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A Songbook of 80 Bengali Songs
Shrila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura
Translation by Dasaratha-suta dasa
published by Nectar Books
P.O. Box 574
Union City, Georgia 30291
The unlimited mercy of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Founder-Acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, has come down on all of us to allow this publication of Gita-mala by Shrila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura.
Shrila Prabhupada writes in his Foreword to The Songs of the Vaishnava Acaryas: "...I am greatly pleased to see this collection of songs composed by Thakura Bhaktivinoda, Narottama dasa, and other great acaryas of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya. Songs composed by the acaryas are not ordinary songs. When chanted by pure Vaishnavas who follow the rules and regulations of Vaishnava character, they are actually effective in awakening the Krishna consciousness dormant in every living entity. I have advised Shriman Acyutananda Svami to sing more songs of the Vaishnava padavali and record them in books so that my disciples and others in the Western countries may take advantage of this chanting and thus advance in Krishna consciousness more and more...We should always remember the danger of maya's influence and endeavor to save ourselves from her great power. We must therefore always merge in the transcendental mellow of kirtana-rasa, for kirtana-rasa is the safest situation within this material world. Hare Krishna."
So now we are pleased to extend the mellows of kirtana-rasa with this first English publication of Gita-mala, for the pleasure of His Divine Grace Shrila Prabhupada. This volume joins the BBT's Songs of the Vaishnava Acaryas, the Bala Books presentation of Bhaktivinoda's Saranagati and Gitavali together in one volume, the Krishna Institute's printing of Narottama dasa's Prarthana and Prema-bhakti-chandrika, and our Nectar Books edition of Kalyana Kalpa-taru. Thus, the world is gradually being flooded with the nectarean sound of kirtana.
Gita-mala was composed by Thakura Bhaktivinoda in 1893, the same year as Saranagati and Gitavali. The word gitavali means a series of songs, which indicates that the book is a collection of songs on various topics. But the word gita-mala means a rosary or garland of songs, which indicates more subtly that it is a connected string of songs which are interrelated. So this entire book Gita-mala, from beginning to end, is all one unit meant to delineate a clear-cut path of devotional service which progressively (and quickly!) develops from the most basic moods of devotion right on up to the topmost ecstasies of the most exalted pure devotees. The book is so potent that it may bring about a tremendous explosion of transcendental bliss which totally devastates the reader's material attachment to mundane body, mind and words.
Gita-mala contains the concentrated essence of all the literatures of the Gosvamis headed by Shri Rupa and Raghunatha. The editors sincerely feel that the study of Gita-mala has greatly helped in understanding the grave statements contained within Shrila Prabhupada's books, which are themselves like an ever-expanding eternal ocean of nectarine bliss. Thus one can find each word of each sentence in Shrila Prabhupada's books to be overflowing with newer, fresh meanings, which one may not have previously realized.
(1) Gita-mala develops systematically, beginning first with Yamuna-bhavavali, a series of mellow yet directly ecstatic songs based on the primary devotional mood of eternal servitude and submission to the Lord.
(2) Then Karpanya-panjika injects a very strong booster shot of topmost divine seva to Shri Shri Radha and Krishna, accompanied by very intense pleading prayers borne of pure spiritual humility.
(3) Soka-satana bestows the merciful benediction of the Most Merciful incarnation and yuga-avatara, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Whose ecstatic lila depicted herein is especially meant to dispel all the sufferings of the Kali-yuga victims. Without such mercy from Lord Chaitanya, one cannot fully appreciate or enter into the final goal of confidential personal service to Radha and Krishna which was described in the previous chapter.
(4) Then Rupanuga-bhajana-darpana presents the complete detailed science of the transcendental rasa-tattva that permeates Krishna's eternal divine pastimes, as it is understood by those who strictly follow Shrila Rupa Gosvami. It is based on Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and Ujjvala-nilamani. Although very technical at times, a sincere study of it will open up a whole new world of understanding of Shrila Prabhupada's most exquisite, transcendentally delightful presentation of The Nectar of Devotion. Rupanuga-bhajana-darpana contains, in a nutshell, all the necessary details of the science of devotion beginning from the preliminary thirsty greed for rasa all the way up to the highest peaks of maha-bhava which saturate the Lord's eternal daily asta-kaliya pastimes.
(5) The final chapter called Siddhi-lalasa presents the consummate moods of the topmost swan-like devotees, who hanker for attaining the supreme destination of becoming one of Shrimati Radharani's personal maidservants. After a thorough study of all the details of the science of rasa (as in the previous chapter), the crystal-clear hearts of the pure devotees then issue forth pure desires for eternal service to Shri Radhika in their transcendental siddha-deha, or spiritual body. Such desires are expressed in this chapter of Siddhi-lalasa, the last word in ultimate ecstatic beatitude.
So, from the very beginning to the very end, Shri Gita-mala forcibly captures one with all its delightful charms and pulls one's eyes open to witness an ecstatic preview of our ultimate goal in Goloka Vrndavana, which definitely changes the life of the reader for the better. The sincere follower can imbibe such permanent convictions that will cause one to finally be finished with petty material attachments and sense gratification for good, and one will only increase daily appreciation of the wonderful gifts that Shrila Prabhupada has so kindly given to us. It was Prabhupada's expressed desire that more songs and books of the Vaishnava padavali (devotional poetry) be translated into English. Therefore we pray with all our humility that this insignificant attempt to present Gita-mala of Bhaktivinoda Thakura in a sincere way will please His Divine Grace and the Vaishnava community, as well as to invoke the personal blessings of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura upon us.
We also pray that if the Vaishnavas will be merciful to allow us to serve Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, then future volumes of Nectar Books may be brought out. May the noble readers bless us and show the path leading to the lotus feet of the great acaryas, who are all eternally accompanying Lord Chaitanya as He continuously benedicts all the universes with swelling floods of free Krishna-prema. Haribol!
In this first chapter of Gita-mala, Thakura Bhaktivinoda has composed all the songs based on Sanskrit verses from the book Stotra-ratna, which was written by Yamunacarya, a previous acarya coming in the line of the Shri sampradaya. The original Stotra-ratna contains 62 Sanskrit verses, and Bhaktivinoda Thakura has selected 27 of the most important ones and expanded them into Bengali verses.
These 27 songs specifically show the function of the subordinate ecstasies of neutrality and servitude (santa and dasya) as being inseparably interwoven and contained in the superior ecstasy of conjugal love expressed by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
The following chart shows how the songs correspond to the original slokas of Stotra-ratna. The titles of the songs are not part of the original text, but are added in this publication as an index to the topics of the songs.
ohe prabhu doyamoy, tomar carana-dvoy,
sruti-siropari sobha pay
guru-jana-sire puna, sobha pay sata guna,
dekhi amar parana juday
Oh my Lord, Oh most compassionate Personality! Your two divine lotus feet are beautifully decorating the summit of all the scriptures. And when those lotus feet in turn decorate the heads of all the spiritual masters coming in the line of disciplic succession, then their beauty and splendor increases a hundred-fold. Seeing this truth, my heart has become fully satisfied.
jiva-mano-ratha-patha, tanhi saba anugata,
jiver se kula-dhana, ati pujya sanatana,
jiver carama gati tatha
The desires of all the jiva souls are actually following the path which leads to Your beautiful lotus feet, which are just like desire-trees in that they bestow the fulfillment of the most cherished desires of all souls. Indeed, Your feet are the very wealth of the dynasty of jivas, and they shall remain the most revered object of worship for all of time to come. Thus they are the ultimate goal and refuge of all.
kamalaksa-pada-dvoy, parama ananda-moy,
niskapata e seviya satata
e bhaktibinoda cay, satata tusite tay,
bhakta-janer ho'ye anugata
The two feet of the lotus-eyed Lord are abounding in supreme spiritual bliss. Honestly serving those divine feet continuously, Bhaktivinoda wants to satisfy them by remaining as a humble follower of the devotees of the Lord.
tomar iksane hoy, sakala utpatti loy,
catur-dasa bhuvanete jata
jada jiva adi kori', tomar krpaya hari,
labhe janma, ara ko'bo kota
Oh my dear Lord Hari! Merely by Your glance, all creations throughout the fourteen worlds come into being. By Your mercy alone, Oh Lord, all souls take their birth within this world of matter. What more can I say than this?
tahader brtti jata, tomar iksane swatah,
janme, prabhu tumi sarveswara
sakala jantura tumi, swabhavika nitya-swami,
su-hrin mitra praner iswara
When You cast Your glance, then automatically all the souls awaken into their own different natures, propensities and activities. Thus You, my dear Lord, are the only Controller of all. You are by nature the eternal Master of all living beings, and You are thereby the dearest friend and Lord of everyone's heart.
e bhaktibinoda koy, suno, prabhu doyamoy,
bhakta-prati batsalya tomar
naisargika dharma hoy, aupadhika kabhu noy,
dase doya hoiya udar
Now Bhaktivinoda says, please hear me, oh munificent Lord! The loving affection You show towards Your own devotees is most natural. It can never be thought of as being a temporary, designative characteristic. Thus, the kindness You show to Your own eternal servants is most magnanimous.
para-tattwa bicaksana, vyasa adi muni-gana,
sastra bicariya bar bar
prabhu taba nitya-rupa, guna-sila anurupa,
tomar caritra sudha-sar
Oh my Lord! All the great sages headed by Shrila Vyasadeva are most experienced regarding the transcendental truth. This is because they discuss and deliberate on the revealed scriptures again and again. Thereby they manifest these sacred books which reveal Your eternal personal form abounding in all virtuous qualities, and Your divine activities which are the essence of ambrosial nectar.
jiver kusala su-bidhane
rajas-tamo-guna-andha, asura-prakrti manda-
jane taha bujhite na jane
Your eternal pastimes of pure transcendental goodness are described in these principal scriptures for the welfare of all souls. However, those unfortunate ones who are blinded by the material modes of passion and ignorance, who harbor the nature of demons, and who are foolish and dull-minded cannot understand Your divine form or pastimes which are depicted in all these scriptures.
nahi mane nitya-rupa, bhajiya manduka-kupa,
rahe tahe udasina pray
e bhaktibinoda gay, ki durdaiva hay hay,
hari-dasa hari nahi pay
Those who live in this universe but are not interested in Your eternal form remain completely oblivious, just like ignorant frogs who live in a small, shallow well. Now Bhaktivinoda sings, alas! What an unfortunate situation has arisen here! The eternal servants of Hari are not serving their eternal Lord Hari!
jagater bastu jata, baddha saba swabhavata,
desa kala bastu simasraye
tumi prabhu sarveswara, naha sima-bidhi-para,
bidhi saba kampe taba bhoye
Oh my dear Lord Hari! All the things contained within this universe are by nature bound up by the limits of material time, place and circumstances. But You, dear Lord, are not subordinate to any such limitation or even to scriptural injunctions. Indeed, all rules and regulations are trembling in fear of Your Lordship.
sama ba adhika taba, swabhavatah asambhava,
bidhi langhi' taba abasthana
swatantra-swabhava dharo, apane gopana koro,
maya-bale kori' adhisthana
It is naturally impossible for any kind of law to be equal to or surpass You, for Your transcendental position naturally transgresses all restrictions. You possess the Supremely independent nature, and thereby You conceal Yourself behind the powerful curtain of maya.
tathapi ananya-bhakta, tomare dekhite sakta,
sada dekhe swarupa tomar
e bhaktibinoda dina, ananya-bhajana hina,
Despite this veil of maya's illusions, my dear Lord, Your pure unalloyed devotees have the ability to see You. Indeed, wherever they turn their eyes, they see Your original personal form there. However, this Bhaktivinoda is very fallen and is completely bereft of unalloyed devotion. But he has one hope -he has considered the dust of Your devotees' feet to be the sole essence of his life.
tumi sarva-guna-juta, sakti taba basibhuta,
vadanya, sarala, suci, dhira
doyalu, madhura, sama, krti, sthira, sarvottama,
krta-jna-laksane punah bira
Oh my Lord Hari! You are invested with all good qualities, for all energies are fully under Your control. You are most magnanimous, straightforward, clean, patient, compassionate, sweet, equal to all, successful, peaceful, You are the best of all, most appreciative and the greatest hero.
samasta-kalyana-guna, gunamrta sambhavana,
bindu bindu guna taba, sarva-jiva-su-vaibhava,
tumi purna sarva-saktiman
You are the fathomless ocean-like origin of all immortal nectarine qualities of auspiciousness, and You are thus the Supreme possessor of all spiritual opulences. All souls can individually display only a small drop from the ocean of Your unlimited, complete qualities. Thus You are the perfectly complete energetic source of all potencies.
e bhaktibinoda char, krtanjali bar bar,
kore citta-katha bijnapana
taba dasa-gana-sange, taba lila-katha-range,
jay jena amar jivana
Now this most fallen Bhaktivinoda prays again and again with folded hands, humbly confessing all these talks from the core of his heart. Oh Lord, may I pass my life absorbed in enjoying all these discussions about Your transcendental pastimes in the company of Your loving servitors.
tomar gambhira mana, nahi bujhe anya jana,
sei mana anusari saba
mukti adi saktir vaibhava
Oh, my Lord Hari! Your mind is extremely grave, and Your deep intentions cannot be understood by anyone else; all living beings are unconsciously following the desires of Your mind. The opulences of Your magnificent potencies produce the creation, maintenance and ultimate destruction of the material worlds, as well as provide for liberation from these temporary abodes.
e saba vaidika lila, iccha-matra prakasila,
jiver basana anusare
tomate bimukha ho'ye, majilo avidya lo'ye,
sei jiva karma-parabare
These pastimes of creation, maintenance and destruction are all described in the Vedic scriptures, and You have manifested the entire material realm by the power of Your will, in order to fulfill the materialistic desires of certain souls. When they become averse to You, they then become drowned in the darkest ignorance within the ocean of fruitive actions and reactions.
punah jadi bhakti kori', bhaje bhakta-sanga dhori',
tabe paya tomar carana
antaranga-lila-rase, bhase maya na parase,
bhaktibinoder phire mana
However, if one again revives his devotional service to You, and worships You in the association of Your devotees, then he can attain Your lotus feet. Thus Bhaktivinoda's mind has been changed back onto the path towards You by floating in the mellows of Your confidential pastimes, which maya is unable to touch.
maya-baddha jataksana, thake to' jiver mana,
jada-majhe kore bicarana
paravyoma jnana-moy, tahe taba sthiti hoy,
mana nahi pay darasana
Oh my dear Lord Hari! So long as the minds of the jivas are conditioned by maya, they simply wander about and loiter within the world of dead matter. However, You are permanently situated in the all-conscious spiritual sky, which the material mind cannot perceive at all.
bhakti-krpa-khadagaghate, jada-bandha cheda ta'te,
jay mana prakrtir par
tomar sundara rupa, here' taba aparupa,
jada-bastu koroye dhikkar
By the mercy of the sharp sword of devotional service, all bondage to matter is severed, and the mind can thereafter travel beyond the bondage of material energy. Then, upon beholding Your wonderfully beautiful form, one condemns all inferior things which are simply made of dull matter.
ananta vibhuti janra, jini doya-parabara,
sei prabhu jiver iswara
e bhaktibinoda dina, sada-suddha-bhakti-hina,
suddha-bhakti mage nirantara
Thus, by devotion one is enabled to see He Who possesses unlimited transcendental opulences, Who is an ocean of compassion, and Who is the Lord and Master of all souls. This most fallen Bhaktivinoda, who is always bereft of pure devotional service, now begs ceaselessly for it with all his heart.
dharma-nista nahi mor, atma-bodha ba sundar,
bhakti nahi tomar carane
ataeva akincana, gati-hina dusta-jana,
rata sada apana bancane
Oh my Lord Hari! I don't have the determination to properly follow any kind of religious path, nor do I have any realization of my true self, nor do I have any trace of devotion to Your lotus feet. Therefore, being completely bereft of spiritual practices, this wicked, aimless soul is always fond of cheating himself.
patita-pavana tumi, patita adhama ami,
tumi mor eka-matra gati
taba pada-mule painu, tomar sarana lainu,
ami dasa, tumi mor pati
Dear Lord, You are known as Patita-pavana, the rescuer of the most fallen, and I am one such fallen soul. Therefore You are my only hope for deliverance. Now I have attained the soles of Your lotus feet, for I have taken complete refuge in You alone; I am Your eternal servant, and You are my eternal Master.
e bhaktibinoda kande, hrde dhairya nahi bandhe,
bhumi padi bole atahpara
ahaituki krpa kori', ei dusta-jane, hari,
deho pada-chaya nirantara
Now Bhaktivinoda falls upon the ground, weeping piteously, unable to maintain composure in his heart, and says, Oh my Lord! Kindly favor this rogue with Your causeless mercy! Give me the shade of Your lotus feet forever and ever.
heno dusta karma nai, jaha ami kori nai,
sahasra sahasra-bara hari!
sei saba karma-phal, peye abasara bal,
amay pisiche jantropari
Oh my dear Lord Hari! There are no sinful activities which I have not performed thousands upon thousands of times! And by the fruits of all these sinful actions, I have become robbed of all strength, being helplessly taken for an excruciatingly painful ride on the machine of this material world.
gati nahi dekhi ar, kande, hari, anibar,
tomar agrete ebe ami
ja' tomar hoy mane, danda deo akincane,
tumi mor danda-dhara swami
Having no other hope for deliverance in sight, I am now continuously crying before You, my Lord! Please punish Your insignificant servant as You see befitting, for You are my Lord and ruling Master.
klesa-bhoga bhagye jata, bhoga mor hao tata,
kintu ek mama nibedana
je je dasa bhoga ami, amake na chado swami,
I will gladly endure whatever misery that destiny has in store for me, but I have just one appeal to make to You: My dear Lord, no matter what calamity I must undergo, please promise that You will never forsake me, for You are the only treasure of Bhaktivinoda's life.
nija-karma-dosa-phale, padi' bhavarnava-jale,
habudubu khai kotakal
santari' santari' jai, sindhu-anta nahi pai,
bhava-sindhu ananta bisal
Oh my dear Lord Hari! By the bad fruits of my past activities, I have slipped and fallen into the waters of the ocean of nescience, and I have been thus bobbing and sinking beneath the waves for a very, very long time. Swimming and swimming, I have not been able to reach the shore, for this ocean of material existence is unlimitedly vast.
nimagna hoinu jabe, dakinu katara rabe,
keho more koroho uddhar
sei-kale aile tumi, toma jani' kula-bhumi,
asa-bija hoilo amar
Becoming completely submerged and drowned in this ocean, I have loudly called out with a greatly distressed voice for someone to come and rescue me. At that time You came to me, oh Lord. Knowing that You are the safe shelter at the shore of this fearful ocean has given me a ray of hope.
tumi hari doyamoy, paile more su-nicoy,
sarvottama doyar bisoy
tomake na chadi ar, e bhaktibinoda char,
doya-patra paile doyamoy
You, dear Lord, are actually made of compassion. I have become convinced that You are the original source of the highest form of causeless mercy. Now this most fallen rascal Bhaktivinoda will no longer reject You—for I, the befitting object of causeless mercy, have attained the favor of He Who abounds in causeless mercy.
anya asa nahi jar, taba pada-padma tar,
chadibara jogya nahi hoy
taba padasraye natha, kore sei dina-pata,
taba pade tahar abhoy
Oh my dear Lord Hari! One who spends his time under the shelter of Your lotus feet, oh Lord, becomes completely fearless. Indeed, such a person could not possibly neglect Your lotus feet, for one wouldn't have a pinch of desire for any other shelter.
stanya-payi sisu-jane, mata chade krodha-mane,
sisu tabu nahi chade may
jehetu tahar ar, e jivana dhoribar,
mata bina nahiko upay
A mother may sometimes neglect her breast-suckling children out of anger, but still the children could never give up their mother. This is because such small helpless children are not able to maintain their lives at all without their mother, being totally dependent on her.
e bhaktibinoda koy, tumi chado doyamoy,
dekhiya amar dosa-gana
ami to' chadite nari, toma bina nahi pari,
kakhan dhorite e jivana
Similarly, Bhaktivinoda says to You, oh Lord Who is overflowing with com-passion, that You may reject me if You like, seeing all of my offenses. But still, I will never be able to abandon You, for I cannot maintain my life under any circumstances without You.
taba pada-pankajini, jivamrta-sancarini,
ati-bhagye jiva taha pay
se-amrta pana kori', mugdha hoy tahe, hari,
ar taha chadite na cay
Oh my Lord Hari! Your lotus feet distribute the nectar of eternal devotional service to the surrendered souls, and only by dint of the greatest good fortune can any soul obtain such nectar. By drinking this rare ambrosia they become attracted and captivated, oh Lord, and by being completely absorbed in this transcendental honey of devotion, they will never want to abandon it.
nibista hoiya tay, anya sthane nahi jay,
anya rasa tuccha kori' mane
madhu-purna padma-sthita, madhu-brata kadacita,
nahi caya iksu-danda-pane
Being deeply engrossed in this jivamrta, they will never ever go anywhere else, for they will then consider all other tastes to be simply insignificant. It is just like when a bee is fully satisfied from tasting the sweet honey within the whorl of a lotus flower, he will no longer desire the inferior sweetness of sugarcane juice.
e bhaktibinoda kabe, se-pankaja-sthita ha'be,
nahi ja'be samsarabhimukhe
bhakta-krpa, bhakti-bal, ei duiti su-sambal,
paile se sthiti ghate sukhe (3)
Bhaktivinoda now says that when I become sheltered under those lotus-like feet, then I will never again turn toward the material world. There are only two most auspicious things to help me—the causeless mercy of the devotees and the power of devotion; these two treasures will enable me to attain a place at those lotus feet. Only then will I be happily situated.
bhramite samsara-bane, kabhu daiva-samghatane,
kon-mate kon bhagyavan
taba pada uddesiya, thake krtanjali haya,
eka-bar ohe bhagavan
Oh my Lord Hari! While wandering about in the forest of this material world, some fortunate soul may be able to get a glimpse of Your lotus feet just once, by some unseen influence of destiny, and receives that vision of Your lotus feet with folded hands, oh Bhagavan!
sei-ksane ta'r jata, amangala hoy hata,
su-mangala hoy pusta ati
ar nahi ksaya hoy, krame ta'r subhodoy,
ta're deya sarvottama-gati
At that very moment all inauspiciousness becomes dissipated, and he very much relishes the nourishment of divine auspiciousness. This never decreases, for You gradually awaken his eternal well-being by bestowing upon such a fortunate soul the topmost goal of life.
emon doyalu tumi, emon durbhaga ami,
kabhu na korinu paranama
taba pada-padma prati, na jane e dusta-mati,
Thus You are such a magnanimous Lord, but I am such an ill-fated soul, for I have never offered my respectful obeisances unto Your lotus feet. And now Bhaktivinoda cannot comprehend the outcome of his wicked mentality.
tomar carana-padma, anuraga sudha-sadma,
sagara-sikara jadi pay
kon bhagyavan jane, kon karya-samghatane,
ta'r saba duhkha dure jay
Oh my Dear Lord Hari! If a greatly fortunate soul somehow or other gets a chance to drink just one priceless nectar-drop sprayed from the ocean of love emanating from Your lotus feet, then all of his miseries are instantly repelled to a far distant place.
ksaneke koriya phele ta'r
parama nivrtti diya, tomar carane laya,
deya tabe ananda apar
This single drop from the ocean of nectar completely extinguishes the blazing fire of material existence and gives immediate relief. One who drinks such a drop thus takes hold of Your lotus feet, which bestow upon him transcendentally liberated peace and unlimited spiritual bliss.
e bhaktibinoda kande, padiya samsara-phande,
bole, nahi kon bhagya mor
e ghatana na ghatilo, amar janama gelo,
brtha roinu ho'ye atma-bhor
Now Bhaktivinoda is weeping and says to You, oh Lord—I am most un-fortunate, having fallen into the snare of this material world. I have never tasted a drop of the nectar of Your lotus feet, and therefore my entire life has been wasted, uselessly engrossed in my own selfish interests.
tabanghri kamala-dvoy, bilasa-bikrama-moy,
parabara jagat byapiya
sarva-ksana bartamana, bhakta-klesa-abasana,
lagi' sada prastuta hoiya
Oh my Lord Hari! Your two lotus feet are full of mighty prowess in performing transcendental pastimes, which are continuously expanding throughout both the material and spiritual worlds. Such pastimes are eternally being performed just to mitigate all the sufferings of Your devotees. For this reason only are Your eight-fold daily pastimes enacted.
jagater sei dhana, ami jaga-madhya jana,
ataeva sama adhikar
ami kiba bhagya-hina, sadhane bancita, dina,
ki kaj jivane ar char
Despite the presence of Your pastimes here, which are the real treasure of this universe, I am still bereft of all good fortune, for I have cheated myself out of worshiping Your lotus feet in devotional service. Thus I am most fallen, and there is no one else quite as fallen as me. What other activities could possibly be more sinful than those which were performed by me throughout my entire lifetime?
krpa bina nahi gati, e bhaktibinoda ati,
dainya kori' bole prabhu-pay
kabe taba krpa pe'ye, uthibo sabale dhe'ye,
heribo se pada-yuga hay
Now Bhaktivinoda, with the utmost humility says at Your feet, oh Lord—without Your causeless mercy, I have no other refuge. Alas! When will I get Your kind favor? I will stand up and enthusiastically run for You, and then I will behold Your beautiful lotus feet with my very eyes.
ami sei dusta-mati, na dekhiya anya gati,
taba pade lo'yechi sarana
janilama ami, natha, tumi prabhu jagannatha,
ami taba nitya parijana
Oh my dear Lord Hari! I am most fallen, and seeing no other alternative, I have fully taken shelter at Your lotus feet. Oh Lord! Now I have finally understood that You are Jagannatha, Lord of the Universe, whereas I am but Your eternal servant.
sei dina kabe ha'be, aikantika-bhave jabe,
nitya-dasa-bhava lo'ye ami
mano-rathantara jata, nihsesa koriya swatah,
sevibo amar nitya-swami
When will that day come when I take on the mood and behavior of Your un-alloyed eternal servant? Then, all other distracting desires of my mind will automatically become totally exhausted, and I will be able to whole-heartedly render service to my eternal Master.
nirantara seva-mati, bahibe cittete sati,
prasanta hoibe atma mor
e bhaktibinoda bole, krishna-seva-kutuhale,
cirodina thaki jena bhor
My soul will become fully satisfied when that day will be mine. My heart will be chaste only for You, and it will exhibit a service attitude which flows from the core of the heart with uninterrupted devotion. Bhaktivinoda says that he will thus live eternally absorbed in such a delightful flow of ecstatic loving service to Krishna.
ami aparadhi jana, sada dandya, durllaksana,
sahasra sahasra dose dosi
bhima bhavarnavodare, patita bisama ghore,
Oh my Lord Hari! I have been a great offender to You, and thus I am quite fit to receive punishment for all of my wicked misdeeds. I am guilty of committing thousands upon thousands of sins. I have somehow fallen into the belly of the terribly deep, dark, and fearsome ocean of material existence, and I have no shelter at all in this hellish place. Therefore I am greatly desirous of finding salvation from this dreadful predicament.
hari! taba pada-dvoye, sarana loinu bhoye,
krpa kori' koro atma-satha
tomar pratijna ei, sarana loibe jei,
tumi ta'r raksa-karta natha
Hari! Thus I have taken refuge at Your two lotus feet out of intense fear! Please be kind to me and make me Your own property. Your promise is that for whoever takes full shelter of You, then You will become his protector and maintainer, oh Lord!
pratijnate kori' bhara, o madhava praneswara!
sarana loilo ei dasa
e bhaktibinoda gay, tomar se-ranga-pay,
deho dase sevaya vilasa
Completely relying on Your promise, this servant has now taken full shelter of You as his last hope, oh Madhava! Oh Lord of my life! Bhaktivinoda now sings this prayer to You just to be eternally fixed up in the service of Your two reddish lotus feet.
aviveka-rupa ghana, tahe dik acchadana,
hoilo ta'te andhakara ghor
tahe duhkha-brsti hoy, dekhi' cari-dike bhoy,
patha-bhrama hoiyache mor
Oh my Lord Hari! Ignorance of You is just like a menacing raincloud which hovers overhead and covers all directions, causing the darkness of spiritual blindness to envelop me. From this cloud of ignorance falls the rain of material tribulation, which strikes fear throughout the four directions. Thus I have become lost and confused in this darkness, and I am absolutely unable to find the right path back to You, dear Lord!
nija aviveka-dose, padi' durdiner rose,
prana jay samsara-kantare
patha-pradarsaka nai, e durdaive mara jai,
daki tai, acyuta, tomare
By my own fault of ignorantly whimsical behavior, independent of You, I have become very angry upon falling into the foul weather of this most difficult time of distress. And my life is leaving me while I am thus stranded within this material world, which is just like a dark forest in which one cannot properly find his way. I have no guide to show me the way out of here, and by this misfortune I am dying a slow death. Therefore I now call out to You, Acyuta, oh supremely infallible Lord!
ek-bar krpa-drsti, koro ama-prati brsti,
tabe mor ghucibe durdina
viveka sabala ha'be, bhaktibinoda tabe,
dekhaibe patha samicina
If You would just shower the rain of Your kind glance moist with causeless mercy in my direction just once, oh Lord, then that would instantly terminate this period of great distress for me. Then my understanding of Your spiritual reality will become fixed-up, and this Bhaktivinoda will be able to clearly see the path which leads back to You.
agre ek nibedana, kori, madhu-nisudhana,
suno krpa koriya amay
nirarthaka katha noi, nigudhartha-moy hoy,
hrdoy hoite bahiray
Oh my dear Lord Hari! I have just one appeal to make before You, oh killer of the Madhu demon! Please be kind enough to hear it from me. It is certainly not a useless talk, but is full of very deep meaning. Indeed, it is welling up from the very depths of my heart.
ati apakrsta ami, parama doyalu tumi,
taba doya mor adhikar
je jata patita hoy, taba doya tata tay,
ta'te ami su-patra doyar
I am most fallen, and You are most merciful; therefore I have full rights to claim Your mercy. For no matter how degraded I could possibly be, Your mercy easily extends to that degree; therefore I am quite a suitable candidate for receiving Your grace.
more jadi upeksibe, doya-patra kotha pabe,
'doyamoy' namati ghuca'be
e bhaktibinoda koy, doya koro doyamoy,
jasa-kirti cirodina pabe
If You were to neglect my appeal, then Your famous name as the Most Merciful would become null and void. And where else could You find a more suitable recipient of mercy than me? Bhaktivinoda says, please be merciful, oh Most Merciful! If You would do this, then Your fame will go on unblemished for all of time to come.
toma chadi' ami kabhu, anatha na hoi, prabhu,
prabhu-hina dasa nirasroy
amake na nile satha, kaiche tumi ha'be natha,
doyaniya ke tomar hoy
My dear Hari! I will never, ever abandon Your shelter, oh Lord, for if I were to do that, I would become utterly helpless without my Master. When a faithful servant becomes bereft of his Master, then he remains helplessly lost and confused, with no other shelter available anywhere. However, if You do not accept me into Your association, then how will You be known as my Master, and who else besides me will be a suitable recipient of Your mercy?
amader e sambandha, bidhi-krta su-nirbandha,
sa-bidhi tomar guna-dhama
ataeva nibedana, suno he madhu-mathana,
chada-chadi nahe kon kama
Our eternal relationship is unalterably fixed up by our destiny, and it shows how You are the abode of all good qualities. Please hear my appeal to You now, oh punisher of the demon Madhu! There is no possibility whatsoever of separating us from our eternal relationship of being the Master (You) and the servant (me).
e bhaktibinoda gay, rakho more taba pay,
palo more na chado kakhan
jabe mama pao dosa, koriya ucita rosa,
danda diya deo shri-caran
Now Bhaktivinoda sings to You his appeal, dear Lord: Please keep me always under the shelter of Your lotus feet; always protect me, and never abandon me at any time. Whenever You find me deviating from Your shelter, then I request You to please manifest befitting anger and punish me accordingly, bestowing the touch of Your divine lotus feet.
stri-purusa-deha-gata, barna-adi dharma jata,
tahe punah deha-gata bheda
sattva-rajas-tamo-guna, asrayeche bheda punah,
ei-rupa sahasra prabheda
Oh my Lord! I know that all bodily distinctions between female and male, as well as all the divisions of the varnasrama system namely brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa are simply materialistic differences based on bodily consciousness. And when all these distinctions are influenced by the material modes of goodness, passion and ignorance, then they multiply into thousands of complicated divisions.
je-kon sarira thaki, je-kon abastha rakhi,
se-sab ekhan taba pay
sanpilam, praneswara, mama boli' atahpara,
ar kichu na rohilo day
Whatever type of body I happen to live in, and whatever circumstantial position this body is situated in, I now offer all these things in dedication unto Your lotus feet, oh Lord of my life! From now on, I am no longer responsible for anything related to my very existence.
tumi prabhu rakho mor, sab taba adhikar,
achi ami tomar kinkor
e bhaktibinoda bole, taba dasya-kautuhale,
thaki jena sada sevapar
Therfore, please protect and maintain me, oh Lord, for You can do anything! I am but Your humble servant. Bhaktivinoda now states that I am living always absorbed in the delightfully curious amusement of the transcendental loving service attitude.
veda-vidhi-anusare, karma kori' e samsare,
punah punah jiva janma pay
purva-krta-karma-phale, tomar ba iccha-bale,
janma jadi labhi punaray
Oh my Lord Hari! By working fruitively according to the Vedic injunctions in this material world, the soul continuously takes birth again and again. If I also have to take birth again according to Your will, due to the results of my previous fruitive reactions, then I have just one request to make of You...
tabe ek katha mama, suno he purusottama!
kita-janma jadi hoy, tahateo doya-moy,
rohibo he santusta antare
Kindly hear me, oh Purusottama! I have a petition to submit before You. If I can just take my next birth even as an insignificant insect within the home of Your loving servant, then I would become completely satisfied, oh Most Merciful Lord!
taba dasa-sanga-hina, je grhastha arbacina,
ta'r grhe caturmukha-bhuti
na hao kakhan, hari, kara-dwoy yoda kori',
kore bhaktibinoda minati
Please never, never let me take birth in the home of a householder who is averse to the association of Your devotee, even if his household opulences rival those of Lord's Brahma's. This is the only humble prayer that Bhaktivinoda is making now with folded hands.
tomar je suddha-bhakta, tomate se anurakta,
bhukti mukti tuccha kori' jane,
bareka dekhite taba, cidakara-shri-vaibhava,
trna boli' anya sukha mane
Oh my Lord Hari! Your pure unalloyed devotee, who is uncompromisingly attached to You only, considers material enjoyment and liberation to be insignificant. Simply by beholding the beauty and opulences of Your form made of eternity, knowledge and bliss, such a pure devotee considers all other forms of so-called happiness to be just like small pieces of straw which one sees strewn here and there in the gutter.
se-saba bhakter sange, lila koro nana-range,
viraha sahite nahi par
krpa kori' akincane, dekhao mahatma-gane,
sadhu bina gati nahi ar
You always perform different types of sportive pastimes in the company of pure devotees of this calibre, for You are not able to tolerate separation from them for even a moment. Please show Your gracious favor and reveal to me who these great souls are, for I am truly bereft, and can find no purpose for living without their company.
se-bhakta-carana-dhana, kabe pa'bo darasana,
sodhibo amar dusta mana
e bhaktibinoda bhane, krpa ha'be jataksane,
mahatmar ho'be darasana
When will I get the vision of the rare treasure-like feet of Your pure devotees? If I could just catch a glimpse of their lotus feet, then that would completely purify me and rectify my sinful mind. Bhaktivinoda narrates this prayer to You, oh Lord: I will be able to get the audience of such great souls only if Your causeless mercy comes upon me by Your own sweet will.
suno he madhu-mathana! mama ek bijnapana,
bisesa koriya boli ami
tomar sevatva mama, swakiya vaibhavottama,
ami dasa, tumi mor swami
Oh my dear Lord Hari! Please hear me now, oh chastiser of the demon Madhu! I am revealing this specific confession unto You. The topmost wealth of my own ultimate service attitude is this—I am Your servant, and You are my Master.
se-vibhava-bahirbhuta, hoite hoile he acyuta,
ksana-matra sahite na pari
deho, prana, sukha, asa, atma-prati bhalabasa,
sarva-tyaga korite bicari
Oh Acyuta, most infallible Lord! I am not able to tolerate even a split second of life outside this divine wealth of Your eternal service. Therefore I have now decided to renounce everything that is near and dear to the illusioned soul such as the body, the life, material pleasures as well as all hopes for future sense gratification.
e saba jauka nasa, sata-bar shri-nivasa,
tabu thaku dasatva tomar
e bhaktibinoda koy, krishna-dasa jiva hoy,
dasya bina kiba ache ar
Oh Residence of the Goddess of Fortune! Let all these things be neglected by me and fall into abject ruination hundreds of times; I don't mind, for I will still remain fixed in Your eternal service. Bhaktivinoda says that the soul is naturally the servant of Krishna, and except for eternal service there is no other reality.
ami nara-pasu-pray, acara-bihina tay,
anadi ananta su-bistar
ati-kaste pariharya, sahajete anibarya,
asubher aspada abar
Oh my Lord Hari! I am simply a two-legged animal, completely bereft of proper behavior. I have been suffering great difficulties unlimitedly since time immemorial. And moreover, I have unavoidably become the repository of all types of sinful activities.
tumi to' doyar sindhu, tumi to' jagad-bandhu,
taba guna-gana smari, bhava-bandhu cheda kori',
nirbhika hoibo nirabadhi
You are certainly an ocean of compassion, and You are the only real friend of the universe. Your affection is just like a boundless, unfathomable sea of loving relationships. Simply by remembering Your wonderful qualities, my material bonds are being severed and I will become eternally fearless.
ei iccha kori' mane, shri-jamuna-carane,
gay bhaktibinoda ekhan
ta'r sire, karuna arpan
Now Bhaktivinoda sings about all these desires within his mind while bowing to the lotus feet of Shri Yamunacarya (the original author of Stotra-ratna). And he begs Yamunacarya to kindly bestow upon his head the quintessence of the fragrant immortal nectar which flows from the lotus feet of that moon-like person Who glows within the forests on the bank of the river Yamuna in Vraja.
tumi jagater pita, tumi jagater mata,
dayita, tanaya, hari tumi
tumi suhrn-mitra, guru, tumi gati, kalpa-taru,
twadiya sambandha-matra ami
Dear Lord Hari! You are the Father of the universe, You are the Mother of the universe, as well as the Lover and Son of all beings. You are the most dearly beloved Friend of the heart, the Spiritual Master of all, the ultimate Refuge and the divine Purpose-tree that fulfills everyone's desires...
taba bhrtya, parijana, gati-prarthi, akincana,
prapanna tomar shri-carane
taba sattva, taba dhana, tomar palita jana,
amar mamata taba jane
...But my relationship with You is simply that of Your insignificant menial servant, Your humble attendant, always praying for Your shelter, a truly destitute soul, surrendered at Your divine lotus feet. I am simply Your plaything, Your property, Your protected servant; my only identification is my attachment to being Your devotee.
e bhaktibinoda koy, ahamta-mamata noy,
sevar sambandha dhori', ahamta-mamata kori,
taditare prakrta bidhane
Bhaktivinoda says that there is no feeling of "I and mine" other than this conception of being related to Shri Krishna as His eternal servant. Maintaining this position of eternal service, he thus accepts the real principle of "I and mine" which is the natural, unchangeable relationship with Krishna and His devotees. Anything other than that would just be material and temporary.
ami to' cancala-mati, amaryada, ksudra ati,
asuya-prasaba sada mor
papista, krtaghna, mani, nrsamsa, bancane jnani,
kama-base thaki sada ghor
Oh my dear Lord Hari! I am most fickle-minded, completely bereft of proper manners and extremely insignificant. I always radiate a mood of jealousy and malice. I willingly perform sinful acts, I love to do harm to my well-wishing benefactors, and I am puffed up with false prestige. Vicious at heart, I am very learned in the art of deceiving others. I am always obsessed by lusty motives.
e heno durjana ho'ye, e duhkha-jaladhi bo'ye,
kemone e bhavambudhi, para ho'ye nirabadhi,
taba pada seva mile more
Being such a sinful rogue, I am completely submerged in this ocean of material tribulation. I aimlessly wander here and there in the vast ocean of birth and death. How will I ever be able to cross over this ocean of nescience and engage in the service of Your lotus feet?
tomar karuna pai, taba to' toriya jai,
ami e duranta sagara
tumi, prabhu, shri-carane, rakho dase dhuli-sane,
nahe bhaktibinoda katara
Only if I get Your mercy, then I can certainly cross over this miserable ocean of suffering. Now, my dear Lord, Bhaktivinoda is humbly requesting You to kindly keep this servant as just one of the many particles of dust under the safe shelter of Your beautiful lotus feet—then I'll be fully satisfied.
This 46 verse Bengali poem by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura is actually based on a prayer composed in Sanskrit by Shrila Rupa Gosvami, found within his book Stava-mala. The original Karpanya-panjika-stotra consist of only 45 slokas, and Bhaktivinoda's Bengali verse translation has one extra verse at the very end which reveals the siddha-deha (spiritual bodies) of both himself and Shrila Rupa Gosvami. In this final verse, the Thakura states that the original author of the stotra is none other than Shri Rupa Manjari, the personal attendant of Shrimati Radharani. Bhaktivinoda also reveals his own eternal identity as Shri Kamala Manjari, a maidservant in Lalita's camp and subordinate to Shri Rupa Manjari. More detail of his eternal service will be revealed in chapter five of this book, Siddhi-lalasa. However, such confidential spiritual topics are not meant for anyone and everyone; therefore discretion should be exercised by the reader to prevent such exalted topics from being taken cheaply.
The word karpanya means humility. It also means greediness, selfishness, etc. So this prayer is a diary of one's humble mood of supplication to the Lord which is also pervaded with intensely greedy selfish motives, or laulyam, but only for the sake of rendering eternal service. This laulyam is described in the Nectar of Devotion (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu) as being the only price to pay to purchase entrance into the kingdom of God. Therefore Shrila Rupa Gosvami indicates such a mood in this Karpanya-panjika-stotra, which has been further embellished and intensified by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura's Bengali rendering.
This English translation incorporates some finer points of the original Sanskrit stotra which may not be so visible within the Bengali verses. Therefore the reader is advised that there are occasional statements which appear to be expanded from the Bengali vocabulary.
The following list of the topics expressed within this poem has been compiled as an aid to understanding the flow of the prayers.
ami ati dina-mati,
kandiya kandiya aj, chadi' sab loka-laj,
nivedibo jata ache mane
Today, living in my grove at Vraja-bhumi, I am most distressed... Therefore I will submit to the lotus feet of the divine couple, Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. Weeping and weeping at Their lotus feet, I now give up all shyness and fear of public opinion, and will reveal to Them all the outpourings of the inner core of my heart.
tumi krishna nilamani,
brajananda koro bitarana
tumi radhe nava-gauri, gorocana-garva hari,
braje hara krishna-candra-mana
You, my dear Lord Krsna, have a deep translucent bluish hue like sapphires, which puts to shame the luster of a fresh new rain cloud. You are distributing the blissful mood of Vraja to everyone. And You, Shri Radhe, take away the pride of brilliant yellow gorocana dye with Your fair complexion, which decorates Your fresh blooming youth. Thus You are attracting and stealing the mind of Your moon-like Krsna in Vraja.
tumi krishna pitambare,
tumi radhe nilambari, palaser garva hari,
You, my dear Lord Krsna, are conquering the radiant luster of pure gold with Your dazzling yellow garments. You are always very fond of performing amorous sports within the transcendental forests of Vraja. And You, my dear Radharani, are wearing a brilliant blue sari which steals the pride of the palasa flower (which is also blue with a white whorl in the center.) You are always gracefully present as the chief companion during all the amorous games played by Krsna.
tumi krishna harinmani,
radhika tomara praneswari
tumi radhe krishna-priyankari
You, dear Lord Krsna, just like a rare, radiant emerald, are the crest jewel amongst all the youthful boys of Vraja. And Shrimati Radhika is the Mistress of Your life. You, my dear Radhe, are the topmost resplendent personality amongst all the women of Vraja. You radiate an effulgence like the fragrant white jasmine blossoms which are woven within the braided hair of all those beautiful young women, and You are the most affectionate maidservant of Krsna.
krishna taba rupa-khani,
jagat mataya braja-bane
rama-jini' brajangana- gana-madhye susobhana,
tumi radhe krishna-cittangane
Dear Krsna, Your beauty and sweetness far surpasses that of Lord Vishnu, the husband of the Goddess of Fortune. And that form which You are displaying within the forests of Vrndavana is making the entire universe go mad. You, dear Radhe, are likewise surpassing the Goddess of Fortune Laksmi herself with Your supreme splendor, which radiates outstandingly amongst all the damsel of Vraja. You are the only one who is dwelling within the courtyard of Krsna's heart.
ohe krishna! radha-mana hare
radhe! anga-gandha taba, tomara su-vina-raba,
krishna-citta unmadita kore
Oh Krsna! You are abducting Radharani's mind with the enchanting songs of Your flute as well by Your sweet bodily fragrance, which are both blowing in relentless waves upon the wind. Oh Radhe! You are likewise wildly exciting Krsna's mind with Your fragrant bodily aroma and the sweet sound of Your vina.
tomara capaleksana, hare
tumi krishna cora-siromani
banka drsti-bhangi taba, shri-krishna-hrdayasaba,
tumi radhe kalavati dhani
You, my dear Krsna, are the crest jewel of all thieves, for You rob Radharani's patience when You gaze upon Her with Your special fickle, amorous expression. And You, my dear Radhe, like to sting Krsna's lotus heart when You look back at Him with Your falsely unfriendly expression which is just like a bumblebee. Thus He becomes maddened by Your crooked behavior. And You are also a beautiful, young maiden who is well-versed in a wealth of classical arts such as music, dancing, and singing.
parihase radhikar, katha
nahi sare jar,
tumi krishna nata-kula-guru
krishna narma-ukti suni', romancita tanu-khani,
taba radhe rasa-kalpa-taru
You, Krsna, are indeed the Master and instructor of all dancers. Sometimes You simply cannot utter a word in reply to the confidential joking statements of Shri Radhika. You, Radhe, then experience intense thrilling jubilation throughout Your entire body when at last You hear Krsna's soft, amusing retort. You are like a wish-fulfilling tree of transcendental mellows.
tumi krishna sarva gunamoy,
umadi ramani-jana, bancaniya guna-gana,
radhe taba swabhavika hoy
You, dear Krsna, are abounding in all good qualities. Indeed, Your super-excellent transcendental virtues stand out just like a multitude of mountain ranges made of rubies. Oh Radhe! You also naturally possess the entirety of good qualities desired by all beautiful young women headed by Goddess Uma.
ami ati manda-mati, kori
he kakuti nati,
niskapate e prarthana kori
brndavana-adhiswara, tumi krishna praneswara,
tumi radhe braja-baneswari
I am extremely dull-minded, and therefore I bow down pitifully before You, offering You this humble prayer in all sincerity. You, my dear Lord Krsna, are the Supreme Master of Vrndavana and the Lord of my life! And You, dear Radhe, are the Proprietress of all the transcendental forests of Vraja!
tomader krpa pai, e-rupa
jadio amar braja-bane
dunhe maha-krpa-moy, jani' kainu padasroy,
krpa koro, e adhama jane
I am certainly not at all fit to receive the mercy of You both in Vrndavana. However, I have still taken refuge at Your lotus feet, for I know that You both are the topmost merciful personalities. Please be kind to this most fallen soul.
kevala ajogya nahi,
aparadhi ami hoi,
tathapi koroho krpa dan
loke krpavista jana, ksame aparadha-gana,
tumi dunhe maha-krpavan
Not only am I undeserving, but I am actually an offender to Your lotus feet. Nevertheless, I still beg You both now to bestow Your kind favor. Just as a great soul is very tolerant of the ignorant public, compassionately forgiving their offenses, similarly You both are certainly the most supremely sympathetic personalities.
lesabhasa nahi ta'r,
krpa-adhikari nahi ami
inhe maha-lileswara, hana sei lilapara,
krpa koro braja-jana swami
The most essential effect of Your mercy is to finally get devotional service. However, I do not possess even a fraction of a drop of devotion, and therefore I have no right to receive Your mercy. In this world, You are the Supreme Master of the most magnificent pastime of all—the rasa dance. So I ask You now to please be merciful to me when You are performing this great pastime, oh Lord of the Brijbasis!
su-dusta abhakta jane,
prasanna hoilo krpa kori'
maha-lila sarveswara, dunhu mama praneswara,
doya koro dosa parihari'
You have shown Your supreme rasa dance to everyone in this world, including the demigods headed by Lord Siva, and even to the most wicked persons and non-devotees. Thus You have pleased all the living entities in the universe. You Both are the Masters of this maha-lila, the Lords of all Lords, and the Lords of my life. Please show Your leniency by disregarding all of my past offenses.
adhame uttama mani,
mudha, vijna, abhimani,
dusta hana sista-abhimana
ei dose dosi hana, gelo cirodin bana,
na korinu bhajana-bidhana
Some of my offenses are as follows: I have regarded my most degraded self as the best man of all. Even though foolish like an ass, I consider myself to be very wise due to my false sentimentality. Thus I have actually become most polluted and mischievous underneath my false conception of being gentle and good-natured. Being guilty of these offenses, I have spent many days without ever worshiping You.
tathapi e dina-jane, jadi
namabhasa korilo jivane
prasade prasida dui jane
In spite of all these offenses, I pray that if ever in my life this most fallen soul has by chance uttered Your holy name once without offense, then kindly remove all of my faults and allow me to chant Your names simply for the pleasure of You both.
sarva aparadha hoy,
ksama-sila dunher krpay
e asa mane dhori', carane prarthana kori,
sodha dosa ksamiya amay
Even the most minute trace of devotion can completely eradicate all offensive faults, and I know that You both are most forgiving by nature, due to Your causeless mercy. Keeping this in mind as my last hope, I offer this humble prayer at Your lotus feet. Please forgive me and rectify all of my offenses.
ohe ei jiva dina,
ati-kaste dhrstatara char
dunhu-pada-nipatita, prarthana koroye hita,
prasannata hauk donhar
Alas, this most fallen soul is completely bereft of the treasure of devotional service. I am so degraded, and I always remain in great difficulty due to my shameless arrogance. Falling down and grasping the lotus feet of You both, I now pray simply for the benefit of seeing You become satisfied by my prayers.
dante trna dhori' hay,
e papi kampita sarira
'ha natha! ha natha!' boli', ho'ye aji krtanjali,
prasada arpiya koro sthira
Alas! This sinner's whole body is trembling, and clutching clumps of straw between his teeth, he weeps and wails piteously at the top of his voice, Oh my Lord! Oh Natha! Today, with folded hands, I beg that You pacify me by bestowing Your kind favor!
e durbhaga ha ha sware,
prasad prarthana kore,
anutape gadagadi jay
he radhe! he krishna-candra! suno mama kakuvada,
tunhu krpa-bina prana jay
This most unfortunate, miserable soul now prays for mercy, crying out ALAS, ALAS! in a piteous, remorseful voice while rolling on the ground in repentance! Oh Radhe! Oh Krsna-candra! Please hear my mournful prayers, for my life is departing without the mercy of You both!
phutkar koriya kande, aha
bole hao prasanna amay
ei to' ayogya jane, krpa koro nija-gune,
koruna-sagara rakho pay
I beg You to become pleased with me, for I am sobbing aloud and crying, ALAS, ALAS! in a great pitiful uproar just to petition You. By Your own divine qualities, please favor this most unworthy soul and keep me always at Your lotus feet. You are both just like oceans of compassion.
mukhete angusta diya,
uccoihsware arta hana,
kandite kandite bole, natha
koruna-kanika-dane, raksa koro mor prane,
koro ei dine atma-satha
Now I am biting my thumb to try to check my crying from making a public disturbance! But still, being most aggrieved, I am weeping and wailing in a loud voice just to call on You, oh Lord! Please give me just one small grain of Your mercy and thus save my life! Kindly capture this fallen soul and make me Your very own!
e taba mudha jana,
prarthana koroye drdha-mane
he koruna-sunidhan, anugati koro dan,
Thus Your most ignorant, foolish devotee prays to You in great determination with humble, distressed words while sobbing and weeping! Oh treasure-house of compassion! Please award me with personal service to You and thus display the splendrous shining rays of Your compassion in the forests of Vraja!
jata ache su-madhura,
radha-krishna-prema-sara, sakaler saratsara,
sei bhava jen-i krpa-bale
All the places of Your manifest and unmanifest transcendental pastimes are the repository of conscious pleasure-giving ecstasies, which are all super-sweet. Out of all these ecstasies, the quintessence of ecstatic love between You, Radha and Krsna, is definitely the best—the topmost expression of pure love. And that love is worshiped by someone only on the strength of Your mercy.
jadi e dasir prati,
dunhu-pada-seva koro dana
ar kichu nahi cai, jugala carana pai,
sitala hauk mor prana
If You both are ever pleased with this maidservant, then kindly manifest Your divine grace by granting me the service of Your lotus feet. There's really nothing more that I want than to get those two pairs of lotus feet, so I request You to please grant this favor and thereby soothe my heart.
adhama anatha ami,
twadiya saksat-dasya magi
e prasada koro dan, rakho anather pran,
chadi' sab taba dasya magi
I know that You are most kind and affectionate to those who are helpless without their master. I am actually such a fallen soul who is also bereft of my Master, and feeling so helpless. Therefore I am now begging for Your personal service. Please grant this favor just to save the life of this helpless orphan. Giving up everything else, I am now begging only for Your service.
sirete anjali dhori',
o-pade bijnapti kori,
amar abhista nibedana
ek-bar dasya diya, sitala koro he hiya,
tabe mani sarthaka jivana
With folded palms placed upon my head, I am lying flat before Your lotus feet making this request, which is my most cherished prayer: Please, please soothe my heart by giving me Your service just once. Then and only then will I consider this life to be successful.
kabe dunhe ei bane,
amar nasika-dvare, pravesiya citta-pure,
achaitanya koribe bidhana
When will I be able to wistfully observe You both encountering each other within this forest? The sweet nectarine fragrance of Your precious forms will pass through my nostrils and, entering into my heart, will immediately render me unconscious.
madhura madhura mama kane
prevesiya kon ksane, mama citta-suranjane,
The sound of both Your anklebells tinkling together surpasses the warbling of the swan. It is transcendentally sweeter than sweet. Immediately upon this tinkling entering my ears, my heart will be so charmed that I will get wildly intoxicated, craving to drink more and more of the liquid nectar-mellows of Your service.
cihna ei brndabana-bane
dekhiya e dasi kabe, bhasibe anandotsave,
dunhu-krpa peye samgopane
The nineteen most auspicious marks of the wheel, conch, lotus, ratha, etc., which are unique to both of Your lotus feet, are visible on the ground all throughout the forests of Vrndavana. When will this maidservant become drowned in a festival of bliss to see those marks, thereby secretly receiving the mercy of You both in this way.
he radhe! he nander nandana!
mamaksi-gocare kabe, sarvadbhuta mahotsave,
koribe ananda bitarana
Oh Radhe! Oh son of Maharaja Nanda! The lotus feet of You both are worshiped by the highest excellence of beauty itself. When, oh when will my eyes behold the wonderfully astonishing pastimes performed by Your lotus feet, which will give me a great feast of happiness?
e janme ki habe mama, e utkantha su-bisama,
bicalita kore mama mana
Just a glimpse of Your lotus feet fulfills all of one's most cherished longings; this is the real benefit for one who has Your darsana. But I am worrying now that, without Your presence, what will become of my life? The suspense of this unbearable anxiety has greatly perturbed my mind.
kabe ami brndabana-
koribo sundara dunhu jane
surata-lilaya rata, ama hoite adurata,
preme magna ha'bo darasane
When will I ever have the vision of Your two exquisite forms within a bower in Vrndavana? Observing Your most intimate pastimes of conjugal love being enacted so close by, I will become overwhelmed and drowned in ecstatic love.
paraspara sandesa aniya
badaibo dunhu sukha, jabe tabe mano-duhkha,
bedaibo anande matiya
In the course of Your transcendental pastimes, sometimes You are separated from each other, and thereby feel great distress. When will I ever be allowed at that time to act as a messenger and bring Your secret notes back and forth? Hearing such news will only increase Your happiness and dispel the misery of being separated from one another. Thus I will carry these messages and excitedly stroll along, completely besides myself and overwhelmingly absorbed in great delight.
kabe ei brndabane, dunhu
phire ja'bo dunhe anvesiya
sammilana koraibo, hara-padakadi pabo,
paritusta dunhare koriya
In Vrndavana, sometimes You both search for each other, wandering all over the forest. When will I bring You together again, making You so pleased that You will give me some ornaments such as Your necklaces, lockets, and more as a reward.
dunhe hara dhori' pane,
'ami jayi', 'ami jayi' boli'
koribe kalaha tabe, hara-samgrahete kabe,
ami taha dekhibo sakali
During another pastime, You both place a wager on a necklace I am holding and begin gambling over it with the rolling of dice. When the dice stops rolling, each of You separately exclaims, "I WIN, I WIN!", and there is a big quarrel as You struggle together, each attempting to collect the necklace at stake. When will I ever be able to witness all of these wonderful sports?
aha kabe dui jane,
se samaye dunhu-pada, samvahana-su-sampada,
e dasira saubhagya milibe
Alas, when will I behold You two reclining and lounging leisurely upon a beautiful bed of flowers within a forest grove? Taking that opportunity, I will massage the most auspicious treasure of Your lotus feet, and in this way shall this maidservant meet with her good fortune.
chindibe kanther hare,
lata-grhe padibe khasiya
se hara ganthite kabe, e dasi niyukta ha'be,
dunhu-krpa-ajna sire pana
Sometimes, during the intense struggle of fighting Cupid's love-battle, one of Your necklaces will break, the pieces falling and scattering all over the creeper-shaded bower. When will this maidservant be appointed to re-string that very same necklace? I will take Your merciful order upon my head and execute it to the best of my ability.
dunhu-kesa srasta habe,
du-janar ingita paiya
sikhi-pinca kore dhori', kuntala-mandita kori',
ami rabo anande dubiya
Sometimes, due to the reckless sporting of Your amorous games, Your hair will fall loose. Heeding Your gesture towards me, I will then redecorate Your lovely tresses with peacock tail feathers, and in this way I will remain submerged and drowned in pure ecstasy.
dunhu srak srasta ha'be,
tabe ami dunhu-ajna pana
ubhaya-lalata-majhe, koribo tilaka-saje,
matta ha'be se sobha dekhiya
Sometimes, due to being jostled about during Cupid's amorous sports, Your flower garlands, necklaces, earrings, crowns and other decorations may become disarrayed. At that time, upon receiving Your order, I will rearrange all those scattered ornaments, and then redecorate Your foreheads with fresh tilaka. Thus I will go mad just seeing Your splendrous beauty.
krishna! taba bakse ami,
bana-mala diya swami!
radhe! taba nayane kajjala
kunja-majhe kona dina, pa'bo sukha samicina,
preme citta ha'be talamala
Oh Krsna! I will get enough happiness to satisfy my longings when I am placing a garland of fresh forest flowers upon Your chest! Oh Radhe! And likewise when I am re-applying black collyrium around Your lotus eyes! When will that day be mine when I can render such personal services within a bower in Vrndavana? Then my heart will quiver and throb in ecstatic love for You both.
bitika nirmana kori', dunhu mukhe dibo dhori',
preme citta ha'be paripluta
When can I prepare first-class betel for You both to chew? Picking fresh gold-colored betel leaves, I will remove the stems and add fragrant spices and camphor, Then, rolling the leaves into a cone shape and making it nice, I will place them into Your lotus mouths. At that moment my heart will become overflooded with ecstatic love for You.
kotha e durasa mor, kotha
e duskarma ghora,
e prarthana, jadi bolo keno
he radhe! he ghanasyama! dunhu-jana-guna-grama,
madhuri bolaya more heno
Why am I revealing such far-off, impossible dreams in these prayers when I am in reality so deeply sunk in the dark well of sinful materialistic activities? Oh Radhe! Oh Ghana-syama! Your own maddening sweetness is actually making me speak all these things about Your transcendentally glorious qualities!
dunhar je krpa-gune,
se-krpa abhista purana
koruna amaya natha! pana tunhu-sakhi-satha,
kunja-seva pai anuksana
By Your supreme quality of mercy I have attained residence in the spiritual abode of Shri Vrndavana, and this mercy has fulfilled all of my most cherished longings so far. Oh Lord! Now please let me have eternal service in Your pleasure-gardens in the company of Your most beloved girlfriends and maidservants!
ohe radhe! ohe krishna!
jalpana koroye sada, ta'r banca-purti tada,
koruna dunhu krpa-bale
Oh Radhe! Oh Krsna! On the plea of narrating this diary of my own greedy, selfish desires for Your humble service (karpanya-panjika), I have hereby revealed my incredible thirst for serving the liquid mellows of Vraja. All of these longings are just bottled up inside my heart, and I am incessantly cherishing the constant churning of these hopes within my mind. Please, I beg You both, please therefore fulfill all these spiritual desires for Your service! I am appealing to You now on the strength of Your own causeless mercy!
sire dhori' su-sampada,
kamala-manjari kore asa
purna hao raser pipasa
This Kamala Manjari holds her most treasured possession upon her head—the lotus feet of Shri Rupa Manjari—and hopes that her own raging thirst for such mellows will finally be quenched by the vision of the Divine Couple's eternal pastimes being performed within the divine forest of Vraja at Shri Godruma in Navadvipa.
This chapter consists of thirteen songs describing one pastime of Lord Chaitanya as follows:
Once, during an all-night kirtana performed by the Lord in Shrivasa Pandita's courtyard, one of the five sons of Shrivasa died within the house due to some disease. All the household ladies began to cry loudly in lamentation, which was heard by Shrivasa as he was chanting and dancing with Lord Chaitanya out in the courtyard. Entering the house, he pacified the distressed ladies with sweet spiritual instructions and then returned to the kirtana as if nothing had happened.
In the morning the chanting finally stopped, and Lord Chaitanya inquired if anything was wrong in the house, for He was not feeling the usual ecstasy from His all-night kirtana. Being informed of the fate of the boy, the Lord became severely afflicted with loving separation and asked that the body be brought out into the courtyard. Then asking the dead boy why he had departed, the Lord manifested the jiva soul back into the body, and the boy spoke many transcendental truths about the transmigration of the soul, to the amazement and delight of everyone present. The philosophical discourse of the boy is very similar to that spoken by the dead son of King Citraketu in the Shrimad-bhagavatam, 6th canto, 16th chapter. Afterwards Lord Chaitanya, accompanied by all the devotees, celebrated the funeral ceremony of the boy in great ecstasy, being joined by the personified Ganges river, Shri Jahnavi Devi herself.
This pastime of Lord Chaitanya is mentioned only briefly by Shrila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami in the Chaitanya-charitamrita, Adi-lila 17.227-229. However, it is described in more detail by Shrila Vrndavanadasa Thakura in the Chaitanya-bhagavata, Madhya-lila chapter 25, entitled "The description of transcendental truth by the dead boy". Within this chapter the lila is narrated in less than 70 verses, and the conversations are very brief, giving only the basic outline of the whole story. However, Bhaktivinoda Thakura has expanded the elements of this lila and philosophy by composing 13 songs, totalling 91 verses. These songs greatly elaborate on the character of the Lord and His dealings with the devotees through the format of simple Bengali songs of varying meters. Thus the entire chapter is very wonderful for singing in various ways, as well as for tasting a richly condensed version of Lord Chaitanya's transcendental character and teachings.
Some older lists of Thakura Bhaktivinoda's publications, found in Gaudiya Math periodicals, specify Soka-Satana as a separate title; this implies that Bhaktivinoda published this work as a booklet in itself, later incorporating it into the collection called Gita-mala.
The individual headings to all the songs, as listed below, were apparently not part of the original composition, but were added sometime later in subsequent Gaudiya Math editions of Gita-mala.
shri hari-kirtane, nace nana-range,
In the evening twilight, within the privacy of Srivasa Pandita's courtyard, the cream-lustered jewel, Lord Gaura-mani, raised a most auspicious vibration by His chanting of Hari-kirtana, which He personally accompanied by dancing in various playful moods.
mrdanga madala, baje karatala,
majhe majhe jaya-tura
prabhur natana, dekhi' sakaler,
hoilo santapa dura
Along with the playing of the mrdanga drum and karatalas, and amidst victorious shouts of "Jaya! Jaya!', the dramatic dance of the Lord dispelled the grief of all those who witnessed it.
akhanda premete, matala takhan,
apana pasari', goracande gheri',
nace gaya anuksana
Then, becoming madly intoxicated in supreme ecstatic love, all the assembled devotees completely forgot themselves and incessantly began to dance and chant wildly, completely surrounding Lord Gaura-candra.
emona samaye, daiva-vyadhi-yoge,
tanaya-viyoge, nari-gana soke,
At this time, within the inner chamber of Srivasa's house, one of his sons suddenly died due to some disease, as ordained by the will of Providence. Due to separation from the boy, all the women of the household began to lament and cry out in a loud voice.
krandana uthile, habe rasa-bhanga,
shrivasa amani, bujhilo karana,
pasilo apana ghare
Now Bhaktivinoda fears that the transcendental mellows of the Lord's kirtana will be disturbed by the uprising of such loud crying sounds. However, Srivasa Pandita has understood the cause of this sound, and personally entered the house.
prabesiya antahpure, nari-gane santa kore,
shrivasa amiya upadese
suno pagalini-gana, soka koro akarana,
kiba duhkha thake krishna-bese
Entering into the inner chamber, Srivasa began to pacify all the women there by giving them spiritual instructions that were as sweet as nectar. He said, "Look here, you crazy ladies, you all lament uselessly, for what kind of unhappiness can there possibly be in ecstatic love for Krsna?
krishna nitya suta ja'r, soka kabhu nahi tar,
anitya asakti sarva-nasa
asiyacho e samsare, krishna bhajibara tare,
nitya-tattve koroho vilasa
"Whoever has Krsna for his eternal Son never has to lament for anything, but if one becomes attached to temporary sons, then everything is lost. You have all come into this material world for the purpose of worshiping Krsna, so now you should all become situated again in the eternal absolute truth.
e dehe javat sthiti, koro krishna-candre rati,
krishna jano dhana, jana, prana
e-deho-anuga jata, bhai bandhu pati suta,
anitya sambandha boli' mano
"As long as you are existing in this body, you should cultivate love and attachment for Lord Krsna, knowing Him to be your real wealth, real friend and your very life and soul. All the attendants of this body namely brothers, friends, husbands and sons should be accepted as being only temporary relatives.
keba ka'r pati suta, anitya-sambandha-krta,
cahile rakhite nare ta're
karama-bipaka-phale, suta ho'ye baise kole,
karma-ksaye ar raite nare
"Whoever wants to hold onto husbands or sons will not be able to keep them, for all these affiliations are impermanent. Even if your son is sitting in your very lap, you still cannot protect him, for when the consequences of his bad fruitive reactions take effect, then his present karma is finished, and he will not be able to remain here any longer.
ithe sukha duhkha mani', adhogati labhe prani,
krishna-pada hoite pade dure
soka sambariya ebe, namanande maja' sabe,
"Being involved in the happiness and distress of temporary material relationships, many other living entities are now being degraded into lower species of life, falling far, far away from Krsna's lotus feet. Therefore you should immediately give up your useless lamentation and just become absorbed in the bliss of the Lord's holy names."
All of Bhaktivinoda's desires are now being fulfilled by hearing Srivasa speak such nice eternal truths.
dhana, jana, deha, geha
koriacho, suddha-citte koroho smarana
"You have already dedicated all of your wealth, relatives, body and entire household unto Krsna, so please just remember this now with a pure heart.
tabe keno 'mama suta'
boli' koro duhkha
krishna nilo nija-jana tahe ta'r sukha
"Why are you exclaiming, 'my son, my son!' in great sadness? Krsna has simply taken His own devotee to suit His own happiness.
tahe sukha-duhkha-jnana avidya-kalpana
"Krsna is causing all things to take place according to His own sweet will. In light of that, all your ideas of happiness and distress are merely ignorant mental concoctions.
jaha iccha kore krishna,
tai jano bhalo
tyajiya apan iccha ghucao janjala
"Whatever Krsna's desire is, you must accept only that to be truly good. Renouncing all of your separate personal desires, relieve yourselves of this unnecessary botheration.
deya krishna, neya
krishna, pale krishna sabe
rakhe krishna, mare krishna, iccha kore jabe
"Krsna gives everything, Krsna takes everything away, Krsna maintains everyone or destroys everyone whenever He likes, according to His own fancy.
tar iccha nahi phale, se pay jatana
"If someone maintains a desire that is contrary to Krsna's desire, then such a wish does not become fruitful. Indeed, one only gets trouble and anguish.
tyajiya sakala soka suno
parama ananda pabe, purna habe kama
"Therefore, giving up all of your lamentation, just listen to the ecstatic chanting of Krsna's holy name which is going on now out in the courtyard. From this you will get the topmost transcendental bliss, and all of your wishes will be fulfilled."
atma-nibedana-sakti jivane marane
Bhaktivinoda now begs at Srivasa Pandita's lotus feet for the power to completely surrender his soul to Krsna in life or in death.
sabu meli' balaka-bhaga
chodabi moha soka citta-bikari
Srivasa continued, "All of you together should now consider the real fate of the boy, and you should immediately give up any bewilderment and grief that may be in your disturbed hearts.
saci-nandana bhelo nadiya-avatara
"The Supreme Lord of all the fourteen worlds is the youthful Son of Nanda Maharaja, and now He has become the Son of Mother Saci by personally descending in Nadiya.
sohi gokula-canda angane
nacai bhakta-saha ananda-vibhor
"This very same Gokula-canda is now dancing in my courtyard with His most confidential devotees, all completely overwhelmed in ecstatic bliss.
sunata nama-gana balaka
chodalo deha hari-priti-vibhor
"My boy has given up his body while hearing the singing of the Lord's holy names coming from this kirtana out in the courtyard. Therefore he certainly has died while absorbed in love for Lord Hari.
aichana bhaga jaba bhai
tabahun hao bhava-sagara-para
"Should any of us be so fortunate as to get an auspicious death such as this, then we would certainly be able to easily cross over the ocean of material existence.
tunhu sabu bichari ehi
kanhe korobi soka citta-bikara
"All of you together just consider this—what will your lamentation and disturbed hearts do to help the situation?
sthira nahi haobi jadi
bancita haobi rase avasese
"If you all do not become pacified by these instructions, then you will only cheat yourselves out of tasting transcendentally ecstatic mellows in the long run.
bhakatibinoda pramada dekhe tahe
"Not only will you cheat yourselves, but you will also induce me to leave this world by plunging myself into the waters of the celestial Ganges."
Thus Bhaktivinoda is witnessing all this calamity in progress.
shrivasa-bacana, srabana koriya,
soka parihari', mrta sisu rakhi',
hari-rase dilo mana
Hearing these words of Srivasa Pandita, all those chaste and faithful ladies gave up their lamentation for the dead son. Covering up the body, they again fixed their minds in the transcendental mellows of Lord Hari.
shrivasa takhan, anande matiya,
angane ailo punah
nace gora-sane, sakala pasari',
Then Srivasa again came out into the courtyard and, filled with joy, resumed dancing with Lord Caitanya and loudly sang the glories of the Son of Nanda Maharaja, completely forgetting about what had just happened.
cari danda ratre, marilo kumara,
angane keho na jane
shri-nama-mangale, trtiya prahara,
rajani atita gane
The boy had expired only 1½ hours after dark, but out in the courtyard no one knew about it due to the loud kirtana. Then for 9 hours there was continuous chanting of the auspicious holy names. Thus the entire night had elapsed in this ecstatic singing.
kirtana bhangile, kohe gaurahari,
aji keno pai duhkha
bujhi, ei grhe, kichu amangala,
ghatiya harilo sukha
Then the kirtana finally stopped, and Lord Gaurahari said, "Why am I feeling some sadness here? I perceive that something inauspicious has happened in this house today which has deprived Me of bliss."
tabe bhakta-jana, nibedana kore,
suni' gora raya, bole, hay hay,
marame painu byatha
Then the devotees related to the Lord the story of the death of Srivasa's son. Hearing this news, Lord Gaura Raya loudly exclaimed, "Oh no! What has happened? What has happened? Now the core of My heart has been pierced with unbearable pain!"
keno na kohile, amare takhan,
snehete majilo tabe
"Why didn't you inform Me of this calamity when it had first happened?" Now Bhaktivinoda has completely lost himself in the affection that the Lord shows to His own devotees.
prabhur bacana, takhan suniya,
shrivasa lotana bhumi
bole, suno natha! taba rasa-bhanga,
sahite na pari ami
Then, hearing these words of the Lord, Srivasa Pandita began rolling on the ground, crying out, "Please hear me, oh Lord! I am unable to tolerate anything that interrupts the ecstatic mellows of Your kirtana!
ekati tanaya, mariache, natha,
tahe mor kiba duhkha
jadi sab mare, tomare heriya,
tabu to' paibo sukha
"Only one of my sons has died, oh Lord, and has that really upset me? Even if ALL of my sons die, then I would still get more than enough happiness simply by seeing You!"
taba nrtya-bhanga, hoile amar,
marana hoite hari
tai ku-samvada, na dilo tomare,
bipada asanka kori'
"I would certainly die on the spot if I were to interrupt Your dancing, oh Lord! That is why I did not inform You of this bad news, for I was dreading the calamity of disturbing Your ecstasy."
ebe ajna deho, mrta suta lo'ye,
satkara karuna sabe
eteka suniya, gora dwija-mani,
kandite lagilo tabe
"Lord, if You will kindly grant us permission now, then we shall take the boy's body away and perform the proper funeral rites." Hearing this much from Srivasa Pandita, the jewel of the twice-born, Lord Gaurasundara, then broke down and began to weep piteously on the spot.
kemone e sab, chadiya jaibo,
parana bikala hoy
se katha suniya, bhakatibinoda,
manete pailo bhoy
Crying and crying, the Lord thought to Himself, "How could I possibly abandon such loving servitors and go elsewhere by taking sannyasa? If I were to do so, my heart would certainly split."
Hearing this type of talk, Bhaktivinoda's mind has become somewhat apprehensive.
goracander ajna peye
mrta suta anganete ane tata-ksana
Then the Lord ordered the household members to bring the boy's body out into the courtyard, and they immediately complied.
shrivase chadiya, sisu jao ki karana?
The merciful Lord Gaura, Who removes the contaminating influence of the age of Kali, then addressed the body, "Please tell Me, dear boy, what ever prompted you to leave here so suddenly, thus giving up your loving father Srivasa Pandita?"
mrta-sisu-mukhe jiva kore
"loka-siksa lagi" prabhu taba acarana
Being thus questioned by the Lord, the soul again manifested in the dead body by the mercy of the Lord, and he began to offer very nice prayers which were meant to be instructive to all persons.
tumi to' parama tattwa
para sakti tomar abhinna tattwa hoy
The dead boy said, "My dear Lord, You are without a doubt the Supreme Absolute Truth, unlimited and one without a second. Since You are the Supremely energetic, all of Your transcendental energies are certainly non-different from You.
sei para sakti tridha
taba iccha-mata koraya tomar bilasa
"Your transcendental potency manifests in three different ways, and it assists in the performance of Your eternal pastimes in different ways according to Your own sweet will.
tomare ananda dena hladini hoiya
"The original form of the cognizant potency called cit-sakti is manifesting Your eternal pastimes in the spiritual world, and just for Your delight it becomes the pleasure-giving potency known as hladini.
jiva-sakti hana taba
tatastha-swabhave jiva-gane prakataye
"Secondly, becoming the jiva-sakti, the potency produces multitudes of fine, conscious particles which make up the glowing effulgence of Your transcendental body. All of these souls are thus manifest with a natural marginal characteristic of minute independence.
maya-sakti ho'ye kore
bahirmukha jive tahe koroya bandhana
"Thirdly, becoming the maya-sakti, the potency creates innumerable material universes, and within them she captures and binds all the souls who choose to remain averse to You, my dear Lord."
bahirmukha ho'ye achi prapanca-kabale
Hearing these prayers offered to Lord Caitanya by the dead boy, Bhaktivinoda says at this point that he himself has become averse to the Lord due to his offenses, and has been swallowed up by maya in the material world.
purna-cidananda tumi, tomar cit-kana ami,
swabhavatah ami tuwa dasa
parama swatantra tumi, tuya paratantra ami,
tuwa pada chadi' sarva-nasa
The dead son continued, "You, dear Lord, are completely full of transcendental bliss. I am simply a tiny conscious particle of You; therefore by nature I am Your eternal servant. Only You are supremely independent, whereas I am totally dependent on You. Indeed, neglecting Your lotus feet, I have now become completely ruined.
swatantra ho'ye jakhan, maya prati koinu mana,
swa-swabhava chadilo amaya
prapance mayar bandhe, padinu karmer dhandhe,
karma-cakre amare phelaya
"As soon as I chose to be independent of Your Lordship, my mind became interested in maya's allurements. Thus I have given up my inherent spiritual nature. Falling down due to the dazzling bewilderment of fruitive gain, I have been captured by maya within this mundane world. Now as a result I am being forcibly tossed about on the revolving wheel of fruitive actions and reactions.
maya taba iccha mate, bandhe more e jagate,
adrsta nirbandha lauha-kare
sei to' nirbandha more, ane shrivaser ghare,
"Thus I am bound up by maya in this world according to Your will, being firmly clenched in the iron-like grip of my predestined fate. And according to this fate, I have been brought into Srivasa's home to appear as his son by taking birth in the womb of his wife Malini.
se nirbandha punaraya, more ebe lo'ye jaya,
ami to' thakite nari ar
taba iccha su-prabala, mor iccha su-durbala,
ami jiva akincana char
"But again, according to my predestined fate, I must now leave this place; I cannot remain here any longer, even if I wanted to. Your desire is most powerful, dear Lord, whereas my desire is most feeble, for I am simply an insignificant, fallen soul.
jathaya pathao tumi, abasya jaibo ami,
ka'r keba putra pati pita
jader sambandha saba, taha nahi satya-laba,
tumi jiver nitya palayita
"Wherever You send me next, oh Lord, I must certainly go to become someone's son or husband or father. However, I know that all these material relationships do not possess even one speck of eternal truth, for only You are the eternal friend and guardian of all souls."
samyoga-biyoge jini, sukha-duhkha mane gani,
taba pade chadena asraya
mayar gardabha ho'ye, majena samsara lo'ye,
bhaktibinoder sei bhoy
"Only one who foolishly neglects the eternal shelter of Your two lotus feet considers the union and separation of all these temporary family relationships to be happiness and distress. This just shows how much one has become absorbed in the bodily concept of life, being bound-up in the womb of illusion."
Hearing all these truths about the fate of the conditioned soul has now made Bhaktivinoda become extremely frightened.
bandhilo maya, je-dina ho'te,
aneka janma, labhinu ami,
The dead boy continued, "Thus I have been captured and bound by maya. Due to being tied tightly by her ropes of ignorance and bewilderment, I have undergone many, many births since that time, simply wandering here and there in the ghastly darkness of maya's illusions.
deva danava, manava pasu,
patanga kita ho'ye
svarge narake, bhutale phiri,
anitya asa lo'ye
"Sometime I become a demigod, sometimes a demon, and sometimes I get the body of a man, an animal, a bird or an insect. Sometimes I wander up to heaven, sometimes down to hell, and sometimes here on earth, being carried away the whole time by innumerable materialistic hopes and aspirations.
na jani kiba, sukrti bale,
nadiya-dhame, carana taba,
"I have no idea what kind of pious credit I must have earned to be born as the son of Sri Srivasa Pandita within the holy abode of Navadvipa in this life. Thus I myself am amazed that I have had the great fortune of actually being able to see and touch Your lotus feet, oh Lord.
sakala bare, marana-kale,
aneka duhkha pai
tuwa prasange, parama sukhe,
e-bara ca'le jai
"Usually, whenever I have to die, I experience great pain and distress upon leaving the particular body I happen to be in. But this time, I am only experiencing great happiness by discussing all these topics related to Your glories. However, my time is now up, so I must take Your leave.
icchaya tor, janama jadi,
abara hoy, hari!
carane taba, prema-bhakati,
thake, minati kori
"If it is Your desire that I should take another birth, oh Lord, I humbly request Your Lordship to kindly allow me to be always situated in the trans-cendental loving service of Your divine lotus feet."
jakhan sisu, niraba bhelo,
dekhiya prabhur lila
shrivasa-gosthi, tyajiya soka,
Saying this, the boy then fell silent. Seeing this wonderful pastime of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Srivasa Pandita's whole family gave up all of their lamentation and were overwhelmed with great happiness.
korite korite pana
bhaktibinoda, shrivase mage,
jaya jena mor prana
Thus the transcendental character and activities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are just like a continuous shower of ambrosia. Bhaktivinoda is thereby losing his life force begging Srivasa Thakura to allow him to drink more of this nectarean ambrosia.
shrivase kohena prabhu,
tunhu mor dasa
tuwa-prite bandha ami jagate prakasa
Then Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu began to speak with very sweet words, "My dear Srivasa, you are actually My eternal servant. Indeed, I am staying in this world only due to your affection for me.
jagate ghusuka aji tomar carita
"You, Srivasa Pandita, are the commander-in-chief of all My devotees. Today your glorious character will be acclaimed throughout the three worlds.
tomar nahiko kabhu, dekhuk jagajjana
"You are never subject to the bondage of Mayadevi, the proprietress of this prison-like material world. All the people of the world are witness to this fact.
dhana, jana, deha, geha,
amar sevaya sukhe acho sukhi hana
"You have dedicated unto Me all of your wealth, followers, body and household paraphernalia, and thus you have become most joyful by being so nicely situated in My eternal service.
mama lila-pusti lagi'
sikhuka grhastha jana tomar acara
"The whole of your existence in this world is only for the purpose of facilitating My pastimes. Thus your exemplary behavior as a transcendental family man is ideal for instructing all the materialistic householders.
taba preme baddha achi
ama dunhe suta jani' bhunjaha ananda
"Sri Nityananda Prabhu and I are helplessly bound to your pure love for Us. We know that you enjoy great happiness by considering Us to be your very own sons.
nitya-tattwa suta jara anitya
asakti na kore sei srjane pralaye
"We are truly your eternal Sons, for We see that you are not attached to any of your temporary sons, who are all subject to the material conditions of creation and destruction.
bhaktite tomar rni ami
taba sadhu-bhave tumi ksama mor rna
"Because of your pure devotion I am eternally indebted to you. And because of your saintly character you are also quite deserving of My indebtedness."
shrivaser paya bhaktibinoda
kakuti koriya mage gauranga-carana
Hearing these loving words of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, this rascal Bhaktivinoda now begs at the feet of Srivasa Thakura in humble supplication to receive the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga.
shrivaser prati, chaitanya-prasada,
dekhiya sakala jana
jaya shri chaitanya, jaya nityananda,
boli' nace ghana ghana
Seeing Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu show such favorable grace to Srivasa Pandita, all the devotees present there began to dance ecstatically while repeatedly shouting, "Jaya Sri Caitanya! Jaya Nityananda!" with resounding voices.
shrivasa-mandire, ki bhava uthilo,
taha ki barna hoy
bhava-yuddha sane, ananda-krandana,
It is simply not possible to describe the ecstatic mood that arose in Srivasa's house at that time. It was just like a great battle of transcendental emotions was taking place between joyful bliss and mournful crying, all arising due to ecstatic love for Krsna.
cari bhai padi', prabhur carane,
prema gadgada svare
kandiya kandiya, kakuti koriya,
gadi' jaya prema-bhare
Then the four brothers of the dead boy came over and fell down at Lord Caitanya's lotus feet, weeping and wailing with piteous voices choked with ecstatic love. They began rolling on the ground, overflowing with pure love while humbly petitioning the Lord as follows.
ohe praneswara, e heno bipada,
prati-dina jeno hoy
jahate tomar, carana-jugale,
asakti badite roy
They said, "Oh Lord of our lives! If calamities like this would happen every day, then that would only increase our deep loving attachment to Your lotus feet!
bipada-sampade, sei dina bhalo,
je dina tomare smari
tomar-smarana- rohita je dina,
se dina bipada, hari
"This calamity of losing our brother today is actually our great fortune, for on this day we are remembering Your Lordship. If, on some other day, we are bereft of Your remembrance, then that day is actually the real calamity for us, oh Lord."
shrivasa-gosthir, carane padiya,
tomader gora, krpa bitariya,
dekhao durgata jane
Falling down at the feet of Srivasa Pandita's entire family, Bhaktivinoda thus narrates how their Lord Gaurasundara is bestowing His causeless mercy upon all distressed souls.
mrta sisu lo'ye tabe bhakata-vatsala
bhakata-sangete gaya shri-nama-mangala
gaite gaite gela jahnavir tire
balake satkara koilo jahnavir nire
Lord Caitanya, Who is so affectionate to His own devotees, then took the dead boy and, along with all the devotees, began to chant the most auspicious sound vibration of the holy names. Thus singing and singing, they all arrived on the bank of the Jahnavi (the Ganges). Then they performed the funeral rites with some water from that holy river.
jahnavi bolena, mama
saphala hoilo brata chilo je amara
The personified Ganga-mayi, Sri Jahnavi Devi, said to herself, "Such unlimited auspicious fortune has become mine today! Now I have achieved the fruits of all my vows and penances!"
mrta sisu dena gora
uthali' jahnavi devi sisu loy kole
When Lord Caitanya personally put the boy's body into the river, Jahnavi Devi picked up the body and held it.
sisu-kole preme devi hoy talamala
Bringing the dead boy out of the water, she touched the lotus feet of Lord Gaura. Still holding the body, she began to tremble in ecstatic love for the Lord.
jahnavir bhava dekhi'
shri-nama-mangala-dhwani kore anuksana
Seeing such an ecstatic mood being exhibited by Sri Jahnavi Devi, all the assembled devotees immediately began chanting the auspicious holy names incessantly.
swarga hoite deve kore
bimana sankula tabe chailo gagana
From the heavens, the demigods began to shower flowers. They crowded in the sky with their innumerable airplanes, almost blocking out the sunlight.
ei rupe nana bhave hoiya
satkara koriya snana koilo sarva-jana
In this way, everyone present was absorbed in various ecstasies. After performing the funeral rites, they all bathed in the river together.
parama anande sabe gelo
bhakatibinoda maje gora-bhava-bhare
Everyone then returned to their respective homes in great happiness, and Bhaktivinoda is now completely immersed in the transcendental ecstasies of Lord Gaurasundara.
nadiya nagare gora-carita
piya soka bhoy chado, sthira koro cita
The activities performed by Lord Gaurasundara within the town of Nadiya are just like sweet ambrosial nectar. By drinking this nectar, just give up all of your material lamentations and fears, and make your heart become thus fixed up.
anitya samsara bhai
krishna matra sara
gora-siksa mate krishna bhaja anibara
This material world is impermanent, my friends! The only substantial essence of absolute truth is Lord Krsna. Therefore, just worship Krsna incessantly, according to the teachings of Lord Caitanya.
gorar carana dhori' jei
braje radha-krishna bhaje sei mor prana
Whoever understands this and firmly grabs hold of Lord Caitanya's lotus feet is most fortunate. And if he worships Sri Sri Radha-Krsna in Vraja, then I will accept him as my very life and soul.
ei matra koro sara pabe nitya dhana
Their Lordships Sri Sri Radha-Krsna are none other than Lord Gaurachandra, and Sri Navadvipa-dhama is that very same Vrndavana-dhama. If you consider this to be the most essential truth, then you will receive some eternal treasures.
vidya-buddhi hina dina
karma-jnana-sunya ami sunya-sadacara
I am completely devoid of any real knowledge or good intelligence. Indeed, I am most lowly, insignificant and contemptible. I am also lacking the slightest trace of pious karma or proper philosophical understanding, and I am completely bereft of any virtuous behavior.
bhakti-hine upadhi hoilo ebe byadhi
All the assembled Vaishnavas, whom I consider to be my spiritual masters, have given me this title of Bhaktivinoda, but because I am totally devoid of any trace of devotion, this title has simply become like a painful disease for me.
jatana koriya sei byadhi
sarana loinu ami vaishnava carane
Taking great care to check the spreading of this disease, I have sought refuge at the lotus feet of all the Vaishnavas.
e soka-satana gaya bhaktibinodiya
Accepting the dust of the Vaishnavas' lotus feet upon my head, the lowly Bhaktivinoda sings this story called Soka-satana (The Dispelling of Grief).
This chapter is based on the teachings outlined in the final portions of Bhaktivinoda's other books, Jaiva Dharma and Caitanya-siksamrta. These two books, written in Bengali prose, are themselves based on Srila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and Ujjvala-nilamani. The latter two books of Sri Rupa are celebrated as the most important and authoritative books ever written on rasa-tattva. Bhaktivinoda has taken the most essential points of Srila Rupa Gosvami's two books and put them into an easy-to-read story format, like a novel, in Jaiva Dharma; then he paraphrased the same teachings in a simple philosophical format especially meant for Westerners (or those acquainted with Western philosophy) in Caitanyasiksamrta. Finally he presents these points again in the Bengali verses of this fourth chapter of Gita-mala named Sri Sri Rupanuga-bhajana-darpana. Here he explains the principles of rasa in a very comprehensible manner, so that the reader can easily get the gist of Rupa Gosvami's voluminous books Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and Ujjvala-nilamani.
Rupanuga-bhajana-darpana gives a synopsis of the detailed science of the rasa-tattva by which Krsna's pastimes continuously function, both in the material and spiritual worlds. This information is most essential for those who desire an understanding of the transcendentally scientific foundation of Krsna consciousness. A serious study can put one permanently on such a firm footing in Krsna consciousness that practically everything one sees or experiences in this world can be traced back to the original tattva from which it is reflecting. In other words, by knowing the details of Krsna's eternal lila, then one can see everything here as being the reflection of some particular aspect of Krsna's character, or of a pastime, or an associate, or some part of His eternal divine forest-paradise, Sri Vrndavana-dhama. If one can do this, then one will automatically lose the desire to try to enjoy any of the dull things of this material world, for all these things will become quite insignificant in comparison to the bliss one feels by experiencing Krsna's daily pastimes. (See Yamuna-bhavavali, song 7, verse 2).
Portions of this chapter have helped the translator in understanding the philosophy presented in The Nectar of Devotion (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu), presented by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Therefore we have added footnotes to reference the songs of this chapter with corresponding chapters of The Nectar of Devotion (N.O.D.). Reference is also made to chapters of the Ujjvala-nilamani of Srila Rupa Gosvami, in which the topics under discussion are treated with much more detail.
bandiya praphulla mane, e bhaktibinoda bhane,
Glorifying the lotus feet of Sri Guru, Sri Gaurachandra, the Youthful Couple of Vrndavan as well as of all the residents of Vraja, with a cheerful mind this Bhaktivinoda will now narrate a description of the mirror which reflects the worship of those who strictly follow in the footsteps of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
bahu-janma-bhagya-base, cinmoy madhura rase,
sprha janme jiver hrday
sei sprha lobha haya, braja-dhame jiva laya,
By the influence of extremely good fortune accrued for many, many births, the desire awakens within the heart of a fortunate soul to taste the sweetness of eternal transcendental mellows (rasa). Then, the greed for attaining this desire attracts the soul to Sri Vrndavana-dhama, where one becomes madly absorbed in worshiping Lord Krsna, following the process outlined by Srila Rupa Gosvami.
bhajana-prakara jata, sakaler sar mata,
sikhailo shri-rupa gosani
se bhajana na janiya, krishna bhajibare giya,
tuccha kaje jivana katai
Srila Rupa Gosvami has so kindly given us his valuable teachings on the essential techniques for properly worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Whoever tries to worship Krsna without being aware of these methods will simply waste his entire life in useless labor.
bujhibare se bhajana, bahu jatne akincana,
braje radha-krishna-seba, korite utsuka jeba,
sukhe tenha koruna sravana
Just for the sake of those who really want to understand this worship, I have taken great care to present this mirror of bhajana, although I am truly insignificant. If any of you are actually serious and enthusiastic to render eternal service to Sri Sri Radha-Krsna in the transcendental realm of Vraja, then I request you now to please hear this narration with great happiness.
lobhete janama pai, ati sighra badi' jai,
sraddha rati, tabe hoy priti
sahaja bhajana rati, nahi caya siksa-mati,
tabu siksa prathamika-riti
If one has intense greed (lobha) for executing the process presented herein, then gradually his faith (sraddha), then loving affection (rati), and then full attachment in love (priti) will all increase very, very quickly. One who has attained this platform of worship in their own natural love has no need to be concerned with scriptural rules and regulations, although in the beginning stages of devotion such rules are mandatory.
putra-sneha jananir, sahaja hrdoye sthira,
dusita hrdoye siksa cai
krishna-prema sei-rupa, nitya-siddha aparupa,
baddha-jive aprakata bhai
Oh brothers, it is just like the affection of a mother for her son, which is naturally fixed in her heart. If someone else cares for the same child, they may not be as attentive as the mother, and sometimes need to be re-minded of their duty. So love for Krsna is just like that. It is natural and wonderful for the eternally liberated souls (nitya-siddha), whereas it is completely unmanifest for the eternally conditioned souls (nitya-baddha).
sei to' sahaja rati,
siksanusilana jadi pay
se rati jagiya uthe, jiver bandhana chute,
vrajananda tahare nacay
However, if one cultivates these spiritual instructions, then the flow of natural attachment and affection for the Lord is stirred. And when this rati reawakens and grows, then all the material bondage which entraps the soul is severed, and this natural spiritual affection will make one dance in the transcendental ecstastic bliss of Vraja consciousness.
joga jaga saba char, sraddha sakaler sar,
sei sraddha hrdoye jahar
udiyache ek bindhu, krame bhakti-rasa-sindhu,
labhe tar hoy adhikar
Any type of yoga exercise or external religious ritual is completely useless and is no help at all—genuine faith (sraddha) is the only real substance. Whoever has such faith in their heart tastes one drop of transcendental nectar, and then one gradually gains the right of admission into the entire ocean of ecstatic devotional mellows (the bhakti-rasamrtasindhu).
jnana karma deva devi, bahu jatanete sevi',
prapta-phala hoilo tuccha jnana
sadhu-jana-sangabese, shri-krishna-kathar sese,
bisvasa to' hoy balavan
By faithfully worshiping the demigods and goddesses who bestow knowledge and fruitive results, executing the prescribed rituals with great difficulty, one gains only insignificant material knowledge (jnana). On the other hand, if one hears topics concerning Krsna (krishna-katha) with rapt attention in the company of virtuous devotees, one's transcendental conviction becomes completely fixed-up.
sei to' bisvase bhai, sraddha boli' sada gai,
bhakti-lata bija boli tare
karmi, jnani jane jare, sraddha bole bare bare,
sei brtti sraddha hoite nare
My friends! This type of faithful conviction is called sraddha, which I continuously sing about and glorify in various ways. This sraddha is actually the bhakti-lata-bija (the seed of the creeper of devotion). All the fruitive workers (karmis) and the mental speculators (jnanis) have their own ideas about what devotional faith is, which they proclaim again and again, but their definition is a gross misconception; their activities are not based on truly transcendental sraddha.
namer vivada matra, suniya to' jvale gatra,
lauhe jadi boloho kancana
tabu lauha lauha, roy, kancana to' kabhu noy,
mani sparsa nahe jataksana
Whenever I hear them engaging in foolish disputes over their concocted ideas, in the name of sraddha, it burns me up because that is just like mistaking iron for gold. Iron always remains iron, and can never become gold unless and until it is touched by a transcendental touchstone.
krishna-bhakti cintamani, tanra sparse lauha-khani,
haya jay hema-bhara, chadiya to' ku-bikara,
se kevala manir prabhava
The touchstone is actually pure devotional service to Lord Krsna. By the mere touch of this transcendental gem, the iron-mine of faith in fruitive action and philosophical wrangling turns into golden ecstatic loving faith in the Lord. The weight of this type of gold certainly outweighs all materialistic delusions. This is the real power of the touchstone of Krsna-bhakti.
chadi' anya abhilasa, jnana-karma-sahabasa,
suddha-bhakti boli tare, bhakti-sastra su-bicare,
Srila Rupa Gosvami, after scrutinizingly studying all the devotional scriptures, has made the following conclusive definition of pure devotional service: Giving up all desires for fruitive reward or philosophical jugglery, one should cultivate favorable devotional service to Krsna.
sravana, kirtana, smrti, sevarcana, dasya, nati,
sakhya, atma-nivedana hoy
sadhana bhaktir-anga, sadhaker jahe ranga,
The divisions of sadhana-bhakti, regulated devotional service, are: 1) hearing the glories of the Lord, 2) chanting His holy names, 3) remembering Him within the core of the heart, 4) serving His lotus feet, 5) worshiping His Deity form, 6) becoming His menial servant, 7) offering prayers to Him revealing the mind, 8) entering into a friendly relationship with Him, and 9) ultimately surrendering one's whole existence in full dedication by mind, body and words. The practicing neophyte devotees (sadhakas) continuously perform all of these nine processes joyfully in the association of saintly persons (sadhus) who are adept in honest devotional dedication.
sadhana-bhaktir bale, bhava-rupa bhakti phale,
taha punah prema-rupa pay
preme jiva krishna bhaje, krishna-bhakti-rase maje,
sei rasa shri-rupa sikhay
By the power of these ninefold practices of regulated devotional service, one's devotion gradually fructifies into an ecstatic emotional service attitude (bhava), and after that one obtains the fruits of one's original pure ecstatic love of Godhead (prema). In such transcendental love, the spirit soul undividedly worships Krsna, constantly immersed in tasting the ecstatic mellows of devotion to Him. This is the most relishable rasa that Srila Rupa Gosvami is teaching us about.
sraddha-devi nama jar, duiti svabhava tar,
vidhi-mula ruci-mula bhede
sastrer sasane jabe, sraddhar udoy ho'be,
baidhi sraddha tare bole bede
The presiding deity of devotional faith is called Sraddha Devi, and she has two principal characteristics—one according to rules, and the other according to tastes. First, when devotional faith arises due to following the rules and regulations given in the revealed scriptures, then that type of faith is known throughout the Vedas as vaidhi sraddha, or faith situated in regulation.
braja-basi seve krsne, sei sraddha-seva drste,
jabe hoy sraddhar udoy
lobha-mayi sraddha sati, raganuga sraddha mati,
bahu bhagye sadhaka labhoy
Secondly, sometimes one's faith flourishes in a way similar to that of the residents of Vraja, who all render service to Krsna with a purely spontaneous service attitude. Faith that concentrates on Krsna exclusively with such intense greed to satisfy Him is the most chaste form of faith. This pure, spontaneous service attitude is called raganuga sraddha, and a practicing devotee who worships in this way attains the most auspicious spiritual position.
sraddha-bhede bhakti-bheda, gaiteche catur-veda,
vaidhi raganuga bhakti-dvoy
sadhana-samoye jaiche, siddhi-kale prapti taiche,
ei-rupa bhakti-sastre koy
According to different types of faith, these two different divisions of devotional service exist. Thus the four Vedas sing of these two types of devotion—regulative service and spontaneous service. According to these distinct forms of sadhana, one correspondingly attains different perfections, which are all described in the revealed scriptures of devotional service.
vaidhi bhakti dhira gati, raganuga tivra ati,
ati sighra rasavastha pay
raga-vartma-su-sadhane, ruci hoy jar mane,
rupanuga hoite sei dhay
Vaidhi bhakti progresses very slowly toward the goal, but raganuga bhakti moves extremely fast, and enables one to be quickly situated in the relishable transcendental mellows. By following the path of spontaneous devotional service (raga-vartma), real taste awakens in one's mind, and he runs and chases after that current which flows from the lotus feet of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
- ref. N.O.D. Chapter Two -
rupanuga tattva-sara, bujhite akanksa janra,
rasa-jnana tanra prayojana
cinmoy ananda rasa, sarva-tattva janra basa,
akhanda parama tattva-dhana
For those who long to understand the essential truth of rupanuga (the path following Sri Rupa Gosvami), it is necessary to have some basic knowledge of rasa (transcendental mellows). Such spiritually blissful conscious mellows influence and control all other subordinate truths, for they are the hidden treasure of the supreme, absolutely indivisible Truth of all Truths.
janra bhane jnani jana, brahmaloy-anvesana,
kore nahi bujhi' veda-marma
janra chaya-matra bare, jogi-jana joga kore,
jar chale karmi kore karma
In pursuit of these spiritual mellows, the philosophical speculators seek to merge themselves with the impersonal Brahman effugence, not understanding the real import of the Vedic conclusion. All the desired boons of the yogis are simply shadow reflections of this rasa. Attempting to taste this mellow, the karmis perform all their fruitive activities.
vibhava anubhava ar, sattvika sancari car,
sthayi bhave milana sundara
sthayi bhave rasa hoy, nitya cidananda-moy,
parama asvadya nirantara
The permanent basis of ecstatic mellow is called stayi bhava, and it is abounding in eternal, conscious bliss. It becomes the topmost relishable euphoria when it mixes into a beautiful combination along with the following four elements:
1) Vibhava (supporting characters and specific stimulants)
2) Anubhava (13 resultant ecstatic symptoms)
3) Sattvika (8 especially disruptive ecstatic symptoms)
4) Sancari (33 transitory assisting emotions)
je rasa prapanca-gata, jada-kavye prakasita,
parama raser asamurti
asamurti nitya noy, adarser chaya hoy,
jena maricika jal-sphurti
When this rasa finds expression in the material world, it is praised throughout the mundane poetic literatures of the world, but that is only a distorted reflection of the original supreme mellow. It is not eternal, but is an imitation or shadow of the real thing, like a mirage which appears to be water in a desert.
- ref. N.O.D. Chapter 20 -
raser adhara jini, tanra citta rasa khani,
sei citter abastha bisese
sraddha-nistha-rucyasakti, krame hoy bhava-byakti,
rati name tanhar nirdese
The heart of one who is a vessel for rasa is just like a reservoir which is filled with this fluid mellow. The specific symptoms of such a rasa-laden heart are that it manifests ecstatic emotions which evolve gradually first from sraddha (faith), to nistha (steadiness), ruci (taste), asakti (attachment), then finally bhava (ecstatic emotion). This is the definition of what is known as rati, or affection within the realm of the transcendental loving mellow.
viruddhaviruddha bhava, sarvopari swa-prabhava,
prakasiya loy nija-base
sakaler adi-pati, haya sobha pay ati,
sthayi bhava nama pay rase
The constantly flowing undercurrent of all mellows is called sthayi bhava, or permanent ecstasy. It is the primary origin of all mellows, and it is eternally existing in great beauty and splendor. As the fountainhead of rasa, it unites all subordinate mellows and subjugates them under its own control. Thus, it exhibits the topmost manifestation of its own supreme power, which contains many inconceivably contradictory favorable and opposing ecstasies.
mukhya-gauna-bhede tar, paricoy dvi-prakar,
mukhya panca, gauna sapta-bidha
santa, dasya, sakhya ar, batsalya madhura sar,
ei panca rati mukhyabhida
In ascertaining the differences in the various ecstatic loving moods of this permanent ecstasy (sthayi bhava), we see that there are two principal divisions: 1) five direct or primary mellows; 2) seven indirect or secondary mellows. The five direct mellows are called santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura, or neutrality, servitude, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love, respectively.
hasyadbhuta, bira, ar, karuna o raudrakar,
rati sapta gauni hoy, sab krishna-bhakti-moy,
sobha pay raser prabhede
The seven indirect mellows are known as: 1) hasya (devotional laughing attachment), 2) adbhuta (devotional attachment fixed in wonder and astonishment), 3) vira (chivalrous attachment with charitable and merciful tendencies), 4) karuna (attachment in compassion with lamentation), 5) raudra (devotion mixed with anger), 6) bhayanaka (devotion mixed with fear), and 7) bibhatsa (attachment which expresses in an abominable way). All of these mellows are found in great profusion within the realm of devotional service to Krsna, and these different types of attachments exist eternally as beautiful decorations of the ever-present sthayi bhava.
- ref. N.O.D. Chapters 32, 33, 34 -
jei rati janme jar, sei mata rasa tar,
rasa mukhya panca-bidha hoy
gauna-sapta-rasa punah, hoy ratir anuguna,
ratir sambandha bhavasroy
According to the particular type of affectionate feeling that attracts one to love Krsna, the devotee becomes attached to one of the five direct mellows. In addition to flowing along with the direct mellow, one experiences periodic manifestations of the seven indirect mellows. Thus the seven indirect mellows remain subjugated under the shelter of the ecstatic emotions presented by the predominant direct mellow.
panca mukhya madhye bhai, madhurer guna gai,
sarva-sresta rasa-raja boli
guna anya rase jata, madhurete ache tata,
ar bahu bale hoy bali
Oh brothers! Now listen as I sing the glories of the madhura rasa, the sweet conjugal mellow, for it is said to be the best and most glorious rasa among the five direct mellows. Indeed, it is just like the king of all mellows. The entirety of transcendental qualities exhibited by the other mellows are fully present in this topmost rasa, and therefore it is most powerful because of the combined potencies of all the other mellows contained within it. And also, the other mellows individually become more dynamic when they are within the madhura rasa than they are when they stand on their own.
gauna rasa ache jata, saba sancarir mata,
haya srngarer pusti kore
shri ruper anugata, bhajane je hoy rata,
sthiti tar kevale madhure
All the seven indirect mellows give transitory stimulation to the madhura rasa (also called srngara rasa). They circulate about in order to nourish and supplement the ecstasies of this sweet conjugal mellow. Those devotees who develop attachment for the worship that follows in the footsteps of Srila Rupa Gosvami usually become situated only in the madhura rasa.
madhura ujjvala rasa, sada srngarer basa,
aisvarya su-gupta ta'te, madhurya-prabhave mate,
tahar asroy bhakta-coy
The madhura rasa is also known as the most brilliant mellow (ujjvala rasa), and its main subject (visaya) is Sri Krsna, the Son of the King of Vraja. Indeed, He actually lets Himself be controlled and subjugated by this loving mellow. The majestic opulences of the Lord (aisvarya) are covered over by this mood, and the powerful maddening influence of its transcendental sweetness (madhurya) is the sole refuge of all the assembled devotees, who are the main object (asraya) of this mellow.
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 44 -
madhurer sthayi bhava, labhe jate avirbhava,
boli taha suno eka-mane
abhijoga o bisoy, sambandhabhimana-dvoy,
tadiya bisesa upamane
Madhura rati, or conjugal affection is the stayi bhava of the madhura rasa. Now please hear with rapt attention as I explain the sequence of its development. The seven causal ingredients are:
1) Abhiyoga (joking complaints expressing heartfelt emotions)
2) Visaya (the five sense perceptions of Krsna's attributes, namely sound, touch, form, taste and smell)
3) Sambandha (Krsna's relatives and family members)
4) Abhimana (the feeling that Krsna is one's own)
5) Tadiya Visesa (Krsna's personal specialities, like His footprints, favorite pastures, etc.)
6) Upama (poetic comparison of Krsna to other things)
7) Svabhava (love that arises naturally without external stimulus)
svabhava asraya kori', citte rati abatari,
srngara raser kore pusti
abhijoga adi choy, anye rati-hetu hoy,
braja-devir tahe nahi drsti
swatah-siddhi rati tanre,
samartha koriya rakhe sada
krishna-seva bina tanra, udyama nahiko ara,
swiya sukha-cesta nahi kada
ei rati praudha hoy,
maha-bhava dasa pay,
jar tulya prapti ar nai
sarvadbhuta camatkar, sambhogeccha e prakar,
barnibare bakya nahi pai
Rati (deeply attached affection) develops in the heart of the practicing devotee when all these features act together under the shelter of the 7th ingredient svabhava, and thus the conjugal mellow becomes nourished. However, all the Vraja gopis have natural rati as their svabhava, so for them there is no need of stimulation by the first six above-mentioned ingredients headed by abhiyoga.
The natural, spontaneous transcendental rati of the gopis is so strongly fixed up that they merely take help from the above-mentioned six ingredients, instead of depending on them for stimulation. Except for Krsna's service, there is no question of their ever performing any other endeavor. Indeed, it is verily impossible for them to strive for their own personal happiness at any time, even to the slightest degree.
When this type of pure attachment becomes fully matured, then the final stage it attains is called maha-bhava—the most exalted, sublime form of transcendental ecstasy. There is no comparison anywhere to such bliss. The gopis' desire for this type of selfless union is the most wonderful thing to observe, and it really makes one astonished even to think of it. Therefore, I can certainly find no suitable words to describe the manifestation of this topmost divine grace called maha-bhava.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 14 -
rati, prema, sneha, mana, pranaya o ragakhyana,
anuraga, bhava ei sata
rati jata gadha hoy, krame sapta nama loy,
sthayi bhava sada avadata
The development of rati in ecstatic love of Godhead gradually thickens and intensifies as it manifests in seven stages of ecstasy known as:
1) Prema (general ecstatic love for the Personality of Godhead)
2) Sneha (personal affection borne of a softened and melted heart)
3) Mana (pouting counter-love due to confidential familiarity)
4) Pranaya (mutually intimate love devoid of shyness or hesitation)
5) Raga (highly involved attachment that disregards any offense)
6) Anuraga (the constant presence of supplementary attachments that ripple in waves of mutual charms)
7) Bhava (the stage of wildly relishable exhilaration in transparently pure yet supremely inflamed love-passions)
All these stages of the sthayi bhava are spotlessly free from any material impurities.
snehadi je bhava choy, prema name paricoy,
sadharana janer nikate
je bhava krsnete janra, sei bhave krishna tanra,
e rahasya rase nitya bate
The above-mentioned symptoms are altogether known as prema (love of Godhead). According to the particular ecstatic emotions that one develops for Krsna, then to that degree Krsna reciprocates, and this level of secret mellow indeed continues being shared with Him for all of time to come.
bhakta-citta-simhasana, ta'te upavista hana,
sthayi bhava sarva-bhava-raja
hladini je para sakti, tanra sara suddha-bhakti,
bhava-rupe tanhar biraja
Being seated on the throne of a devotee's heart, the sthayi bhava behaves like the King of all ecstasies. Rooted in the hladini pleasure potency, whose distilled extract is pure devotional service, it is conspicuously present in the form of transcendental emotional ecstasies.
vibhavadi bhava-gane, nijayatte anayane,
korena je raser prakasa
rasa nityananda-tattva, nitya-siddha sara-sattva,
jiva-citte tahar vikasa
By bringing the four principles of ecstasy, namely vibhava, anubhava, sattvika, and sancari under its control, the hladini manifests all mellows. These mellows are the everlasting truth of bliss, eternally perfect, and represent the finest state of purified existence; all this is revealed spreading and blooming within the core of the spirit soul's heart.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 14 -
ratyasvada hetu jata, vibhava namete khyata,
alambana uddipana hoy
bisoy-asroy-gata, alambana dui mata,
krishna krishna-bhakta se ubhoy
The things which cause one to taste loving attachment to the Lord are called vibhava (special foundations and stimulants). The two divisions of these causes are called: 1) alambana (the persons who are foundations of love, and between whom love flows reciprocally); and 2) uddipana (the factors which stimulate the awakening of love). Furthermore, there are two sides to the alambana foundations: 1) visaya (the subject of love: Krsna) and 2) asraya (the object of love: Krsna's devotee).
nayaker siromani, swayam krishna guna-mani,
nitya guna-dhama paratpara
tanra bhave anurakta, gunadhya jateka bhakta,
siddha ek, sadhaka apara
Lord Krsna Himself is full of all good qualities, and He is the most outstanding Hero amongst heros. He is the eternal reservoir of virtues, and is the Greatest of the greatest. There are many, many devotees who are totally attached to Krsna in ecstatic love, and they are also full of transcendental qualities themselves. Some of them are known as siddha (spiritually perfect), whereas others are sadhaka (neophyte devotees).
bhava uddipana kore, uddipana nama dhore,
krsner sambandha bastu saba
smitasya, saurabha, srnga, bamsi, kambu, ksetra, bhrnga,
padanka, nupura, kala-raba
The things which stimulate the awakening of ecstatic emotions are called uddipana. This includes Krsna's enchanting smile, His sweet bodily fragrance, His buffalo horn, His flute, His conchshell, His place of residence, the buzzing of the bees in Vraja, His footprints which display the auspicious marks on the soles of His lotus feet, His ankle bells, and the soft sweet sound of His voice.
tulasi, bhajana cina, bhakta jana-darasana,
ei-rupa nana uddipana
bhakti-rasa-asvadane, ei saba hetu-gane,
Other causes are the Tulasi tree, the various symbols and practices of devotional service, and the darsana of the Lord's devotees. In this way, there are many factors which stimulate ecstatic love. All these uddipanas that induce one to taste the mellows of devotion have been clearly described by Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatana Gosvami.
- ref. N.O.D. chapters 20, 25, 26 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 1 -
shri-nanda-nandana dhana, tadiya ballabha-gana,
gopi-gata rati jahan, gopi-cittasroy tahan,
krishna-matra bisoy takhan
The delightful Son of Nanda Maharaja considers all His loving consorts, the gopis, to be His most valued treasure. Both He and they are the foundations (alambana) of the mellow of conjugal love. This mellow flows back and forth between them in the following two ways: 1) when the rati (affection) flows toward the gopis and takes shelter in their hearts as the object (asraya), then Krsna becomes the one and only subject (visaya) of their love;
jahan rati krishna-gata, ratyasroy krishna-cita,
gopi tahan ratir bisoy
bisoy asroy dhore', sthayi-bhava-rati care,
naile rati udgata na hoy
When the rati flows toward Krsna and takes shelter in His heart as the object, then the gopis become the one and only subject of His love. In this manner affection flows mutually within the sthayi bhava (the permanent ecstasy) because of the combination of both the subject and object, without which there is no possibility of genuine love existing.
vibhavete alambana, rase nitya prayojana,
braje tai krishna gopinatha
madana-mohana dhana, brajangana gopi-jana,
vallabha rasika radha-natha
Thus there is the necessary function of this combining of alambana foundations in the vibhava principle, and these mellows are the topmost eternal goal of all existences. Within Vraja, Krsna is known as Gopinatha, the Lord of the gopis. And the most highly prized treasure of this Madana-Mohana is all the cowherd maidens of Vraja, the gopis. Krsna is their dearmost lover, their sweet relisher, and the Lord and Master of Srimati Radharani.
swiya-parakiya-bhede, rasa rasantarasvade,
nityanande biraje madhava
bada bhagyavan jei, nije alambana hoi',
asvadvaye se rasa-asava
Lord Madhava thoroughly enjoys Himself in full eternal bliss as He tastes the confidential mellows of the principles known as sviya (love within marriage) and parakiya (unwedded love). And one who also becomes one of the alambana foundations for sharing loving exchanges with Him is most fortunate, for she also tastes the intoxicating wine of supremely transcendental mellows.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapters 1, 2 -
su-ramya madhura-smita, sarva-sallaksananvita,
baliyan, taruna, gambhira
vavaduk, priya-bhasi, sudhi, su-prati-bhasvasi,
vidagdha, chatura, sukhi, dhira
Lord Krsna, the supreme hero, has the most beautiful bodily form abounding with all good features. He has the sweetest smile, He possesses extraordinary bodily strength, He is ever-youthfully beautiful, and His grave plans and actions are very difficult for anyone to comprehend. He is expert in speaking meaningful words with great politeness, He is the most pleasing conversationalist, He is the source of all nectar, and He is a wonderful linguist, fluent in all languages (even that of the animals and birds). He is most expert in all kinds of cultural enjoyments (He lives wonderfully at the topmost height of artistic craftsmanship), He is cunning and clever in the art of performing various types of work simultaneously, He is always joyful and untouched by any distress, and He is self-satisfied and peaceful.
krta-jna, daksina, presta, bariyan, kirtimacchresta,
su-nitya nutana-murti, kevala saundarya-sphurti,
bamsi-gane su-daksa, tatpara
Krsna is grateful by never forgetting the service of His friends, He is simple and liberal, He is the best at everything He does, and is very famous for His good deeds. He is attractive to all women, He is very playful in amorous sports, and He possesses an eternally fresh and youthful form. He is the full manifestation of complete transcendental beauty, He is most expert at playing His all-attractive flute, and He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
dhirodatta, dhira-santa, sudhira, lalita, kanta,
pitha-marda, priya narma-sakha
Krsna is dhirodatta (grave and gentle), dhira-santa (peaceful and forbearing), dhira-lalita (carefree and jovial), dhiroddhata (proud and restless), the best lover, and the hero of all women. He is always surrounded by five kinds of servants: 1) ceta (spies), 2) vita (dressing attendants), 3) vidusaka (clowns headed by Madhu-mangala), 4) pitha-marda (back-massagers like Sridama), 5) priya-narma-sakha (closest friends).
e panca sahayuta, nandisvara-pati-suta,
anukula, satha, drsta, sadaksina, rasa-trsna,
Thus served by these five kinds of helpers, the Son of the King of Vraja enjoys various mellows, sometimes as a husband (pati) or as an illicit lover of others' wives (upapati). Being extremely thirsty to taste these rasas, He enjoys playing the role of four kind of heroes, as anukula (favorable), satha (deceitful), drsta (impertinent), and daksina (clever). Thus He sports in the amorous garden groves as the personification of all ecstatic mellows.
- ref. N.O.D. chapters 21, 22 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapters 1, 2 -
su-ramyadi guna-gana, hoiyache vibhusana,
prthu-prema su-madhurya, sampader su-pracurya,
shri krishna-ballabha rasa-pura
Sri Krsna's loving consorts are decorated quite befittingly with all the attractive womanly charms of gorgeous beauty and loveliness. They are adorned with these qualities to the utmost possible degree. These consorts are thriving within the current of the most highly treasured, super-sweet, and immeasurable reservoir of pure prema. Thus, Sri Krsna's lovers are especially relishable for Him within the vast realm of transcendental rasa.
ballabha to' dvi-prakar, swiya, parakiya ar,
mugdha, madhya, pragalbheti troy
keho ba nayika tahe, keho sakhi hoite cahe,
nije to' nayika nahi hoy
Krsna has two main divisions of lovers—those in the mood of sviya (wedded love) and those in parakiya (unwedded love). Heroines may also be classified as mugdha (naive), madhya (intermediate), and pragalbha (impudent). Some of them take leading roles as heroines (nayikas), whereas some simply want to remain as a friend (sakhi).
nayika-gana-pradhana, radha, candra, dui jana,
sei dui madhye sresta, radhika krsner presta,
There are two chief gopis amongst Krsna's numerous heroines—Srimati Radharani and Sri Candravali. Both of them are the reservoirs of the qualities of supreme beauty and cunning behavior. However, between these two chief gopis, Radharani is certainly the best, for She is most dear to Lord Krsna. She is the natural embodiment of the complete storehouse of the most exalted, sublime ecstasy called maha-bhava.
ara jata nitya-priya, nija nija jutha laya,
se du'yer korena sevana
shri-rupa-anuga jana, shri radhika-shri-carana,
bina nahi jane anya dhana
All the multitudes of Krsna's other eternal lovers divide themselves into two parties, identifying either with the entourage of Srimati Radharani or with the party of Candravali. And each of them, within her preferred group, renders service in a thousand different ways for the pleasure of their chosen heroine. However, the real followers of Srila Rupa Gosvami possess no wealth other than the eternal treasure of Sri Radhika's divine lotus feet.
-ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapters 3, 4 -
shri-krishna sevibo boli', grha chadi' kunje cali',
jaite hoy 'abhisari' sakhi
kunja sajja kore jabe, 'basaka sajja' ha'na tabe,
'utkanthita' krishna-patha lakhi'
1) Abhisarika: The heroine who leaves her home and travels to meet her lover at the assigned rendezvous bower, all the while thinking, "I will serve Sri Krsna." 2) Vasaka-sajja: The gopi who beautifies the bower (and her own body) with various types of decorations, in the mood of preparing the bed-chamber for her dearmost lover. 3) Utkanthita: One who repeatedly glances down the path in great eagerness, anxiously anticipating the arrival of her beloved Sri Krsna.
kala ullanghiya hari, bhoga-cihna dehe dhori',
aile hana 'khandita' takhan
sankete paiya baise, tabu kanta na aise,
'bipralabdha' nayika to' hana
4) Khandita: When Hari arrives late, His body bears some signs of having enjoyed with another lover. On such an occassion, the heroine becomes extremely jealous, either chastising Him or pouting. 5) Vipralabdha: When the heroine sits waiting in the secluded bower, and her lover does not show up at all, then She feels greatly disappointed.
maner kalahe hari, jana cali duhkha kori',
mathurate kanta gelo, bahu-dina na ailo,
6) Kalahantarita: Whenever, due to some quarrel with Hari, the heroine sends Him away in Her anguish; then she becomes even more bereaved due to dismissing Him. 7) Prosita-bhartrka: When Krsna leaves Vrndavana and goes to Mathura, not returning even after many days have elapsed, then the heroine becomes most miserable and suffers terribly in His separation.
nijayatte kante peye', krida kore kanta lo'ye,
'svadhina-bhartrka' se ramani
nayika-matrer hoy, ei asta-dasodoy,
8) Svadhina-bhartrka: When the heroine dominates Her lover, and tames Him according to Her own whims, then she uses Him for enjoying her own flavor of amorous sports.
Only those gopis acting as heroines (nayikas) can experience these eight different states of devotional service. Thus they taste different varieties of separation and union.
- ref Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 5 -
nayikar siromani, braje radha thakurani,
panca-bidha sakhi-gana ta'r
sakhi, nitya-sakhi ara, prana-sakhi atahpara,
priya-sakhi—ei hoilo car
sakhi-gana madhye sresta,
boli saba, suno vivarana
kusumika vindhyavati, dhanistadi braja-sati,
The transcendental Goddess, Sri Radha Thakurani, is the crown jewel of all heroines (nayikas). She has five different types of girlfriends in Vraja, whose divisions are: 1) the sakhis, 2) the nitya-sakhis, 3) the prana-sakhis, 4) the priya-sakhis, and 5) the parama-presta-sakhis. This last group is undoubtedly the best of all, for they are the most dear to Sri Radha. Please listen as I describe these dear girlfriends of Hers. Counted amongst the sakhis are Kusumika, Vindhyavati and Dhanista, who are very chaste in Vraja-dhama.
shri rupa, rati, kasturi, shri guna, mani-manjari,
prana-sakhi bahu ta'r, basanti, nayika ar,
pradhana tahar sasi-mukhi
The nitya-sakhis include Sri Rupa Manjari, Sri Rati Manjari, Sri Guna Manjari and others. Radharani's prana-sakhis are numerous, including Sri Vasanti and Sri Nayika, and the principle gopi of this division is Sri Sasi-mukhi.
kurangaksi, manju-kesi, sumadhya, madanalasi,
kamala, madhuri, kama-lata
kandarpa-sundari ar, madhavi, malati ar,
sasi-kala, radha-seva rata
The priya-sakhis include Kurangaksi, Manju-kesi, Sumadhya, Madanalasi, Kamala, Madhuri, Kama-lata, Kandarpa-sundari, Madhavi, Malati, and Sasi-kala, who are all fondly attached to rendering service to Srimati Radharani.
lalita, visakha, citra, tunga-vidya, campa-lata,
indu-lekha, ranga-devi sati
sudeviti asta jana, parama-presta sakhi-gana,
radha-krsne seve eka mati
There are eight parama-presta-sakhis, whose only concern is to selflessly serve Radha-Krsna in every aspect of their existence. They are Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Tunga-vidya, Campaka-lata, Indu-lekha, Ranga-devi and Sudevi; they are the most chaste of all the sakhis.
-ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 4 -
radha-krishna guna gana, mithasakti samvardhana,
krsne sakhi-samarpana, narma-vakya-asvadana,
pratipa janer suvancana
kusala siksana ar, sammilana du'janar,
vyajanadi vividha sevana
ubhaya kusala dhyana,
dose tiraskara dana,
paraspara sandesa vahana
radhikar dasa-kale, prana-raksa su-kausale,
sakhi-sadharana karya jano
jeba je sakhir karya,
visesa boliya dharya,
pradarsita ha'be jatha-sthane
rupanuga bhaje jeba, je sakhir jei seva,
tad-anuga sei seva mane
Some of the typical services rendered by the sakhis are: 1) singing songs together about the glories of Radha-Krsna, 2) performing activities to increase Their attachment for one another, 3) facilitating Their secret rendezvous, 4) offering different sakhis to Krsna for His pleasure, 5) charming the Divine Couple by the taste of their joking remarks, and 6) decorating Their bodies expertly with different types of fascinating cloth, ornaments, and flowers. 7) The sakhis sometimes have to seek out and expose the particular ecstatic emotion which is hidden within the deepest core of the Divine Couple's hearts, 8) they have to conceal the shortcomings of Radha or Krsna in different situations, 9) they have to deceive persons who are opposed to Their meeting, 10) they give expert advice, understanding the situation of Their deep-rooted, innermost feelings, 11) they bring the Divine Couple together, 12) they render numerous other services spontaneously, such as fanning Them gently with jewelled peacock-tail fans and yak-tail whisks. 13) Keeping in mind Their benefit, the sakhis sometimes have to chastise one of Them for some offense committed to the other, 14) they convey messages between Radha and Krsna (in Their presence or at other times when They are separated), 15) they are most expert in maintaining Radharani's life during the performance of divine pastimes. These are some of the typical services rendered during a day in the life of Srimati Radharani's girlfriends. [NOTE: Sixteen services are usually listed by Srila Rupa Gosvami. The final one, not mentioned here, is sarva-visaye prayatna—special care and attention in all matters.] Each sakhi is fixed up in her own specific eternal service, which she performs at the proper time and place. Those who desire to perform the bhajana which strictly follows Srila Rupa Gosvami dwell upon one particular sakhi and her seva, thus becoming her follower in performing that same service.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 8 -
panca-sakhi madhye car, nitya-siddha radhikar,
se sakale sadhana na koilo
sakhi boli' ukta jei, sadhana-prabhave tei,
braja-raja pure basa pailo
Amongst the five divisions of Radharani's sakhis, four of these groups are nitya-siddha, or eternally situated in their perfect roles. They did not have to perform any ritualistic sadhana to achieve their position. The fifth division known as sakhi consists of new gopis who have attained residence in Vraja by dint of their sadhana practice.
sei sakhi dvi-prakara, sadhanete siddha ara,
sadhana-para boliya ganana
siddha boli' akhya tanra, gopi-deha hoilo janra,
kori' rage jugala-bhajana
These new sakhis are of two varieties—those still situated in their sadhana practice as sadhaka manjaris, and those who are already situated in their spiritual bodies beyond the rules of sadhana. Those who attain perfection and receive the body of a gopi are called siddha, and they continuously worship the Divine Couple in spontaneous love (raga).
krishnakrsta muni-jana, tatha upanisad-gana,
je na loilo gopir svarupa
sadhana avese bhaje, siddhi tabu na upaje,
There are many great saints and devotees as well as the personified Upanisads themselves who are all attracted by Lord Krsna, but who haven't achieved the topmost perfection of receiving the form of a gopi. Although they are all absorbed in their regulative worship of the Lord, their eternal spiritual siddhi still doesn't awaken fully, because entrance into the mood of Vraja is very wonderful and rarely attained.
je je sruti muni-gana, gopi haya su-bhajana,
korilo sakhir pada dhori'
seva kore shri-radha-shri-hari
But there were some great munis and personified srutis who executed their worship in the mood of the gopis, catching a firm grip on the lotus feet of one of Radharani's girlfriends. Then, by the power of that nityasakhi's affectionate favor, they ultimately attained a residential place in that sakhi's own abode, where they eternally serve the Divine Couple Sri Radha and Sri Hari.
devi-gana sei bhave, sakhir salokya-labhe,
krishna-seva kore sakhi ho'ye
vrajer-vidhana ei, gopi bina ar keho,
na paibe vraja-juva-dwaye
Similarly, many groups of goddesses (devis) have also become Radha's sakhis by this process, and are now absorbed in Krsna-seva. This is how a sincere soul becomes one of Radharani's eternal girlfriends; accepting the mood of a sakhi, one must render eternal service to the pleasure of Krsna within the abode of that sakhi. This is the only real law which allows one entrance into Vraja—that is, without the favor of another merciful gopi, it is absolutely impossible for anyone to attain ecstatic eternal service of the young Couple of Vraja.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 3 -
parama chaitanya hari, tanra sakti banesvari,
para sakti boli' vede gay
saktimane sevibare, sakti kaya-vyuha kore,
nana sakti tahe bahiray
Lord Hari is the Supreme form of consciousness, and His potency is Sri Radha, the Mistress of the Vrndavana forest (Banesvari). All the Vedas sing about Her being the personification of His transcendental internal potency (para-sakti). To render service to Him Who is the energetic source of all energies, She expands Her internal sakti into many bodily forms as the assembly of gopis. Her numerous potencies thus flow out and become active in all directions simultaneously.
adhara-saktite dhama, ahvaya saktite nama,
sandhini-saktite bastu jata
samvit-saktite jnana, tatastha jiva-vidhana,
hladinite koilo sakhi-brata
Her internal potency is the abode of all other potencies, and it manifests in three aspects called sandhini, samvit, and hladini. By its sandhini existence potency it produces all things of substance within the spiritual and material worlds. With its samvit cognizant potency it produces all knowledge, which has a marginal sector called jiva-sakti, the multitude of conscious spirit souls. With its hladini pleasure potency, the assembly of Radha's girlfriends are produced and enlivened.
nitya-siddha sakhi saba, hladinir su-vaibhava,
hladini-svarupa mula radha
candravali adi jata, shri-radhar anugata,
keho nahe radha-premer badha
The topmost divine wealth of the hladini pleasure potency is the multitude of Her girlfriends (sakhis), who are all eternally perfect (nitya-siddha). And the original root cause and primeval source of the hladini-sakti is none other than Srimati Radharani Herself, Who is the embodiment of this supreme pleasure potency. Even the other opposing gopis, headed by Candravali, are actually subordinate followers of Sri Radha, for the fact is that no one can possibly obstruct the gushing flow of Her purely divine selfless love for Lord Krsna.
premer vicitra gati, prati-dvandvi ho'ye sati,
candra kore radha-prema pusta
saba sakhir eka-mana, nana-kaye nana-jana,
braja-juva-dvandve kore tusta
The wonderful, unique movement of Their loving affairs is such that Candravali appears to rival Radharani, but this apparent competition is actually chaste, for it is meant to nourish Radharani's pure love for Krsna. Indeed, all the sakhis possess many different bodies and many different moods, but their mind is factually one and one only—for their sole, mutual interest is to give complete pleasure to the youthful Divine Couple of Vraja.
Those who are wise regarding transcendental mellows describe certain things which stimulate the awakening of limitless ecstatic emotions. These things are called uddipana, and are born of the relationship between Krsna and His devotees. There are six categories of uddipanas known as: 1) guna (personal qualities), 2) nama (holy names), 3) carita (characteristic activities), 4) mandana (bodily adornments), 5) sambandhi (related paraphernalia), and 6) tatastha (natural phenomena).
krishna krishna-bhakta-gata, guna-nama su-carita,
mandana sambandhi tatasthadi
bhava jata aganana, e raser uddipana,
hetu boli' bole rasa-vedi
guna-uddipana (personal qualities): there are three types of personal qualities which stimulate ecstatic love for Krsna—those which are of His mind (manasika), of His words (vacika), and of His body (kayika).
manasa bacika punah, kayikate tina-guna,
nrtya vamsi-gana-gati, go-dohana go-ahuti,
aghoddhara gostete tandava
nama-uddipana (holy names): there are innumerable name-stimulants such as Krsna, Sri Radha-Madhava, and so forth.
malyanulepana ar, basa-bhusa ei car,
prakara mandana sobhakara
bamsi-srnga bina-raba, gita-silpa su-saurabha,
carita-uddipana (characteristic activities): stimulants such as Krsna's ecstatic dancing, flute-playing, singing, mode of walking, method of milking the cows, how he calls His cows personally, His lifting of Govardhana hill, and His specially wild, frenzied dances with the cowherd boys out in the pasturelands (tandava).
sikhi-puccha gabhi yasti, benu srnga presta-drsti,
adri-dhatu nirmalya go-dhuli,
vrndavana tadashrita, govardhana ravi-suta,
rasa adi jata lila-sthali
mandana-uddipana (bodily adornments): there are four types of bodily adornments by which Krsna is beautified—A) malya: flower decorations such as garlands, earrings, and crowns; B) anulepana: substances that are smeared such as ground sandalwood pulp, various oils and perfumes; C) vasa: different types of exotic clothing, sashes and scarves; D) bhusa: ornaments such as anklebells, belts, medallions, bangles, armlets, and crowns, made from precious metals and jewels.
khaga bhrnga mrga kunja, tulasika lata-punja,
karnikara kadambadi taru
shri-krishna-sambhandi saba, vrndavana su-vaibhava,
uddipana kore rasa caru
sambandhi-uddipana (related paraphernalia): assorted stimulants include the sound of His flute, buffalo horn, and lute-playing (vina), the technique of the songs He composes, His creativity of design in arts and crafts, His all-pervading bodily fragrance, His footprints, the sound of His ornaments tinkling, the sound of various other musical instruments He plays, the peacock feathers He wears in His crown or holds in His hand, His cows, His bejewelled walking stick, His collection of flutes made from various materials, assorted buffalo horns, the sight of His dearmost friends, the colorful minerals from Govardhana hill which the boys smear on themselves, forest flower garlands, the dust raised from the cows' hooves, and various places of pastimes that are sheltered in Vrndavana such as Govardhana Hill, the Yamuna river (who is the Daughter of the Sun), the place of the rasa dance, and many other locations of pastimes, as well as large birds like peacocks and cranes, bumblebees humming His glories, she- and he-deer, forest bowers, Tulasi trees, clusters of creepers, bright marigold plants, trees such as the kadamba and others—all these things are the naturally beautiful opulences of the Vrndavana forest which stimulate the most beautiful ecstatic mellows. This is due to the direct relationship of all these things with Krsna and His eternal pastimes.
jyotsna ghana saudamini, sarat-purna nisamani,
gandha-vaha ar khaga-coy
tatasthakhya uddipana, rasasvada-vibhavana,
kore sab hoiya sadoy
tatastha-uddipana (natural phenomena): other stimulants include the Vrndavana moonlight, the clouds, the lightning of the rainy season, the full moon of the autumn season, the sweetly-scented breeze, and small chirping birds like sparrows and finches—all these natural opulences together produce a favorable situation just to enable Radha-Krsna and Their friends to fully relish the most luscious mellows.
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 26 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 10 -
vibhavita rati jabe, kriyapara ho'ye tabe,
anubhava hoy to' udita
citta-bhava udghatiya, kore bahya su-vikriya,
jakhana je hoy to' ucita
When one experiences ecstatic love stimulated by the above-mentioned uddipanas, then a naturally resultant reaction occurs in one's body. This is called anubhava. It is like opening the doors of the heart, thus releasing the emotions. When the ecstasy thereby comes to the external plane, some exquisite physical reactions become visible, which are quite befitting of one's emotions revealed from within the heart.
nrtya-gita bilunthana, krosana tanu-motana,
hunkara jrmbhana ghana-svasa
lokanapeksita mati, lala-srava ghurna ati,
hikkadoy atta atta hasa
The thirteen anubhavas are nrtya (dancing), gita (singing), vilunthana (rolling on the ground), krosana (crying), tanu-motana (stretching the body), hunkara (loud shouting), jrmbhana (yawning), ghana-svasa (deep sighing), lokanapeksa (complete disregard of public opinion), lala-srava (drooling), ghurna (dizziness), hikka (uncontrollable hiccups), and atta-hasa (extremely loud roaring laughter just like a madman).
gatra-citta jata saba, alankara su-vaibhava,
nigadita bimsati prakara
udbhasvara nama ta'r, dhammilya samsrana ar,
phulla ghrana nivyadi bikara
It is said that there are twenty alankaras, or sensual enhancements of the body and mind. One type called udbhasvara includes letting down the hair, sniffing flowers, and adjusting the belt of one's sari, and so forth.
bilapalapa samlapa, pralapa o anulapa,
apadesa upadesa, nirddesa o byapadesa,
There are also twelve vacika or verbal anubhavas, namely 1) vilapa (words of lamentation), 2) alapa (witty flattery), 3) samlapa (conversations), 4) pralapa (frivolous babbling), 5) anulapa (repeating the same thing over and over again), 6) apalapa (giving another meaning to a previous statement), 7) sandesa (sending a message to a lover afar), 8) atidesa (to say "his words are my words"), 9) apadesa (saying one thing to indicate something else), 10) upadesa (words of instruction), 11) nirdesa (to clarify "I am that same person"), and 12) vyapadesa (to reveal the heart under another pretense).
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 27 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 11 -
sthayi bhavavista-citta, paiya vibhava-vitta,
udbhate bhavete apanara
prana-vrtte nyasa kore, prana sei nyasa-bhare,
deha prati bikrti calaya
When one's consciousness is overwhelmed with permanent ecstasy (sthayi-bhava), and attains the wealth of all special stimulants (vibhava), then another effect is produced of its own accord. That is, the life-air is regulated and forcibly directed within the body, thereby causing various unusual transfigurations of the body called sattvika-vikara.
vaivarnya romanca sveda, stambha kampa swara-bheda,
pralayasru—e asta bikara
sancari je bhavacoy, harsamarsa ar bhoy,
bisada bismoyadi ta'r
The eight sattvika symptoms are: 1) vaivarnya: changing of bodily colors, 2) romanca: standing up of hairs, 3) sveda: perspiration, 4) kampa: intense shivering, 5) svara-bheda: choked voice, 6) pralaya: physical devastation, 7) stambha: mental stupor, and 8) asru: torrents of tears. These also become involved with 33 other transitory ecstasies known as sancari (listed in the next song), which include such emotions as jubilation, sorrow, fear, anguish, wonder, and so forth.
pravrtti-karana hoy, lila-kale rase loy,
apane koraya anuksana
dhumayita ujjvalita, dipta ar su-uddipta,
ei cari avastha laksana
According to the particular mellow in play during any given lila of Radha-Krsna's eternal pastimes, then the sattvika bhava can take on four different degrees of intensity, namely 1) dhumayita (smoldering), 2) ujjvalita (ignited), 3) dipta (burning), and 4) uddipta (blazing).
jar jei adhikar, sattvika bikara ta'r,
se laksane hoy to' udoy
mahabhava dasa jatha, su-uddipta bhava tatha,
anayase sulaksita hoy
Whoever has the adhikara or the capacity of qualification for these ecstasies experiences the awakening of the eight sattvika-vikara symptoms. However, only in the maha-bhava stage (as in Srimati Radharani) is it possible to observe the ornament of uddipta (blazing ecstasy).
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 28 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 12 -
nirbeda bisada mada, dainya glani sramonmada,
garva-trasa sanka apasmrti
avega alasya vyadhi, moha mrtyu, jadatadi,
vrida avahittha ar smrti
bitarka capalya mati,
cintautsukya harsa dhrti,
ugralasya nidramarsa supti
bodha hoy ei bhava-coy, trayastrimsat sabe hoy,
vyabhicari name labhe jnapti
The following 33 emotions are known as vyabhicari bhavas: indifference (nirveda), lamentation (visada), intoxication (mada), humility (dainya), fatigue (glani), labor (srama), madness (unmada), pride (garva), apprehension (trasa), fear (sanka), forgetfulness (apasmrti), distraction (avega), laziness (alasya), disease (vyadhi), confusion (moha), death (mrtyu), inertness (jadata), shyness (vrida), secretiveness (avahittha), remembrance (smrti), argumentativeness (vitarka), fickleness (capalya), thoughtfulness (mati), anxiety (cinta), eagerness (autsukya), delight (harsa), patience (dhrti), ferocity (augrya), envy (asuya), drowsiness (nidra), sleep (supti), intolerance (amarsa) and alertness (bodha).
atulya madhura rase, ugralasya na parase,
ar saba bhava jathajatha
udi' bhavavesa sukhe, sthayi-bhaver abhimukhe,
bisesa agrahe hoy rata
The vyabhicari bhava called ferocity (augrya), however, can not affect the incomparably sweet madhura rasa. All of the other vyabhicaris successively arise and flow towards the sthayi bhava, circulating around it happily in their own respective ways.
raganga sattva asraye, rasa-joga sancaraye,
jena sthayi sagarer dheu
nija karya sadhi' turna, sagara koriya purna,
nibe ar nahi dekhe keu
Under the shelter of the pure goodness produced by spontaneous devotional attachment (raga), these vyabhicari emotions swirl about in conjunction with the particular rasa in play. They are all just like waves on the sthayi bhava ocean. They arise, play their part, and then quickly slip back into the ocean, not to be seen by anyone until they are needed again.
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 29, 30 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 13 -
sadharani samanjasa, sthayi labhe bhava dasa,
kubja ar mahisi pramana
eka braja-devi-gane, mahabhava samghatane,
rudha adhirudha su-vidhana
The highest limits that the sthayi-bhava can attain are fixed up according to three different divisions of Krsna's lovers: 1) The girl Kubja of Mathura is an example of the mood known as sadharani (the fickle love-infatuation felt by common girls); 2) Krsna's 16,000 Queens of Dvaraka are examples of the bhava called samanjasa (the constant love felt by wives); 3) However, only the Vraja gopis exemplifying the mood called samartha can attain the advanced states of maha-bhava known as rudha (advanced) and adhirudha (highly advanced).
nimesasahyata tay, hrn-manthane khinna pray,
kalpa ksana saukhye sankakula
atmavadhi vismarana, ksana kalpa vivecana,
yoge ba viyoge samatula
The symptoms of rudha ecstasy are: intolerance of separation even by the blinking of an eye; the stirring of the hearts of persons nearby (resulting in their feeling a similar agony); experiencing a millennium spent with Krsna to pass like an instant; experiencing an instant of separation from Krsna to be as long as a millennium; feeling greatly anxious for Krsna's happiness; and forgetfulness of self-identity. All these anubhavas of the rudha ecstasy can be experienced in either union or separation.
adhirudha bhave punah, dvi-prakar bheda suna,
modana madana name khyata
vislesa dasate punah, modana hoy mohana,
divyonmada tahe hoy jata
Now kindly hear of the two divisions of the adhirudha maha-bhava called modana (divine pleasure) and madana (madly intoxicated amorous exhilaration). At a certain stage in one's feeling separation from Krsna, the modana also becomes what is known as mohana (wonder-struck astonishment), which gives rise to a transcendental madness called divyonmada.
divyonmada dvi-prakar, citra-jalpodghurna ar,
citra-jalpa bahu-vidha tay
mohanete shri radhar, madanakhya dasa sar,
nitya-lilamayi bhava pay
This divyonmada in turn has two divisions, known as 1) citra-jalpa (various types of insane raving speech), and 2) udghurna (uncontrollable giddiness). After She relishes Her mohana state of wonder-struck astonishment, Sri Radha attains the even more essential condition called madana, or madly intoxicated amorous exhilaration. This is the summit of emotional ecstasy that stimulates the flow of Her eternal pastimes.....
samanjasa sada dipta,
rudhe tathoddipta samarthay
suddipta shri-radha-prema, jena ujjvalita hema,
modanadi bhave sada tay
The sadharani lovers (common girls like Kubja) have smoldering love (dhumayita). The samanjasa lovers (wives like the Queens of Dvaraka) have burning love (dipta). The samartha lovers (the Vraja gopis) have blazing love (uddipta); but above all of them, Sri Radha's loving ecstasies are brilliantly blazing (suddipta), like the dazzling shimmer of pure gold, for only in Her moods can one find the topmost ecstasies headed by modana and madana.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 14 -
shri ujjvala rasa-sar, swabhavatah dvi-prakar,
vipralambha sambhoga akhyana
bina vipralambhasroy, sambhoger pusti noy,
tai vipralambher vidhana
The most brilliant mellow of conjugal love has two natural divisions—vipralambha (separation) and sambhoga (union). The pleasure felt in union cannot be properly appreciated without the experience of suffering in separation. That is the function of vipralambha.
purva-raga tatha mana, pravasa-vaicittya-jnana,
vipralambha cari to' prakar
sangamer purva-riti, labhe purva-raga khyati,
darsane sravane janma ta'r
There are four types of vipralambha, namely 1) purva-raga (affection prior to meeting), 2) mana (pouting), 3) pravasa (distant sojourn), 4) prema-vaicittya (feeling separation even in the presence of the beloved). 1) Purva-raga is the infatuated condition that arises before the actual meeting as a result of either seeing or hearing about the beloved.
anurakta dampatira, abhista vislesa sthira,
darsana virodhi bhava mana
sahetu nirhetu mana, pranayer parinama,
pranayer vilasa pramana
2) Mana arises when one of the attached couple starts pouting and becomes firmly determined to stay aloof from the other, being averse even to looking at the other. This particular state of affection has two aspects, namely sahetu mana (pouting for a reason), and nirhetu mana (pouting for no reason). These are twists which commonly occur during the crooked course of transcendental loving affairs.
sama-bheda kriya-dane, natyupeksa su-vidhane,
sahetu maner upasama
desa-kala benu-rave, nirhetuka manotsave,
kore ati sighra uparama
Sahetu mana can be pacified by: sama (pleasing words of consolation), bheda (witty remarks), kriya (worship), dana (presenting gifts), nati (bowing down at the feet), and upeksa (indifference). When a pouting festival is created by nirhetu mana, it can be mitigated very quickly by being in a beautiful place, or by the passing of time, or simply by the sound of flute-music.
biccheda asanka hoite, premer vaicittya citte,
premer svabhave upajoy
desa grama banantare, priya je pravasa kore,
pravasakhya vipralambha hoy
3) Prema-vaicittya comes about even in the presence of the lover by causing an unusual transformation of the heart which produces an intense fear of impending separation. This is a natural characteristic of pure prema. 4) Pravasa comes about when one's beloved has traveled to another forest, town or country. Thus there are four distinct stages of vipralambha (love-in-separation).
- ref. N.O.D. chapter 44 -
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 15 -
darsana aslesanvita, anukulya sevashrita,
ullase arudha jei bhava
juva-dvandva hrdi majhe, rasakare su virajye,
sambhogakhya ta'r hoy labha
Sambhoga is defined as follows: it is that ecstatic mutual mood between the young couple Radha and Krsna which is enhanced by looking at each other, by embracing, by worshipping and attending each other favorably, a mood that surmounts the highest pinnacle of elated bliss, and which is present within both Their hearts as personified rasa. Such a mood is called sambhoga (or complete enjoyment).
mukhya gauna dvi-prakar, sambhoger su-vistar,
tad ubhoy cariti prakar
sanksipta sankirna jana, sampanna samrddhimana,
purva bhavavastha anusar
Sambhoga is of two types—mukhya (primary), and gauna (secondary). Each of these headings can have four varieties of contact, namely 1) sanksipt (brief—a simple meeting), 2) sankirna (narrow—a meeting slightly hindered by fear, etc.), 3) sampanna (affluent—a warm loving meeting after a sojourn), and 4) samrddhimana sambhoga (fully enriched—the total enjoyment of union). These four types of union occur systematically after the four types of separation as follows:
purva-ragantare jaha, sanksipt sambhoga taha,
manantare sankirna pramane
ksudra pravasavasane, sampanna samrddhimane,
su-dura pravasa avasane
1) sanksipt sambhoga occurs after purva-raga (simple union after prior affection), 2) sankirna sambhoga occurs after mana (narrow union after pouting), 3) sampanna sambhoga occurs after kincid-dura-pravasa (affluent union after a short sojourn), and 4) samrddhimana sambhoga occurs after sudura-pravasa (fully enriched union after a long sojourn).
sampanna dvi-vidha bhava, agati o pradurbhava,
manohara sambhoga tahay
swapne ai sab bhava, jahe hoy avirbhava,
tabe gauna sambhoga janay
Furthermore, the sampanna sambhoga has two variations which produce very enchanting unions; these constitute two types of arrivals: 1) agati (formal or pre-arranged arrival) and 2) pradurbhava (sudden appearance). Also there are meetings and pastimes together in dreams (svapna-vilasa). These factual dream-lilas come under the heading of gauna sambhoga (secondary category of union).
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 15 -
sandarsana samsparsana, jalpa vartma-nirodhana,
rasa vrndavana-lila bhuri
jala-keli jamunay, nauka-khela cauryatay,
ghatta lila kunje lukocuri
dyuta-krida bastra tanatani
cumbaslesa nakharpana, bimbadhara sudha-pana,
samprayoga adi lila mani
sambhoga prakar saba,
lila hoy sada su-pesala
sei lila aparupa, ujjvala raser kupa,
tahe ja'r hoy kautuhal
rati bhava dasa dhore,
mahabhava paryanta baday
je jiva saubhagyavan, lila-yoge su-sandhan,
braje basi' satata koray
There are unlimited numbers of ecstatic lilas which Radha and Krsna play daily all throughout Vrndavana with Their girlfriends. They sometimes look at each other in different ways (sandarsana), touch and caress each other (samsparsana), converse in many different types of talks (jalpa), and sometimes block each others' path (vartma-nirodhana). They sport the rasa dance, or play different types of water sports in the Yamuna river (jala-keli), and sometimes Krsna takes the role of a boatman while They engage in different types of pastimes in a boat on the Yamuna (nauka-khela). There are different kinds of joking thefts (caurya)—sometimes Krsna steals Radharani's necklace, and almost every day He gets His flute stolen by Radharani and Her friends (vamsi-curi). Sometimes They play the ghatta lila, better known as the dana-keli—His begging of charity from the yogurtpots of the gopis. And sometimes They run around playing hide-andseek throughout the forest bowers (luko-curi or luka-luki).
Sometimes They become intoxicated by drinking honey-wine (madhu-pana), sometimes Krsna comes disguised in numerous types of women's dress (vadhu-vesa), and sometimes He pretends to be sleeping just to listen to the sakhis talk about Him (kapata-nidra or chala-supti). They have gambling matches with dice and place different kinds of bets (dyuta-krida or pasa-khela), They sometimes have a tug-of-war with each other's clothes (vastra-tanatani), and sometimes there is kissing (cumbana), embracing (aslesa), scratching with fingernails (nakharpana), drinking the nectar of berry-red lips (adhara-pana), and conjugal union (samprayoga). These are some of Radha-Krsna's innumerable daily pastimes.
The different types of union constantly produce a gala festival of most charmingly beautiful sports. All these lilas are uncommonly wonderful; they are a veritable reservoir filled with the most brilliant mellows of the conjugal ujjvala-rasa. Only an extremely rare and highly fortunate soul takes a delightedly curious interest in such daily sports of Radha and Krsna. These pastimes abound in all the ecstatic moods of transcendental affection (rati), which keep swelling and increasing all the way up to the topmost rapturous peak of maha-bhava. Glorious indeed is that soul who constantly lives in Vraja and always searches after the means of entering into those pastimes.
- ref. Ujjvala-nilamani chapter 15 -
rasa-tattva nitya jaiche, braja-tattva nitya taiche,
lila-rasa ek kori' jnana
krishna je saksat rasa, sakala-i krsner basa,
veda bhagavate kore gana
One should be aware that all the fundamental eternal principles of rasa-tattva, vraja-tattva and lila-rasa are one and the same. And Krsna Himself is the direct personification of rasa. All things are completely under His control, as proclaimed throughout the Vedas and Srimad Bhagavatam.
shri krishna parama tattva, tar lila suddha sattva,
maya jar dura-sthita dasi
jiva prati krpa kori', lila prakasilo hari,
jiver mangala abhilasi
Sri Krsna is the Supreme Truth (parama tattva), and His pastimes are of the nature of transcendental pure goodness (suddha sattva). Maya is situated at a distance as His humble maidservant. Displaying His causeless mercy to the conditioned souls, the Lord manifests His transcendental pastimes before their very eyes within the mundane world. This just shows how much He desires their welfare.
brahma sese siva jar, anvesiya bar bar,
tattva bujhibare nahi pare
brahmer asroy jini, paramatmar amsi tini,
swayam bhagavan boli ja're
Krsna is Himself the only Supreme Personality of Godhead (svayam bhagavan). Even Lord Brahma, Lord Anantadeva and Lord Siva are trying to find Him out again and again, but still they are unable to understand Him fully. The vast Brahman effulgence emanates from Him only, and the all-cognizant Supersoul is only His tiny fractional portion.
sei krishna doyamoy, mula-tattva sarvasroy,
ananta-lilar ek khani
nirvisesa lila-bhare, brahmata prakasa kore,
sviya anga-kanti guna-mani
This Lord Krsna is full of good qualities. He is most merciful, He is the basic root of all truths, and everything in both the material and spiritual worlds rests in Him alone. He even manifests His own bodily aura as the impersonal Brahman effulgence in order to have some impersonal pastimes. Thus He is just like a goldmine of unlimited lilas.
amse paramatma ho' ye, baddha-jiva-gane lo'ye,
karma-cakre lila kore kota
deva-loke deva-saha, upendradi ho'ye teha,
deva-lila kore kota sata
His lilas are everywhere. Becoming His own partial plenary portion as the Supersoul, He performs many pastimes by taking the conditioned souls for a ride on the revolving wheel of fruitive action and reaction (karma-cakra). Appearing in the higher planetary system in incarnations such as Vamanadeva, He performs many more pastimes along with the demigods.
paravyome narayana, ho'ye pale dasa-jana,
deva-deva raja rajesvara
sei krishna sarvasroy, braje nara-paricoy,
nara-lila korilo bistara
On the Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky, He becomes Lord Narayana and maintains hosts of servants there; He is the God of all Gods (deva-deva) and the King of all Kings (raja-rajesvara). This selfsame Lord Krsna, the refuge and abode of all beings and all creations, in spite of such incredible spiritual and material opulences, appears just like an ordinary human being in Vraja, and it pleases Him to remain there expanding so many human-like lilas.
krsner jateka khela, tar madhye nara-lila,
sarvottama raser aloy
e rasa goloke nai, tabe bolo kotha pai,
braja-dhama tahar niloy
Among Lord Krsna's limitless sports, His pastimes as a human being (nara-lila) are certainly the best of all, for they are like an unlimited reservoir of ecstatic transcendental mellows. Such mellows are not available even on all the planets in the spiritual sky. So then where are they found? This rasa only lives in the topmost abode of Vraja-dhama.
nitya lila dvi-prakar, santar o nirantar,
jahe majhe rasiker mana
janma-vrddhi daitya-nasa, mathura-dvaraka-basa,
nitya-lila santare ganana
Krsna's eternal pastimes (nitya-lila) are of two types, which are always meditated upon by rasikas (those who know how to relish the mellows)—1) santara (pastimes performed in the material world at intervals, with a beginning and an end, but which repeat eternally), and 2) nirantara (pastimes performed in the spiritual world as perpetual asta-kaliya or eight-fold daily sports). Santara-nitya-lila includes Krsna's birth, His growth through childhood and youth, the killing of many different kinds of demons, and His journey to and residence at Mathura and Dvaraka.
diba-ratra asta-bhage, braja-jana anurage,
kore krishna lila nirantara
tahar birama nai, sei nitya-lila bhai,
Nirantara-nitya-lila is performed incessantly, in eight time divisions throughout the entire day and night. These sports are motivated by His pure loving affection for the residents of Vraja, and the fun does not stop even for a second—therefore it is called nitya-lila, oh brothers! These eight-fold daily pastimes (asta-kaliya-nitya-lila) are imperceptible even for Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and Lord Ananta-sesa.
jnana joga koro jata, hoy taha dura-gata,
suddha raga nayane kevala
sei lila raksita hoy, parananda bitaroy,
hoy bhakta-jivana sambala
Just cast out all of your knowledge and yoga practice, for these ecstatic lilas of Vraja are just waiting for you to behold them with your eyes of unalloyed affection opened wide! These transcendental pastimes are capable of giving you only one thing—topmost spiritual bliss far beyond anything you can even imagine. This only is the sole sustenance for the lives of sincere devotees who follow in the footsteps of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
This final chapter of Gita-mala peaks out as Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura hankers for birth in Vraja in the spiritual body of a gopi, being trained up by the sakhis headed by Sri Lalita and Sri Rupa Manjari for rendering eternal service to the lotus feet of Srimati Radharani. This is the highest goal of all the Gaudiya Vaishnavas who feel attracted to the madhura-rasa, and this is the real gift which was brought by the most merciful incarnation, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All the acaryas in the disciplic succession follow this conclusion, including Svarupa Damodara Gosvami (in his notebook), Srila Ramananda Raya (in Caitanya-charitamrita), the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana, Narottama Dasa Thakura (in his song Sri Rupa Manjari Pada), and Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura (in Sri Krsna Bhavanamrta). And now in this final chapter of Gita-mala, Thakura Bhaktivinoda gives his own conclusive description of the topmost perfection of spiritual life.
This divine perfectional stage can only be attained by the mercy of the bona fide spiritual master, who is already a resident of Vraja. Such a level of perfection is awarded by the guru to the disciple only when he sees that the disciple is totally finished with the material world, and has absolutely given up all forms of mundane (gross and subtle) sense gratification.
Therefore, to actually follow in Bhaktivinoda Thakura's footsteps instead of imitating cheaply, one should offer body, mind and words for the perpetual service of the bona fide representatives of Lord Caitanya, continue following His authorized method of preaching, and give proper respect (from an honest distance) to such exalted, rarely-attainable things as presented by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his final, delightfully ecstatic chapter of Gita-mala entitled "Siddhi-lalasa"—The intense, eager longing for the highest spiritual perfection.
* NOTE: Songs 1, 2, and 9 of this chapter are also found within Thakura Bhaktivinoda's book Saranagati, which was published the same year as Gita-mala (1893); in the section of Saranagati entitled Bhajana-lalasa, they appear as songs 14, 15, and 16 respectively. The other 7 songs are unique to Gita-mala.
* Song 1 is also found in the ISKCON Song Book.
kabe gaura-bane, suradhani-tate,
"ha radhe ha krishna" bo'le
kandiya bedabo, deho-sukha chadi,
When, oh when will I wander here and there weeping in the shade of the trees and creepers along the banks of the celestial Ganges River in Navadvipa? I will cry out "Oh Radhe! Oh Krsna!", and will completely forget about all the so-called pleasures of the material body.
(kabe) swapaca-grhete, magiya khaibo,
puline puline, gadagadi dibo,
When will I be able to live so simply by begging some food from the homes of the untouchables? I will drink the water of the Sarasvati river, and in ecstasy I will roll about on the banks of the river, raising a loud uproar of "Krsna! Krsna!"
(kabe) dhama-basi jane, pranati koriya,
magibo krpar lesa
vaishnava-carana- renu gay makhi',
When will I bow down to all the inhabitants of the holy land of Navadvipa and humbly beg for a drop of their mercy? I will smear the dust of the Vaishnavas' lotus feet all over my body, and will wander around wearing the dress of a madman.
(kabe) gaura-braja-bane, bheda na koriya,
(takhan) dhamer swarupa, sphuribe nayane,
hoibo radhar dasi
When will I make no distinction between the holy land of Gaura-mandala and Vraja-mandala? At that time, I shall be transformed into a Vraja-basi. Then I will see the true form of the transcendental realm opening up before my very eyes, and I will thus become one of the maidservants of Srimati Radharani.
dekhite dekhite, bhulibo ba kabe,
nija sthula paricoy
nayane heribo, braja-pura sobha,
When will I be able to leave my gross bodily identity far behind? Within a split second, I will completely forget about all these false external affairs and behold the exquisite beauty of the divine realm of Vraja, which is completely pervaded with eternal, conscious bliss.
vrsabhanu-pure, janama loibo,
yavate vivaha habe
braja-gopi-bhava, hoibe swabhava,
ana bhava na rohibe
I shall then take birth in the town of King Vrsabhanu, and I will be married nearby in the town of Yavat. My disposition shall be that of a simple cowherd girl of Vraja, and I shall not know any other mood.
nija siddha deha, nija siddha nama,
radha-krpa-bale, labhibo ba kabe,
I shall obtain my own eternal spiritual body, transcendental name, and specific type of beauty and dress for the pleasure of Krsna. And when, by the power of Sri Radha's causeless mercy, will I be allowed entrance into the methods of expressing divine selfless love for Krsna?
jamuna salila, aharane giya,
prema-mugdha ho'ye, pagalini praya,
gaibo radhar jasa
As I go with a waterpot on my head to draw water from the Yamuna river, I shall cherish remembrance of the ecstatic mellows that are shared by the Divine Couple. Thus being enchanted by Their sublime conjugal love, I will wildly sing the glories of Sri Radha like a madwoman.
heno kale kabe, vilasa manjari,
ananga manjari ar
amare heriya, ati krpa kori',
bolibe bacana sar
While I am thus singing and singing, will Vilasa Manjari and Ananga Manjari come along on the same foot-path and, seeing me in this crazed state of mind, begin speaking to me with the sweetest essence of words?
eso, eso, sakhi! shri-lalita-gane,
janibo tomare aj
grha-katha chadi', radha-krishna bhajo,
They will say, "Come, come, Sakhi! Our very dear friend! From now on you will be counted amongst the attendants of Sri Lalita Sakhi! Giving up all your household concerns and fears of transgressing religious principles, just come along with us now and worship Sri Sri Radha-Krsna!"
se madhura vani, suniya e jana,
se dunhar shri-carane
asraya loibe, dunhe krpa kori',
Hearing such sweet words, I will unhesitatingly take shelter of the lotus feet of both these sakhis. Then they will show their merciful favor by taking me by the hand into the forest, finally bringing me into the presence of Sri Lalita Sakhi.
lalita sundari, sa-doya hoiya,
koribe amare dasi
swa-kunja-kutire, dibena basati,
Then the most beautiful Lalita Sundari will behave very graciously towards me and will accept me as one of her own maidservants. She will give me residence in a small cottage in her own garden, knowing me to be intensely desirous of rendering service.
palya-dasi kori', lalita sundari,
amare loiya kabe
shri-radhika-pade, kale milaibe,
When will Lalita Sundari foster me as her own aspirant maidservant? Hopefully she will train me up and eventually offer me unto the lotus feet of Srimati Radharani, placing me entirely at Her disposal for rendering various services according to Her own merciful orders.
shri rupa manjari, sange jabo kabe,
tad-anuga ho'ye, radha-kunda tate,
When will Sri Rupa Manjari take me along with her to the banks of Sri Radha-kunda to give me lessons in the performance of service to the transcendental mellows? She will take me there and make me practice by following her instructions and movements. Thus I will pass my time feeling the greatest delight within my heart.
shri visakha-pade, sangita sikhibo,
shri rati manjari, shri rasa manjari,
hoibe sabe sa-doy
At the lotus feet of Sri Visakha I will learn to play music and sing songs which are full of the transcendental mellows of Krsna's pastimes. All of the other sakhis in our group, including Sri Rati Manjari and Sri Rasa Manjari, will also welcome me into their fold with most kind and affectionate dealings.
parama anande, sakale miliya,
radhika carane rabo
ei parakasta, siddhi kabe habe,
All of us will thus stay together, feeling the greatest supreme bliss, and we will perpetually remain at the lotus feet of Sri Radhika. When, oh when will I achieve this highest excellence of spiritual perfection, whereby I will attain the intoxicating honey flowing from the lotus feet of Srimati Radharani?
tahe kunja sata sata
prabala vidruma- moy taru-lata,
The banks of Sri Radha-kunda are made of billions of conscious, ecstatic desire-fulfilling touchstones, and surrounding the lake are hundreds and hundreds of beautiful transcendental gardens and groves. All the trees and creepers in those gardens are made of coral and rubies, and the fruits they produce are diamonds and pearls. Indeed, their branches are bending down to the ground due to the weight of so many lovely gemstone fruits.
svananda-sukhada, kunja manohara,
tahate kutir sobhe
basiya tathay, gabo krishna nama,
kabe krishna-dasya lobhe
My small cottage is shining beautifully within the most enchanting garden called Svananda-sukhada-kunja (The grove that gives the happiness of my own bliss). Living there, I will sing Krsna's holy name, and will greedily hanker for that time when I will get the personal service of Him and His associates.
emon samoy, muralir gan,
pasibe e dasi-kane
anande matibo, sakala bhulibo,
Suddenly, while chanting and meditating like this, the songs of a divine flute will enter this maidservant's ear. Becoming madly excited by such a sound, I will forget everything and will only listen spellbound to those wonderful songs of Sri Krsna's flute.
radhe radhe boli', murali dakibe,
madiya iswari nama
suniya camaki', uthibe e dasi,
kemon koribe prana
The low, deep sound of His long murali flute will call out, "Radhe. . . Radhe. . ."—the very name of my own worshipable Queen! Startled with wonder by hearing such a sound, this maidservant will jump up in great haste with an extremely anxious heart, not knowing what to do next.
nirjana kutire, shri radha-carana,
smarane thakibo rata
shri rupa manjari, dhire dhire asi,
kohibe amaya kota
Thus waiting in my solitary cottage, I will constantly remain absorbed in the remembrance of Sri Radha's lotus feet. After some time, I will eventually see Sri Rupa Manjari approaching. Coming up to me, she will say some very nice things to me. . .
bolibe o sakhi! ki koro basiya,
dekhaha bahire asi'
jugala milana- sobha nirupama,
hoibe carana dasi
She will say, "Oh Sakhi! My dear friend, what are you doing sitting here? Come outside and look—just see Who is coming! The Divine Couple will now perform Their splendrous, unparalleled transcendental meeting, and today you will be one of the maidservants at Their lotus feet!"
sva-rasiki siddhi, braja-gopi dhana,
jogir dheyana, nirvisesa jnana,
na paya ekhane sthiti
The real treasure of the gopis of Vraja is their sva-rasiki siddhi—the eternal perfection of the personal mellow they each express; and these individual moods are transcendentally fickle and supremely chaste. In contrast, neither the meditations of the yogis, nor the impersonal speculations of the mayavadis cannot bring such practitioners anywhere near the realm of such transcendental mellows as are naturally exhibited by each of the Vraja-gopis.
saksat darsana, madhyahna lilaya,
jakhana je seva, koroho jatane,
shri radha-carane dhani
If I could see Them personally performing Their midday pastimes there at Radha-kunda, I would be very much desirous of serving the lotus feet of Sri Radha. And whenever I get an opportunity to render some small service, I will perform that act with the greatest care and attention, and will thus become rich with the divine treasure of Her lotus feet.
shri rupa manjari kabe
radha-kunda mahima barnibe samgopane
When will Sri Rupa Manjari speak to me with such sweet words in a private place, vividly explaining to me the transcendental glories of Sri Radha-kunda?
e caudda bhuvanopari
tad-apeksa mathura parama sresta hoy
"Beyond these fourteen worlds is the spiritual realm of the Vaikuntha planets. And beyond that, the area known as Mathura is the topmost supreme abode."
vrndavana sresta ati suno mama katha
"Within that Mathura-mandala, the place known as Vrndavana is best of all, for that is where the rasa-lila takes place. Please hear me now as I narrate these glories."
radha-kunda srestatam sarva-sakti-dhara
"Out of all the places in Vrndavana where Krsna performs His pastimes, the place known as Govardhana is even better. And the best place in all of Govardhana is Radha-kunda, which possesses all transcendental potencies."
lalayita ho'ye ami padibo takhan
As soon as I hear Sri Rupa Manjari thus describe the glories of this sacred Radha-kunda, I will become seized with such an eager yearning that I will swoon and fall down on the spot.
sakhir carane kabe koribo
sakhi krpa kori' dibe sva-rasiki sthiti
When will I ever become intensely eager to serve the lotus feet of a sakhi? When will my service-attitude make her so obliged that she will mercifully bestow upon me situation in my own natural eternal mellow?
barane tadit, basa taravali,
kamala manjari nama
sade bara barsa, bayasa satata,
This maidservant has a complexion just like lightning, and she is wearing a sari which has star-like patterns all over it. My name is Kamala Manjari. Eternally appearing to be only twelve-and-a-half years of age, I always live within the abode of Svananda-sukhada-kunja.
karpura seva, lalitar gana,
radha juthesvari hana
mamesvari-natha, shri nanda-nandana,
amar parana dhana
I render the service of preparing camphor within the group of Lalita Sakhi. Sri Radha is the leader of our group, and the center of all our activities. And the Lord of my Queen Radha is the delightful Son of Nanda Maharaja, Who is the treasure of my life.
shri rupa manjari, prabhrtir sama,
jugala sevaya asa
avasya se-rupa, seva pabo ami,
I always desire to execute confidential service to the Divine Couple similar to that which is rendered by Sri Rupa Manjari and her associates. Thus I will certainly get this kind of service, for I so intensely desire it with the absolute totality of my faith.
kabe ba e dasi, samsiddhi labhibe,
radha-kunde basa kori'
radha-krishna-seva, satata koribe,
purva smrti parihari'
When will this maidservant thus attain such completely fulfilled spiritual perfection, living by the banks of Sri Radha-kunda? I will eternally serve Radha and Krsna, and all of my previous memories will be long since forgotten.
vrsabhanu-suta- carana sevane,
hoibo je palya-dasi
shri radhar sukha, satata sadhane,
rohibo ami prayasi
For serving the lotus feet of the charming daughter of King Vrsabhanu, I will become a sheltered maidservant of Her maidservant. Indeed, I will live only for the happiness of Sri Radha, and I will always endeavor to increase Her joy.
shri radhar sukhe, krsner je sukha,
janibo manete ami
radha-pada chadi', shri krishna-sangame,
kabhu na hoibo kami
I will understand within my heart that Krsna feels happiness only when Radha is happy. Therefore I will never, ever covet being with Krsna myself, thereby abandoning Radhika's lotus feet.
sakhi-gana mama, parama suhrt,
tad-anuga ho'ye, sevibo radhar,
All my associate sakhis are my supreme well-wishers, they are my best friends, and they are the teachers of my lessons in conjugal love. By following them loyally, I will serve the lotus feet of Radha, which are just like desire-fulfilling trees.
radha-paksa chadi', je jana se jana,
je bhave se bhave thake
ami to' radhika- paksapati sada,
kabhu nahi heri ta'ke
I am forever given to remaining in the group devoted to Sri Radhika. I will never even look upon those persons who have abandoned Her entourage, whoever they may be and whatever mood they entertain.
shri krishna-virahe, radhikar dasa,
ami to' sahite nari
jugala-milana- sukher karana,
jivana chadite pari
I am absolutely unable to tolerate Sri Radhika's pitiable condition when She is suffering in separation from Sri Krsna—but I am fully prepared to immediately give up my life for the sake of Their happy reunion.
radhika-carana, tyajiya amar,
ksaneke pralaya hoy
radhikar tare, sata-bara mari,
se duhkha amar soy
If I were ever to renounce the lotus feet of Sri Radhika for even an instant, I would become totally devastated. For Her sake, I will gladly tolerate the pain and agony of death hundreds of times.
e heno radhar, carana-jugale,
paricarya pa'bo kabe
haha braja-jana, more doya kori',
kabe braja-bane lo'be
When will I be able to serve such a divine pair of lotus feet as Radha's? Alas, I beg you all, oh residents of Vraja, please be merciful to me now! When will you take me into the transcendental forests of Vraja?
vilasa manjari, ananga manjari,
shri rupa manjari ar
amake tuliya, loho nija pade,
deho' more siddhi sar
Oh Vilasa Manjari! Oh Ananga Manjari! Oh Rupa Manjari! Please lift me up and bring me close to your own lotus feet, thereby bestowing upon me the quintessence of eternal spiritual perfection!