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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Glories of Lord Krishna > Krishna the Supreme Absolute Truth > Shri Shri Radha Krishna Gannodesha Dipika

Shri Shri Radha Krishna Gannodesha Dipika by Shrila Rupa Goswami

A LAMP TO SEE THE ASSOCIATES OF SRI SRI RADHA-KRSNA BY SHRILA RUPA GOSWAMI

INTRODUCTION

TEXT 1

I offer my respectful obeisances to the lotus feet of my spiritual master. I offer my respectful obeisances to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in this world with Nityananda Prabhu and is surrounded by His devotees.

TEXT 2

I offer my respectful obeisances to the two lotus feet Shrimati Radharani. I offer my respectful obeisances Lord Nandanandana, who is surrounded by the gopis and enchants the minds of the residents of Vrndavana.

TEXT 3

The celebrated personal associates of the King and Queen of Vrndavana are briefly but truthfully described with great delight in both Vedic literatures and oral tradition. This book will also describe them.

TEXT 4 AND 5

These associates of the Lord are described by the residents of Mathura-mandala, by the various books written by devotees , various Vedic literatures such as the Puranas and Agamas and by the great devotees and saintly persons. For the satisfaction of my dear friends, these associates of the Lord will now be briefly describing in writing, following the previous authorities in the path of ecstatic love of God.

TEXT 6

The associates of Krishna who reside in Vrajabhumi may be divided into three groups : 1. protectors of domestic animals, 2. brahmanas, 3. others.

TEXT 7

The Protectors of Domestic Animals

These are descendants of the Yadu dynasty and they may be divided into three groups : 1. vaisyas, 2. abhiras, 3. gurjaras.

TEXT 8

The Vaisyas

For the most part the most important vaisyas earn their livelihood by protecting cows. Some of the vaisyas are born from lower-caste mothers and they are known as abhiras.

TEXT 9

The Abhiras

The abhiras are those who have vaisya fathers and sudra mothers. A little inferior to the vaisyas, who are engaged in cow protection, the abhiras earn their livelihood by protecting buffalo. They are known by various names, such as ghosa.

TEXT 10

The Garjaras

A little inferior to the abhiras, the garjaras earn their livelihood by protecting goats and similar animals. Their bodily features are a little chubby and they reside on the outskirts of Vraja.

TEXT 11

The Brahmanas

Learned in all the Vedas, the brahmanas engage in performing sacrifices, worshiping the Deity and other brahminical occupations.

TEXT 12

The Bahisthas

The bahisthas earn their livelihood by engaging in various trades and crafts. In this way we have described five kinds of associates (vaisyas, abhiras, garjaras, brahmanas and bahisthas) of Lord Hari in Vrajabhumi.

TEXT 13

Lord Krishna's associates may also be divided into the following eight groups : 1. worshipable superiors, 2. relatives who are on the same level (such as brothers and sisters) 3. gopi messengers, 4. servants, 5. craftsmen, 6. maidservants, 7. contemporary cowherd friends and 8. dear gopi friends. Included among the worshipable superiors are the brothers and similar relatives of Nanda Maharaja, Nanda's contemporary friends, servants, other associates and the elderly gopis. Krishna is always respectful to these superiors.

TEXT 14

1. Worshipable Superiors

The worshipable superiors include Krnsa's grandfather, other elderly relatives and also the community of brahmanas.

TEXT 15 AND 16

Krishna's fair-complexion, white-haired and white-attired grandfather is named Parjanya Maharaja, because he is like a great cloud (parjanya) showering the nectar of auspiciousness. He is the best of all the residents of Vraja.

Desiring a worthy descendant, he followed the advice of Devarsi Narada and engaged in the worship of Lord Narayana, the husband of Laksmi. As he was worshiping Narayana at Nandisvara-pura, a pleasant voice spoke the following words from the sky.

TEXT 17 AND 18

" Because of your pious austerities you will obtain five sons. Of these sons the middle one, named Nanda, will be the best. Nanda's glorious son will delight the residents of Vraja. He will defeat all oppositions. Both the demigods and demons will worship Him, touching the jewels of their crowns to His lotus feet."

TEXT 19

Hearing this, Parjanya Maharaja became happy and decided to reside at the place. He lived there until he saw the Kesi demon arrive and at that time he became frightened and fled with all his associates to Mahavana.

TEXT 20

Krishna's grandmother Variyasi is respected in the land of Vraja. She is short in stature and her complexion is the colour of a kusumbha flower. She is attired in green garments and her hair is the color of milk.

TEXT 21

Parjanya Maharaja's brothers are named Urjanya and Rajanya and his sister is an expert dancer named Suverjana. Her husband is named Gunavira and they live in the town named Surya-kunja.

TEXT 22 and 23

Krishna's father is Nanda Maharaja. Nanda delights the residents of Vraja and he is worshiped by all the worlds. He has a protuberant belly, his complexion is the colour of sandalwood, he is tall in stature and his garments are the colour of a bandhujiva flower. His beard is a mixture of black and white hairs, like rice and toasted sesame seeds mixed together.

TEXT 24

Nanda is the king of the cowherd men, the younger brother of Upananda and the intimate friend of Maharaja Vasudeva. Nanda and his wife Yasoda are the king and queen of Vrajabhumi and the parents of Lord Krishna.

TEXT 25

Because he possesses the splendor (deva) of great wealth (vasu), Nanda Maharaja is also known as Vasudeva. He is also famous by the name Anakadundubhi and it is known that in his previous birth he was named Drona.

TEXT 26

These names of Maharaja Nanda are described in the Mathura-mahima section of the Garuda Purana. Nanda's most intimate friend is named Maharaja Vrsabhanu.

TEXT 27

Krishna's mother is named Yasoda because she bestows (da) fame (yasah) on the cowherd residents of Vraja. She is like the personification of parental love for Krnsa. Her complexion is dark and her garments are like a rainbow.

TEXT 28

Mother Yasoda's body is of a medium size, neither large nor small. She has long black hair. Her closest friends are Aindavi and Kirtida.

TEXT 29

Yasoda is the wife of Nanda, the king of Gokula. She is the queen of the cowherd men in Vraja, the friend of Devaki and the mother of Lord Krishna.

TEXT 30

The friendship of Yasoda is described in the following statement of the Adi Purana : " The wife of Maharaja Nanda was known by two names, Yasoda and Devaki. Partly because they share the same name (Devaki) the wife of Maharaja Nanda and the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva were great friends."

TEXT 31

Lord Balarama's mother is named Rohini, because she is filled with a constantly rising (arohini) flood of transcendental bliss. Although she dearly loves her son Balarama, she loves Krishna millions of times more.

TEXT 32

Nanda Maharaja's elder brothers are Upananda and Abhinanda and his younger brothers are Sannanda and Nandana. These are the names of Lord Krishna's parental uncles.

TEXT 33

Upananda's complexion is pink. He has a long beard and wears green garments. Tungi-devi is his dear wife. Both her complexion and garments are the colour of a cataka bird.

TEXT 34

Abhinanda wears dark garments and his long beautiful beard is like a great conchshell. Pivari-devi is his wife. She wears blue garments and her complexion is pink.

TEXT 35

Sannanda is also known as Sunanda. His complexion is white and he wears dark-colored clothing. He has two or three white hairs and he is very dear to Lord Kesava.

TEXT 36

Kuvalaya-devi is Sannanda's wife. Her complexion is the colour of a blue lotus flower and she wears red garments. Nandana wears garments the color of a candata flower and his complexion is like the color of a peacock.

TEXT 37

Nandana lives in the same house with his father, Parjanya Maharaja. He is full of love for his yound nephew Krishna. Atulya-devi is Nandana's wife. Her complexion is like lightning and her garments resemble a dark cloud.

TEXT 38

Krishna's father has two sisters, Sananda-devi and Nandini-devi. They both dress in garments of many different colors. They have beautiful teeth and their complexions are the color of white foam. Sananda-devi's husband is Mahanila and Nandini's husband is Sunila.

TEXT 39 and 40

Kandava and Dandava are the two sons of Upananda. Their faces are as beautiful as lotus flowers and they become especially happy in the association of their friend Subala.

Catu and Batuka are Nanda Maharaja's two ksatriya cousins born in Vasudeva Maharaja's dynasty. Catu's wife is Dadhisara and Batuka's wife is Havihsara.

TEXT 41

Krishna's energetic and enthusiastic maternal grandfather is named Sumukha. His long beard is like a great conchshell and his complexion is the color of a ripe jambu fruit.

TEXT 42

Queen Patala-devi is Krishna's maternal grandmother and she is very famous in Vrajabhumi. Her hair is the white color of yogurt, her complexion is the pink color of a patala flower and her garments are green.

TEXT 43

Patala-devi's dear friend is named Mukhara-gopi. Out of intense affection for her friend, Mukhara used to feed the infant Yasoda with her own breast milk.

TEXT 44 AND 45

Carumukha is Sumukha's younger brother. His complexion is the color of black eye-cosmetics and his wife Balaka-gopi was raised by her stepparents. Gola is the brother of Patala-devi, Krishna's maternal grandmother. His garments are the color of smoke. His brother-in-law, Sumukha, used to make fun of him and laugh and because of this Gola was very angry with him. Because he had worshiped Durvasa Muni in his previous birth, Gola was allowed to take birth in Vrajabhumi in the family of Ujjvala.

TEXT 46

Jatila-devi is Gola's wife. She has a large belly and her complexion is the color of a cow. Her sons Yasodhara, Yasodeva and Sudeva head the group of Krishna's maternal uncles.

TEXT 47

Krishna's maternal uncles have complexions like the color of a dark atasi flower and they dress in white garments. Their wives have complexions like karkati flowers and they dress in smoke-colored garments.

TEXT 48

Rema-devi, Roma-devi and Surema-devi are the daughters of Krishna's parental uncle Pavana. Yasodevi and Yasasvini are the sisters of Krishna's mother Yasoda. Yasasvini's husband is named Malla.

TEXT 49

Yasodevi is elder. Her complexion is dark and she is also known by the name Dadhisara. Yasasvini is younger. Her complexion is fair and she is also known by the name Havihsara. Both dress in vermillion-colored garments.

TEXT 50

Yasoda's sisters married the two ksatriyas Catu and Batuka (see text 40). Yasoda's uncle Carumukha has one son who is named Sucaru.

TEXT 51

Sucaru's wife is Tulavati-devi, the daughter of Sumukha's brother-in-law Gola. Tundu, Kutera, Purata and others are the comtemporary associates of Krishna's parental grandfather.

TEXT 52

Kila, Antakela, Tilata, Krpita, Purata, Gonda, Kallota, Karanda, Tarisana, Varisana, Viraroha and Vararoha are among the contemporary associates of Krishna's maternal grandfather.

TEXT 53

The elderly ladies Silabheri, Sikhambara, Bharuni, Bhangur, Bhangi, Bharasakha and Sikha are among the contemporary associates of Krishna's parental grandmother.

TEXT 54 AND 55

Bharunda, Jatila, Bhela, Karala, Karabalika, Gharghara, Mukhara, Ghora, Ghanta, Ghoni, Sughantika, Dhvankarunti, Handi, Tundi, Dingima, Manjuranika, Cakkini, Condika, Cundi, Dindima, Pundavanika, Damani, Damari, Dambi and Danka are among the contemporary associates of Krishna's maternal grandmother.

TEXT 56 - 58

Mangala, Pingala, Pinga, Mathura, Pitha, Pattisa, Sankara, Sangara, Bhrngaq, Ghrni, Ghatika, Saragha, Pathira, Dandi, Kedara, Saurabheya, Kala, Ankura, Dhurina, Dhurva, Cakranga, Maskara, Utpala, Kambala, Supaksa, Saudha, Harita, Harikesa, Hara and Upananda are among the contemporary associates of Krishna's father, Nanda Maharaja.

TEXT 59

Having taken a vow of friendship in their youth, Parjanya and Sumukha always remain the best of friends. Nanda Maharaja and many other of the cowherds are descended from their families.

TEXT 60 - 62

Vatsala, Kusala, Tali, Medura, Masrna, Krpa, Sankini, Bimbini, Mitra, Subhaga, Bhogini, Prabha, Sarika Hingula, Niti, Kapila, Dhamanidhara, Paksati, Pataka, Pundi, Sutunda, Tusti, Anjana, Tarangaksi, Taralika, Subhada, Malika, Angada, Visala, Sallaki, Vena and Vartika are among the contemporary associates of Krishna's mother, Yasoda-devi.

TEXT 63

Ambika and Kilimba are the two nurses who fed Krishna with their breast milk. Of the two, Ambika, the dear friend of Vraja's queen, is the most important.

TEXT 64 -65

The Brahmanas

Two groups of brahmanas reside in Gokula : those maintained by Nanda Maharaja and those who are priests engaged in the performance of Vedic sacrifices. Among the priests, Vedagarbha, Mahayajva and Bhaguri are prominent. Their respective wives are Samadheni, Mahakavya and Vedika.

TEXT 66

Sulabha, Gautami, Gargi, Candila, Kubjika, Vamani, Svaha, Sulata, Sandili, Svadha and Bhargavi are the most important of the brahmana ladies respectfully worshiped by the residents of Vraja.

TEXT 67 - 69

Full of transcendental opulences, Paurnamasi-devi is the incarnation of the Lord's Yogamaya potency. She makes the arrangements of Lord Krishna's pastimes to be properly performed. She is slightly tall in stature and has a fair complexion. Her hair is the color of kasa flowers and she wears red garments. She is greatly respected by Nanda Maharaja and all the other residents of Vrajabhumi. She was the dear student of Devarsi Narada and on his advice she left her favorite son, Sandipani Muni, in Avantipura and came to Gokula, impelled by great love for her worshipable Lord Krishna.

TEXT 70

Krishna's associates may be divided into two groups : gopis and gopas. The gopis may be divided into three groups : 1. Gopi friends of the same age as Krishna, 2. maidservants and 3. gopi messengers.

TEXT 71 - 72

Learned scholars have also divided Lord Krishna's associates into the following nine categories : 1. yutha, 2. kula, 3. mandala, 4. varga, 5. gana, 6. samavaya, 7. sancaya, 8. samaja, 9. and samanvaya.

TEXT 73 - 75

Krishna's Gopi Friends :

Of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord mentioned in text 70, the first group, Krishna's contemporary gopi friends, are the most exalted, the second group, the maidservants are the next most exalted, and the gopi messengers come after them. These three groups correspond to the groups mentioned as samaja, mandala and gana respectively (in texts 71 - 72). The first group, Krishna's contemporary gopi friends, may be further divided into varistha (the most exalted ) and vara (exalted).

TEXT 76

Varistha (The Most Exalted Gopis)

The varistha gopis are more famous than all the others. They are eternally the intimate friends of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. No one can equal or exceed the love they bear for the divine couple.

TEXT 77

Of all Krishna's friends, the varistha gopis are the most worshipable. They are decorated with incomparable transcendental qualities, bodily beauty and all other charming opulences.

TEXT 78

Krishna's Gopi Friends

Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakamallika, Tungavidya, Indulekha, Rangadevi and Sudevi are the most intimate of Lord Krishna's gopi friends.

TEXT 79

Lalita

Of these eight gopis, the first one, Lalita-devi, is the best. She is a dear friend of the divine couple and she is 27 years old, the eldest of Krishna's gopi friends.

TEXT 80

Lalita is famous as Shrimati Radharani's constant companion and follower. Lalita is contrary and hot-tempered by nature. Her complexion is like the yellow pigment gorocana and her garments are like peacock feathers.

TEXT 81

Her mother is Saradi-devi and her father is Visoka. Her husband is named Bhairava. He is a close friend of Govardhana-gopa.

TEXT 82 - 83

Visakha

Visakha is the second most important of these eight varistha-gopis. Her attributes, activities and resolve are all muck like those of her friend Lalita. Visakha was born at the exact same moment as her dear friend Shrimati Radharani appeared in this world. Visakha's garments are decorated with stars and her complexion is like lightning. Her father is Pavana, the son of the sister of Mukhara-gopi and her mother is Daksina-devi, the daughter of the sister of Jatila. Her husband is Vahika-gopa.

TEXT 84

Campakalata

Campakalata is the third of the varistha-gopis. Her complexion is the color of a blossoming yellow campaka flower and her garments are the color of a blue-jay's feature. She is one day younger than Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 85

Her husband is Arama, her mother is Vatika-devi and her husband is Candaksa. Her qualities are much like those of Visakha.

TEXT 86

Citra

Citra is the fourth of the varistha gopis. Her fair complexion resembles the color of kunkuma and her garments are the color of crystal. She is 26 days younger than Shrimati Radharani. When Lord Madhava is full of blis, she becomes satisfied.

TEXT 87

Her father is Catura, the paternal uncle of Suryamitra. Her mother is Carcika-devi. Her husband is Pithara.

TEXT 88

Tungavidya

Tungavidya is the fifth of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of kunkuma and the fragrance of her body is like sandalwood mixed with camphor. She is fifteen days younger than Shrimati Radharani

TEXT 89

Tungavidya is hot-tempered and expert at dissimulation. She wears white garments. Her parents are Puskara and Medha-devi and her husband is Balisa.

TEXT 90

Indulekha

Indulekha is the sixth of the varistha gopis. She has a tan complexion and wears garments the color of a pomegranate flower. She is three days younger than Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 91

Her parents are Sagara and Vela-devi and her husband is Durbala. She is contrary and hot-tempered by nature.

TEXT 92

Rangadevi

Rangadevi is the seventh of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of a lotus filament and her garments are the color of a red rose. She is seven days younger than Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 93

Her personal qualities are much like those of Campakalata. Her parents are Karuna-devi and Rangasara.

TEXT 94

Sudevi

Sudevi is the eighth of the varistha gopis. She is sweet and charming by nature. She is the sister of Rangadevi. Her husband is Vakreksana, the younger brother of Bhairava.

TEXT 95

Her marriage with Vakreksana was arranged by his younger brother. Her form and other qualities are so similar to those of her sister Rangadevi that they are often mistaken for one another.

TEXT 96 - 97

The Vara-Gopis

Just as there are eight varistha (most exalted) gopis, the same way there are also eight vara (exalted) gopis. The vara-gopis are all teenage girls. Their names are Kalavati, Subhangada, Hiranyangi, Ratnalekha, Sikhavati, Kandarpa manjari, Phullakalika and Ananga manjari

TEXT 98

Kalavati's parents are Sindhumati-devi and Kalankura-gopa, the maternal uncle of Arkamitra.

TEXT 99

Her complexion is the color of yellow sandalwood and she wears garments the color of a parrot. Her husband is Kapota, the youngest brother of Vahika.

TEXT 100

Subhangada

Subhangada is the younger sister of Visakha. She is a very fair complexion and is married to Patatri, the younger brother of Pithara.

TEXT 101

Hiranyangi

Hiranyangi's complexion is the color of gold and she appears to be a temple or palace in which all beauty is conserved. She was born from the womb of Harini-devi.

TEXT 102

Mahavasu-gopa is pious, famous and devoted to performing Vedic sacrifices. He is decorated with wonderful good qualities and he is the close friend of Arkamitra.

TEXT 103

Mahavasu-gopa desired to beget a powerful and heroic son and a beautiful daughter. To attain this end the self-controlled Mahavasu engaged Bhaguri Muni in performing a Vedic sacrifice.

TEXT 104

Certain nectarean foodstuffs appeared from that sacrifice and the delighted Mahavasu gave them to his wife, Sucandra-devi.

TEXT 105 - 106

As Sucandra-devi was hastily eating the sacred foodstuff on her front porch, she spilled some of it. At that time the doe named Suranga, who was the mother of the doe named Rangini, was wandering in Vrajabhumi. Seeing Sucandra-devi spill some of the foodstuff, the doe Suranga quickly came forward and ate some of it. As a result of eating this sacred foodstuff, both the gopi Sucandra and the doe Suranga became pregnant.

TEXT 107

Sucandra-devi gave birth to a son whom the gopas called Stokakrishna and the deer gave birth to the girl Hiranyangi in the village of Vraja.

TEXT 108

Hiranyangi is very dear to Shrimati Radharani and Shrimati Radharani is very dear to her. Hiranyangi is dressed in beautiful garments that appear like a great multitude of unparalleled blossoming flowers.

TEXT 109

With great respect the father Mahavasu then promised the exalted Hiranyangi in marriage to an elderly gopa who was completely unfit to become her husband.

TEXT 110 - 111

Ratnalekha

Maharaj Vrsabhanu's maternal cousin Payonidhi had a son but no daughter. His wife Mitra-devi desired to have a daughter also and to achieve this end she faithfully worshiped the sun-god, Vivasvan. By Vivasvan's mercy she gave birth to a daughter who was named Ratnalekha.

TEXT 112

Ratnalekha's complexion is the red color of the mineral manahsila and her garments appear like a beautiful swarm of bumblebees. She is very dear to Shrimati Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu. Her mother engages both her and her friend Radharani in the devoted attentive worship of the sun-god. When Ratnalekha sees Lord Madhava, her eyes begin to roll in ferocious anger and she severly rebukes Him.

TEXT 113

Sikhavati

Sikhavati's father is Dhanyadhanya and her mother is Susikha-devi. Sikhavati's complexion is the color of a karnikara flower. She is the younger sister of Kundalatika.

TEXT 114

She is like sweetness and charm personified. Her garments are the spotted color of an old francoline partridge. She is married to Garjara-gopa, who is also known as Garuda-gopa.

TEXT 115 AND 116

Kandarpa-manjari

Kandarpa-manjari's father is Puspakara and her mother is Kuruvinda-devi. Kandarpa-manjari's father did not give her marriage to anyone, for he considered in his heart that Lord Hari is the only suitable husband for his daughter. Kandarpa-manjari's complexion is the color of a kinkirata bird and her garments are decorated with many different colors.

TEXT 117

Phullakalika

Phullakalika's father is Shrimalla and her mother is Kamalini. Phullakalika's complexion is dark like a blue lotus flower and her garments are like a rainbow.

TEXT 118

Her forehead is naturally marked with yellow tilaka lines. Her husband, Vidura has a loud voice and is able to call the buffaloes from a great distance.

TEXT 119

Ananga-manjari

Ananga-manjari is exquistely beautiful and therefore it is very appropriate that she is named after Ananga (cupid). Her complexion is the color of a springtime ketaki flower and her garments are the color of a blue lotus.

TEXT 120

Her proud husband Durmada is also her sister's brother-in-law. She is especially dear to Lalita and Visakha.

TEXT 121

General Description of the Activities of Krishna's Contemporary Gopi Friends

Krishna's contemporary gopi friends decorate their own dear friend Shrimati Radharani. They cheat their husbands parents and other guardians (by going to meet Radha and Krishna) and they take Shrimati Radharani's side when she has a lover's quarrel with Lord Hari.

TEXT 122

These gopis assist Radha and Krishna in Their secret rendezvous. These gopis serve palatable meals to the divine couple and afterward relish tasting the remnants left by Them. These gopis carefully guard the secret of Radha's and Krishna's confidential pastimes together.

TEXT 123

Their minds are pure and they are very expert and intelligent. They serve Radha and Krishna very appropriately. They glorify their own group and criticize the followers of Candravali, Radharani's rival.

TEXT 124

They please Radha and Krishna by expertly singing, dancing and playing instrumental music. At the appropriate time they beg to be engaged in various appropriate services.

TEXT 125

For the most part the learned devotees know about these activities of Krishna's gopi friends. All the gopis are aware of these and all the other similar services and they actively serve Radha and Krishna by performing these activities.

TEXT 126

The gopis who are close associates of the divine couple are directly engaged in these services, whereas other gopis are not. We shall now describe, one by one, the gopis engaged in these intimate services.

TEXT 127

Among these most exalted gopis who are most dear to Krishna, the leader and controller is Lalita-devi.

TEXT 128

Lalita-devi is full of ecstatic love for the divine couple. She is expert at arranging both Their meeting and Their conjugal struggle. Sometimes, for Radha's sake, she offends Lord Madhava.

TEXT 129

The beauty of all the other gopis appears to be conserved in the form of Lalita-devi. In an argument her mouth becomes bent with ferocious anger and she expertly speaks the most outrageous and arrogant replies.

TEXT 130

When the arrogant gopis pick a quarrel with Krishna, she is in the forefront of the conflict. When Radha and Krishna meet, she audaciously remains standing a little away from them.

TEXT 131

With the help of Purnamasi-devi and the other gopis she arranges for the meeting of Radha and Krishna. She carries the parasol for the divine couple, she decorates Them with flowers and she decorates the cottage where They rest at night and rise in the morning.

TEXT 132 - 133

Some gopis serve the divine couple in the garden known as Madanonmadini among the flowering creepers, betel creepers and betel trees. Some gopis are expert at playing various magic tricks, some are expert at composing riddles and some are appointed to provide betel nuts for the divine couple. All these gopis are the servants of Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 134

Other gopis are specifically the friends of Lord Baladeva. Lalita-devi is the leader and controller of all these exalted and worshipable young gopis.

TEXT 135

Ratnalekha and the eight other dear vara-gopis described here all follow the footsteps of Lalita-devi always and in all respects.

TEXT 136

Among these eight gopis Ratnaprabha-dvie and Ratikala-devi are famous for their transcendental virtues, beauty, experise and charming sweetness.

TEXT 137 - 138

Flower Decorations

The flower ornaments of the divine couple are 1. flower crown, 2. flowers in the hair, 3. flower earrings, 4. flowers decorating the forehead, 5. flower necklaces, 6. flower armlets, 7. flower sashes, 8. flower braelets, 9. flower anklets, 10. flower bodices and many other kinds of flower ornaments. Just as these ornaments may be fashioned from precious jewels, gold or other materials, in the same way they may be made of flowers.

TEXT 139 - 140

Crown

The divine couple's crowns may be made of rangini flowers, yellow jasmine flowers, navamali flowers, sumali flowers, dhrti gems, rubies, gomeda gems, pearls or splendid moonstones. These may be artistically arranged to construct beautiful crowns.

TEXT 141

The crowns may be made with seven points and they may also have gold ketaki flowers or various flower buds among their colorful and beautiful ingredients. These crowns enchant the mind of Lord Hari.

TEXT 142

The flower crowns known as puspapara are the best of all and they are more pleasing than even the best jeweled crowns (ratnapara). Lalita-devi learned how to make these puspapara crowns from Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 143

These puspapara crowns are made with flowers and flower buds of five different colors arranged in five points.s This crown is especially used to decorate Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 144

Balapasya

A garland of flower buds and similar ingredients closely strung together and placed on the hair is called balapasya.

TEXT 145

Earrings

Skilled craftsmen say there are five kinds of earrings. They are known by the names tadanka, kundala, puspi, karnika and karna-vestana.

TEXT 146

Tadanka

A hollow gold post worn in the ear is called a tadanka. This kind of earring is of two varieties. In the first variety the petal of golden ketaki flower is attached to this earring. In the second kind the petal of some other colorful flower is attached.

TEXT 147

Kundala

When an earring is fashioned from flowers in order to resemble a certain object, the earring is called kundala. There are many different kinds of kundala earrings. The flowers may be arranged to resemble a peacock, shark, lotus, half-moon or many other things.

TEXT 148

Puspi

The puspi earrings is fashioned from four different kinds of flowers placed in a circle with a large gunja berry in the middle.

TEXT 149

Karnika

The karnika earring is fashioned from the whorl of a blue lotus surrounded by yellow flowers. In the middle are a bhrngika flower and pomegranate flower.

TEXT 150

Karna-vestana

When the flower earring is so large it completely covers the ear, the earring is known as karna-vetsana.

TEXT 151

Decoration for the Forehead.

A garland of flowers placed on the upper forehead along the hairline is called lalatika. Such a garland should have flowers of two colors : red in the middle of the garland and the other color flowers on the two sides.

TEXT 152

Graivekyaka (flower collar)

Made of a single kind of flower, a necklace strung four times around the neck is called graiveyaka.

TEXT 153

Angada (armlet)

A flower-armlet (angada) may be fashioned of three kinds of flowers strung one after another to resemble a little flower creeper.

TEXT 154

Kanci (sash)

A sash made of flowers of five different colors, artistically strung together in a gently waving pattern, is called a kanci.

TEXT 155

Kataka (flower anklets)

Anklets made of many different flower buds are called kataka. These are of many different varieties.

TEXT 156

Mani-bandhani (bracelet)

A bracelet made of flowers of four colors, with bunches of flowers hanging down at three places, is called mani-bandhani.

TEXT 157

Hamsaka (flower shoes)

When the decoration of flowers covers the entire top and side parts of the feet and there are bunches of flowers in four places, such a decoration is called hamsaka.

TEXT 158

Kanculi (flower bodice)

A bodice made of flowers of six colors, artistically arranged and perfumed with musk and which begins from the neck, is called kanculi.

TEXT 159

Chatra (parasol)

Made of thin white sticks, decorated with white flowers and with a handle decorated with yellow jasmine flowers, a flower parasol is called a chatra.

TEXT 160

Sayanam (couch)

The couch is fashioned of campaka and malli flowers and decorated with small bells. It has a large cushion of navamali flowers.

TEXT 161

Ulloca (an awning)

An awning is made of a latticework of various colorful flowers, ketaki petals and various leaves. Many malli flowers hang down from this awning.

TEXT 162

Candratapa (an awning)

When many sindhuvara flowers as white as pearls decorate the sides and fresh lotus flowers hang down in the middle, the awning is called candratapa.

TEXT 163

Vesma (cottage)

With reeds as pillars and various colorful flowers as the roof and four walls, a vesma (flower cottage0 is constructed.

TEXT 164 a

Gopi Messengers

Vrnda, Vrndarika, Mela and Murali are the most important gopi messengers. The gopi messengers expertly know the geograhy of Vrndavana and they intimately know each grove and garden there. They are also learned in the science of gardening.

TEXT 164 b

These exalted gopi messengers are all filled with great love for Shri Shri Radha and Krishna. The gopi messengers are fair complexioned and they dress in colorful garments. Vrnda-devi is the most important among them.

TEXT 165

Visakha

Visakha-devi, the intimate friend of the divine couple, although she is more exalted than these younger gopis, also takes up the work of carrying messages between Radha and Krishna and she is the most intelligent and expert of all the gopi messengers. Loquacious Visakha is expert at joking with Lord Govinda and she is the perfect counsellor of the divine couple. She is expert at all aspects of amorous diplomacy and she knows all the arts of how to conciliate an angered lover, how to bribe him and how to quarrel with him.

TEXT 166

Rangavali-devi and other gopis are expert at drawing various designs in tilaka, artistically stringing flower garlands, composing clever verses and acrostics such as sarvatobhadra, conjuring magical illusions by chanting mantras, worshipable the sun god with various paraphernalia, singing in various foreign languages and composing different kinds of poetry.

TEXT 167

Maidservants who dress Shrimati Radharani.

Madhavai, Malati, and Candrarekha are the leaders the gopi servants who dress and decorate Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 168 - 169

The gopi messengers appointed by Vrnda-devi have the flowering trees of Vrndavana under their jurisdiction. Malika-devi isthe leader of these wonderfully blissful gopis. In addition to these two groups of gopi messengers (1. Visakha and 2. the followers of Vrnda-devi), Campakalata-devi is the third of the gopi messengers.

TEXT 170

Campakalata veils her activities in great secrecy. She is expert at the art of logical persuasion, and she is killed diplomat who knows how to thwart Shrimati Radharani's rivals.

TEXT 171

Campakalata is expert at collecting fruits, flowers, and roots from the forest. Using only the skill of her hands shecan artistically fashion things from clay.

TEXT 172

Campakalata is an expert cook who knows all the literature describing the six flavors of gourmet cooking.

Sheis so expert at making various kinds of candythat she has become famous by the name Mistahasta (sweet hands).

TEXT 173

There are also eight gopi maidservants expert at cooking various preparations from the milk products Vraja village. Kurangaksi-devi is the leader of these gopi cooks.

TEXT 174

Activities of the Eight Principal Gopies

Of all these gopis who are appointed as protectoresses of the trees, creepers, and bushes of Vrndavana, the leader is Campakalata-devi.

TEXT 175

Citra

Citra-devi is wonderfully expert in all the activities wehavejust described. She is especially expert in the lover's quarrel between Radha and Krishna (the third of the six definitions of the word abhisarana).

TEXT 176

Citra-devi can read between the lines of books and letters written in many different languages, perceiving the hidden intentions of the author. She is a skilled gourmet and can understand the testes of various foods made with honey, milk, and other ingredients simply by glancing at them.

TEXT 177

She is expert in playing music on pots filled with varying degrees of water. She is learned in the literature describing astronomy and astrology, and she is well versed in the theoretical and practical activities of protecting domestic animals.

TEXT 178

She is especially expert at gardenting and she can nicely make various kinds of nectarean beverages.

TEXT 179

There are also eight other gopi maidservants, headed by Rasalika-devi, who are expert at making various kinds of nectarean beverages.

TEXT 180

There are other gopis who mostly collect transcendental herbs and medicinal creepers from the forest and do not collect flowers or anything else. Citra-devi is the leader of these gopis.

TEXT 181

Tungavidya

Tungavidya is one of the leaders of the gopis. She is learned in the eighteen branches of knowledge.

TEXT 182

She has full faith in Krishna. She is very expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. She is learned in rasa-sastra (transcendental mellows), niti-sastra(morality), dancing, drama, literature and all other arts and sciences.

TEXT 183

She is a celebrated music teacher expert at playing the vina and singing in the style known as marga.

TEXT 184

Eight gopi messengers headed by Manjumedha-devi are especially expect at arranging political alliances (sandhi) the first of diplomatic maneuvers in the art of politics between Radha and Krishna.

TEXT 185

These gopis are the best of dancers. They are musicians expert at playing the mrdanga and singing in recital halls.

TEXT 186

These gopis are especially engaged in fetching water from the streams in Vrndavana. Tungavidya is the leader of these gopis.

TEXT 187

Indulekha

Noble Indulekha is learned in the science and mantras of the Naga-sastra, which describes various methods of charming snakes. She is also learned in the Samudraka-sastra, which describes the science of palmistry.

TEXT 188

She is expert at stringing various kinds of wonderful necklaces, decorating the teeth with red substances, gemology and weaving various kinds of cloth.

TEXT 189

In her hand she carries the auspicious messages of the divine couple. In this way she creates the good fortune of Radha and Krishna by creating Their mutual love and attraction.

TEXT 190

The group of gopis headed by Tungabhadra-devi are the friends and neighours of Indulekha. Among these gopis is a group, headed by Palindhika-devi, which acts as messengers for the divine couple.

TEXT 191

Indulekha-devi is fully aware of the confidential secrets of the divine couple. Some of her friends are engaged in providing ornaments for the divine couple, others provide exquisite garments and others guard the divine couple's treasury.

TEXT 192

Indulekha-devi is thus the leader of all the gopis engaged in these services in the various parts of Vrndavana.

TEXT 193

Ranga-devi

Ranga-devi is always like a great ocean of coquettish words and gestures. She is very fond of joking with her friend Shrimati Radharani in the presence of Lord Krishna.

TEXT 194

Among the six activities of diplomacy she is especially expert in the fourth : patiently waiting for the enemy to make the next move. She is an expert logician and because of previous austerities she has attained a mantra by which she can attract Lord Krishna.

TEXT 195

Kalakanti-devi is the leader of the eight most important friends of Ranga-devi. These friends are all expert in the use of perfumes and cosmetics.

TEXT 196

Ranga-devi's friends are expert at burning aromatic incense, carrying coal during the winter and fanning the divine couple in the summer.

TEXT 197

Ranga-devi's friends are able to control the lions, deer and other wild animals in the forest. Ranga-devi is the leader of all these gopis.

TEXT 198

Sudevi

Sudevi always remains at the side of her dear friend Shrimati Radharani. Sudevi arranges Radharani's hair, decorates Her eyes with mascara and massages Her body.

TEXT 199

She is expert in training male and female parrots and she is also expert in the pastimes of roosters. She is an expert sailor and she is fully aware of the auspicious and inauspicious omens described in the Sakuna-sastra.

TEXT 200

She is expert at massaging the body with scented oils, she knows how to start fires and keep them burning and she knows which flowers blossom with the rising of the moon.

TEXT 201

Kaveri-devi and the other friends of Sudevi are expert at constructing leaf-spitoons, playing music on bells and decorating couches in various ways.

TEXT 202 - 203

Sudevi's friends are also entrusted with the decoration of the divine couple's sitting place. Sudevi's friends act as clever spies, disguising themselves in various ways and moving among Radharani's rivals (Candravali and her friends) to discover their secrets. Sudevi's friends are the deities of Vrndavana forest and they are charged with the protection of the forest birds and bees. Sudevi is the leader of these gopis.

TEXT 204

Description of the Various Gopis

The wonderful arts, crafts and other duties that comprise the activities of the gopis will now be described.

TEXT 205 - 206

Pindaka-devi, Nirvitandika-devi, Pundarika-devi, Sitakhandi-devi, Carucandi-devi, Sudantika-devi, Akunthita-devi, Kalakanthi-devi, Ramaci-devi and Mecika-devi are among the gopis who are very strong and stubborn when there is an argument or conflict. Among them Pindaka-devi is the leader. She dresses in red garments. She is very beautiful. When Lord Krishna comes she embarrasses Him by attacking Him with many ferocious witty puns.

TEXT 207

Haridrabha-devi, Hariccela-devi and Harimitra-devi speak many illogical and frivolous objections as they lead Lord Krishna to the place where Shrimati Radharani waits for Him.

TEXT 208

Pundarika-devi's garments and complexion are both the color of a white lotus flower. She ferociously mocks lotus-eyed Lord Krishna.

TEXT 209

Gauri-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a peacock. Because her sweet and charming words are often laced with acid sarcasms, Lord Krishna jokingly calls her Sitakhandi (always sweet).

TEXT 210

Gauri-devi's sister is known as Carucandi because her words are sometimes mild and pleasant (caru) and sometimes harsh and violent (candi). Carucandi's complexion is the color of a black bee and her garments are the color of lightning.

TEXT 211

Sudantika-devi wears garments the color of a kurunthaka flower. Her complexion is the color of a sirisa flower. She is expert at inflaming the amorous sentiments of ujjvala-rasa.

TEXT 212

Akunthita-devi's complexion is the color of a lotus stem. She wears white garments the color of the fibers within a lotus stem. She likes to insult Krishna for the amusement of her gopi friends.

TEXT 213

Kalakanthi-devi's complexion is the color of a kuli flower and her garments are the color of milk. She speaks to Lord Krnsa, describing Radharani's jealous anger and advising Him to beg forgiveness from Her.

TEXT 214

Ramaci-devi's is the daughter of Lalita-devi's nurse. Ramaci's complexion is golden and her garments are the color of a parrot. She takes pleasure in jokingly insulting Krishna and laughing at Him.

TEXT 215

Ramaci-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a pinda flower. She is expert at insulting Lord Krnsa.

TEXT 216 - 217

Petari-devi, Varuda-devi, Cari-devi, Kotari-devi, Kalatippani-devi, Marunda-devi, Morata-devi, Cuda-devi, Cundari-devi and Gondika-devi are the leaders of those gopi messengers who are past the prime of youth. These older gopis can argue with great stubbornness and they can also nicely sing as the divine couple take their meal. These gopis are always engaged in making arrangements for the forest pastimes of the divine couple.

TEXT 218

Petari-devi is an elderly Gujarati lady whose hair is the color of fibers within a lotus stem. Varudi-devi is a native of Garuda-desa and her braided hair is like the current of a river.

TEXT 219

Cari-devi, who is Kucari-devi's siste, is also known by the name Tapahkatyayani, because she performed severe austerities (tapah) and took shelter of goddess Katyayani (Durga). Kotari-devi was born in the abhira caste. Her hair is a mixture of black and white resembling rice mixed with toasted sesame seeds.

TEXT 220

Kalatippani-devi is an elderly washerwoman with white hair. Marunda-devi has white eyebrows and a shaved head.

TEXT 221

Agile Morata-devi has hair the color of a kasa flower. Cuda-devi has a wrinkled face and a forehead decorated with many grey hairs.

TEXT 222

The brahmani Cundari-devi is not as old as the others. Lotus-eyed Lord Krishna glorifies her and treats her with great respect. Gondika-devi shaves the splendid white hairs on her head. Her cheeks are wrinkled with age.

TEXT 223 - 224

Gopi Messengers who Arrange the Meeting of the Divine Couple

Sivada-devi, Saumyadarsana-devi, Suprasada-devi, Sadasanta-devi, Santida-devi and Kantida-devi are the leaders of the gopi messengers who expertly arrange the meeting of Radha and Krishna. These gopis consider Lalita-devi to be their dearmost life and soul. They are counted among the intimate associates of Lord Krishna.

TEXT 225

At a certain time Shrimati Radharani quarrels with Lord Krishna and refuses to see Him. Understanding the hints of Lalita-devi, these gopis then approach Lord Krishna.

TEXT 226 - 227

These gopis appease Lord Krishna and please Him in different ways. With great effort they convince Him that His actual desire is to meet Radha again. When These gopis bring to Her the gift that Lord Krishna gave them as a peace offering, Shrimati Radharani becomes very pleased with them and grants them Her mercy.

TEXT 228 - 229

Sivada-devi was born in the Ragyhu dynasty, Saumyadarsana-devi in the dynasty of the moon-god, Suprasada-devi in the Puru dynasty, Sadasanta-devi in a family of ascetics and Santida and Kantida in brahmana families. By the mercy of Narada Muni they were all able to reside in Vraja.

TEXT 230

The Second Gruop of Gopis

After this first group of gopis there is a second group of gopis, whose love for the divine couple is a little less than that of the first group. This second group of gopis may again be divided into two groups : sama-prema and asama-prema. These gopis will be described in the following verses.

TEXT 231

The sama-prema gopis may be divided into two groups - those who are eternally perfect and those who have attained perfection by engaging in devotional service.

TEXT 232

Out of one hundred million gopis, eight hundred thousand are eternally perfect.

TEXT 233 - 234

The direct followers of the eight principal gopis are counted in different ways. Some say they number five thousand, others say they number four or five thousand, still others say they number three or four thousand and still others say they number one thousand.

TEXT 235

Some say the followers of the eight principal gopis are divided into many groups and others say they are not divided into groups at all. Some say they are divided into sixteen groups according to the nature of their love for the divine couple.

TEXT 236

Some say these gopis are divided into twenty groups, some say there are twenty-five groups, some say there are thirty, some say there are sixty and some say there are sixty-four groups of gopis.

TEXT 237

Some say this group of gopis is in turn divided into two subgroups. Others say it is divided into two or three subgroups and others say it is divided into three or four subgroups.

TEXT 238

The entire gopi community may be divided in different ways. Some say there are forty groups of gopis and others that there are five hundred groups.

TEXT 239 - 246

Aside from the eight varistha-gopas and the eight vara-gopis, sixty four gopis are considered most important. Their names are : 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Ratikala, 3. Subhadra, 4. Ratika,

5. Sumukhi, 6. Dhanistha, 7. Kalahamsi, 8. Kalapini, 9. Madhavi, 10. Malati, 11. Candrarekha, 12. Kunjari, 13. Harini,

14. Capala, 15. Damni, 16. Surabhi, 17. Subhanana, 18. Kurangaksi, 19. Sucarita, 20. Mandali, 21. Manikundala, 22. Candrika, 23. Candralatika, 24. Pankajaksi, 25. Sumandira,

26. Rasalika, 27. Tilakini, 28. Sauraseni, 29. Sugandhika,

30. Ramani, 31. Kamanagari, 32. Nagari, 33. Nagavenika,

34. Manjumedha, 35. Sumadhura, 36. Sumadhya, 37. Madhureksana,

38. Tanumadhya, 39. Madhuspanda, 40. Gunacuda, 41. Varangada,

42. Tungabhadra, 43. Rasottunga, 44. Rangavati, 45. Susangata,

46. Citrarekha, 47. Vicitrangi, 48. Modini, 49. Madanalasa, 50. Kalakanthi, 51. Sasikala, 52. Kamala, 53. Madhurendira,

54. Kandarpa-sundari, 55. Kamalatika, 56. Prema-manjari,

57. Kaveri, 58. Carukavara, 59. Sukesi, 60. Manjukesi,

61. Harahira, 62. Mahahira, 63. Harakanthi, 64. Manohara.

TEXT 247

The Sammohana-tantra's Description of Shrimati Radharani's Eight Principal Friends

A different list of Shrimati Radharani's eight principal gopi friends is found in the following statement of Sammohana-tantra : " Lilavati, Sadhika, Candrika, Madhavi, Lalita, Vijaya, Gauri and Nandi are the eight principal gopi friends of Shrimati Radharani."

TEXT 248

Another Description of the Eight Principal Gopis

Another quotation from Vedic literature gives the following description : " Kalavati, Shrimati, Sudhamukhi, Visakha, Kaumudi, Madhvi and Sarada are the eight prinicpal gopis.

TEXT 249 - 250

The numbers presented in this description of the gopis has no actual relevance to the number of eternally liberated gopis in the spiritual world. There the associates of the king and queen of Vrndavana are unlimited in number. No one can count them. We have simply given some hints so the reader may understand the vast number of the associates of the divine couple.

TEXT 251

Preparing the divine couple's couch, food, drink and betel nuts, swinging Them on a swing and decorating Them with tilaka are among the many services performed by the gopis. The learned devotees may research this and enumerate all these services.

TEXT 252

Rupa Goswami prays that the effulgent Krishna-sun may remove the blindness from his eyes and enable him to properly see and understand the various rasa-sastras that describe Shri Shri Radha-Krishna and Their associates.

TEXT 253

In the year 1472 of the Saka era (1550 A.D.) on Sunday, the sixth day of the month of Sravana, at Nandagrama, the home of the king of Vraja, this book, the Radha-Krishna-ganoddesa-dipika was completed.

PART TWO

TEXT 1

Shri Krishna's Transcendental Form and Attributes

Shri Krishna's form glistens with the black mascara of the sweetness of His nectarean handsomeness. His complexion is the color of a blue lotus flower or a sapphire.

TEXT 2

His complexion is as enchanting as an emerald, a tamala tree, or a group of beautiful dark clouds. He is an ocean of nectarean handsomeness.

TEXT 3

He wears yellow garments and a garland of forest flowers. He is decorated with various jewels and He is a great reservoir of the nectar of many transcendental pastimes.

TEXT 4

He has long, curling hair and He is anointed with many fragrant scents. His handsome crown is decorated with many different flowers.

TEXT 5

His handsome forehead is splendidly decorated with tilaka markings and curling locks of hair. The playful movements of His raised, dark eyebrows enchant the hearts of the gopis.

TEXT 6

His rolling eyes are as splendid as red and blue lotus flowers. The tip of His nose is as handsome as the beak of Garuda, the king of birds.

TEXT 7

His charming ears and cheeks are decorated with earrings made of various jewels.

TEXT 8

His handsome lotus face is as splendid as millions of moons. He speaks many charming jokes and His chin is exquisitely handsome.

TEXT 9

His handsome, smooth and charming neck bends in three places. Decorated with a necklace of pearls, the beauty of His neck enchants the residents of the three planetary systems.

TEXT 10

Decorated with a necklace of pearls and with the Kaustubha gem, which shines like lightning, Krishna's handsome chest longs to enjoy the company of the beautiful gopis.

TEXT 11

Decorated with bracelets and armlets, Krishna's arms hang down to His knees. His reddish lotus hands are decorated with various auspicious signs.

TEXT 12

Krishna's hands are beautifully decorated with the auspicious signs of a club, conchshell, barleycorn, parasol, half-moon, rod for controlling elephants, flag, lotus flower, sacrificial post, plow, pitcher and fish.

TEXT 13

Krishna's charming abdomen is the pastime abode of handsomeness. His nectarean back seems to long for the playful touch of the beautiful gopis.

TEXT 14

The nectarean lotus flower that is Lord Krishna's hips bewilders the demigod Cupid. Krishna's thighs are like two beautiful plantain trees that charm the hearts of all women.

TEXT 15

Krishna's knees are very splendid, charming and handsome. His charming lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells.

TEXT 16 - 17

Krishna's feet have the luster of roses, and they are decorated with various auspicious markings, such as the markings of the disc, half-moon, octagon, triangle, barleycorn, sky, parasol, waterpot, conchshell, cow's hoofprint, svastika, rod for controlling elephants, lotus flower, bow and jambu fruit.

TEXT 18

Krishna's handsome lotus feet are like two oceans filled with the happiness of pure love. His reddish toes are decorated with the row fo full moons that are His toenails.

TEXT 19

Although we have sometimes compared Krishna's handsomeness to various things, nothing can actually be equal to it. In this place we have given a small indication of Krishna's handsomeness to arouse the attraction of the reader.

TEXY 20

Krishna's Friends

Now Lord Krishna's friends will be described. The most important of Krishna's friends is His elder brother, Balarama.

TEXT 21

Different Kinds of Friends

Krishna's friends are divided into four groups : 1. well-wishing friends (suhrt), 2. ordinary friends (sakha), 3. more confidential friends (priya-sakha), and 4. initmate friends

(priya-narma-sakha)

TEXT 22

Well-wishing Friends (suhrt)

The well-wishing friends include Krishna's cousins :

Subhadra, Kundala, Dandi and Mandala. Sunandana, Nandi, Anandi and others who accompany Krishna as He herds the cows and calves in Vrndavana forest are also well-wishing friends.

TEXTS 23 - 24

Also included among the well-wishing friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksendra, Bhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Kulavira, Mahabhima, Divyasakti, Suraprabha, Ranasthira and others. These well-wishing friends are older than Krishna and they try to protect Him from any danger.

TEXT 25

Krishna's parents love their son very dearly. They consider Him many millions of times more important than their own life's breath. Very frightened that the demon Kamsa would harm their son, they engaged these well-wishing friends (suhrt) to protect Him. The leader of these well-wishing friends is a boy named Vijayaksa, whose mother, Ambika-devi, was Krishna's nurse. Ambika-devi worshiped goddess Parvati and performed great austerities to get a powerful son who could protect Krishna.

TEXT 26

Subhadra

Subhadra has a splendid dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and various ornaments.

TEXT 27

Subhadra's father is Upananda, and his mother the chaste and faithful Tula-devi. Kundalata-devi will become his wife. Subhadra is full of the glory of youth.

TEXT 28 - 29

Krishna's Ordinary Friends (sakha)

Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Mandara, Kusumapida, Manibandhakara, Mandara, Candana, Kunda, Kalindi, Kulika and many others are included in the group of Krishna's ordinary friends (sakha). These friends are younger than Krishna and are always eager to serve Him.

TEXTS 30 - 31

Krishna's confidential friends (priya-sakha)

Krishna's confidential friends are Shridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Bhadrasena, Amsu, Stokakrishna, Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitankaksa, Kalavinka and Priyaskara. These friends are the smae age of Krishna. Their leader is Shridama, who is also known as Pithamardaka.

TEXT 32

Bhadrasena is the general who leads Krishna's childhood friends in military pastimes. Stokakrishna is very appropriately named, for he is just like a small (stoka) Krishna.

TEXT 33

These confidential friends (priya-sakha) delights Lord Krishna with their enthusiastic and jubliant wrestling, stick-fighting and other sports.

TEXT 34

These confidential friends are all very peaceful by nature. Each of them considers Lord Krishna equal to his own life's breath.

TEXT 35

Krishna's Intimate Friends (priya-narma-sakha)

Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta, Ujjvala, Kokila, Sanandana and Vidagdha are the msot important of Krishna's intimate friends.

TEXT 36

Krishna keeps no secrets from these intimate friends. Among them Madhumangala, Puspanka and Hasanka are the leaders of those fond of joking. Handsome Sanandana is very pleased by his close friendship with Krishna and splendid Ujjvala appears like the personified ruler of all transcendental mellows. Lord Krishna, the crest jewel of playful boys, is submissive to His dear friend Ujjvala.

TEXT 37

Shridama has a handsome dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a necklace of jewels.

TEXT 38

He is a splendid youth sixteen years old. He is a great resevoir of the nectar of innumerable transcendental pastimes. He is Lord Krishna's dearest friend.

TEXT 39

His father is Maharaj Vrsabhanu and His mother is the chaste Kirtida-devi. Shrimati Radharani and Ananga-manjari are his two younger sisters.

TEXT 40

Sudama

Sudama's handsome complexion is somewhat fair. He is decorated with jeweled ornaments and wears blue garments.

TEXT 41

His father's name is Matuka and His mother is Rocana-devi. He is very young and fond of playing many kinds of games.

TEXT 42

Subala

Subala has a fair complexion. He wears handsome blue garments and he is decorated wtih many kinds of jewels and flowers.

TEXT 43

He is twelve-and-a-half years old and He glows with youthful luster. Although he is Krishna's friend, he is immersed in serving Krishna in many different ways.

TEXT 44

He is expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. He is charming and full of transcendental love for Them. He is cheerful and full of good qualities. He is very dear to Krishna.

TEXT 45

Arjuna

Arjuna's glistening complexion is the color of a red lotus flower. His garments are the color of moonlight and He is decorated with many kinds of jewels.

TEXT 46

His father is Sudaksina, his mother Bhadra-devi, and his elder brother Vasudama. He is always plunged in transcendental love for the divine couple.

TEXT 47

He is fourteen-and-a half and full of the luster of youth. He wears a garland of forest flowers and many other kinds of flower-ornaments.

TEXT 48

Gandharva

Handsome Gandharva has a complexion the color of moonlight. He wears red garments and many different ornaments.

TEXT 49

He is twelve years old and full of youthful luster. He is decorated with many kinds of flowers.

TEXT 50

His mother is the saintly Mitra-devi and his father the great soul Vinoka. He is very playful and very dear to Shri Krishna.

TEXT 51

Vasanta

Vasanta has a splendid fair complexion. His garments glitter like the moon and he is decorated with various jewels.

TEXT 52

He is eleven years old. He is decorated with many different flower garlands. His mother is the saintly Saradi-devi and his father is the great soul Pingala.

TEXT 53

Ujjvala

Ujjvala has a splendid reddish complexion. His garments are decorated with star patterns and he is decorated with pearls and flowers.

TEXT 54

His father is named Sagara and his mother is the chaste Veni-devi. He is thirteen years old and full of youthfull luster.

TEXT 55

Kokila

Kokila is fair-complexioned and very handsome. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many kinds of jewels.

TEXT 56

He is eleven years and four months of age. His father is named Puskara and his mother is the famous Medha-devi.

TEXT 57

Sanandana

Handsome Sanandana has a fair complexion. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many different ornaments.

TEXT 58

He is fourteen years old. He wears garlands of flowers. His father is Arunaksa and his mother is Mallika-devi.

TEXT 59

Handsome Sanandana is very happy to have the friendship of Lord Krishna. He is like the splendid monarch of all transcendental mellows.

TEXT 60

Vidagdha has a splendid complexion the color of a yellow campaka flower. He wears blue garments and a necklace of pearls.

TEXT 61

He is fourteen years old and full of youthful luster. His father is named Matuka and his mother is Rocana-devi.

TEXT 62

His elder brother is Sudama and his sister is Susila-devi. He is very dear to Shri Krishna. He is full of transcendental love for the divine couple.

TEXT 63

Madhumangala

Madhumangala has a slightly dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a garlands of forest flowers.

TEXT 64

His father is the saintly Sandipani Muni, his mother the chaste Sumukhi devi, his sister is Nandimukhi-devi and his parental grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi.

TEXT 65

An expert comedian who always plays the buffoon, Shri Madhumangala is the constant companion of Lord Krishna.

TEXT 66 - 67

Shri Balarama

Powerful Lord Balarama has a fair complexion the color of crystal. He wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers.

TEXT 68

His handsome hair is tied in a graceful topknot. Splendid earrings decorate His ears.

TEXT 69

His neck is splendidly decorated with garlands of flowers and strings of jewels. His arms are splendidly decorated with bracelets and armlets.

TEXT 70

His feet are decorated with splendid jeweled anklets. His father is Maharaja Vasudeva and His mother is Rohini-devi.

TEXT 71

Nanda Maharaja is the friend of His father. Yasoda-devi is His mother, Shri Krishna His younger brother and Subhadra His sister.

TEXT 72

He is sixteen years old and full of the luster of youth. He is Shri Krishna's dearest friend. He is a great reservoir of the nectar mellows of many kinds of transcendental pastimes.

TEXT 73

Vitas

Expert in music, drama, literature, the science of various kinds of scents and a host of ther arts, the vitas are very happy to serve Lord Krishna in many different ways.

TEXT 74 - 75

Krishna's Servants

Bhangura, Brngara, Sandhika, Grahila, Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Salika, Talika, Mali, Mana and Maladhara are the most prominent of Lord Krishna's servants.

TEXT 76

These servants carry Krishna's venu and murali flutes, buffalo-horn bugle, stick, rope and other paraphernalia. They also bring the mineral dyes (the cowherd boys use to decorate their bodies).

TEXT 77 - 78

Betel-nut Servants

Pallva, Mangala, Phulla, Komala, Kapila, Suvilasa, Vilasaksa, Rasala, Rasasali and Jambula are the most important of Lord Krishna's betel-nut servants. They are younger than Krishna and always expert at singing and playing musical instruments. They are younger than Krishna and always stay near Him.

TEXT 79

Water Carriers

Payoda and Varida are the most important of the servants engaged in carrying water for Lord Krishna.

Clothing Washers

Saranga and Bakula are the most important of the servants engaged in expertly washing Lord Krishna's laundry.

TEXT 80

Decorators

Premakanda, Mahagandha, Sairindhra, Madhu, Kandala and Makaranda are the most important of the servants constantly engaged in decorating Lord Krishna with various ornaments and clothing.

TEXT 81

Servants Who Provide Aromatic Substances

Sumanah, Kusumollasa, Puspahara, Hara and others expertly provide Krishna with various aromatic substances such as flowers, flower ornaments, flower garlands and camphor.

TEXT 82

The Napitas

Svaccha, Susila, Praguna and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's hair, massaging Him, giving Him a mirror and guarding over His treasury.

Others

Vimala, Komala and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's kitchen.

TEXT 83

Maidservants

Dhanistha-devi, Candanakala-devi, Gunamala-devi, Ratiprabha-devi, Taruni-devi, Induprabha-devi, Sobha-devi and Rambha-devi are the leaders of the gopis engaged in Krishna's service. These gopis are expert at cleaning and decorating Krishna's home, anointing it with various aromatic substances, carrying milk and performing other duties.

TEXT 84

Other Maidservants

Kurangi-devi, Bhrngari-devi, Sulamba-devi, Alambika-devi and other gopis also serve Krishna in these ways.

TEXT 85

Spies

Catura, Carana, Dhiman and Pesala are the leaders of Krishna's expert spies, who travel in various disguises among the cowherd men and gopis.

TEXT 86

Gopa Messengers

Visarada, Tunga, Vavaduka, Manorama and Nitisara are the leaders of the gopa messengers. They carry Krishna's messages to the gopis to arrange for pastimes and also to settle quarrels.

TEXT 87

Krishna's Gopi Messengers

Paurnamasi-devi, Vira-devi, Vrnda-devi, Vamsi-devi, Nandimukhi-devi, Vrndarika-devi, Mela-devi and Murali-devi are the leaders of Krishna's gopi messengers.

TEXT 88

Among all these gopi messengers Vrnda-devi is the best. She is expert at arranging the meeting of Radha and Krishna and she is fully conversant with the geography of Vrndavana, knowing the best places for the divine couple's rendezvous.

TEXT 89

Paurnamasi

Paurnamasi's complexion is like molten gold. She wears white garments and many jeweled ornaments.

TEXT 90

Paurnamasi is very learned and famous. Her father is Suratadeva and her chaste mother is Candrakala. Her husband is Prabala.

TEXT 91

Her brother is Devaprastha. She is like a perfect crest jewel decorating the land of Vraja. She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krishna.

TEXT 92(A)

Vira

Another gopi messenger is Vira-devi. She is very famous and is much respected in Vraja. She can speak very arrogantly and boldly and she can also speak sweet and flattering words, as Vrnda-devi does.

TEXT 92(B)

She has a dark complexion. She wears splendid white garments and various jewels and flower garlands.

TEXT 93

Her husband is Kavala, her mother is the chaste Mohini-devi, her father Visala and her sister is Kavala-devi. She is very dear to Jatila-devi. She resides in the village of Javata

TEXT 94

She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krishna.

TEXT 95

Vrnda-devi

Vrnda-devi has a beautiful complexion the color of molten gold. She wears blue garments and is decorated with pearls and flowers.

TEXT 96

Her father is Candrabhanu and her mother is Phullara-devi. Her husband is Mahipala and her sister is Manjari-devi.

TEXT 97

She always remains in Vrndavana, immersed in love for Radha and Krishna and yearning to both arrange for Their meeting and taste the nectar of assisting in Their transcendental pastimes.

TEXT 98

Nandimukhi-devi

Nandimukhi-devi has a fair complexion and wears exquisite garments. Her father is Sandipani Muni and her mother is the chaste Sumukhi-devi.

TEXT 99

Her brother is Madhumangala and her paternal grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi. She wears various jeweled ornaments and she glows with youthful luster.

TEXT 100

She is expert at various arts and crafts. Full of love for Radha and Krishna, she is expert at making various arrangements for Their rendezvous.

TEXT 101

A General Description of Lord Krishna's Servants

Sobhana, Dipana and other provide lamps for the Lord and Sudhakara, Sudhanada, Sananda and others play the mrdanga for His satisfaction.

TEXT 102

Vicitrarava and Madhurarava are the leaders of the talented an virtuous poets who compose prayers glorifying Shri Krishna, while Candrahasa, Induhasa and Candramukha are leaders of the servants who dance for the Lord's satisfaction.

TEXT 103

Kalakantha, Sukantha, Sudhakantha, Bharata, Sarada, Vidyavilasa, Sarasa and others are learned in the arts of all kinds of literary composition. They carry their books and papers with them and they are fully aware of all the mellows fo devotional service.

TEXT 104

Raucika is the tailor who sews clothes for the Lord. Sumukha, Durlabha, Ranjana and others wash the Lord's laundry.

TEXT 105

Punyapunja and Bhagyarasi are the two sweepers who clean the area around Krishna's home.

TEXT 106

Rangana and Tankana are goldsmiths who make ornaments for the Lord. Pavana and Karmatha are potters who make drinking vessels and jugs for churning butter.

TEXT 107

Vardhaki and Vardhamana are carpenters who serve the Lord by building carts, couches and other objects. Sucitra nd Vicitra are talented artists who paint pictures for the Lord.

TEXT 108

Kunda, Kanthola, Karanda and others are craftsmen who make ropes, churning rods, axes, baskets, balances for carrying heavy objects and various other ordinary utensils.

TEXT 109

Mangala, Pingala, Ganga, Pisangi, Manikastani, Hamsi and Vamsipriya are the most important of the surabhi cows, who are all very dear to Lord Krishna.

TEXT 110

Padmagandha and Pisangaksa are Krishna's pet oxen. Suranga is His pet deer and Dadhilobha is His pet monkey.

TEXT 111

Vyaghra and Bhramaraka are Krishna's pet dogs. Kalasvana is His pet swan, Tandavika His pet peacock and Daksa and Vicaksana His pet parrots.

TEXT 112

Places of Krishna's Pastimes Described

The best of all places of Krishna's pastimes is the great garden known as Vrndavana forest. Another important place of the Lord's pastimes is the beautiful and opulent Govardhana Hill. This Hill is very appropriately named for it nourishes (vardhana) Krishna's cows (go) with its grasses.

TEXT 113

On Govardhana Hill is the cave known as Manikandali and the river-landing place named Nilamandapika. On the Manasa-ganga river is the famous landing place named Paranga.

TEXT 114

The boat named Suvilasatara remains at this Paranga landing place. Another important place is Nandisvara Hill, Krishna's home, where the goddess of fortune is personally present.

TEXT 115

On Nandisvara Hill is the splendid white stone house where Krishna grew up. This house is named Amodavardhana because it is always filled with (vardhana) the pleasant fragrance (amoda) of incense and other aromatic substances.

TEXT 116

The lake near Krishna's home is named Pavana and on its shore there are many groves where the Lord enjoys pastimes. Also near Krishna's home is the grove named Kama Mahatirtha and the jeweled pathway named Mandara.

TEXT 117

The splendid kadamba trees named Kadambaraj and the king of the banyan trees named Bhandira grow in the forest of Vrndavana. On the sandy bank of the Yamuna is the pastime place named Anagaranga-bhu.

TEXT 118

On the shore of the Yamuna River is the sacred place known as Khela-tirtha, where Lord Krishna eternally enjoys pastimes with His dearmost Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 119

Shri Krishna's Paraphernalia

Krishna's mirror is named Saradindu and His fan is named Marumaruta. His toy lotus flower is named Sadasmera and His toy ball is named Citrakoraka.

TEXT 120

Krishna's golden bow is named Vilasakarmana. The two ends of this bow are studded with jewels and it has a bowstring named Manjulasara.

TEXT 121

His glistening jewel-handled scissors are named Tustida. His buffalo-horn bugle is named Mandraghosa and His flute is named Bhuvanamohini.

TEXT 122

Krishna has another flute named Mahananda, which is like a fishook that captures the fish of Shrimati Radharani's heart and mind. Another flute, which has six holes is known as Madanajhankrti.

TEXT 123

Krishna's flute named Sarala makes a low, soft tone like the sound of a softly singing cuckoo. Krishna is very fond of playing this flute in the ragas gaudi and garjari.

TEXT 124

The wonderful sacred mantra He chants is the name of His dearmost Radharani. His cane is named Mandana, His vina is named Tarangini, the two ropes He carries are named Pasuvasikara and His milk bucket is named Amrtadohani.

TEXT 125

Krishna's ornaments

On Krishna's arm is an amulet studded with nine jewels and placed there by His mother for His protection.

TEXT 126

His two armlets are named Rangada, His two bracelets are named Sobhana, His signet ring is named Ratnamukhi and His yellow garments are named Nigamasobhana.

TEXT 127

Krishna's string of small bell is named Kalajhankara and His two anklets are named Hamsaganjana. The tinkling sounds of these ornaments enchant the deer that are the minds of the deer-eyed gopis.

TEXT 128

Krishna's pearl necklace is named Taravali and His jewel necklace is named Taditprabha. The locket He wears on His chest is named Hrdayamodana and within it is a picture of Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 129

Krishna's jewel is named Kaustubha. In the Kaliya lake the Kaliya serpent's wives gave this jewel to the Lord with their own hands.

TEXT 130

Krishna's shark-shaped earrings are named Ratiragadhidaivata, His crown is named Ratnapara and its crest-jewel is named Camaradamari.

TEXT 131

Krishna's peacock feather crown is named Navaratnavidamba, His gunja necklace is named Ragavalli and His tilaka marking is named Drstimohana.

TEXT 132

Krishna's garland of forest flowers and leaves, which reaches down to His feet and contains flowers of five different colors, is called Vaijayanti.

TEXT 133

The eighth night of the dark moon in the month of Bhadra, when the moon rose together with its dear companion, the star Rohini, is the sacred time decorated by the birth of Lord Krishna in this world.

TEXT 134

Krishna's Dear Gopis

Now the very wonderful gopis, who are decorated with the good fortune of pure love of God to a greater degree than even Laksmi-devi and the other goddesses of fortune, will be glorified.

TEXT 135

Shrimati Radharani

Among all the beautiful gopis Shrimati Radharani is the best. Radharani is the queen of Vrndavana. She has many famous friends, headed by Lalita and Visakha.

TEXT 136 - 139

Shrimati Radharani's rival is Candravali. Among Candravali's friends are Padma, Syama, Saibya, Bhadra, Vicitra, Gopali, Palika, Candrasalika, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Taralaksi, Manorama, Kandarpa-manjari, Manjubhasini, Khanjaneksana, Kumuda, Kairavi, Sari, Saradaksi, Visarada, Sankari, Kunkuma, Krishna, Sarangi, Indravali, Siva, Taravali, Gunavati, Sumukhi, Keli-manjari, Haravali, Cakoraksi, Bharati and Kamala.

TEXT 140

The beautiful gopis may be considered in hundreds of groups, each group containing hundreds of thousands of gopis.

TEXT 141

Among all these gopis the most important are Shrimati Radharani, Candravali, Bhadra, Syama and Palika. These gopis are full of all transcendental good qualities.

TEXT 142

Of these gopis Shrimati Radharani and Candravali are the best. Each of them has millions of doe-eyed gopi followers.

TEXT 143

Because She possesses all charm and sweetness, Shrimati Radharani is the better of the two. She is supremely famous. In the Sruti-sastra She is known by the name Gandharva-devi.

TEXT 144

Shri Krishna, the cowherd prince whose charming sweetness has no equal or superior, is very dear to Shrimati Radharani. She considers Him millions and millions of times more dear than Her own life's breath.

TEXT 145

Now the beauty of Shrimati Radharani's trancendental form will be described. Shrimati Radharani is expert in all the fine arts and Her transcendental form is like an ocean of nectar.

TEXT 146

Her splendid bodily luster is like the yellow pigment gorocana, molten gold, or stationary lightning.

TEXT 147

She wears wonderfully beautiful blue garments and She is decorated with various pearls and flowers.

TEXT 148

She is very beautiful and She has long nicely braided hair. She is decorated with a garland of flowers and a beautiful pearl necklace.

TEXT 149

Her splendid forehead is decorated with the red pigment sindura and with beautiful locks of curling hair.

TEXT 150

Decorated with blue bangles, Her arms have defeated Cupid's staff with their beauty.

TEXT 151

Decorated with black mascara and reaching back almost to Her ears, Shrimati Radharani's lotus eyes are the most beautiful in all the three planetary systems.

TEXT 152

Her nose is as beautiful as a sesame flower and it is nicely decorated with a pearl. She is anointed with various perfumes. She is splendidly beautiful.

TEXT 153

Her ears are decorated with wonderful earrings and Her nectarean lips defeat the red lotus flowers.

TEXT 154

Her teeth are like a row of pearls and Her tongue is very beautiful. Decorated with a nectarean smile of pure love for Krishna, Her beautiful face is a splendid as millions of moons.

TEXT 155

The beauty of Her chin has defeated and bewildered the demigod Cupid. Decorated with a drop of musk, Her chin appears like a golden lotus flower with a bumblebee.

TEXT 156

Bearing all the marks of wonderful beauty, Her neck is decorated with a string of pearls. Her neck, back and sides are enchantingly beautiful.

TEXT 157

Her beautiful breasts are like two splendid waterpots covered with a bodice and decorated with a necklace of pearls.

TEXT 158

Her beautiful enchanting arms are decorated with jeweled armlets.

TEXT 159

Her arms are also decorated with jeweled bracelets and other kinds of jeweled ornaments. Her hands are like two red lotus flowers illuminated by the series of moons that are Her fingernails

TEXT 160

Auspicious Markings on Shrimati Radharani's Hands

Shrimati Radharani's hands are decorated with many auspicious markings such as the signs of the bumblebee, lotus, crescent moon, earring, parasol, sacrificial post, conchshell, tree, flower, camara and svastika.

TEXT 161

These auspicious marks are manifest in various ways on Shrimati Radharani's lotus hands. Her splendidly beautiful fingers are also decorated with jeweled rings.

TEXT 162

Charming, full of sweet nectar and decorated with a deep navel, Shrimati Radharani's beautiful waist enchants the three worlds.

TEXT 163

Her sloping hips lead to Her charmingly beautiful slender waist, which is bound by a creeper of three beautiful folds of skin and decorated with a sash of tinkling bells.

TEXT 164

As beautiful as two exquisite plantain trees, Her thighs enchant the mind of Cupid. Her beautiful knees are like two reservoirs filled with the nectar of various transcendental pastimes.

TEXT 165

Her beautiful lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells and Her toes with toe rings as beautiful as the treasure of Varuna.

TEXT 166

The Auspicious Markings on Shrimati Radharani's Lotus Feet

The auspicious markings on Shrimati Radharani's lotus feet include the signs of the conchshell, moon, elephant, barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.

TEXT 167

Shrimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth.

TEXT 168

Yasoda-devi, the queen of the cowherds, is more affectionate to Radharani than millions of mothers can be. Radharani's father is King Vrsabhanu, who is as splendid as the sun.

TEXT 169

Shrimati Radharani's mother is Kirtida-devi, who is also known in this world as Ratnagarbha-devi. Radharani's paternal grandfather is Mahibhanu and Her maternal grandfather is Indu.

TEXT 170

Her maternal grandmother is Mukhara-devi and Her paternal grandmother is Sukhada-devi. Her father's brothers (Her uncles) are Ratnabhanu, Subhanu and Bhanu.

TEXT 171

Bhadrakirti, Mahakirti and Kirticandra are Radharani's materal uncles. Menaka-devi, Sasthi-devi, Gauri-devi, Dhatri-devi and Dhataki-devi are Radharani's materal aunts.

TEXT 172

Radharani's mother's sister is Kirtimati-devi, whose husband is Kasa. Radharani's father's sister is Bhanumudra-devi, whose husband is Kusa.

TEXT 173

Radharani's elder brother is Shridama and Her younger sister is Ananga-manjari. Radharani's father-in-law is Vrkagopa and Her brother-in-law is Durmada.

TEXT 174

Jatila-devi is Radharani's mother-in-law and Abhimanyu is Radharani's so-called husband. Kutila-devi, who is always eager to find fault, is Radharani's sister-in-law.

TEXT 175

Lalita, Visakha, Sucitra, Campakalata, Ranga-devi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indulekha are the eight dearest friends of Shrimati Radharani. These gopis are considered the leaders of all the others.

TEXT 176

Kurangaksi, Mandali, Mankiundala, Matali, Candralalita, Madhavi, Madanalasa, Manjumedha, Sasikala, Sumadhya, Madhureksana, Kamala, Kamalatika, Gunacuda, Varangada, Madhuri, Candrika, Prema-manjari, Tanumadhyama, Kandarpa-sundari and Manjukesi are among the millions of dear friends (priya-sakhi) of Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 177

Lasika, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyamvada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Vasanti, Kalabhasini, Ratnavali, Manimati and Karpuralatika are among those friends (jivita-sakhi) for whom Shrimati Radharani is as dear as life.

TEXT 178

Kasturi, Manojna, Manimanjari, Sindura, Candanavati, Kaumudi and Madira are among Shriamti Radharani's eternal friends (nitya-sakhi).

TEXT 179- 181

Shrimati Radharani's Manjari Friends.

Ananga-manjari, Rupa-manjari, Rati-manjari, Lavanga-manjari, Raga-manjari, Rasa-manjari, Vilasa-manjari, Prema-manjari, Mani-manjari, Suvarna-manjari, Kama-manjari, Ratna-manjari, Kasturi-manjari, Gandha-manjari, Netra-manjari, Shripadma-manjari, Lila-manjari and Hema-manjari are among Shrimati Radharani's manjari friends. Prema-manjari and Rati-manjari are both also known by the name Bhanumati-devi.

TEXT 182

The Objects of Shrimati Radharani's Worship

Shrimati Radharani's worshipable deity is the sun-god, who enlivens the lotus flowers and acts as an eye for the entire world. Shrimati Radharani's maha-mantra is the name of Lord Krishna. Shrimati Radharani's benefactor, who brings Her all good fortune, is Bhagavati Paurnamasi.

TEXT 183

Specific Description of Various Gopis

Lalita-devi and the other eight principal gopis, the other gopis and the manjari have forms that are for the most part like the transcendental form of Shrimati Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana.

TEXT 184

Vrnda-devi, Kundalat-devi and their followaers assist the divine couple in Their pastimes in the various forests of Vrndavana. Dhanistha-devi, Gunamala-devi and their followers remain in the home of Nanda Maharaja,the cowherd king and assist the Lord's pastimes from there.

TEXT 185

Kamada-devi is the daughter of Shrimati Radharani's nurse. Kamada is an especially close friend of Radharani. Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Manjula-devi are some of Radharani's maidservants.

TEXT 186

Nandimukhi-devi and Bindumati-devi are the leaders of those gopis who arrange the rendezvous of Radha and Krishna. Syamala-devi and Mangala-devi are the leaders of those gopis who act as well-wishers of Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 187

Candravali-devi is the leader of those gopis who are Shrimati Radharani's rivals.

TEXT 188

The talented musicians Rasollasa-devi, Gunatunga-devi,Kalakanthi-devi, Sukhanti-devi, and Pikakanti-devi delight Lord Hari by singing Visakha's musical compositions.

TEXT 189

Maniki-devi, Narmada-devi, and Kusumapesala-devi serve the divine couple by playing drums, cymbals, string instruments like the vina, and wind instruments like the flute.

TEXT 190

In this way we have described some of the sakhis (gopi friends), nitya-sakhis (eternal gopi friends), prana-sakhis (gopi friends who are as dear as life), priya-sakhis (dear gopi friends) and parama-prestha-sakhis (dearest gopi friends)

TEXT 191

Shrimati Radharani's Maidservants

Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Bhurida-devi are the leaders fo those gopis who are Shrimati Radharani's maidservants. Among these maidservants are Sugandha-devi and Nalini-devi (the two daughters of Divakirti-devi) and Manjistha-devi and Rangaraga-devi (the two daughters of Nanda Maharaja's laundry washers).

TEXT 192

Palindri-devi serves Shrimati Radharani by dressing and decorating Her. Citrini decorates Radharani with various cosmetics. Mantriki-devi and Tantriki-devi are astrologers who reveal the future to Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 193

Katyayani-devi is the leader of those gopi messengers who are older than Shrimati Radharani. Bhagyavati-devi and Punyapunja-devi, the two daughters of Maharaja Nanda's sweeper, are also the maidservants of Shrimati Radharani.

TEXT 194

Tunga-devi, Malli-devi and Matalli-devi are the leaders of those girls descended from the uncivilized mountain tribe known as the Pulindas. In Vrndavana some of the Pulinda girls act as the friends of Shrimati Radharani and some are the friends of Shri Krishna.

TEXT 195

Also included among Shrimati Radharani's servants are Gargi-devi and other very respectable brahmana girls, Bhrngarika-devi and other girls from the ceti community, Vijaya-devi, Rasala-devi, Payoda-devi and other girls from the vita community, as well as the boys Subala, Ujjvala, Gandharva, Madhumangala and Raktaka.

TEXT 196

Tunga-devi, Pisangi-devi and Kalakandala-devi always remain near Shrimati Radharani to serve Her. Manjual-devi, Bindula-devi, Sandha-devi, Mrdula-devi and others, although very young still engage in Radharani's service.

TEXT 197

Sunada, Yamuna and Bahula are the most important of Shrimati Radharani's pet surabhi cows. Tungi is Her chubby pet calf, Kakkhati is Her old pet monkey, Rangini is Her pet doe and Carucnadrika is Her pet cakori bird.

TEXT 198

Tundikeri is the name of Radharani's pet swan, who is fond of swimming in Radha-kunda. Madhuri is Radharani's pet elephant and Suksmadhi and Subha are Her two pet parrots.

TEXT 199

The two parrots perfectly imitate Lalita-devi's playful jokes spoken to her master and mistress (Shri Shri Radha-Krishna). By this wonderful repetition the parrots astonish the gopis.

TEXT 200

Shrimati Radharani's Ornaments

Shrimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. Her jeweled necklace is named Harimohana, Her jeweled earrings are named Rocana and the pearl decorating Her nose is named Prabhakari.

TEXT 201

Her locket which contains a picture of Lord Krishna, is named Madana. Her Syamantaka jewel is also known as Sankhacuda-siromani 9Sankhacuda's crest-jewel).

TEXT 202

The auspicious jewel She wears around Her neck is called Puspavan because it eclipses the simultaneous rising of the sun and moon (puspavan0 with its splendor. Her anklets are called Catakarava because their tinkling sounds resemble the warbling of cataka birds. Her bracelets are called Manikarvura.

TEXT 203

Shrimati Radharani's signet ring is named Vipaksamardini. Her sash is named Kancanacitrangi and Her ankle-bells, which stun Lord Krishna with their tinkling sounds, are named Ratnagopura.

TEXT 204

Shrimati Radharani's garments are named Meghambara. Her upper garment is red like a ruby and it is the favorite of Lord Hari. Radharani's lower garment is the color of a blue cloud and it is Her own favorite.

TEXT 205

Shrimati Radhrani's jeweled mirror is named Sudhamsudarpaharana, which means "that which removes (harana) the moon's (sudhamsu) pride (darpa)."

TEXT 206

Her golden stick for applying mascara is named Narmada, Her jeweled comb is named Svastida and Her private flower garden is named Kandarpakuhali.

TEXT 207

In Radharani's garden is a vine of golden jasmine flowers that She has named Tadidvalli ("the vine of lightning"). Her private lake bears Her own name (Radha-kunda) and on the shore of that lake is a kadamba tree that is the site of very confidential talks between Her and Lord Krishna.

TEXT 208

Her favorite ragas are mallara and dhanashri and Her favorite dances are chalikya and rudravallaki.

TEXT 209

Shrimati Radharani's glorious birth occured on the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Bhadra. Although generally not full on that day, the moon appeared full to celebrate Radharani's appearance in this world.

TEXT 210

In this way we have revealed a little about the countless associates of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna, the two monarchs of Shri Vrndavana.