sphurti
Sandra-santi-rati is the rati in which sandrananda is manifest.
This occurs in nirvikalpa-samadhi, the trance in which all the functions
of the mind are arrested because of complete annihilation
of avidya, wherein one directly sees Bhagavan before him. The extreme
condensed bliss that arises then is called sandrananda.
Santa-rasa is also divided into paroksa (indirect) and saksatkara
(direct). Sukadeva and Bilvamangala rejected the brahmananda
derived from jnana and plunged themselves into the ocean of
bhakti-rasananda. The same is true of the renowned scholar, Shri
Vrajanatha: Why has santa-rasa not been accepted in the mundane
literary tradition (alankara)?
Gosvami: The reason that mundane authors have not accepted
santi-rati is that in worldly affairs, variety and diversity disappear
as soon as santi (peacefulness) appears. However, in transcendental
dealings, the aprakrta-rasa increases progressively from
the appearance of santa-rasa. Bhagavan has stated that the quality
of having one's intelligence firmly fixed in Him is called sama.
Since it is impossible to fix the intelligence firmly in Bhagavan
unless one has santi-rati, santa-rasa must necessarily be accepted
Vrajanatha: I have thoroughly understood santa-rasa. Now kindly
explain dasya-rasa along with its vibhava and so on.
Gosvami: Learned scholars call dasya-rasa 'prita-rasa'. There are
two types of prita-rasa: sambhrama and gaurava. Servants in
sambhrama-prita-rasa have the mood that they are fit to receive
the kindness of their master, and those in gaurava-prita-rasa have
the attitude of being maintained or reared by Krishna.
Vrajanatha: What is sambhrama-prita-rasa?
Gosvami: Sambhrama-priti towards Vrajendranandana Krishna arises
in those who have the self-conception, "I am Krishna's servant."
When that priti is gradually nourished more and more, it is called
sambhrama-prita-rasa. Krishna and His servants are the alambana in
Vrajanatha: What is Krishna's svarupa in this rasa?
Gosvami: In Gokula, the alambana for sambhrama-prita-rasa is
Krishna's two-armed form. In other places, He is sometimes alambana
in His two-armed form, and sometimes in His four-armed form. In
Gokula, Shri Krishna is alambana in the form of that Prabhu who is
dressed as a cowherd boy, whose complexion is as radiant as a fresh
monsoon cloud, who holds a murali flute in his hand, whose midriff
is adorned with a yellow cloth that defeats the beauty of gold,
and who wears a crown of peacock feathers on His head.
In other places, He is present in a two-handed form, but He is
alambana in His opulent form, carrying sankha and cakra and so
forth in His hands, and wearing pearls and jeweled ornaments on
all His limbs. Shrila Rupa Gosvami has written in Bhakti-rasamrtasindhu
(Western Division 2.3.5):
isvarah paramaradhyah sarvva-jnah sudrdha-vratah
samrddhiman ksama-silah saranagata-palakah
daksinah satya-vacano daksah sarvva-subhankarah
pratapi dharmikah sastra-caksur bhakta-suhrttamah
vadanyas tejasa yuktah krta-jnah kirtti-samsrayah
variyan balavan prema-vasya ity adibhir gunaih
yutas catur vidhesv esa dasesv alambhano harih
That Shri Hari Krishna, who is the embodiment of alambana
for the four kinds of dasya-bhaktas, possesses the following
qualities: millions of universes are situated in each and
every pore of His transcendental body (koti-brahmandavigraha);
He is the ocean of compassion (krpambudhi); He is
endowed with inconceivable potency which is beyond the
understanding of the jiva's insignificant intelligence
(acintya-maha-sakti); He is served by all types of mystic perfections
(sarva-siddhi-nisevita); He is the origin of all
avataras such as the guna-avataras, lila-avataras, and
saktyavesa-avataras (avataravali-bija): He steals the hearts of
self-satisfied yogis, such as Sukadeva (atmarama-ganakarsi);
He regulates everything (isvara); He is supremely
worshipable for all jivas and devatas (paramaradhya); He is
omniscient (sarva-jna); He is firmly fixed in His vow
(sudrdha-vrata); He is opulent (samrddhiman); He is forgiving
(ksama-sila); He is the protector of the surrendered souls
(saranagata-palaka); He is supremely liberal (daksina); His
words never prove false (satya-vacana); He can perform difficult
tasks with ease (daksa); He acts for the welfare of
everyone (sarva-subhankara); He is valorous (pratapi); He is
religious (dharmika); He sees and acts in accordance with
sastra (sastra-caksu); He is the best well-wisher of His
bhaktas (bhakta-suhrt); He is magnanimous (vadanya); His
body is radiant, extremely powerful, and influential (tejasvi);
He is grateful (krtajna); He is famous (kirtiman); He is the
most excellent (variyan); He is strong (balavan); and He is
controlled by the love of His bhaktas (prema-vasya).
Vrajanatha: Who are the four types of dasa?
Gosvami: There are four types of dasa who are alambana as the asraya
of dasya-rati. They are: 1) those who have taken His full shelter,
and who always keep their eyes down; 2) those who carry out the
orders of Bhagavan; 3) those who are trustworthy; and 4) those
who consider Krishna to be Prabhu, and are thus endowed with a
humble disposition. Their tattvika names are 1) adhikrta-dasa, 2)
ashrita-dasa, 3) parisada-dasa and 4) anugata-dasa.
Vrajanatha: Who are examples of adhikrta-dasa?
Gosvami: The devas and devis headed by Brahma, Siva and Indra
are adhikrta-dasas and dasis. They engage in Bhagavan's service
when they have attained the qualification to perform tasks related
to the material universe.
Vrajanatha: Who are ashrita-dasa?
Gosvami: There are three types of ashrita-dasa: those who have taken
refuge (saranagata); those who are jnanis attached to the path of
jnana; and those who are fixed in the service of Bhagavan (sevanistha).
Kaliya-naga and the kings who had been imprisoned by
Jarasandha are in the category of saranagata-dasa. The rsis headed
by Saunaka are called jnana-nistha dasa, because they gave up the
desire for mukti and took shelter of Shri Hari. The seva-nistha dasa
are bhaktas like Candradhvaja, Harihara, Bahulasva, Iksvaku and
Pundarika, who were attached to bhagavad-bhajana from the very
Vrajanatha: Who are parisada-dasa?
Gosvami: Uddhava, Daruka, Satyaki, Srutadeva, Satrujit, Nanda,
Upananda, and Bhadra are in the category of parisada-dasa. Although
they are engaged in activities such as giving advice, they
also engage in appropriate services according to time and circumstance.
Bhisma, Pariksit, and Vidura are also parisada-bhaktas, and
premi-dasa Uddhava is the best among them all.
Vrajanatha: Who are anugata-dasa?
Gosvami: Those servants whose hearts are always attached to performing
seva are called anugata-dasa. They are of two types: those
who reside in Vraja and those who reside in Dvaraka Puri.
Anugata-dasas in Dvaraka Puri include Sucandra, Mandala,
Stambha and Sutamba. Those in Vraja include Raktaka, Patraka,
Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Rasala, Suvilasa, Premakandha,
Makarandaka, Ananda, Candrahasa, Payoda, Vakula, Rasada and
Sarada. Raktaka is prominent among all these anugata-dasas of
Parisada and anugata-dasas are further divided into three categories,
namely dhurya, dhira, and vira. The dhurya-parisadas are
those who display due affection towards Krishna, His beloved gopis
and His servants. Dhira-parisadas are those who are not specifically
engaged in Krishna's service, but who take shelter of Krishna's
beloveds, such as Satyabhama. Vira-parisadas are those bhaktas who
have taken exclusive shelter of Krishna's mercy, and are therefore
not concerned about others. These three types of krishna-dasa -
ashrita, parisada and anugata - are divided into three types again
on the basis of nitya-siddha, siddha, and sadhaka.
Vrajanatha: Will you kindly explain the various types of uddipana
Gosvami: The uddipanas in dasya-rasa are the sound of the murali
and srnga (buffalo horn); Krishna's smiling glance; hearing His qualities;
a lotus flower; Krishna's footprints; a fresh monsoon cloud; and
the fragrance of Krishna's limbs.
Vrajanatha: What are the anubhavas in this rasa?
Gosvami: The anubhavas that are specific (asadharana) to dasyarasa
include being fully engaged in one's prescribed duties, obeying
the orders of Bhagavan, remaining free from envy and malice
in the service of Bhagavan, friendship with Krishna's servants, and
firm faith in Krishna. The expressions (udbhasvaras) that are common
(sadharana-anubhavas) to other rasas include dancing, showing
respect toward Krishna's near and dear ones, and detachment
from all else.
Vrajanatha: What types of sattvika-vikara are present in prita-rasa?
Gosvami: All the sattvika-bhavas such as stambha manifest in this
Vrajanatha: What types of vyabhicari-bhavas occur in this rasa?
Gosvami: Twenty-four vyabhicari-bhavas are present in this rasa.
They are jubilation, pride, fortitude, self-disparagement, depression,
humility, anxiety, remembrance, apprehension, resolve, ardent
desire, argumentation, deliberation, agitation, bashfulness,
inertness, bewilderment, madness, concealing emotions, awakening,
dreaming, fatigue, disease and yearning for death. There is no
distinct appearance of intoxication, exhaustion, fear, fainting and
falling on the ground, laziness, fury, intolerance, envy and sleep.
The bhavas of jubilation, pride and fortitude are exhibited in meeting
(milana), and the bhavas of debility, disease and death are exhibited
in separation. The other eighteen bhavas, such as self-disparagement,
are visible both in meeting and separation.
Vrajanatha: I would like to know about the sthayibhava of prita-rasa.
Gosvami: The sthayibhava of this rasa is the priti that results from
combining an attitude of respect towards Krishna with a trembling
of the heart evoked by awe, and the conception that He is one's
In santa-rasa, the sthayibhava is rati alone, whereas in this rasa,
sthayibhava occurs when rati has the mood of mamata (possessiveness)
and becomes priti. As this sambhrama-priti gradually increases,
it extends through the stages of prema and sneha up to the stage of
raga. When sambhrama-priti is free from apprehension and fear, it
assumes the form of prema. When a condensed form of prema gives
rise to a melting of the heart, then it is known by the name of sneha,
the stage in which the bhakta cannot tolerate even a moment's
separation. Sneha becomes raga when it has developed to the point
where even distress seems to be happiness. In such a condition,
there is a desire to give up one's life at the time of separation from
Krishna. Those who are in the categories of adhikrta and ashrita-dasa
can reach the stage of prema, but not further than that. Parisadas
can reach the level of sneha. Sthayibhava develops up to the limit
of raga in Pariksit, Daruka, Uddhava and the anugata-dasas of Vraja.
When raga arises, there is a partial appearance of sakhya-bhava.
Panditas call meeting with Krishna in this rasa "yoga", and separation
from Krishna "ayoga." There are two types of ayoga - anxious
longing (utkanthita) and separation (viyoga) and three types of yoga
- siddhi (perfection), tusti (satisfaction), and sthiti (residence).
Siddhi is seeing Krishna after being in the condition of anxious longing,
and tusti means meeting with Krishna after separation (viyoga).
Sthiti means to live with Krishna.
Vrajanatha: I have understood sambhrama-priti. Now please explain
Gosvami: Gaurava-mayi-priti is the mood of those who have the
abhimana, "Krishna should take care of me - nourishing and maintaining
me." When this priti is nourished by the corresponding
vibhavas, anubhavas and so on, it is called gaurava-prita-rasa.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna, His wards and dependent servants are the
alambana of this rasa. The visaya-alambana in gaurava-priti is Krishna
in the form of the great guru; the possessor of immense fame, intelligence
and strength; the protector; and the maintainer. Krishna's
wards (lalya-bhaktas) are divided into two categories: juniors and
sons. Sarana, Gada and Subhadra consider themselves juniors,
while personalities such as Pradyumna, Carudesna and Samba have
the abhimana of being sons. The uddipana of this rasa are Shri
Krishna's parental affection and gentle smiling. Examples of
anubhavas are sitting on a lower seat in Krishna's presence, following
the directives of one's worshipful superiors, and giving up
independent activities. You should know that the sancari or
vyabhicari-bhavas are the same as I have mentioned before in regard
Vrajanatha: What does the word gaurava mean?
Gosvami: Gaurava refers to the relationship with Krishna based on
the conception, "Krishna is my father by bodily relationship," or
"Krishna is my guru." Gaurava-priti is affection with full absorption
towards Krishna with the sentiment that He is nourishing and maintaining
one. This is the sthayibhava of this rasa.
Vrajanatha: Prabhu, I have understood prita-rasa. Now please describe
Gosvami: In this rasa, the alambana is Krishna and His friends; the
two-handed form of Vrajendranandana Shri Krishna holding a murali
is visaya-alambana, and His friends are asraya-alambana.
Vrajanatha: I would like to know the characteristics and divisions
of Krishna's sakhas.
Gosvami: Krishna's friends have forms, qualities and attire exactly
like those of the dasya-bhaktas, but they do not have sambhramabhava
as the servants do; rather, they are imbued with visrambhabhava.
Krishna's friends are divided into two categories: those who
reside in the city (pura), and those in Vraja. Arjuna, Bhima,
Draupadi and Shridama brahmana (Sudama vipra) are sakhas of the
city, amongst whom Arjuna is the best.
The sakhas who reside in Vraja always want to be with Krishna,
and they always have an intense hankering to see Him, for He is
their life and soul. For that reason, they are the principal sakhas.
There are four types of sakhas in Vraja: 1) suhrt, 2) sakha, 3) priyasakha,
and 4) priya-narma-sakha. The suhrt-sakhas are somewhat
older than Krishna, and they have some vatsalya-bhava mixed in their
moods towards Him. They carry weapons, and always protect Krishna
from miscreants. They include Subhadra, Mandalibhadra,
Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksa, Indrabhata, Bhadranga,
Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Vijaya and Balabhadra. Mandalibhadra
and Balabhadra are the most prominent among them.
The sakhas are somewhat younger than Krishna, and their mood of
friendship is alloyed with a touch of dasya-bhava. They include Visala,
Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Maranda, Kusumapida,
Manibaddha and Karandhama. Devaprastha is the best of these.
The priya-sakhas are friends of the same age as Krishna with unalloyed
sakhya-bhava. These include Shridama, Sudama, Dama,
Vasudama, Kinkini, Stoka-Krishna, Amsu, Bhadrasena, Vilasi,
Pundarika, Vitanka and Kalavinka.
Krishna's priya-narma-sakhas are superior to the three other
groups of sakhas - namely the suhrt-sakhas, the sakhas and the priya??
sakhas - and they are expert at performing extremely confidential
activities. They include Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta and
Ujjvala, who always speaks joking words. Among the sakhas, some
are nitya-priya (nitya-siddhas); some were previously devatas who
attained the position of Krishna's friends by sadhana; and some are
sadhakas. They delight Krishna and create varieties of amusement
by a variety of distinctive moods and gestures in friendly service.
Vrajanatha: What is the uddipana in this rasa?
Gosvami: Uddipana in sakhya-rasa includes Krishna's age; His beautiful
form; His horn, venu and conch-shell; His joking and laughter;
His valiant deeds; and His performance of pastimes. In the
pasturing grounds (gostha), His kumara age is uddipana, and in
Gokula, His kaisora age is uddipana.
Vrajanatha: I would like to know about the anubhavas that are
common (sadharana) to all the groups of sakhas.
Gosvami: Some of the sadharana-anubhavas of the sakhas are wrestling;
ball games; riding on each other's shoulders; stick-fighting;
reclining or sitting together with Krishna on a bed, a sitting place,
or a swing; sitting down and joking; water sports; playing with
monkeys; trying to please Krishna; dancing; and singing. In addition
to these general activities, the suhrt-sakhas typically give good
advice and take the lead in all activities. The special activities of
the sakhas are offering tambula, drawing tilaka markings, anointing
Krishna with sandalwood paste and so on. The special activities
of the priya-sakhas are defeating Krishna in fighting, pulling Krishna
by His cloth, and being decorated by Krishna. The special prerogative
of the priya-narma-sakhas is to assist in Krishna's madhura-lila.
Like dasas, they decorate Krishna with forest flowers and render
service such as fanning Him.
Vrajanatha: What are the sattvika and sancari-bhavas in sakhya-rasa?
Gosvami: They are similar to those of dasya-rasa, but somewhat
Vrajanatha: What is the nature of the sthayibhava of this rasa?
Gosvami: Shrila Rupa Gosvami has written in Shri Bhakti-rasamrtasindhu
(Western Division 9.3.45):
vimukta-sambhrama ya syad visrambhatma ratir dvayoh
prayah samanayor atra sa sakhyam sthayi-sabda-bhak
Sakhya-sthayibhava is rati that is full of intimacy and free
from feelings of reverence between two personalities who
are ordinarily equal.
Vrajanatha: What is visrambha?
visrambho gadha-visvasa-viseso yantranojjhitah
(Western Division 3.46)
Visrambha is the deep confidence which is devoid of restraint,
which causes one to think that there is no difference
at all between oneself and Krishna.
Vrajanatha: Please be so kind as to tell me about the gradual development
of this visrambha.
Gosvami: This sakhya-rasa arrives at the stage of pranaya, after
incorporating prema, sneha, and raga.
Vrajanatha: What are the symptoms of pranaya?
Gosvami: Pranaya is rati that is completely free from the slightest
scent of reverence, even in circumstances that would ordinarily
invoke such feelings.
The greatness of sakhya-rasa is unprecedented. In prita-rasa and
vatsalya-rasa, Krishna's bhava and the bhava of His bhakta are different
from each other. Amongst all the rasas, prema-rasa - that is
sakhya-rasa - is certainly dear (priya), because in this rasa both Krishna
and His bhaktas have the same sweet bhava.
THUS ENDS THE TWENTY-NINTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
"RASA-TATTVA: ANUBHAVAS IN SANTA, DASYA & SAKHYA RASAS"