|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 27. Rasa-Tattva: Sattvika-Bhava, Vyabhicari-Bhava & Raty-Abhasa|
C H A P T E R 2 7
The next day, when Vijaya Kumara and Vrajanatha had
honored prasada, they again went to Shri Radha-Kanta Matha,
arriving just after midday. Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami had also
honored maha-prasada, and was waiting for them. Shri
Dhyanacandra Gosvami was sitting by his side writing Upasanapaddhati
(The Procedures for Worship). At that time, Shri Guru
Gosvami's appearance was most remarkable. He was attired in
the dress of a sannyasi, his forehead was marked with urddhvapundra
tilaka, the syllables of hari-nama were written on each of
his limbs, and four thick strands of tulasi adorned his neck. He
held a japa-mala in his hand, and at intervals, streams of tears
flowed onto his chest from his eyes, which were half-closed in
meditation. Weeping and sighing, he sometimes called out
loudly "Ha Gauranga! Ha Nityananda!" His body was somewhat
plump, and his complexion was dark and effulgent. His coconut-
shell cup full of water was standing close to the seat of banana-
tree bark on which he was sitting, while his two wooden
sandals lay at a distance.
When Vijaya and Vrajanatha saw all this, unprecedented sraddha
arose within their hearts. They both offered their sastangapranama,
and remained lying on the ground for a long time. The
residents of the Matha generally respected Vijaya and Vrajanatha,
having seen their Vaishnava qualities and their scholarship and
profound understanding of many sastras, and also knowing them
to be residents of Shri Navadvipa-dhama. Today, however, all were
especially struck with wonder on seeing such ideal Vaishnava
sentiments. When Guru Gosvami saw them lying down and offering
pranama in this way, he lifted them up, embraced them
lovingly, and made them sit down close to him. Vrajanatha
waited for an appropriate moment, and then gradually and politely
raised the subject of rasa. Shri Gosvami began to speak, his
heart filled with prema, "Today, I will make you understand the
subject of anubhava and so on, and cause you to enter into rasatattva.
"There are four ingredients of rasa: vibhava, anubhava, sattvika
and vyabhicari. Yesterday I explained vibhava-tattva, and today I
shall first explain anubhava. Listen carefully.
"Vibhava refers to the personalities who are the cause of rati
arising. Now, anubhava refers to those visible symptoms that
cause rati to become evident, and by which the bhavas in the
heart are realized. In other words, anubhava consists of activities
such as sidelong glances and hairs of the body standing on end,
which are manifest as external bodily transformations, but which
actually reveal the bhavas of the heart. These internal bhavas
are revealed by the following outward expressions of agitation:
dancing (nrtya), rolling on the ground (vilunthana), singing (gita),
crying out loudly (krosana), stretching the body and writhing
(tanu-motana), roaring (hunkara), yawning (jrmbhana), sighing
and breathing deeply (dirgha-svasa), indifference to public
opinion (lokanapeksita), salivating (lalasrava), laughing loudly
(atta-hasa), dizziness (ghurna), and hiccupping (hikka)."
Vrajanatha: How can these external transformations nourish the
tasting of the rasa of the internal sthayibhava? I also have another
question. At the time of tasting rasa internally, these anubhavas
are manifested externally in the body, so how can they be
separate and distinct ingredients of rasa?
Gosvami: Baba, you are indeed a real pandita of nyaya-sastra. To this
very day, no one has posed such subtle questions as you have. When
I used to study rasa-sastra in the company of Shri Pandita Gosvami,
exactly the same arguments would arise in my mind. However, my
doubts were quickly dispelled by Shri Gurudeva's mercy. The
confidential significance is that in the pure consciousness (suddhasattva)
of the jiva, when vibhava stimulates the function of
consciousness (citta) and assists the function itself, at that time a
natural wonderment (vaicittya) arises, which makes the heart
blossom in various ways, and this in turn causes some outward
transformations to become evident in the body. These external
transformations, such as dancing, are called udbhasvara, and they
are of many types. When the heart dances, the body also begins to
dance, and when the heart sings, the tongue also sings. You should
understand the action of other transformations in the same way.
However, the action of udbhasvara is not the original action. Rather,
the anubhavas that arouse and nourish the vibhavas then spread
throughout the body in the form of udbhasvara.
As soon as the sthayibhava in the heart is stimulated by the
vibhava, anubhava begins its function as another action of the
heart. Thus anubhava is a separate individual ingredient. When
this is revealed through activities such as singing, it is called
"cooling" (sita); and when it is revealed through activities such
as dancing, it is called "throwing" (ksepana). There are also many
other symptoms of anubhava - such as swelling of the body, oozing
of blood, and separation and contraction of the bone-joints
- which are very rarely seen, so I will not elaborate upon them
any further. The extremely astonishing anubhavas that were seen
in the body of my Pranesvara Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, such as
becoming like a tortoise, are not possible in sadhaka-bhaktas.
After Vijaya and Vrajanatha had heard these confidential instructions
of Guru Gosvami, they remained silent for some time,
and then asked, "Prabhu, what is sattvika-bhava?"
Gosvami: The word sattva refers to the citta (pure heart or consciousness)
that is stimulated by any bhava in relation to Krishna,
either directly or with some obstruction. The bhavas that are
born from this sattva are called sattvika-bhavas. There are three
types of sattvika-bhavas: smooth (snigdha), smeared (digdha), and
Vrajanatha: What is snigdha (smooth) sattvika-bhava?
Gosvami: Snigdha sattvika-bhava has two divisions: mukhya (primary)
and gauna (secondary). Mukhya-snigdha sattvika-bhava
occurs when mukhya-rati that is directly in relation to Krishna
overpowers the heart. Examples of mukhya-snigdha sattvika-bhava
are becoming stunned, perspiring and so on. Gauna-snigdha
sattvika-bhava arises from an invasion of the heart by gauna-rati,
when Krishna is at some distance, or there is some obstruction. Two
examples of gauna-sattvika-bhavas are: fading of the bodily color
(vaivarnya) and faltering of the voice (svara-bheda). Smeared
(digdha) sattvika-bhava arises when any bhava other than the function
of mukhya-rati and gauna-rati overwhelms the heart. Trembling
is an example of the digdha (smeared) sattvika-bhavas that
follow on from rati.
Sometimes, when someone who only appears to be a bhakta
hears about the extremely wonderful and sweet bhavas of Krishna,
he becomes astonished and experiences elation, although he actually
has no rati. This is the third type of sattvika-bhava, which
is known as 'rough' (ruksa). An example of ruksa sattvika-bhava is
seen when the hairs of the body stand on end (romanca).
Vrajanatha: How does sattvika-bhava arise?
Gosvami: When the heart (citta) of the sadhaka becomes saturated
with sattva-bhava (pure emotion related to Krishna), it submits itself
to the life air (prana). Then, when the prana has been excited,
it is transformed and causes the appearance of profuse agitation
in the body. At that time, the bodily transformations such as
stambha (becoming stunned) occur.
Vrajanatha: How many types of sattvika transformations are
Gosvami: There are eight sattvika transformations, namely, becoming
stunned (stambha); perspiration (sveda); horripilation
(romanca); faltering of the voice (svara-bheda); trembling
(vepathu); transformations of the bodily color (vaivarnya), such
as dirtiness and thinness, which occur due to emotions such as
despair, fear and anger; shedding tears (asru); and devastation
Under some circumstances, the life-air (prana) remains as the
fifth element (air) along with the other four elements (earth,
water, fire and sky). However, sometimes when it predominates
- that is, when it situates itself in the air (vayu) element - it
travels throughout the body of the jiva. When prana comes in
contact with the earth element, inertness (stambha) occurs;
when it takes shelter of the water element, tears (asru) appear;
when it is situated in the fire element, change in bodily color
(vaivarnya) and perspiring (sveda) are evident; when prana takes
shelter of the sky element, loss of consciousness or devastation
(pralaya) occurs; and when prana is self-dominating and takes
shelter of the air element, the transformed conditions of
horripilation (romanca), trembling (vepathu), and faltering of the
voice (svara-bheda) are manifested, depending on whether the
degree of strength of prana is mild, moderate or intense,
Since these eight transformations are active both internally and
externally, they are sometimes called bhava and sometimes anubhava.
However, the anubhavas - such as dancing, rolling on the ground
and singing - are not considered the same as sattvika-bhavas
because they are only active in the outer body. The anubhava
activities, such as dancing, are not the results of bhava arising from
sattva (i.e., sattvika-bhava). Rather, the activity is instigated by the
application of intelligence. However, in transformations such as
becoming stunned, sattvika-bhava acts directly, without relying
on the intelligence. For this reason, anubhava and sattvika-bhava
are considered to be separate and distinct ingredients.
Vrajanatha: I would like to know the cause of asta-sattvika transformations
such as stambha (becoming stunned).
Gosvami: Stambha is a state in which one becomes inert without
speaking or having any other activity, and it is caused by jubilation,
fear, astonishment, dejection, regret, anger and weariness.
Sveda (perspiration) is moistness of the body caused by jubilation,
fear, anger, and so on. Romanca (standing of the bodily hairs) arises
from astonishment, jubilation, enthusiasm and fear. Svara-bheda
(faltering of the voice) occurs due to despair, wonder, anger,
jubilation, and fear. Vepathu (trembling ) is caused by fear, anger,
jubilation, and so on. Vaivarnya (change in bodily color) is due
to emotions such as despair, anger, and fear. Asru (tears) come from
the eyes through the influence of jubilation, anger, despair and
other emotions; tears of joy are cool, whereas tears of anger are
warm. In the state of pralaya (devastation), one is bereft of activity
and knowledge, and he becomes senseless and falls on the ground;
this may be due to happiness or distress.
There are four types of sattvika-bhavas corresponding to progressive
gradations of sattva (purity). These are called smoking
(dhumayita), alight (jvalita), burning (dipta), and blazing
(pradipta). The ruksa (rough) sattvika-bhavas are generally
dhumayita (smoking), whereas the snigdha (smooth) sattvikabhavas
gradually reach the higher stages. Rati is the cause of all
astonishing ananda, and in its absence, there is no wonderment
in the ruksa sattvika-bhavas and other emotions.
Vrajanatha: Prabhu, sattvika-bhavas arise by extreme good fortune,
but many people make a show of these bhavas when they
are playing a role in a drama, or to accomplish their own tasks
in worldly life. What may be said about the bhavas of such people?
Gosvami: Sattvika-bhavas that manifest naturally as one performs
the sadhana of sincere and pure bhakti, are Vaishnava bhavas. Apart
from these, whatever emotional symptoms appear can be divided
into four categories: the semblance of rati (raty-abhasa); the semblance
of sattvika-bhavas (sattvabhasa); symptoms that do not arise
from sattva (nihsattva); and adverse or contrary symptoms (pratipa).
Vrajanatha: What is raty-abhasa (the semblance of rati)?
Gosvami: Raty-abhasa occurs in those who desire liberation; it
arises in the impersonalist sannyasis of the Sankara sampradaya
when they hear discussions about the pastimes of Krishna.
Vrajanatha: What is sattvabhasa (the semblance of sattvikabhavas)?
Gosvami: Sattvabhasa is the semblance of joy and astonishment
that arises in those whose hearts naturally give rise to loose
emotions - for example, the adherents of jaran-mimamsa, and
ordinary women - when they hear krishna-katha.
Vrajanatha: What is nihsattva (the semblance of bhava that does
not arise from sattva)?
Gosvami: Nihsattva refers to symptoms such as horripilation and
tears that are exhibited by people whose minds are naturally
duplicit, and who practice them for the sake of a dramatic performance,
or in order to accomplish a material objective. Some
people are actually hard-hearted, but they are so practiced that
they can begin to weep in an instant, as if they are genuinely
crying. However, their crying is completely pretentious, and
they are said to be slippery-minded.
Vrajanatha: What are adverse or contrary symptoms (pratipa)?
Gosvami: Pratipa-bhava-abhasa is the semblance of bhava that
occurs because of anger, fear and other emotions resulting from
activities that are unfavorable towards Krishna. Kamsa and
Sisupala are obvious examples.
Vrajanatha: Prabhu, we have understood vibhava, anubhava and
sattvika-bhavas, as well as the difference between sattvika-bhava
and anubhava. Now please describe the vyabhicari-bhavas.
Gosvami: There are thirty-three vyabhicari-bhavas. Vi means 'distinctly',
abhi means 'towards', and cari means 'moving'. These
thirty-three bhavas are called vyabhicari because they move distinctly
towards the sthayibhava. They are also called sancaribhavas,
because they are communicated through words, limbs
and sattva and thus travel (sancarita) throughout the system.
They are like waves in the nectar ocean of the sthayibhava, for
they rise up, causing it to swell, and then they merge back into
the ocean again.
The thirty-three sancari-bhavas are: 1) regret or indifference
(nirveda), 2) despair (visada), 3) humility (dainya), 4) physical
and mental debility (glani), 5) fatigue (srama), 6) intoxication
(mada), 7) pride (garva), 8) suspicion (sanka), 9) fear (trasa), 10)
agitation (avega), 11) madness (unmada), 12) confusion or absence
of mind (apasmrti), 13) disease (vyadhi), 14) fainting or delusion
(moha), 15) death (mrtyu), 16) laziness (alasya), 17)
inertness (jadya), 18) bashfulness (vrida), 19) concealment of
emotions (avahittha), 20) remembrance (smrti), 21) deliberation
or reasoning (vitarka), 22) anxiety (cinta), 23) resolve or wisdom
(mati), 24) fortitude (dhrti), 25) jubilation (harsa), 26) ardent
desire (autsukata), 27) ferocity (augrya), 28) impatience and indignation
(amarsa), 29) envy (asuya), 30) restlessness (capalyam),
31) sleep (nidra), 32) deep sleep (supti), 33) awakening (bodha).
Some sancari-bhavas are independent (svatantra), and some
are dependent (paratantra). There are two types of dependent
sancari-bhavas: superior (vara) and inferior (avara). The superior
category is also divided into two types, namely direct (saksat)
and separated, or secondary (vyavahita). The independent
sancari-bhavas are divided into three types: those that are devoid
of rati (rati-sunya); subsequently contacting rati (ratianusparsana);
and having a trace of rati (rati-gandha).
When these bhavas appear in people who are averse to Krishna, or
are perceived in inappropriate people or things, they are divided
into two types, namely, unfavorable (pratikulya) and improper
(anaucitya). All these bhavas have four conditions: generation
(utpatti), union (sandhi), overcoming (sabalya), and pacification
Vrajanatha: Generation of bhava (bhava-utpatti) can be easily
understood, but what is union (bhava-sandhi)?
Gosvami: Bhava-sandhi occurs when two bhavas - either of the
same type or of different types - meet together. For example,
when inertness caused by one's loved one (ista) and inertness
caused by something else both arise at the same time, this is an
instance of the union of two identical emotions (sarupa-bhavasandhi).
Conversely, jubilation and apprehension arising simultaneously
is an example of the union of two different types of
Vrajanatha: What is overcoming (bhava-sabalya)?
Gosvami: Bhava-sabalya is the clashing and jostling of many
bhavas, in which one bhava suppresses another and becomes
predominant. For instance, when Kamsa heard about Krishna, he
became angry and fearful at the same time; this is an example of
Vrajanatha: What is pacification (bhava-santi)?
Gosvami: Bhava-santi occurs when an extremely powerful bhava
becomes pacified. When the vraja-vasis could not see Krishna
nearby, they were very anxious, but their apprehension was at
once pacified - that is, it went far away - when they heard the
sound of His vamsi. This is the pacified condition of despondency
Vrajanatha: If we are qualified to know anything more about this
subject, then please tell us.
Gosvami: Altogether, there are forty-one bhavas that cause transformations
of the body and senses. These are the thirty-three
vyabhicari-bhavas, one of the mukhya-sthayibhavas, and also the
seven gauna-sthayibhavas that I shall describe later. These are
all the propensities of the heart (citta-vrtti) that cause bhava to
Vrajanatha: Which types of bhava do they arouse?
Gosvami: They produce the asta-sattvika-bhavas and the
anubhavas that come in the category of vibhavas.
Vrajanatha: Are all the bhavas natural and inborn?
Gosvami: No, some of them are natural, while others are transitory.
The bhakta's sthayibhava is his natural bhava, and the
vyabhicari-bhavas are transitory.
Vrajanatha: Do all bhaktas have the same type of bhava?
Gosvami: There are different types of bhaktas according to the
difference in the dispositions of their respective minds (manobhavas),
so there is a gradation of awakening of bhavas, depending
on the disposition of the mind. This awakening is of three
types: garistha (heavy), laghistha (light), and gambhira (grave).
However, the nature of nectar is that it is always liquid, and the
heart of the krishna-bhakta is like nectar by nature.
I shall stop here for today. Tomorrow I will explain sthayibhava.
Vijaya and Vrajanatha offered sastanga-dandavat to Shri Guru
Gosvami. Taking his permission, they left for their place of residence.
THUS ENDS THE TWENTY-SEVENTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
SATTVIKA-BHAVA, VYABHICARI-BHAVA & RATY-ABHASA"