|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Jaiva Dharma > 16. Prameya: Jivas Possessed by Maya|
C H A P T E R 16
Prameya: Jivas Possessed by Maya
Having heard the illuminating description of jiva-tattva in
Dasa-mula, Vrajanatha returned home. Lying on his bed,
he was unable to sleep, and he began to reflect deeply, "I have
received an answer to the question, 'Who am I?' Now I can understand
myself to be simply an atom of light in the effulgent rays
of the spiritual sun, Shri Krishna. Although atomic by nature, I have
my own inherent value, purpose, knowledge, and a drop of spiritual
bliss (bindu-cidgata-ananda). My svarupa is a spiritual particle
(cit-kana). Even though that form is atomic, it is like Shri
Krishna's human-like form. Now, I cannot see this form; and this is
my misfortune, only an extremely fortunate soul can realize it. It
is important that I understand clearly why I suffer in this unfortunate
condition. Tomorrow I will inquire about this from Shri
Thinking thus, he finally fell asleep at around midnight. Before
dawn, he dreamt he had left his family and accepted Vaishnava
dress. When he awoke, he joyfully thought, "It appears that Krishna
will soon pull me out of this samsara."
The next morning, while he was sitting on the porch some students
approached him. Offering their respects, they said, "For a
long time you have taught us very nicely, and under your guidance
we have learnt many profound subject matters pertaining to nyaya.
We hope that you will now instruct us on nyaya-kusumanjali."
With great humility Vrajanatha replied, "My dear brothers, I
am unable to teach you any more, for I cannot fix my mind on teaching
at all. I have decided to take another path. Under these circumstances,
I suggest that you study under the guidance of some
other teacher." When they heard this the students became unhappy,
but since there was nothing that they could do, gradually
one by one they began to leave.
About that time, Shri Caturbhuja Misra Ghataka came to the
house to present a proposal to Vrajanatha's paternal grandmother
for his marriage. He said, "I am sure you know Vijayanatha
Bhattacarya. His family is good, and quite well off; thus it will be a
suitable match for you. Most importantly, this girl is as qualified
as she is beautiful. On his side, Bhattacarya will make no conditions
regarding the marriage of his daughter with Vrajanatha. He
is ready to marry her in whichever way you desire."
Hearing this proposal, Vrajanatha's grandmother became exhilarated,
but Vrajanatha felt dissatisfied within his heart. "Alas!"
he thought, "My grandmother is arranging my marriage while I am
planning to leave my family and the world. How can I feel happy to
discuss marriage at this time?"
Later, there was an intense struggle of arguments and counter
arguments in their home regarding marriage. Vrajanatha's mother,
grandmother and the other elderly ladies were on one side, while
on the other, completely alone, was Vrajanatha. The ladies insisted
in various ways that Vrajanatha should get married, but he did not
agree. The discussion continued the entire day. Around evening
time, it began to rain heavily, and kept pouring throughout the
night, so that Vrajanatha could not go to Mayapura. The next day,
because of the heated arguments about marriage, he could not even
eat his meals properly. In the evening he went to Babaji's cottage.
He paid obeisances and sat down close to Babaji, who said, "Yesterday
night it was raining quite heavily. That's probably why you
couldn't come. Seeing you today gives me much happiness."
Vrajanatha said, "Prabhu, I am facing a problem which I will tell
you about later. First please explain to me, if the jiva is a pure spiritual
entity, how did he become entangled in this miserable world?"
Babaji smiled and said :
svaruparthair hinan nija-sukha-paran krishna-vimukhan
harer maya-dandyan guna-nigada-jalaih kalayati
tatha sthulair lingai dvi-vidhavaranaih klesa-nikarair
mahakarmalanair nayati patitan svarga-nirayau
Dasa-mula, Sloka (6)
By his original nature the jiva is an eternal servant of Krishna.
His svarupa-dharma is service to Shri Krishna. Bhagavan's bewildering
energy (maya) punishes those jivas who are bereft
of that svarupa-dharma. These jivas are diverted from
Krishna, and are concerned with their own happiness. She
binds them in the ropes of the three modes of material nature
- sattva, rajah and tamah - covers their svarupa with
gross and subtle bodies, thows them into the miserable
bondage of karma, thus repeatedly causing them to experience
happiness and distress in heaven and hell.
"Innumerable jivas appear from Shri Baladeva Prabhu to serve
Vrndavana-vihari Shri Krishna as His eternal associates in Goloka
Vrndavana, and others appear from Shri Sankarsana to serve the
Lord of Vaikuntha, Shri Narayana, in the spiritual sky. Eternally
relishing rasa, engaged in the service of their worshipable Lord,
they always remain fixed in their constitutional position. They
always strive to please Bhagavan, and are always attentive to Him.
Having attained the strength of cit-sakti, they are always strong.
They have no connection with the material energy. In fact, they
do not know if there is a bewildering energy called maya or not.
Since they reside in the spiritual world, maya is very far away from
them and does not affect them at all. Always absorbed in the bliss
of serving their worshipable Lord, they are eternally liberated and
are free from material happiness and distress. Their life is love
alone, and they are not even conscious of misery, death or fear.
"There are also innumerable, atomic, conscious jivas who emanate
as rays in Karanodakasayi Maha-Vishnu's glance upon His mayasakti.
Since these jivas are situated next to maya, they perceive her
wonderful workings. Although they have all the qualities of the
jivas that I have already described, because of their minute and
marginal nature, they sometimes look to the spiritual world, and
sometimes to the material world. In this marginal condition, the
jiva is very weak because at that time he has not attained spiritual
strength from the mercy of the object of his worship (seva-vastu).
Among these unlimited jivas, those who want to enjoy maya become
engrossed in mundane sense gratification and enter the state
of nitya-baddha. On the other hand, the jivas who perform cidanusilanam
of Bhagavan receive spiritual sakti (cid-bala) by His
mercy, and enter the spiritual world. Baba! It is our great misfortune
that we have forgotten our service to Shri Krishna, and have
become bound in the shackles of maya. Only because we have forgotten
our constitutional position, are we in this deplorable condition."
Vrajanatha: Prabhu, I understand that this marginal position is
situated in tatastha-svabhava, or junction, of the spiritual and
material worlds. Why is it that some jivas go from there to the
material world, while others go to the spiritual world?
Babaji: Krishna's qualities are also present in the jivas, but only in a
minute quantity. Krishna is supremely independent, so the desire to
be independent is eternally present in the jivas as well. When the
jiva uses his independence correctly, he remains disposed towards
Krishna, but when he misuses it, he becomes vimukha (indifferent) to
Him. It is just this indifference that gives rise to the desire in the
jiva's heart to enjoy maya. Because of the desire to enjoy maya, he
develops the false ego that he can enjoy material sense gratification,
and then the five types of ignorance - tamah (not knowing
anything about the spirit soul), moha (the illusion of the bodily
concept of life), maha-moha (madness for material enjoyment),
tamisra (forgetfulness of one's constitutional position due to anger
or envy) and andha-tamisra (considering death to be the ultimate
end) - cover his pure, atomic nature. Our liberation or subjugation
simply depends on whether we use our minute independence
properly, or misuse it.
Vrajanatha: Krishna is karunamaya (full of mercy), so why did He make
the jiva so weak that he became entangled in maya?
Babaji: It is true that Krishna is karunamaya, overflowing with mercy,
however, He is also lilamaya, overflowing with desire to perform
pastimes. Desiring various pastimes to be enacted in different situations,
Shri Krishna made the jiva's eligable for all conditions, from
the marginal state to the highest state of mahabhava. And to facilitate
the jiva's progressing practically and steadfastly towards
becoming qualified for Krishna's service, He has also created the
lower levels of material existence, beginning from the lowest inert
matter up to ahankara, which are the cause of unlimited obstruction
in attaining paramananda. Having fallen from their constitutional
position, the jivas who are entangled in maya are indifferent
to Krishna and engrossed in personal sense gratification.
However, Shri Krishna is the reservoir of mercy. The more the jiva
becomes fallen, the more Krishna provides him with opportunities
to attain the highest spiritual perfection. He brings this about by
appearing before him along with His spiritual dhama and His eternal
associates. Those jivas who take advantage of this merciful
opportunity and sincerely endeavor to attain the higher position
gradually reach the spiritual world and attain a state similar to
that of Shri Hari's eternal associates.
Vrajanatha: Why must the jivas suffer for the sake of Bhagavan's
Babaji: The jivas possess some independence. This is actually a
sign of Bhagavan's special mercy upon them. Inert objects are very
insignificant and worthless because they have no such independent
desire. The jiva has attained sovereignty of the inert world
only because of his independent desire.
Misery and happiness are conditions of the mind. Thus what
we may consider misery is happiness for one engrossed in it. Since
all varieties of material sense gratification finally result in nothing
but misery, a materialistic person only achieves suffering.
When that suffering becomes excessive, it gives rise to a search
for happiness. From that desire, discrimination arises, and from
discrimination, the tendency for inquiry is born. As a result of this,
one attains sat-sanga (the association of saintly people), whereupon
sraddha develops. When sraddha is born, the jiva ascends to
a higher stage, namely the path of bhakti.
Gold is purified by heating and hammering. Being indifferent
to Krishna, the jiva has become impure through engaging in mundane
sense gratification. Therefore, he must be purified by being
beaten with the hammers of misery on the anvil of this material
world. By this process, the misery of the jivas averse to Krishna finally
culminates in happiness. Suffering is therefore just a sign of
Bhagavan's mercy. That is why far sighted people see the suffering
of jivas in Krishna's pastimes as auspicious, though the near sighted
can only see it as an inauspicious source of misery.
Vrajanatha: The jiva's suffering in his conditioned state is ultimately
auspicious, but in the present state it is very painful. Since
Krishna is omnipotent, couldn't He think of a less troublesome path?
Babaji: Krishna's lila is extremely wonderful and of many varieties;
this is also one of them. If Bhagavan is independent and almighty,
and performs all kinds of pastimes, why should this be the only
pastime that He neglects? No pastime can be rejected if there is to
be full variety. Besides, the participants in other types of pastimes
also must accept some sort of suffering. Shri Krishna is the enjoyer
(purusa) and the active agent (karta). All ingredients and paraphernalia
are controlled by His desire and subject to His activities.
It is natural to experience some suffering when one is controlled
by the desire of the agent. However, if that suffering brings pleasure
in the end, it is not true suffering. How can you call it suffering?
The so-called suffering that one undergoes in order to nourish
and support Krishna's pastimes is actually a source of delight.
The jiva's independent desire has caused him to abandon the pleasure
of serving Krishna, and instead accept suffering in maya. This
is the jiva's fault, not Krishna's.
Vrajanatha: What harm would there have been if the jiva had not
been given independent desire? Krishna is omniscient, and He gave
this independence to the jivas, even though He knew that they
would suffer on account of it, so isn't He responsible for the jiva's
Babaji: Independence is a precious jewel, in the absence of which
inert objects are insignificant and worthless. If the jiva had not
received independence, he would also have become as insignificant
and worthless as the material objects. The jiva is an atomic,
spiritual entity, so he must certainly have all the qualities of spiritual
objects. The only difference is that Bhagavan, who is the complete
spiritual object, possesses all these qualities in full, whereas
the jiva only has them to a very minute degree. Independence is a
distinctive quality of the spiritual object, and an object's inherent
quality cannot be separated from the object itself. Consequently,
the jiva also has this quality of independence, but only to
a very minute degree, because he is atomic. It is only because of
this independence that the jiva is the supreme object in the material
world, and the lord of creation.
The independent jiva is a beloved servant of Krishna, and thus
Krishna is kind and compassionate towards him. Seeing the misfortune
of the jiva, as he misuses his independence and becomes attached
to maya, He chases after him, weeping and weeping, and
appears in the material world to deliver him. Shri Krishna, the ocean of
compassion, His heart melting with mercy for the jivas, manifests
His acintya-lila in the material world, thinking that His appearance
will enable the jiva to see His nectarean pastimes. However,
the jiva does not understand the truth about Krishna's pastimes, even
after being showered by so much mercy, so Krishna then descends in
Shri Navadvipa in the form of guru. He personally describes the
supreme process of chanting His name, form, qualities and pastimes,
and personally instructs and inspires the jivas to take to this path
by practicing it Himself. Baba, how can you accuse Krishna of being
at fault in any way when He is so merciful? His mercy is unlimited,
but our misfortune is lamentable.
Vrajanatha: Is maya-sakti the cause of our misfortune then? Would
the jivas have had to suffer like this if the omnipotent and omniscient
Shri Krishna had kept maya away from them?
Babaji: Maya is a reflected transformation of Krishna's internal potency,
svarupa-sakti, and it is like a fiery furnace where the jivas
who are not qualified for Krishna's seva are chastized and made fit
for the spiritual world. Maya is Krishna's maidservant. In order to
purify the jivas who have turned against Krishna, she punishes them,
gives appropriate therapy, and purifies them. The infinitesimal jiva
has forgotten that he is an eternal servant of Krishna, and for this
offense, maya, taking the form of a witch (pisaci), punishes him.
This material world is like a jail, and maya is the jailer who imprisons
the estranged jivas and punishes them. A king constructs a
prison for the benefit of his subjects, and in the same way, Bhagavan
has shown His immense mercy towards the jivas by making this
prison-like material world and appointing maya as its custodian.
Vrajanatha: If this material world is a prison, it also requires some
suitable shackles. What are they?
Babaji: Maya incarcerates the offensive jivas with three types of
shackles: those made of goodness (sattva-guna), those made of
passion (rajo-guna), and those made of ignorance (tamo-guna).
These fetters bind the jiva, whether his inclination is tamasika,
rajasika, or even sattvika. Shackles may be made of different metals
- such as gold, silver or iron - but that makes no difference to the
pain of being bound by them.
Vrajanatha: How can the shackles of maya bind the atomic, conscious
Babaji: Objects of this material world cannot touch spiritual objects.
However, as soon as the jiva develops the conception that
he is an enjoyer of maya, his atomic, spiritual form is covered by
the subtle body made of false ego. That is how the shackles of
maya bind his legs. The jivas having a sattvika ego reside in the
higher planets and are called devatas; their legs are bound by
sattvika shackles made of gold. The rajasika-jivas have a mixture
of the propensities of the devatas and of the human beings, and
they are confined in rajasika shackles made of silver. And the
tamasika jivas, who are mad to taste jadananda (bliss derived from
dull matter), are bound in tamasika iron shackles. Once the jivas
are bound in these shackles, they cannot leave the prison. Even
though they suffer various types of miseries, they remain in captivity.
Vrajanatha: What sort of karma (activities) do the jivas perform
while confined in maya's prison?
Babaji: Initially, the jiva performs karma to provide himself with
his desired sense pleasure, in accordance with his material propensities.
Then, he performs karma (activity) to try and dispell
the miseries that result from being bound by the shackles of maya.
Vrajanatha: Please explain the first type of karma in detail.
Babaji: The covering of the gross material body has six stages,
namely, birth, existence, growth, creating by-products, decline and
death. These six transformations are the inherent attributes of
the gross body, and hunger and thirst are it's deficiencies. The pious
jiva who is situated in the material body is controlled by eating,
sleeping and sensual activities, as his material sense desires dictate.
In order to enjoy material comforts, he engages in a variety of
activities (karma) that are born of his material desires. During the
course of his lifetime, he performs ten types of purificatory ceremonies
(punya samskaras), and eighteen other sacrificial rites prescribed
in the Vedas. His intention is to accumulate pious credits
through these karmas, so that he can enjoy material pleasures by
taking birth in a brahminical or other high-class family in this
world, and thereafter, have godly pleasures in the higher planets.
Thus, he undertakes the path of karma.
In contrast, impious conditioned jivas take shelter of adharma,
and enjoy sense gratification sacrilegiously by performing various
types of sinful activities. Jivas in the first category attain the higher
planets and enjoy celestial pleasures as a result of their pious activities.
When this period of enjoyment ends - as it must - they
take birth in the material world again as human beings or in other
life-forms. Jivas in the second category go to hell because of their
sinful activities, and after suffering a variety of miseries there, take
birth on earth again. Thus the jiva, bound in maya and entangled
in the cycle of karma, wanders hither and thither seeking to enjoy
sense gratification. Intermittently, he also enjoys some temporary
pleasures as a result of pious activities (punya-karma), and suffers
miseries because of his papa (sins).
Vrajanatha: Please describe the second type of karma as well.
Babaji: The jiva situated in the gross body undergoes immense
suffering due to the deficiencies of the gross body, and he performs
various types of karma in an attempt to minimize these miseries.
He collects various foods and drinks to assuage his hunger and
thirst, and he toils arduously to earn money, so that he can buy
food easily. He collects warm clothes to protect himself from the
cold, marries to satisfy his desire for sensual pleasures, and works
hard to maintain his family and children and fulfill their needs.
He takes medicines to cure diseases of the gross body, fights with
others, and goes to courts of law to protect his material assets. He
indulges in various sinful activities - such as fighting, enviousness,
stealing, and other misdemeanors - because he is controlled
by the six foes, namely, kama (lust), krodha (anger), mada (intoxication),
moha (illusion), matsarya (envy) and bhaya (fear). All these
activities are to alleviate his sufferings. Thus the entire life of the
bewildered jiva is wasted in trying to fulfill his desires and avoid
Vrajanatha: Wouldn't maya's purpose have been served if she had
only covered the jiva with the subtle body?
Babaji: The gross body is also necessary, because the subtle body
cannot perform work. Desires develop in the subtle body because
of the activities that the jiva performs in his gross body, and the
jiva receives another gross body that is suitable to fulfill those
Vrajanatha: What is the connection between karma and its fruits?
According to the Mimamsa school of thought, Isvara cannot award
the fruits of karma because He is only an imaginary object. The
followers of this school say that performing karma produces a tattva
called apurva, and this apurva gives the fruits of all the karmas. Is
Babaji: The followers of the Mimamsa school do not know the
actual meaning of the Vedas. They have a very basic understanding
that the Vedas generally prescribe various types of sacrifices,
and they have concocted a philosophy based on this, but their
doctrine is not found anywhere in the Vedas. On the contrary, the
Vedas state very clearly that Isvara awards all fruits of karma. For
example, Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.6), Mundaka Upanisad (3.1.1)
and the Rg Veda (1.164.21) state:
dva suparna sayuja sakhaya
samanam vrksam parisasvajate
tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty
anasnann anyo 'bhicakasit
Ksirodakasayi Vishnu and the jiva are residing in this temporary
body, like two friendly birds in a pippala tree. Of these
two birds, one - the jiva - tastes the fruits of the tree according
to his karma, while the other - Paramatma - does
not taste the fruits, but simply observes as a witness.
The purport of this sloka is that this samsara (material world or
material body) is like a pippala tree in which two birds are perched.
One of these is the conditioned jiva, and the other is his friend,
Isvara (Paramatma). The first bird tastes the fruits of the tree, while
the other bird simply watches him. This means that the jiva who
is bound by maya performs karma and enjoys the fruits that Isvara,
the Lord of maya, awards according to the jiva's karma. This pastime
of Shri Bhagavan continues until the jiva turns towards Him.
Now, where is the apurva of the followers of Mimamsa philosophy
here? Think about this yourself. Godless doctrines can never be
complete and perfect in all respects.
Vrajanatha: Why have you said that karma is beginningless?
Babaji: The root of all karma is the desire to perform karma, and
the root cause of this desire is avidya (ignorance). Avidya is forgetfulness
of the truth: "I am an eternal servant of Krishna," and it
does not have its origin in mundane time. Rather, it originates in
the tatastha junction of the spiritual and material worlds. That is
why karma does not have its beginning in mundane time, and is
therefore called beginningless.
Vrajanatha: What is the difference between maya and avidya?
Babaji: Maya is a sakti of Krishna. Shri Krishna has created the material
universe through her, and has instigated her to purify the jivas who
are averse to Him. Maya has two aspects: avidya and pradhana.
Avidya is related to the jivas, whereas pradhana is related to inert
matter. The entire inert, mundane world has originated from
pradhana, whereas the jiva's desire to perform material activity
originates in avidya. There are also two other divisions of maya,
namely vidya (knowledge) and avidya (forgetfulness), both of
which are related to the jiva. Avidya binds the jiva, whereas vidya
liberates him. The faculty of avidya keeps working as long as the
aparadhi-jiva continues to forget Krishna, but when he becomes
favorable to Krishna, this is replaced by the faculty of vidya. Brahmajnana
and so on are only particular activities of the tendency for
knowledge (vidya-vrtti). When discrimination first develops, the
jiva tries to engage in auspicious activities, and when discrimination
has matured, spiritual knowledge manifests. Avidya covers the
jiva, and vidya removes that covering.
Vrajanatha: What is the function of the pradhana?
Babaji: When Isvara's endeavor, represented by Time (kala), stimulates
maya-prakrti, it first creates the unmanifest aggregate of the
material elements (mahat-tattva). Matter (dravya) is created by the
stimulation of the faculty of maya called pradhana. False ego
(ahankara) is born from a transformation of mahat-tattva, and space
(akasa) is created from a tamasika transformation of the false ego.
Air is created from a transformation of space, and fire is created
from a transformation of air. Water is then created by the transformation
of fire, and earth is created by the transformation of
water. This is how the material elements are created. They are
called the five gross elements (panca-maha-bhutas).
Now hear how the five sense objects (panca-tanmatra) are created.
Kala (time) stimulates the faculty of prakrti called avidya
and creates the tendencies within the mahat-tattva for karma and
jnana. When the karma propensity of mahat-tattva is transformed,
it creates knowledge (jnana) and activities (kriya) from sattva and
rajo-gunas respectively. Mahat-tattva is also transformed to become
ahankara. Intelligence (buddhi) is then created from a transformation
of ahankara. Sound (sabda) which is the property of
space (akasa) is created from the transformation of buddhi. The
property of touch (sparsa) is created from the transformation of
sound, and it includes both touch, quality of air, and sound, quality
of space. Prana (life-air), oja (energy), and bala (strength) are
created from this quality of touch. From a transformation of touch
the property of form and color in illuminating objects is generated.
Fire has three qualities, namely, form, touch and sound.
When this quality is transformed by time, it is transformed into
the four qualities, taste (rasa), form, touch and sound in water.
When they are further transformed, the result is the five qualities
in earth which are smell (gandha), taste, form, touch and
sound. All the activities of transformation take place by the appropriate
aid of the purusa in His form of consciousness
There are three kinds of ahankara: vaikarika (sattvika), taijasa
(rajasika), and tamas. The material elements are born from sattvikaahankara,
and the ten senses are born from rajasika- ahankara.
There are two types of senses: those for acquiring knowledge
(jnana-indriya) and the working senses (karma-indriya). The eyes,
ears, nose, tongue and skin are the five senses for acquiring knowledge;
and speech, hands, feet, anus and genital are the five working
senses. Even if the five gross elements (panca-maha-bhuta)
combine with the subtle elements (suksma-bhuta), there is still no
activity unless the atomic, conscious jiva enters into them. As soon
as the anu-cit-jiva, who is a localized particle within the ray of
Bhagavan's glance, enters into the body made of maha-bhuta and
suksma-bhuta, all the activities are set in motion. The sattvika and
rajasika gunas become fit to function when they combine with
tamasika objects that are a transformation of pradhana. One should
deliberate on the functions of avidya and pradhana in this way.
There are twenty-four elements of maya: the five gross elements
(maha-bhutas), namely, earth, water, fire, air and space; the five
sense-objects, namely smell, taste, form, touch and sound; the five
senses for acquiring knowledge; the five working senses; mind; intelligence;
citta; and ahankara. These are the twenty-four elements
of material nature. The atomic conscious jiva who enters into the
body made of twenty-four elements is the twenty-fifth element,
and Paramatma Isvara is the twenty-sixth.
Vrajanatha: Please tell me, how much of the human body, whose
size is three and a half cubits (seven spans) is occupied by the subtle
cover, and how much by the gross cover; and in which part of the
body does the conscious jiva reside?
Babaji: The five gross elements, the five sense-objects (pancatanmatra),
and the ten senses altogether comprise the gross body.
The four elements - mind, intelligence, citta, and ahankara - form
the subtle body, or linga-sarira. The conscious jiva is the one who
falsely relates to the body and objects related to the body as 'I' and
'mine', and due to that misidentification has forgotten his true
nature. He is extremely subtle and beyond mundane space, time
and qualities. In spite of being very subtle, he pervades the entire
body. Just as the pleasurable effect of a minute drop of hari-candana
spreads all over the body when it is applied to one part, so the
atomic jiva, too, is the knower (ksetra-jna) of the whole body, and
the experiencer of its pains and pleasures.
Vrajanatha: If the jiva performs karma, and experiences pains and
pleasures, where is the question of Isvara's active involvement?
Babaji: Jiva is the instrumental cause, and when he performs karma,
Isvara acts as the efficient cause and arranges for the fruits of the
karma that the jiva is eligible to enjoy. Isvara also arranges for the
future karma for which the jiva has become eligible. In short, Isvara
awards fruits, while the jiva enjoys them.
Vrajanatha: How many types of baddha-jivas are there?
Babaji: There are five kinds, namely, those whose consciousness
is completely covered (acchadita-cetana); those whose consciousness
is shrunken or contracted (sankucita-cetana); those whose consciousness
is budding slightly (mukulita-cetana); those with developed
consciousness (vikasita-cetana); and those with fully developed
Vrajanatha: Which jivas have completely covered consciousness?
Babaji: These are jivas with the bodies of trees, creepers, grass,
stone and so on, who have forgotten service to Krishna, and are so
engrossed in the material qualities of maya that they have no trace
of their sentient nature. There is only a slight indication of their
sentience through the six transformations. This is the lowest stage
of the jiva's fall, and this fact is corroborated by the epic stories of
Ahalya, Yamalarjuna, and Sapta-tala. One only reaches this stage
because of some grave offense, and one can only be delivered from
it by Krishna's mercy.
Vrajanatha: Which jivas have contracted consciousness?
Babaji: Beasts, birds, snakes, fish, aquatics, mosquitoes, and various
similar creatures have shrunken or contracted consciousness.
The consciousness of these jivas is apparent to some degree, unlike
that of jivas in the previous group, whose consciousness is completely
covered. For example, these jivas perform activities such as
eating, sleeping, free movement, and quarrelling with others for
things that they consider their property. They also show fear, and
they become angry when they see injustice. However, they have
no knowledge of the spiritual world. Even monkeys have some
scientific understanding in their mischievous minds, for they have
some idea of what will or will not happen in the future, and they
also have the quality of being grateful. Some animals have good
knowledge about various objects, too, but despite all these attributes,
they do not have a propensity for inquiring about
Bhagavan, so their consciousness is contracted. It is said in sastra
that Maharaja Bharata still had knowledge of the names of
Bhagavan, even while he was in the body of a deer, but this is unusual;
it only happens in special cases. Bharata and King Nrga had
to take birth as animals because of their offenses, and they were
delivered when their offense was nullified by Bhagavan's mercy.
Vrajanatha: Which jivas have slightly budding consciousness
Babaji: Conditioned jivas with human bodies fall into three categories:
those with slightly budding consciousness (mukulitacetana),
those with developed consciousness (vikasita-cetana), and
those with fully developed consciousness (purna-vikasita-cetana).
Generally, the human race can be divided into five groups: 1) immoral
atheists, 2) moral atheists, 3) moral theists, who have both
morals and faith in Isvara, 4) those who are engaged in sadhanabhakti,
and 5) those who are engaged in bhava-bhakti.
Those who are knowingly or unknowingly atheists are either
immoral or moral atheists. When a moral person develops a little
faith in Isvara, he is called a moral theist. Those who develop interest
in sadhana-bhakti according to the tenets of sastra are called
sadhana-bhaktas, and those who have developed some unalloyed
love for Isvara are called bhava-bhaktas. Both immoral and moral
atheists have slightly budding consciousness; moral theists and
sadhana-bhaktas have developed consciousness; and the bhavabhaktas
have fully developed consciousness.
Vrajanatha: How long do the bhava-bhaktas stay bound in maya?
Babaji: I will answer that question when I explain the seventh sloka
of Dasa-mula. Now it's quite late, so kindly return to your home.
Vrajanatha returned home, contemplating all the tattvas he had
THUS ENDS THE SIXTEENTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
"PRAMEYA: JIVAS POSSESSED BY MAYA"