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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 16. Prameya: Jivas Possessed by Maya


C H A P T E R 16

Prameya: Jivas Possessed by Maya


Having heard the illuminating description of jiva-tattva in

Dasa-mula, Vrajanatha returned home. Lying on his bed,

he was unable to sleep, and he began to reflect deeply, "I have

received an answer to the question, 'Who am I?' Now I can understand

myself to be simply an atom of light in the effulgent rays

of the spiritual sun, Shri Krishna. Although atomic by nature, I have

my own inherent value, purpose, knowledge, and a drop of spiritual

bliss (bindu-cidgata-ananda). My svarupa is a spiritual particle

(cit-kana). Even though that form is atomic, it is like Shri

Krishna's human-like form. Now, I cannot see this form; and this is

my misfortune, only an extremely fortunate soul can realize it. It

is important that I understand clearly why I suffer in this unfortunate

condition. Tomorrow I will inquire about this from Shri



Thinking thus, he finally fell asleep at around midnight. Before

dawn, he dreamt he had left his family and accepted Vaishnava

dress. When he awoke, he joyfully thought, "It appears that Krishna

will soon pull me out of this samsara."


The next morning, while he was sitting on the porch some students

approached him. Offering their respects, they said, "For a

long time you have taught us very nicely, and under your guidance

we have learnt many profound subject matters pertaining to nyaya.

We hope that you will now instruct us on nyaya-kusumanjali."


With great humility Vrajanatha replied, "My dear brothers, I

am unable to teach you any more, for I cannot fix my mind on teaching

at all. I have decided to take another path. Under these circumstances,

I suggest that you study under the guidance of some

other teacher." When they heard this the students became unhappy,

but since there was nothing that they could do, gradually

one by one they began to leave.


About that time, Shri Caturbhuja Misra Ghataka came to the

house to present a proposal to Vrajanatha's paternal grandmother

for his marriage. He said, "I am sure you know Vijayanatha

Bhattacarya. His family is good, and quite well off; thus it will be a

suitable match for you. Most importantly, this girl is as qualified

as she is beautiful. On his side, Bhattacarya will make no conditions

regarding the marriage of his daughter with Vrajanatha. He

is ready to marry her in whichever way you desire."


Hearing this proposal, Vrajanatha's grandmother became exhilarated,

but Vrajanatha felt dissatisfied within his heart. "Alas!"

he thought, "My grandmother is arranging my marriage while I am

planning to leave my family and the world. How can I feel happy to

discuss marriage at this time?"


Later, there was an intense struggle of arguments and counter

arguments in their home regarding marriage. Vrajanatha's mother,

grandmother and the other elderly ladies were on one side, while

on the other, completely alone, was Vrajanatha. The ladies insisted

in various ways that Vrajanatha should get married, but he did not

agree. The discussion continued the entire day. Around evening

time, it began to rain heavily, and kept pouring throughout the

night, so that Vrajanatha could not go to Mayapura. The next day,

because of the heated arguments about marriage, he could not even

eat his meals properly. In the evening he went to Babaji's cottage.

He paid obeisances and sat down close to Babaji, who said, "Yesterday

night it was raining quite heavily. That's probably why you

couldn't come. Seeing you today gives me much happiness."


Vrajanatha said, "Prabhu, I am facing a problem which I will tell

you about later. First please explain to me, if the jiva is a pure spiritual

entity, how did he become entangled in this miserable world?"

Babaji smiled and said :


svaruparthair hinan nija-sukha-paran krishna-vimukhan

harer maya-dandyan guna-nigada-jalaih kalayati

tatha sthulair lingai dvi-vidhavaranaih klesa-nikarair

mahakarmalanair nayati patitan svarga-nirayau

Dasa-mula, Sloka (6)


By his original nature the jiva is an eternal servant of Krishna.

His svarupa-dharma is service to Shri Krishna. Bhagavan's bewildering

energy (maya) punishes those jivas who are bereft

of that svarupa-dharma. These jivas are diverted from

Krishna, and are concerned with their own happiness. She

binds them in the ropes of the three modes of material nature

- sattva, rajah and tamah - covers their svarupa with

gross and subtle bodies, thows them into the miserable

bondage of karma, thus repeatedly causing them to experience

happiness and distress in heaven and hell.


"Innumerable jivas appear from Shri Baladeva Prabhu to serve

Vrndavana-vihari Shri Krishna as His eternal associates in Goloka

Vrndavana, and others appear from Shri Sankarsana to serve the

Lord of Vaikuntha, Shri Narayana, in the spiritual sky. Eternally

relishing rasa, engaged in the service of their worshipable Lord,

they always remain fixed in their constitutional position. They

always strive to please Bhagavan, and are always attentive to Him.

Having attained the strength of cit-sakti, they are always strong.

They have no connection with the material energy. In fact, they

do not know if there is a bewildering energy called maya or not.

Since they reside in the spiritual world, maya is very far away from

them and does not affect them at all. Always absorbed in the bliss

of serving their worshipable Lord, they are eternally liberated and

are free from material happiness and distress. Their life is love

alone, and they are not even conscious of misery, death or fear.


"There are also innumerable, atomic, conscious jivas who emanate

as rays in Karanodakasayi Maha-Vishnu's glance upon His mayasakti.

Since these jivas are situated next to maya, they perceive her

wonderful workings. Although they have all the qualities of the

jivas that I have already described, because of their minute and

marginal nature, they sometimes look to the spiritual world, and

sometimes to the material world. In this marginal condition, the

jiva is very weak because at that time he has not attained spiritual

strength from the mercy of the object of his worship (seva-vastu).

Among these unlimited jivas, those who want to enjoy maya become

engrossed in mundane sense gratification and enter the state

of nitya-baddha. On the other hand, the jivas who perform cidanusilanam

of Bhagavan receive spiritual sakti (cid-bala) by His

mercy, and enter the spiritual world. Baba! It is our great misfortune

that we have forgotten our service to Shri Krishna, and have

become bound in the shackles of maya. Only because we have forgotten

our constitutional position, are we in this deplorable condition."


Vrajanatha: Prabhu, I understand that this marginal position is

situated in tatastha-svabhava, or junction, of the spiritual and

material worlds. Why is it that some jivas go from there to the

material world, while others go to the spiritual world?


Babaji: Krishna's qualities are also present in the jivas, but only in a

minute quantity. Krishna is supremely independent, so the desire to

be independent is eternally present in the jivas as well. When the

jiva uses his independence correctly, he remains disposed towards

Krishna, but when he misuses it, he becomes vimukha (indifferent) to

Him. It is just this indifference that gives rise to the desire in the

jiva's heart to enjoy maya. Because of the desire to enjoy maya, he

develops the false ego that he can enjoy material sense gratification,

and then the five types of ignorance - tamah (not knowing

anything about the spirit soul), moha (the illusion of the bodily

concept of life), maha-moha (madness for material enjoyment),

tamisra (forgetfulness of one's constitutional position due to anger

or envy) and andha-tamisra (considering death to be the ultimate

end) - cover his pure, atomic nature. Our liberation or subjugation

simply depends on whether we use our minute independence

properly, or misuse it.


Vrajanatha: Krishna is karunamaya (full of mercy), so why did He make

the jiva so weak that he became entangled in maya?


Babaji: It is true that Krishna is karunamaya, overflowing with mercy,

however, He is also lilamaya, overflowing with desire to perform

pastimes. Desiring various pastimes to be enacted in different situations,

Shri Krishna made the jiva's eligable for all conditions, from

the marginal state to the highest state of mahabhava. And to facilitate

the jiva's progressing practically and steadfastly towards

becoming qualified for Krishna's service, He has also created the

lower levels of material existence, beginning from the lowest inert

matter up to ahankara, which are the cause of unlimited obstruction

in attaining paramananda. Having fallen from their constitutional

position, the jivas who are entangled in maya are indifferent

to Krishna and engrossed in personal sense gratification.

However, Shri Krishna is the reservoir of mercy. The more the jiva

becomes fallen, the more Krishna provides him with opportunities

to attain the highest spiritual perfection. He brings this about by

appearing before him along with His spiritual dhama and His eternal

associates. Those jivas who take advantage of this merciful

opportunity and sincerely endeavor to attain the higher position

gradually reach the spiritual world and attain a state similar to

that of Shri Hari's eternal associates.


Vrajanatha: Why must the jivas suffer for the sake of Bhagavan's



Babaji: The jivas possess some independence. This is actually a

sign of Bhagavan's special mercy upon them. Inert objects are very

insignificant and worthless because they have no such independent

desire. The jiva has attained sovereignty of the inert world

only because of his independent desire.


Misery and happiness are conditions of the mind. Thus what

we may consider misery is happiness for one engrossed in it. Since

all varieties of material sense gratification finally result in nothing

but misery, a materialistic person only achieves suffering.

When that suffering becomes excessive, it gives rise to a search

for happiness. From that desire, discrimination arises, and from

discrimination, the tendency for inquiry is born. As a result of this,

one attains sat-sanga (the association of saintly people), whereupon

sraddha develops. When sraddha is born, the jiva ascends to

a higher stage, namely the path of bhakti.


Gold is purified by heating and hammering. Being indifferent

to Krishna, the jiva has become impure through engaging in mundane

sense gratification. Therefore, he must be purified by being

beaten with the hammers of misery on the anvil of this material

world. By this process, the misery of the jivas averse to Krishna finally

culminates in happiness. Suffering is therefore just a sign of

Bhagavan's mercy. That is why far sighted people see the suffering

of jivas in Krishna's pastimes as auspicious, though the near sighted

can only see it as an inauspicious source of misery.


Vrajanatha: The jiva's suffering in his conditioned state is ultimately

auspicious, but in the present state it is very painful. Since

Krishna is omnipotent, couldn't He think of a less troublesome path?


Babaji: Krishna's lila is extremely wonderful and of many varieties;

this is also one of them. If Bhagavan is independent and almighty,

and performs all kinds of pastimes, why should this be the only

pastime that He neglects? No pastime can be rejected if there is to

be full variety. Besides, the participants in other types of pastimes

also must accept some sort of suffering. Shri Krishna is the enjoyer

(purusa) and the active agent (karta). All ingredients and paraphernalia

are controlled by His desire and subject to His activities.

It is natural to experience some suffering when one is controlled

by the desire of the agent. However, if that suffering brings pleasure

in the end, it is not true suffering. How can you call it suffering?

The so-called suffering that one undergoes in order to nourish

and support Krishna's pastimes is actually a source of delight.

The jiva's independent desire has caused him to abandon the pleasure

of serving Krishna, and instead accept suffering in maya. This

is the jiva's fault, not Krishna's.


Vrajanatha: What harm would there have been if the jiva had not

been given independent desire? Krishna is omniscient, and He gave

this independence to the jivas, even though He knew that they

would suffer on account of it, so isn't He responsible for the jiva's



Babaji: Independence is a precious jewel, in the absence of which

inert objects are insignificant and worthless. If the jiva had not

received independence, he would also have become as insignificant

and worthless as the material objects. The jiva is an atomic,

spiritual entity, so he must certainly have all the qualities of spiritual

objects. The only difference is that Bhagavan, who is the complete

spiritual object, possesses all these qualities in full, whereas

the jiva only has them to a very minute degree. Independence is a

distinctive quality of the spiritual object, and an object's inherent

quality cannot be separated from the object itself. Consequently,

the jiva also has this quality of independence, but only to

a very minute degree, because he is atomic. It is only because of

this independence that the jiva is the supreme object in the material

world, and the lord of creation.


The independent jiva is a beloved servant of Krishna, and thus

Krishna is kind and compassionate towards him. Seeing the misfortune

of the jiva, as he misuses his independence and becomes attached

to maya, He chases after him, weeping and weeping, and

appears in the material world to deliver him. Shri Krishna, the ocean of

compassion, His heart melting with mercy for the jivas, manifests

His acintya-lila in the material world, thinking that His appearance

will enable the jiva to see His nectarean pastimes. However,

the jiva does not understand the truth about Krishna's pastimes, even

after being showered by so much mercy, so Krishna then descends in

Shri Navadvipa in the form of guru. He personally describes the

supreme process of chanting His name, form, qualities and pastimes,

and personally instructs and inspires the jivas to take to this path

by practicing it Himself. Baba, how can you accuse Krishna of being

at fault in any way when He is so merciful? His mercy is unlimited,

but our misfortune is lamentable.


Vrajanatha: Is maya-sakti the cause of our misfortune then? Would

the jivas have had to suffer like this if the omnipotent and omniscient

Shri Krishna had kept maya away from them?


Babaji: Maya is a reflected transformation of Krishna's internal potency,

svarupa-sakti, and it is like a fiery furnace where the jivas

who are not qualified for Krishna's seva are chastized and made fit

for the spiritual world. Maya is Krishna's maidservant. In order to

purify the jivas who have turned against Krishna, she punishes them,

gives appropriate therapy, and purifies them. The infinitesimal jiva

has forgotten that he is an eternal servant of Krishna, and for this

offense, maya, taking the form of a witch (pisaci), punishes him.

This material world is like a jail, and maya is the jailer who imprisons

the estranged jivas and punishes them. A king constructs a

prison for the benefit of his subjects, and in the same way, Bhagavan

has shown His immense mercy towards the jivas by making this

prison-like material world and appointing maya as its custodian.


Vrajanatha: If this material world is a prison, it also requires some

suitable shackles. What are they?


Babaji: Maya incarcerates the offensive jivas with three types of

shackles: those made of goodness (sattva-guna), those made of

passion (rajo-guna), and those made of ignorance (tamo-guna).

These fetters bind the jiva, whether his inclination is tamasika,

rajasika, or even sattvika. Shackles may be made of different metals

- such as gold, silver or iron - but that makes no difference to the

pain of being bound by them.


Vrajanatha: How can the shackles of maya bind the atomic, conscious



Babaji: Objects of this material world cannot touch spiritual objects.

However, as soon as the jiva develops the conception that

he is an enjoyer of maya, his atomic, spiritual form is covered by

the subtle body made of false ego. That is how the shackles of

maya bind his legs. The jivas having a sattvika ego reside in the

higher planets and are called devatas; their legs are bound by

sattvika shackles made of gold. The rajasika-jivas have a mixture

of the propensities of the devatas and of the human beings, and

they are confined in rajasika shackles made of silver. And the

tamasika jivas, who are mad to taste jadananda (bliss derived from

dull matter), are bound in tamasika iron shackles. Once the jivas

are bound in these shackles, they cannot leave the prison. Even

though they suffer various types of miseries, they remain in captivity.


Vrajanatha: What sort of karma (activities) do the jivas perform

while confined in maya's prison?


Babaji: Initially, the jiva performs karma to provide himself with

his desired sense pleasure, in accordance with his material propensities.

Then, he performs karma (activity) to try and dispell

the miseries that result from being bound by the shackles of maya.


Vrajanatha: Please explain the first type of karma in detail.


Babaji: The covering of the gross material body has six stages,

namely, birth, existence, growth, creating by-products, decline and

death. These six transformations are the inherent attributes of

the gross body, and hunger and thirst are it's deficiencies. The pious

jiva who is situated in the material body is controlled by eating,

sleeping and sensual activities, as his material sense desires dictate.

In order to enjoy material comforts, he engages in a variety of

activities (karma) that are born of his material desires. During the

course of his lifetime, he performs ten types of purificatory ceremonies

(punya samskaras), and eighteen other sacrificial rites prescribed

in the Vedas. His intention is to accumulate pious credits

through these karmas, so that he can enjoy material pleasures by

taking birth in a brahminical or other high-class family in this

world, and thereafter, have godly pleasures in the higher planets.

Thus, he undertakes the path of karma.


In contrast, impious conditioned jivas take shelter of adharma,

and enjoy sense gratification sacrilegiously by performing various

types of sinful activities. Jivas in the first category attain the higher

planets and enjoy celestial pleasures as a result of their pious activities.

When this period of enjoyment ends - as it must - they

take birth in the material world again as human beings or in other

life-forms. Jivas in the second category go to hell because of their

sinful activities, and after suffering a variety of miseries there, take

birth on earth again. Thus the jiva, bound in maya and entangled

in the cycle of karma, wanders hither and thither seeking to enjoy

sense gratification. Intermittently, he also enjoys some temporary

pleasures as a result of pious activities (punya-karma), and suffers

miseries because of his papa (sins).


Vrajanatha: Please describe the second type of karma as well.


Babaji: The jiva situated in the gross body undergoes immense

suffering due to the deficiencies of the gross body, and he performs

various types of karma in an attempt to minimize these miseries.

He collects various foods and drinks to assuage his hunger and

thirst, and he toils arduously to earn money, so that he can buy

food easily. He collects warm clothes to protect himself from the

cold, marries to satisfy his desire for sensual pleasures, and works

hard to maintain his family and children and fulfill their needs.

He takes medicines to cure diseases of the gross body, fights with

others, and goes to courts of law to protect his material assets. He

indulges in various sinful activities - such as fighting, enviousness,

stealing, and other misdemeanors - because he is controlled

by the six foes, namely, kama (lust), krodha (anger), mada (intoxication),

moha (illusion), matsarya (envy) and bhaya (fear). All these

activities are to alleviate his sufferings. Thus the entire life of the

bewildered jiva is wasted in trying to fulfill his desires and avoid



Vrajanatha: Wouldn't maya's purpose have been served if she had

only covered the jiva with the subtle body?


Babaji: The gross body is also necessary, because the subtle body

cannot perform work. Desires develop in the subtle body because

of the activities that the jiva performs in his gross body, and the

jiva receives another gross body that is suitable to fulfill those



Vrajanatha: What is the connection between karma and its fruits?

According to the Mimamsa school of thought, Isvara cannot award

the fruits of karma because He is only an imaginary object. The

followers of this school say that performing karma produces a tattva

called apurva, and this apurva gives the fruits of all the karmas. Is

this true?


Babaji: The followers of the Mimamsa school do not know the

actual meaning of the Vedas. They have a very basic understanding

that the Vedas generally prescribe various types of sacrifices,

and they have concocted a philosophy based on this, but their

doctrine is not found anywhere in the Vedas. On the contrary, the

Vedas state very clearly that Isvara awards all fruits of karma. For

example, Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.6), Mundaka Upanisad (3.1.1)

and the Rg Veda (1.164.21) state:


dva suparna sayuja sakhaya

samanam vrksam parisasvajate

tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty

anasnann anyo 'bhicakasit


Ksirodakasayi Vishnu and the jiva are residing in this temporary

body, like two friendly birds in a pippala tree. Of these

two birds, one - the jiva - tastes the fruits of the tree according

to his karma, while the other - Paramatma - does

not taste the fruits, but simply observes as a witness.


The purport of this sloka is that this samsara (material world or

material body) is like a pippala tree in which two birds are perched.

One of these is the conditioned jiva, and the other is his friend,

Isvara (Paramatma). The first bird tastes the fruits of the tree, while

the other bird simply watches him. This means that the jiva who

is bound by maya performs karma and enjoys the fruits that Isvara,

the Lord of maya, awards according to the jiva's karma. This pastime

of Shri Bhagavan continues until the jiva turns towards Him.

Now, where is the apurva of the followers of Mimamsa philosophy

here? Think about this yourself. Godless doctrines can never be

complete and perfect in all respects.


Vrajanatha: Why have you said that karma is beginningless?


Babaji: The root of all karma is the desire to perform karma, and

the root cause of this desire is avidya (ignorance). Avidya is forgetfulness

of the truth: "I am an eternal servant of Krishna," and it

does not have its origin in mundane time. Rather, it originates in

the tatastha junction of the spiritual and material worlds. That is

why karma does not have its beginning in mundane time, and is

therefore called beginningless.


Vrajanatha: What is the difference between maya and avidya?


Babaji: Maya is a sakti of Krishna. Shri Krishna has created the material

universe through her, and has instigated her to purify the jivas who

are averse to Him. Maya has two aspects: avidya and pradhana.

Avidya is related to the jivas, whereas pradhana is related to inert

matter. The entire inert, mundane world has originated from

pradhana, whereas the jiva's desire to perform material activity

originates in avidya. There are also two other divisions of maya,

namely vidya (knowledge) and avidya (forgetfulness), both of

which are related to the jiva. Avidya binds the jiva, whereas vidya

liberates him. The faculty of avidya keeps working as long as the

aparadhi-jiva continues to forget Krishna, but when he becomes

favorable to Krishna, this is replaced by the faculty of vidya. Brahmajnana

and so on are only particular activities of the tendency for

knowledge (vidya-vrtti). When discrimination first develops, the

jiva tries to engage in auspicious activities, and when discrimination

has matured, spiritual knowledge manifests. Avidya covers the

jiva, and vidya removes that covering.


Vrajanatha: What is the function of the pradhana?


Babaji: When Isvara's endeavor, represented by Time (kala), stimulates

maya-prakrti, it first creates the unmanifest aggregate of the

material elements (mahat-tattva). Matter (dravya) is created by the

stimulation of the faculty of maya called pradhana. False ego

(ahankara) is born from a transformation of mahat-tattva, and space

(akasa) is created from a tamasika transformation of the false ego.

Air is created from a transformation of space, and fire is created

from a transformation of air. Water is then created by the transformation

of fire, and earth is created by the transformation of

water. This is how the material elements are created. They are

called the five gross elements (panca-maha-bhutas).


Now hear how the five sense objects (panca-tanmatra) are created.

Kala (time) stimulates the faculty of prakrti called avidya

and creates the tendencies within the mahat-tattva for karma and

jnana. When the karma propensity of mahat-tattva is transformed,

it creates knowledge (jnana) and activities (kriya) from sattva and

rajo-gunas respectively. Mahat-tattva is also transformed to become

ahankara. Intelligence (buddhi) is then created from a transformation

of ahankara. Sound (sabda) which is the property of

space (akasa) is created from the transformation of buddhi. The

property of touch (sparsa) is created from the transformation of

sound, and it includes both touch, quality of air, and sound, quality

of space. Prana (life-air), oja (energy), and bala (strength) are

created from this quality of touch. From a transformation of touch

the property of form and color in illuminating objects is generated.

Fire has three qualities, namely, form, touch and sound.

When this quality is transformed by time, it is transformed into

the four qualities, taste (rasa), form, touch and sound in water.

When they are further transformed, the result is the five qualities

in earth which are smell (gandha), taste, form, touch and

sound. All the activities of transformation take place by the appropriate

aid of the purusa in His form of consciousness



There are three kinds of ahankara: vaikarika (sattvika), taijasa

(rajasika), and tamas. The material elements are born from sattvikaahankara,

and the ten senses are born from rajasika- ahankara.

There are two types of senses: those for acquiring knowledge

(jnana-indriya) and the working senses (karma-indriya). The eyes,

ears, nose, tongue and skin are the five senses for acquiring knowledge;

and speech, hands, feet, anus and genital are the five working

senses. Even if the five gross elements (panca-maha-bhuta)

combine with the subtle elements (suksma-bhuta), there is still no

activity unless the atomic, conscious jiva enters into them. As soon

as the anu-cit-jiva, who is a localized particle within the ray of

Bhagavan's glance, enters into the body made of maha-bhuta and

suksma-bhuta, all the activities are set in motion. The sattvika and

rajasika gunas become fit to function when they combine with

tamasika objects that are a transformation of pradhana. One should

deliberate on the functions of avidya and pradhana in this way.


There are twenty-four elements of maya: the five gross elements

(maha-bhutas), namely, earth, water, fire, air and space; the five

sense-objects, namely smell, taste, form, touch and sound; the five

senses for acquiring knowledge; the five working senses; mind; intelligence;

citta; and ahankara. These are the twenty-four elements

of material nature. The atomic conscious jiva who enters into the

body made of twenty-four elements is the twenty-fifth element,

and Paramatma Isvara is the twenty-sixth.


Vrajanatha: Please tell me, how much of the human body, whose

size is three and a half cubits (seven spans) is occupied by the subtle

cover, and how much by the gross cover; and in which part of the

body does the conscious jiva reside?


Babaji: The five gross elements, the five sense-objects (pancatanmatra),

and the ten senses altogether comprise the gross body.

The four elements - mind, intelligence, citta, and ahankara - form

the subtle body, or linga-sarira. The conscious jiva is the one who

falsely relates to the body and objects related to the body as 'I' and

'mine', and due to that misidentification has forgotten his true

nature. He is extremely subtle and beyond mundane space, time

and qualities. In spite of being very subtle, he pervades the entire

body. Just as the pleasurable effect of a minute drop of hari-candana

spreads all over the body when it is applied to one part, so the

atomic jiva, too, is the knower (ksetra-jna) of the whole body, and

the experiencer of its pains and pleasures.


Vrajanatha: If the jiva performs karma, and experiences pains and

pleasures, where is the question of Isvara's active involvement?


Babaji: Jiva is the instrumental cause, and when he performs karma,

Isvara acts as the efficient cause and arranges for the fruits of the

karma that the jiva is eligible to enjoy. Isvara also arranges for the

future karma for which the jiva has become eligible. In short, Isvara

awards fruits, while the jiva enjoys them.


Vrajanatha: How many types of baddha-jivas are there?


Babaji: There are five kinds, namely, those whose consciousness

is completely covered (acchadita-cetana); those whose consciousness

is shrunken or contracted (sankucita-cetana); those whose consciousness

is budding slightly (mukulita-cetana); those with developed

consciousness (vikasita-cetana); and those with fully developed

consciousness (purna-vikasita-cetana).


Vrajanatha: Which jivas have completely covered consciousness?


Babaji: These are jivas with the bodies of trees, creepers, grass,

stone and so on, who have forgotten service to Krishna, and are so

engrossed in the material qualities of maya that they have no trace

of their sentient nature. There is only a slight indication of their

sentience through the six transformations. This is the lowest stage

of the jiva's fall, and this fact is corroborated by the epic stories of

Ahalya, Yamalarjuna, and Sapta-tala. One only reaches this stage

because of some grave offense, and one can only be delivered from

it by Krishna's mercy.


Vrajanatha: Which jivas have contracted consciousness?


Babaji: Beasts, birds, snakes, fish, aquatics, mosquitoes, and various

similar creatures have shrunken or contracted consciousness.

The consciousness of these jivas is apparent to some degree, unlike

that of jivas in the previous group, whose consciousness is completely

covered. For example, these jivas perform activities such as

eating, sleeping, free movement, and quarrelling with others for

things that they consider their property. They also show fear, and

they become angry when they see injustice. However, they have

no knowledge of the spiritual world. Even monkeys have some

scientific understanding in their mischievous minds, for they have

some idea of what will or will not happen in the future, and they

also have the quality of being grateful. Some animals have good

knowledge about various objects, too, but despite all these attributes,

they do not have a propensity for inquiring about

Bhagavan, so their consciousness is contracted. It is said in sastra

that Maharaja Bharata still had knowledge of the names of

Bhagavan, even while he was in the body of a deer, but this is unusual;

it only happens in special cases. Bharata and King Nrga had

to take birth as animals because of their offenses, and they were

delivered when their offense was nullified by Bhagavan's mercy.


Vrajanatha: Which jivas have slightly budding consciousness



Babaji: Conditioned jivas with human bodies fall into three categories:

those with slightly budding consciousness (mukulitacetana),

those with developed consciousness (vikasita-cetana), and

those with fully developed consciousness (purna-vikasita-cetana).

Generally, the human race can be divided into five groups: 1) immoral

atheists, 2) moral atheists, 3) moral theists, who have both

morals and faith in Isvara, 4) those who are engaged in sadhanabhakti,

and 5) those who are engaged in bhava-bhakti.


Those who are knowingly or unknowingly atheists are either

immoral or moral atheists. When a moral person develops a little

faith in Isvara, he is called a moral theist. Those who develop interest

in sadhana-bhakti according to the tenets of sastra are called

sadhana-bhaktas, and those who have developed some unalloyed

love for Isvara are called bhava-bhaktas. Both immoral and moral

atheists have slightly budding consciousness; moral theists and

sadhana-bhaktas have developed consciousness; and the bhavabhaktas

have fully developed consciousness.


Vrajanatha: How long do the bhava-bhaktas stay bound in maya?


Babaji: I will answer that question when I explain the seventh sloka

of Dasa-mula. Now it's quite late, so kindly return to your home.


Vrajanatha returned home, contemplating all the tattvas he had