|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 25. Prameya: Namabhasa|
C H A P T E R 2 5
The next day shortly after sandhya, Vijaya and Vrajanatha came
before the respected Babaji, and having offered sastangadandavat,
they took their asanas. Vijaya took the opportunity to
humbly ask, "Prabhu, kindly have mercy upon us and tell us
everything about namabhasa-tattva. We are very anxious to know
the secret of nama-tattva."
Babaji answered, "You are very fortunate. If you want to understand
nama-tattva, you must understand three subject matters very
well: nama, namabhasa and nama-aparadha. I have already explained
so much about nama and nama-aparadha, and now I will
explain about namabhasa, which means the semblance of shri-nama.
Vijaya: What is namabhasa, and how many kinds of abhasa are
Babaji: The word abhasa means luster, shadow or reflection. As
the radiance that emanates from a naturally lustrous object has
kanti (effulgence) or chaya (shadow), so the sun-like Name has two
kinds of abhasa: one is the shadow (nama-chaya), and the other is
the reflection (nama-pratibimba). Learned people who are conversant
with bhakty-abhasa, bhava-abhasa, namabhasa, and
vaishnava-abhasa say that all kinds of abhasa have two divisions:
pratibimba (reflection) and chaya (shadow).
Vijaya: What is the relation between bhakty-abhasa, bhava-abhasa,
namabhasa, and vaishnava-abhasa?
Babaji: Vaishnavas practise hari-nama, and when their practice is
on the level of bhakty-abhasa, then their practice of nama is called
namabhasa. They themselves are also vaishnava-abhasa, not pure
bhaktas. Bhava and bhakti are one and the same thing; it is only
because they are on different levels that they are known by different
Vijaya: On which platform is the jiva called vaishnava-abhasa?
Babaji: Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.47) says:
arcayam eva haraye pujam yah sraddhayehate
na tad-bhaktesu canyesu sa bhaktah prakrtah smrtah
One is a materialistic devotee (kanistha) if he accepts the
arca-murti of Bhagavan as Shri Hari and worships Him with
faith, but does not faithfully worship Krishna's bhakta or
In this sloka the word sraddha is mentioned. However, the intended
meaning is sraddhabhasa, not pure sraddha, because if one
worships Krishna but not His bhaktas, then his sraddha is either chaya
(shadow) or pratibimba (reflection). That faith is worldly faith; it
is not spiritual faith (aprakrta-sraddha). Therefore we should understand
that anyone in whom we see that faith is a materialistic
devotee (prakrta-bhakta), or a semblance of a Vaishnava (vaishnavaabhasa).
Shriman Mahaprabhu has said that Shri Raghunatha dasa
Gosvami's father and uncle, Hiranya and Govardhana, were
vaishnava-praya. This means that they accepted Vaishnava markings
and dress, and chanted namabhasa, as if they were suddha-bhaktas,
but actually they were not pure Vaishnavas.
Vijaya: Can Mayavadis also be called vaishnava-abhasa if they
accept the symbols of a Vaishnava and chant shri-nama?
Babaji: No, they cannot even be called vaishnava-abhasa. They are
simply offenders, so they are called vaishnava-aparadhi. In one sense,
they might be called vaishnava-abhasa, because they have taken
shelter of pratibimba-namabhasa and pratibimba-bhava-abhasa, but
they are such great offenders that they are to be separated even
from the name Vaishnava.
Vijaya: Prabhu, please explain the symptoms of suddha-nama even
more clearly, so that we may easily understand it.
Babaji: Suddha-nama means taking nama with a favorable attitude,
while remaining free from all material desire (anyabhilasa), and
from coverings of jnana, karma and so on. To desire the supreme
bliss that comes when the transcendental nature of nama manifests
clearly is not anyabhilasa. All kinds of desires apart from that -
such as the desire to be free from sins and to gain liberation - are
certainly anyabhilasa. There will be no suddha-nama so long as
anyabhilasa remains; one will not receive suddha-nama as long as
he still desires the fruits of performing jnana, karma, yoga and so
Suddha-nama comes from accepting nama with only favorable
inclinations, and rejecting all unfavorable emotions from the
heart. If one keeps these characteristics of bhakti in mind and
deliberates carefully, it becomes clear that suddha-nama is certainly
that nama which is free from nama-aparadha and namabhasa.
Therefore Shri Gaurachandra, the merciful avatara for Kali-yuga, has
trnad api sunicena taror api sahisnuna
amanina manadena kirtaniyah sada harih
One should think himself more insignificant and lower
than the straw in the street, and should be more tolerant
than a tree. He should give all respect to others, without
desiring any respect for himself. Then he will be qualified
to chant shri-hari-nama constantly.
Vijaya: Prabhu, what is the intrinsic difference between
namabhasa and nama-aparadha?
Babaji: When there is no suddha-nama, shri-nama is called namabhasa.
That namabhasa is called namabhasa at one stage, and nama-aparadha
at another stage. It is called namabhasa when the name that is
chanted is impure because one is in ignorance, that is to say, one is
under the control of illusion and inattentiveness. However, when
the name is chanted impurely with a desire for sense enjoyment
(bhoga) or liberation (moksa), and based on a Mayavada conception,
that is known as nama-aparadha. If the other kinds of aparadhas that
I told you about before are present because of simple ignorance,
the asuddha-nama (impure name) taken in that situation is not
nama-aparadha, but namabhasa. You should remember that, as long
as one does not commit nama-aparadha when one is chanting
namabhasa, there is hope that the namabhasa will go away, and that
suddha-nama will arise. However, if there is nama-aparadha, the rising
of nama in the heart can only take place with great difficulty. There
is no means to obtain benefit other than the method that I have
already explained to become free from the offenses against shri-nama.
Vijaya: If someone is performing namabhasa, what must he do so
that his namabhasa may become suddha-nama?
Babaji: The suitable engagement is that he takes the association
of suddha-bhaktas. If he stays in their company and chants nama
according to their order and guidance, he will then acquire a taste
for suddha-bhakti. The name that appears on the tongue at that
time will be suddha-nama. At the same time, he should diligently
give up the company of nama-aparadhis, because suddha-nama will
not manifest if one remains in their association. Sat-sanga is the
only cause of the jivas' good fortune. That is why the Lord of our
life, Shri Gaurangadeva, instructed Sanatana Gosvami that satsanga
is certainly the root of bhakti. One should always renounce
associating with women and non-devotees, and practice krishnanama
in the association of bhaktas.
Vijaya: Prabhu, can the sadhaka not perform suddha-nama without
giving up his wife.
Babaji: It is certainly imperative to give up the association of
women. A grhastha-vaishnava who remains with his married wife
in a detached mood is acting properly in the Vaishnava world, and
this is not called "association with women." The attachment of
men for women and women for men is called yosit sanga. If a householder
takes krishna-nama and gives up his attachments, then he
will certainly attain the highest goal of life.
Vijaya: How many kinds of namabhasa are there?
Babaji: Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.2.14) enumerates four kinds of
sanketyam parihasyam va stobham helanam eva va
vaikuntha-nama-grahanam asesagha-haram viduh
One may utter shri-krishna-nama to indicate something else
(sanketa), jokingly (parihasa), antagonistically (stobha), or
even disrespectfully (hela). Learned people know that these
four types of shadow namabhasa destroy unlimited sins.
Those who are ignorant of nama-tattva and sambandha-tattva
perform these four kinds of namabhasa.
Vijaya: What is sanketya-namabhasa?
Babaji: Sanketya-namabhasa is uttering Bhagavan's name when
alluding to something else. For instance, Ajamila called his son
Narayana at the time of his death, but Bhagavan Shri Krishna's name
is also Narayana, so Ajamila's uttering 'Narayana' was an instance
of sanketya-namabhasa. When Muslims see a pig, they show hatred
and exclaim, "Harama! Harama!" The exclamation 'harama'
contains the two words 'ha' and 'rama', so the person uttering the
word 'harama' also obtains deliverance from the cycle of birth and
death as a result of taking that sanketya-nama.
All the sastras accept that namabhasa gives mukti. Through shrinama,
relationship is strongly established with Mukunda, (the
giver of liberation). Therefore, by uttering shri-nama one is in touch
with Bhagavan Mukunda and by that contact, mukti (liberation)
is easily obtained. The same liberation that is obtained with great
difficulty through brahma-jnana is easily available to everybody
without hard labor through namabhasa.
Vijaya: Prabhu, we have read in different places in the sastras that
those who utter Krishna's names jokingly obtain liberation. This
includes those who desire liberation (mumuksu), those who are
vainly proud of their learning, mlecchas who are devoid of tattvajnana,
and those who are asurika and actually opposed to the
ultimate goal. Now please tell us about stobha-namabhasa.
Babaji: Stobha means uttering shri-nama antagonistically to hinder
others in their chanting of Krishna's name. For example, while a
pure bhakta is chanting hari-nama, an offender may see him, and
make faces, saying, "Your 'Hari-Kest' will do everything!" This is
an example of stobha, and that stobha-nama can award liberation
even to such a person as that hypocrite. The names have such
Vijaya: What is hela-namabhasa?
Babaji: Hela-namabhasa means to utter shri-nama disrespectfully.
It is said in the Prabhasa-khanda that taking shri-nama neglectfully
also results in liberation from this material world.
madhura-madhuram etan mangalam mangalanam
sakala-nigama-valli sat-phalam cit-svarupam
sakrd api parigitam sraddhaya helaya va
bhrguvara nara-matram tarayet krishna-nama
O best of the Bhrgus, this nama-brahma is more sweet than
any sweet thing and the most auspicious of all that is
auspicious. He is the delectable pure fruit of the flourishing
sruti desire-creeper and appears as the embodiment of
knowledge, delivering any human being who even once
chants shri-krishna-nama either with respect or disrespect.
In this sloka, the word sraddhaya means 'with respect' and helaya
means 'with disrespect'. The purport of the statement nara
matram tarayet is that Krishna's name even gives liberation to the
Vijaya: But isn't it an offense to chant hari-nama antagonistically
Babaji: It is an offense if one is disrespectful knowingly and with
bad intention, but if one is disrespectful unknowingly, it is
Vijaya: What is the result of namabhasa, and what will it not give?
Babaji: Namabhasa will give all kinds of enjoyment, happiness,
liberation and the eight kinds of perfections (siddhis), but it will
not give krishna-prema, which is the highest goal of human life.
However, by giving up bad association, and by associating constantly
with suddha-bhaktas and following their instructions regularly,
one may quickly become a madhyama Vaishnava. Then even
within a few days he can obtain suddha-bhakti and krishna-prema.
Vijaya: Prabhu, many who are vaishnava-abhasa bear the outward
signs of a Vaishnava, and constantly perform namabhasa. Even so,
despite engaging in this way for a long time, they still do not receive
prema. What is the reason for this?
Babaji: There is one secret here. The vaishnava-abhasa-sadhaka is
qualified to receive pure devotion, but he does not have pure, onepointed
bhakti. It may be that he is associating with a person whom
he thinks to be a sadhu, but who is actually a Mayavadi and not a
suddha-bhakta. Due to this undesirable association, the sadhaka
will follow the Mayavadi's apasiddhantika instructions, and as a
result, whatever bhakty-abhasa he had will vanish, and he will
gradually fall down into the category of vaishnava-aparadhi. In that
condition, it is quite difficult - indeed practically impossible -
for him to succeed in his practice. Yet, if his previous sukrti is
strong, it will remove him from that bad association and place
him in the association of saintly persons; and from that sat-sanga
he can obtain pure Vaisnavism again.
Vijaya: Prabhu, what is the result of nama-aparadha?
Babaji: The accumulation of sins from nama-aparadha is even
more dreadful than the result of committing the five maha-papa
millions of times: Thus we can easily estimate the dire result of
Vijaya: Prabhu, I understand that the result of nama-aparadha is
very dangerous, but is there any good result derived from the names
that are uttered offensively?
Babaji: Shri-nama will give whatever result the nama-aparadhi
desires while he is chanting the names, but it will not award krishnaprema.
At the same time, the offender has to suffer the result of
his offenses against shri-nama. One who commits offenses to shrinama,
and who takes the name with a wicked mentality will receive
the following results: In the beginning, the nama-aparadhi takes
shri-nama with a wicked mentality, but after sometime he
occasionally chants nama free from wickedness. This chanting of
the name without a crooked mentality causes him to accumulate
sukrti. Slowly, slowly, as that sukrti increases, its influence enables
him to receive the association of saintly people who are chanting
suddha-nama. The influence of sat-sanga induces the namaaparadhi
to chant shri-nama constantly, which frees him from namaaparadhas.
Even people who had a great desire for liberation have
gradually become hari-bhaktas by taking shelter of this process.
Vijaya: If simply chanting one name can successfully remove all
sins, why is it necessary to chant shri-nama constantly, like an
unbroken stream of fragrant oil?
Babaji: The inner self and dealings of the nama-aparadhi are always
crooked in every way. He is opposed to Krishna (bahirmukha)
by nature, and therefore has no taste for saintly people or auspicious
paraphernalia and times related to Bhagavan. His natural
inclination is towards unworthy people, things, conclusions and
activities. However, if he always chants shri-nama, he will have no
time for unwanted association and activities, and because he is
not in bad association, his chanting of shri-nama will gradually
become pure and give him a taste for auspicious objects.
Vijaya: Prabhu, a current of nectar of shri-nama-tattva is flowing
from your mouth and entering our hearts through our ears, and
we are becoming intoxicated by shri-nama-prema-rasa. Today we
have succeeded in understanding these different topics of nama,
namabhasa, and nama-aparadha. Now please give us whatever final
instruction is appropriate for us.
Babaji: Pandita Jagadananda has given a very beautiful instruction
in his Prema-vivarta (Chapter 7). Listen closely:
asadhu-sange bhai, krishna-nama nahi haya
namaksara bahiraya bate, tabu nama kabhu naya
Remember Bhai (my dear brother), krishna-nama cannot
awaken in the association of non-devotees. Only the syllables
of shri-nama will come out of the mouth, but nama
Himself will remain far away.
kabhu namabhasa haya, sada nama-aparadha
e saba janibe bhai, krishna-bhaktir badha
Certainly there is only nama-aparadha in their association.
Sometimes, by great fortune, there is namabhasa, but you
should know that both namabhasa and nama-aparadha are
obstacles for krishna-bhakti.
yadi karibe krishna-nama, sadhu-sanga kara
bhukti-mukti-siddhi-vancha dure parihara
If you want to chant pure krishna-nama, then take sadhusanga,
and at the same time fully relinquish all desires for
enjoyment, liberation and mystic perfections.
dasa-aparadha tyaja mana apamana
anasaktye visaya bhunja, ara laha krishna-nama
Remain free from the ten offenses to shri-nama, and from
false pride, contempt for others, and so forth. Accept sense??
objects only as far as necessary, in a spirit of detachment,
and incessantly take krishna-nama.
krishna-bhaktir anukula saba karaha svikara
krishna-bhaktir pratikula saba kara parihara
Accept all that is favorable for krishna-bhakti as your very
life, and wholly forsake all that may hinder your practice
jnana-yoga-cesta chada ara karma-sanga
markata-vairagya tyaja yate deha-ranga
Abandon all endeavors for karma, jnana and yoga, and remain
aloof from attachment to the external symptoms of
krishna amaya pale, rakse - jana sarva-kala
atma-nivedana-dainye ghucao janjala
At all times have this full faith: "Krishna will certainly maintain
and protect me." Adopt the qualities of saranagati
headed by dainya (humility) and atma-nivedana (full surrender
of oneself at Krishna's lotus feet), for practicing these
six types of loving self-surrender destroys the web of maya.
sadhu paba kasta bada jivera janiya
sadhu-bhakta-rupe krishna aila nadiya
It is very rare that the jiva can receive sadhu-sanga. Knowing
this, Bhagavan Shri Krishna Himself has descended in the
form of a sadhu and bhakta in Nadiya (Navadvipa)
gora-pada asraya karaha buddhiman
gora bai sadhu guru keba ache an
Therefore, O intelligent people, take shelter of Shri Gaura's
feet. Who is a greater sadhu or guru than Him? He is Krishna
vairagi bhai gramya-katha na sunibe kane
gramya-vartta na kahibe, jabe milibe ana
My renounced brother, if you sometimes meet with others,
do not hear or discuss mundane topics.
svapne o na kara bhai stri-sambhasana
grhe stri-chadiya bhai asiyacha bana
O Bhai, do not talk with women, even in dreams. Remember
how you have left your wife at home and have come to
the forest (Shri Vrndavana) to engage wholeheartedly in
yadi caha pranaya rakhite gaurangera sane
chota-haridasera katha thake yena mane
If you desire to repose your love at Shri Gaurachandra's lotus
feet, always keep in mind Shriman Mahaprabhu's stern
dealings with Chota Haridasa in this connection.
bhala na khaibe, ara bhala na paribe
hrdayete radha-krishna sarvada sevibe
Do not eat opulent food or wear fine clothes, but always
render seva to Shri Radha-Krishna within your heart of hearts.
bada-haridasera nyaya krishna-nama balibe badane
asta-kala radha-krishna sevibe kunja-bane
At all times, both by day and night, fill your mouth with
hari-nama in the same way as Bada Haridasa, and in your
heart perform seva of Radha-Krishna in the kunjas of
Vrndavana during the eight periods of the day and night.
grhastha, vairagi dunhe bale gora-raya
dekha bhai nama bina jena dina nahi jaya
Look Bhai! Gaura-Raya has given this instruction. It is of
no consequence whether one is in the grhastha-asrama or
the vairagi-asrama. Both should not allow a day, an hour
or even a moment to pass by without taking nama.
bahu anga sadhane bhai nahi prayojana
krishna-namasraye suddha karaha jivana
He Bhai! There is no need to practice many kinds of
sadhana. Just by taking shelter of krishna-nama, your life will
become purified and full of meaning.
baddha-jive krpa kari krishna haila nama
kali-jive daya kari krishna haila gauradhama
Being merciful on the jivas who are bound within this age
of quarrel, Shri Krishna has become nama-rupa; then feeling
still more compassion, He also became Gaura and Shri Gauradhama
ekanta-sarala-bhave bhaja gaura-jana
tabe ta paibe bhai shri-krishna-carana
So with single-minded determination and nonduplicitous
heart, just worship Shri Gaura Candra. Bhai, through this
means, you will certainly attain the shelter of Shri Krishna
Candra's lotus feet.
gaura-jana-sanga kara gauranga baliya
hare krishna nama bala naciya naciya
Perform Hare Krishna nama-kirtana in the association of
Gaura bhaktas and continuously dance and call out "Ha
Gauranga! Ha Gauranga!"
acire paibe bhai nama-prema-dhana
yaha vilaite prabhur 'nade' e agamana
O Bhai! Being thus engaged, before long you will receive the
invaluable wealth of nama-prema, the very jewel which Shri
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu descended to Nadiya to distribute."
When Vijaya and Vrajanatha heard this passage of Shri
Jagadananda's Prema-vivarta from the mouth of Shrila Babaji
Maharaja, their hearts became agitated, being absorbed in the
mood of maha-prema expressed by Shri Jagadananda Pandita. Babaji
was almost unconscious for a long time, and then he embraced
them and crying, sang the following kirtana:
krishna-nama dhare kata bala
What power does the name of Krishna possess? (refrain)
visaya-vasananale mora citta sada jvale,
ravi-tapta maru-bhumi sama
karna-randhra-patha diya, hrdi majhe pravesiya,
barisaya sudha anupama
My heart was constantly burning in the fire of worldly
desires, just like a desert scorched by the rays of the sun,
but shri-nama, entering the core of my heart through the
holes of my ears, has showered unparalleled nectar upon
hrdaya haite bale, jihvara agrete cale
sabda-rupe nace anuksana
kanthe mora bhange svara, anga kampe thara thara,
sthira haite na pare carana
Shri-nama speaks from within my heart, moves onto the tip
of my tongue, and constantly dances on it in the form of
transcendental sound. My throat becomes choked up, my
body shivers again and again, and my feet cannot remain
cakse dhara, dehe gharma, pulakita saba carma,
vivarna haila kalevara
murcchita haila mana, pralayera agamana
bhave sarva-deha jara-jara
Rivers of tears flow from my eyes, perspiration soaks my
body, all my skin thrills with rapture, my hairs stand on
end, and my complexion turns pale and discolored. My
mind grows faint, I begin to experience devastation, and
my whole body is shattered by a flood of ecstatic emotions.
kari eta upadrava, citte varse sudha-drava
more dare premera sagare
kichu na bujhite dila, more ta batula kaila,
mora citta-vitta saba hare
While causing such an ecstatic disturbance, shri-nama showers
liquid nectar on my heart, and drowns me in the ocean
of divine prema. He does not allow me to understand
anything, but makes me into a madman by stealing away my
mind and all my resources.
lainu asraya jan'ra hena vyavahara tan'ra
varnite na pari e sakala
krishna-nama icchamaya jahe jahe sukhi haya,
sei mora sukhera sambala
Such is the behavior of Him of whom I have taken shelter.
I am not capable of completely describing Him. Shri-krishnanama
is independent and acts as His sweet will dictates. In
whatever way He becomes happy, that is also the main-stay
of my happiness.
premera kalika nama, adbhuta-rasera dhama
hena bala karaye prakasa
isat vikasi' punah, dekhaya nija-rupa-guna
citta hari laya krishna pasa
Shri-nama is the bud of the lotus of prema, and the abode of
astonishing rasa. Such is the power that He manifests that
when He begins to blossom only a little further, He reveals
His own divine form and qualities. Thus, my heart is abducted
and taken into the presence of Shri Krishna.
purna-vikasita hana, braje more jaya lana
dekhaya more svarupa-vilasa
more siddha-deha diya, krishna-pase rakhe giya
e dehera kare sarba-nasa
Now blossoming fully, the prema flower of shri-nama takes
me to Vraja, and reveals to me the pastimes of His own lovedalliance.
Nama gives me my own siddha-deha, keeps me by
the side of Krishna, and then He completely destroys
everything related to this mortal frame of mine.
krishna-nama cintamani akhila-rasera khani
namera balai yata, saba la'ye hai hata
tabe mora sukhera udaya
The name of Krishna is a gem that fulfills all divine aspirations
(cintamani) and a mine of all bhakti-rasa. He is eternally
liberated, and He is the embodiment of suddha-rasa.
When all impediments for the chanting of suddha-nama
are destroyed, then my happiness will know its true awakening.
As they chanted this nama-kirtana again and again, half the
night passed. When the kirtana finally ended, Vijaya and
Vrajanatha took permission from Gurudeva and returned home,
absorbed in nama-rasa.
THUS ENDS THE TWENTY-FIFTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,