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SRI KRISHNA SANKIRTAN - THE QUINTESSENCE
THIS concluding chapter is an epitome, as it lays great emphasis on 'Shri Krislma-Bhakti' and 'Shri Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan' that is evi¬dently the main subject-matter of this treatise. A special attempt is made in this chapter to point out tlueadbare, the unique position of unalloyed loving devotion to Shri Krishna. It needs no mention that while making efforts to reinforce the main subject, and to bring out its unparalleled glory, the author never, consciously or unconsciously, wishes to wound the feelings of others, who are the votaries of other gods or other modes of worship. The subject is based fully and obediently on the authentic scriptures, as expounded by the six renowned Saints of Vrindavan, who are the pillars of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's cult of loving devotion to Shri Krishna, and Shri Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan, and whose works are living monuments of their tireless work in this field. Shri Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan is the highest form of devotion for all the Jivas in this Kali Yuga. 7/ shows clearly how Shri Krishna-Bhakti is superior to all other forms of worship or religious practices. A few examples are also quoted to enable the reader to come to the same conclusion.
devaasura-manushyesu ye bhajanty ashivam shivam,
praayas te dhanino bhojaa na tu lakshmyaah patim harim.
etad veditum icchaamah sandeho ’tra mahaan hi nah,
viruddha-shilayoh prabhvor viruddhaa bhajataam gatih..540
King Parikshit, while hearing Shrimad Bhagavata from the holy mouth of Shri Sukadev, puts a salient question to him thus, "How is it that the devotees of Siva who apparently seems 'Asiva,' i.e., inauspi¬cious, because of his wearing a necklace of human skulls, smearing his person with the ashes from the burning-Ghat, and carrying ser¬pents on his person, etc., are found to enjoy wealth and worldly en¬joyments in plenty, whereas, the devotees of Shri Krishna, Who is ever being served by the Goddess of wealth, i.e.,
Shri I .akshmidevi, do not become voluptuar-ies?540
Sukadev replies thus, "You have put the same question to me that your grandfather Yudhishthir, after the completion of his horse-sacrifice, had put to Shri Krishna. I shall quote to you Shri Krishna's answer to him." "I gradually deprive the devotee of his wealth, whom I oblige with My Grace. He who desires to renounce enjoyment of worldly pleasures, gets somehow entangled therein and then grieves. To free such a person from the shackles of worldliness is definitely a favour to him, as in the case of devotees like Dhruv, etc., who were averse to the enjoyment of worldly plea¬sures; or to be more accurate, by first bestowing prosperity on him according to his desires, gradually at the end of its enjoyment, I cre¬ate in him a nausea for such transient pleasures and free him with intent to confer on him the highest favour." It is already said by Shri Krishna, "The desires of those whose mind is engrossed in Me, do not tend towards the enjoyments of worldly pleasures, in the same way as the grains which are parched or boiled cannot be used as seeds for sowing." Hence, his (devotee's) own people forsake him and he becomes doubly grieved; he becomes apathetic for the loss of his wealth in the first instance, and secondly because he is forsaken by his own kith and kin; this grief being caused by the Divine Will, cannot be laken as the fruit of his actions. Similarly for a devotee. his happiness too is neither the result of his actions, nor it is the fruit connected with his devotion. "It is already said that practice of Dharma achieves liberation, and the most insignificant creature-comforts or the enjoyment of worldly pleasures, consequent on the satisfaction of the cravings of the sense-organs or senses, are not the real fruits." In the words of Bhishma also, it is established that in the case of devotees, who are addicted to Bhakti alone, all their Prarahdha Karmas, i.e., the accumulated sins of past births, along with their despised seed or the root-cause, are gradually destroyed, like the gradual piercing through or the plucking of the petals of the thou-sand-petalled lotus. This is the opinion of the devotional code, as also of the Srutis, and Gopal Tapani.
"Bhakti is His devotion, which means con¬centrating the mind in Him, without impediments of any kind, in this world or in the next. This itself is Naishkarmya, i.e., free¬dom from worldly acts; this means fixing the mind in Shri Krishna, unimpeded and without any extraneous desires; this is nothing else than the employment of the sense-organs and senses in the service of Shri Krishna. This kind of service alone is Naishkarmya, or freedom, or exemption from worldly acts or their consequences. Hence, because of the ultimate similarity (but not identity) of the situations, as the devotees get more and more engrossed and advanced in Bhakti or devotion, their Naishkarmya or exemption from all kinds of worldly acts or their consequences results automatically; but this shows that inactivity or idleness is not Naishkarmya, unless one en¬gages himself in the service of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna. The sustenance of the body or the physical well-being of the devotees, is due to the inexplicable power of the Lord, which is conducive to the attainment, or achievement of the fruit of intense devotion. But their happiness or sorrow which are apparently similar to the happiness or sorrow arising as the fruit of Prarabdha, are assigned by the Lord or caused by His Will only, and what the Srutis say as co-existent with 'Subha' and 'Asubha', i.e., auspicious and inauspicious. How does the Lord Who is Bhaktavatsala (or kind to His devotees), cause af¬fliction to His Own devotees? If any one puts this question, the answer to it, is truly in the affirmative, in the same way as the father who, even if he is kind to his sons, causes pain to them by asking them to study and'to give up their enjoyments; he alone knows what this Vatsalya or kindness to his children is and not even those very sons, in the heat of the moment realise it. // should not be construed that the Lord WIw is keen in doing what is beneficial to His devotees, favours only a few Bhaktas like Prahlada, Dhruv, etc., by giving them the means of worldly enjoyments and that He is unfair to His other devotees and causes only grief to them. Even great personages like Yudhishthir-the crest-jewel amongst the most eminent sages with Bhim-the expert in the art of the use of the mace, Arjun-the expert archer with the bow 'Gandiv', and even having the Divine Friend Shri Krishna, had to undergo untold miseries. Even the great Bhishma' has uttered the words in grief thus, "O King Yudhislithir! A person can never understand the actions of Shri Krishna in their true perspective, and becomes deluded if he persists in such efforts." The conclusive proof is that He Who is kind to His devotees, along knows His intention and no one else; this is the true logical conclusion."
yasyaaham anugrihnaami harishye tad-dhanam shanaih,
tato ’dhanam tyajanty asya svajanaa duhkha-duhkhitam..541
"Whatever little is inferred therefrom, can be seen there only. Because of the similarity in the enjoyment and suffering of both the kinds of happiness and sor¬row, arising as the result of one's own actions (Svakarmottha) and those caused by the Will of the Lord (Bhagavaduttha), what special peculiarity can one see in these two kinds of happiness and misery? The seed or the root-cause of the former type of happiness or sorrow arising as a consequence of one's acts (Svakarmottha) remain even after their enjoyment or suffering; those who have this seed within them, will again have the disposition to commit fresh sins, persistently indulge in them, and go to the infernal hell; and the enjoyment or suffering as a natural sequence to their good or had actions, will be in proportion to the latter and so this will be the third result of the triad. But as the root-cause of those that are caused by the Will of the Lord, rests in Him only, their (devotees') enjoyment or suffering, will last so long as the necessity is felt by Him and not beyond that, Yama-the god of death, says to his servants. "Bring those non-devotees here who do not utter the Name and Attributes of the Lord, nor remember Him, nor bow Shri Krishna with their heads even once, nor do any kind of ser¬vice to Him." He further says in Nrisinha Purana, "I have been appointed by the Creator-Who is ever being worshiped by other gods, for maintaining justice amongst the people. I punish those people who do not accept Shri Hari Himself as their Guru; whereas I bow down to those who take shelter as the Lotus Feet of Shri Hari as the Guru." Hence, from the words of Yama, it is inferred that devotees of the Lord have not to suffer in the infernal hell; because of their being worthy to receive their Lord's affection, they have not to undergo excess of grief or suffering. There is as . much difference in the suffering arising as a consequence of one's actions (Svakarmottha), and that caused by the Divine Will (Bhagavaduttha) as there exists between the beatings of one's enemy and tlie punishment by his own mother. There is as much difference between them as there is between a deadly poison and nectar. One should decide for himself how there could ever be a comparison be-Iween these two. For the Supreme Lord Who can do and undo any¬thing and everything, can anyone with any modicum of justice say that He teases His devotees without any adequate cause or that He has nothing else to do, except the teasing of His Own devotees and that too without any just purpose? Truly there is some purpose behind it. He is an Ocean of Divine Pastimes. To maintain the secrecy of the loving faith, to prevent the total eradication of other creeds, and to enhance the ardent longing, etc., of the devotees for the Divine Beloved Shri Krishna by loving devotion, even caus¬ing pain at times to the Bhakta who is always dear to Him, re¬sults in the end in his happiness only, like the application of the somewhat irritating collyrium to the eyes. Similarly if the devo¬tees are always happy, there will not arise any occasion for Him to descend on this earth, as stated in the Gita, "For the.protection of the devotees, the destruction of the wicked, and for the maintenance of the Yuga Dharma, I come down on this earth in every age." So if this main reason for His Descent on this earth, as stated in the Gita, were removed, there would not have been the Descents of Shri Krishna, Shri Rama, etc. In that case, how will the devotees enjoy themselves to their heart's content in the Nectarine Ocean of His Divine Pastimes, like the Rasa-Lila, etc.? What wrong would it be for Him to come down here without this sound and appropriate cause of yielding pro¬tection to the aggrieved? True but O brother! You seem to lack in the sense and quality of appreciating the beauty underlying therein. You do not seem to be a Rasabhi jna! So hear me. The sun-rise is appreci¬ated only because of the nights: the sweetness of cold water is expe¬rienced only because of the summer or the hot season; hot water is very much liked only in the contrasting cold season; a lamp looks beautiful and is valued and useful only in pitch darkness and not in the sun-light; food tastes sweet only when one is afflicted by extreme hunger; too many instances have already been quoted; so this should be enough."541
sa yadaa vitathodyogo nirvinnah syaad dhanehayaa,
mat-paraih krita-maitrasya karishye mad-anugraham..542
tad brahma paramam sukshmam cin-maatram sad anantakam,
ato maam su-duraaraadhyam hitvaanyaan bhajate janah..543
tatas ta aashu-toshebhyo labdha-raajya-shriyoddhataah,
mattaah pramattaa vara-daan vismayanty avajaanate..544
shaapa-prasaadayor ishaa brahma-vishnu-shivaadayah,
sadyah shaapa-prasaado ’nga shivo brahmaa na caacyutah..545
"Such a person at the instance of his kith and kin, though still aspiring after wealth, through My uncommon Grace, Which show¬ers Nectarine Bhakti Rasa on him, and when his efforts prove fruit¬less, again gets disgusted and seeks the company of My devotees and 1 oblige him as I would oblige Myself."542 A judicious person, who knows his interests well experiencing the ever-existing, limitless, highest, and indistinct (even to him becaue of its very nature of) loving devotion to Me, and because of its being Spritiual or Tran¬scendental in Nature, having nothing dross or materialistic in it, at¬tains Me, being freed from worldly bondage. "Hence, such of them as were engrossed in the worldly enjoyments and not keen in achiev¬ing Moksha, discarding Me, as I am appeased only after intense, very difficult, and selfless devotion, resort to other gods, like Siva, etc. They consider Me, 'Suduraradhya', i.e., very difficult to be pleased or pleased with great difficulty, as 1 cause their worldly enjoyments to disappear."543 "After obtaining boons to enable them to enjoy the wealth of Kingship from these easy-to-appease gods, they become obstinate, proud, and lascivious (wanton) and forget,these gods, who bestowed boons on them and insult them."544 Shri Sukadev says, "0 King! Shri Vishnu, Brahma, Siva, etc., are quite competent to confer boons or to curse; but Brahma and Siva become pleased with even a little devotion by their devotees, and confer boons on them immedi¬ately. Similarly if they are offended, that very' moment they curse the offenders; but that is not the way with Shri Krishna."545
tesaon krusnachrana praptirevo tadavajana falameetyarthe.
anya-kaami yadi kare krishnera bhajana,
naa maagiteha krishna taare dena sva-carana.
krishna kahe,——‘aamaa bhaje, maage vishaya-sukha,
amrita chaadi’ visha maage,——ei bada murkha.
aami——vijna, ei murkhe ‘vishaya’ kene diba?
sva-caranaamrita diyaa ‘vishaya’ bhulaaiba..546
(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,22.37,38,39)
"Besides even if one performs the services of Shri Krishna for the fulfilment of his various worldly desires, Shri Krishna gives him shelter at His Lotus Feet voluntarily because the fruit of Shri Krishna's service is the attainment of His Lotus Feet. Tesham Krishna-charana-praptirev tadbhajan phalamityarthah. Shri Krishna says, "That fellow is a fool not knowing his own wel¬fare, which consists in taking unconditional and absolute shelter at My Lotus Feet. No doubt he serves Me; but discarding My Nectarine Lotus Feet, he asks for chaff-the most deadly poison of the fulfilment of his worldly desires. How can I allow him to do so? After all he is a fool; he knows not his own interest; but I am Omniscient. So how can I give him what he asks of Me, like a child that asks of its father to give it some cheap eatables that will upset its health and well-being ? Hence I certainly give him My Nectarine Lotus Feet,and make him forget his covetousnes to drinkthe poison of worldliness."546
atra codaaharantimam itihaasam puraatanam,
vrikaasuraaya girisho varam dattvaapa sankatam..547
prahalad dhrubrabananujabaleeya sanvari sadayasate shri visnuparayana bidhi vabaprestha jaganmongala,
yenye rabanabana paundrak brukakaucha dayaste swayon yada vakta na ca tat priya na ca harestasma jjag duarinah..548
=sibo vabatu vaisnabah kimajitepee saibh swayon tatha samatyathva bidhee hara deemrutinnayam,
bilokaya vababedhaseh kimapee vaktabargakramon pranamya sirsa hi tao bayamupendra dasyon shreetah..549
"Vrikasur practised penance and appeased Siva and obtained from him the boon of reducing those to ashes, on whose head he placed the palm of his hand. Being diffident as to the infallibility of this boon, he wanted to experiment its genuineness on Siva only, who ran for his life to Shri Krishna, and was ultimately saved from Vrikasur's experiment."547 "Prahlada, Dhruv, Vibhishana, Bali, Vyas, Ambarish, etc., are devoted to Shri Vishnu, and are dear to Brahma and Siva as well, and make the whole universe auspicious, i.e., are venerated by the whole universe; there is the other class of devotees like Havana, Bona, Paundrak, Vrika, Krauncha, etc., who are not liked even by him whose devotees they are, i.e., they are neither liked by Brahma, Siva, nor Shri Hah. Hence, the}'are the enemies of the whole universe, i.e.,, they ewe hated by all.548 "Siva may be a devotee of Shri Vishnu, or Shri Vishnu may Himself be a follower of Siva (as He is Bhaktaparadhin), or Shri Vishnu, Brahma, and Siva may even be treated on a par with one another. But seeing the practices ofthe devotees of Brahma and Siva, and bowing down those two with my head, I take absolute shelter at the Lotus Feet of Shri upendra (Shri Krishna) as His servant."549
satyam dishaty arthitam arthito nrinaam naivaarthado yat punar arthitaa yatah,
svayam vidhatte bhajataam anicchataam icchaapidhaanam nija-paada-pallavam..550
The gods say with reference to Shri Krishna thus, "It is true that Shri Krishna confers on them the boons asked of Him; but He does not bestow on them 'Paramaribo'or the highest or the most sublime goal; because as soon as they enjoy the fruit of His boons pertaining to this world, they ask Him again for other worldly gains. Does this mean that He does not give anything to those, who do not ask of Him anything and serve Him selflessly? Shri Vyasadev removes this doubt by emphatically stating, "He (Shri Krishna) of His Own accord, confers on His selfless servitors the Shelter of His tender Lotus Feet Which are the Fulfillers of all their spiri¬tual desires and Which form the cover for their worldly cravings. The selfless devotees are truly blessed. Besides even if one serves Him (Shri Krishna) with some ulterior motives, He out of His causeless Mercy, bestows only the highest and ultimate good. When He is supplicated, He really grants the boon; but He never confers such worldly boons a second time, even if such requests are repeated, because He is the bestower of boons, and worldly enjoy¬ments are disastrous in the end. Then what does He grant? He of His Own accord bestows upon His devotees the highest boon of shelter at His tender Lotus Feet, even if they were never desired by the latter. Because by so doing, he is not troubled any more by worldly desires. Hence, He confers on His Bhakta the highest good, although the latter prayed fur 'Anartha' as it is in His very Nature to favour thus. It is because of this very Nature that a mother who removes earth from the hands or mouth of her children, even if they cry aloud and are unwilling to part with it, gives them sugarcandy. In the end, the devotees become attached or devoted to His Lotus Feet, without craving for the earth-- like worldly enjoyments."550
"Those of the devotees who practise pure loving devotion, though for the fulfilment of some desires, become equally blessed like the selfless devotees. When He (Shri Krishna) is served by His devotees and begged to grant certain worldly boons, He does confer such boons on them; but if such supplications are repeated, at the end of the enjoyment of those confeired first, He never confers such mundane favours on them a second time, as the worldly enjoyments are disastrous in the end. How is this under¬stood? "The desires are not satiated by enjoying the objects of such desires; on the contrary, they increase endlessly like the fire that in¬creases in proportion to the ghee added." "Because He of His Own accord and unasked, bestows upon His devotees like Dhruv, etc., who serve Him selflessly, the highest boon of Shelter at His tender Lotus Feet, Which form a cover for the desires, i.e., because He forcibly gives shelter to such devotees at His Lotus Feet and clouds their de¬sires therewith; thereby they are no more troubled by worldly de¬sires. And again like children who give up their desires for earth after obtaining (unasked) a piece of sugarcandy from their father, these devotees giving up worldly desires, achieve shelter at His Lotus Feet." "A wise person who is desirous of obtaining Moksha (Shri Krishna) should serve the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna with intense devotion, witli or without ulterior desires." Here ' Akamatah' means a devo¬tee who wholly serves Shri Krishna or who firmly believes that his happiness consists solely in pleasing the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna Who is the Object of his worship. Tivrena' means unal¬loyed or unadulterated with Man, Karma, etc. like the intensely hot autumnal sun's rays uncovered by the clouds. It should not be under¬stood that there is absolute similarity in the mode of the ultimate achievement of the tender Lotus Feet of the Lord by the selfless devotees and those who have got their desired objects. The mode of the Sakama devotees is not pure by nature, but is completely refined; an object is assessed or judged on its merits. Hence, the selfless ser-vice of devotees, like Hanuman, is far supe¬rior to that of Dhruv, etc."550
ete caamsha-kalaah pumsah krishnas tu bhagavaan svayam..551
svayam tv asaamyaatishayas tryadhishah svaaraajya-lakshmy-aapta-samasta-kaamah,
balim haradbhish cira-loka-paalaih kirita-koty-edita-paada-pithah..552
raamaadi-murtishu kalaa-niyamena tishthan naanaavataaram akarod bhuvaneshu kintu,
krishnah svayam samabhavat paramah pumaan yo govindam aadi-purusham tam aham bhajaami..553
Shri Krishna is Ecstasy Incarnate and hence accepts only our love and gives love in return too. Worldly pleasures, such as Bhukti, Mukti, etc., are as nothing before Shri KrishnaPrem. Devotion to Shri Krishna is the highest form of Bhakti and Shri Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan is the most exalted in Navavidha Bhakti. "Ete chansakalah punsah Krishnastu Bhagavan Svayam "551 says that all these Avataras already mentioned and those to be mentioned later or further, are all the Par¬tial Manifestations in greater or lesser degree of the Purush-Shri Maha-Vishnu; but Shri Krishna is Svayam Bhagavan. He is full of Shadaisvarya, i.e., the six Divine Attributes in the fullest mea¬sure. These reside in Him and emanate from Him only. He does not depend upon others like the Purush for the manifestation of these Saktis, as the other Manifestations depend on Purush or Maha-Vishnu. It is again said, "Shri Krishna is Himself the Supreme Lord of Trailokya and as He is ever being served by the Samrajya Lakshmi Herself, none of His desires yet remains to be fulfilled; Emperor of gods like Indra and other Kings otter tributes to Him and honour His Footstool by the tips of their crowns."552 The epithet 'Svayam' is used in the case of Shri Krishna alone and not in the case of any other Avataras. "I bow that Supreme Lord Shri Krishna Who manifested Himself in all His fullness of the six Divine Quali¬ties as Krishna, also known as 'Govinda', the Supreme Being, Who inspired the Avataras like Rama, etc., with only the partial and restricted manifes-reigns supreme tation of His 'Aisvarya' or Divine At¬tributes."553
krasnasya nanabidhakirtanesu tannamasonkirtnamebo mukhyam,
tapre masampjjanane swayon drakasakton tath sresthtamon maton tat.
tat shrikrishna namasankirtnamebo sresthatama maton sadavirasma virba.554
namanao mukhytonm nama krusnakhyon me partnap,
prayaschitam sosanom papanao mochak param
"Hence, amongst the various forms of Shri Krishna Kirta.n, like reading Puranas, chanting the Vedas, singing His Praises, or describ¬ing His Attributes, or hearing His Pastimes, etc., the Sankirtan or the incessant, clear, and loud chanting of His Names is impor¬tant, as it quickly kindles in the chanter's heart a craving to love Shri Krishna of its own accord and without having to take resort to other courses like Dhyan, etc. This then matures into a wealth of Divine Love. 'Tannama sankirtanamev mukhyam' also means 'Tat Shri 'Krishna' Nama-Sankirtanamev sreshthatamam", i.e.. His Shri 'Krishna' Nama-Sankirtan is the most important one, because that is the Name most dear to Him."554 "O hero (Arjun)! Out of all My Names, 'Krishna' is the most important Name. It is the sole atonement for all the sins and is also the Best Rescuer."555
punah pulinam aagatya kaalindyaah krishna-bhaavanaah,
samavetaa jaguh krishnam tad-aagamana-kaankshitaah.
krishnah sarcandrmason komudi kumudakaram,
jago gopijanastyekon krishna nama punah punah.
rasageyon jago krasne yavatarayat dhyoni,
sadhu krusneti krusneti tavata digunon jaguh.
krusneti bernayoga lassrabananubandha pradurvabajjadim dambrasonbru tangima.556
"The Name 'Krishna' was always most dear to all the Gopis, and so was 'It' to Krishna too. Whenever they were separated from Him or even when they were enjoying His very company they used to utter 'Krishna', 'KrisJina', accompanied by the nodding of their heads to indicate their consent and even when the Rasa dance readied its climax, these Gopis never forget to utter 'Krishna', 'Kris/ma' inces¬santly. They were so much enamoured and attracted by 'Krishna', 'Krishna-varnah' - the syllables 'Kri-shna', the 'Krishna-varna'-the colour of the rain-bearing clouds 'Krishna' Svarup, etc., that they always used to think and dream of 'Krishna'. Whenever they saw anything black, the peacock, the Kadamba tree, or even the black hair they were reminded of their Divine Lover Shri Krishna. The word 'Krishna' had become their very life-breath. This was the name most dear to them. They liked very much to address Him by this particular distinguished Name which charmed them the most. 'Krishneti vamayugala-sravananubandha pradurbhavajjadimadambar sanvrintangim'; when such is the over¬powering effect of the Name 'Krishna', it is but quite natural that they should call Him by the Primeval and most important Name 'Krishna', dear both to Him and to them as well, as these twin syllables 'Kri-shna' embrace all the aspects of His marvel¬lous Form, Attributes, Pastimes, etc., and thus ever dwell in their mind and heart."556
hastamutikhyniya yatosee balatakrusna kimadavutam,
hrudayadadhi niryasi paruson ganayami te..556.1
The blind devotee, Shri Bilvamangal was being led by Shri Krishna to Vrindavan by holding the former's stick. As they neared the place, Shri Krishna told him, "See! here is Vrindavan. Please let Me go now." Shri Bilvamangal, being overwhelmed with the help rendered by the Cowboy, held fast to His Hand out to gratitude and by the Divine Touch of Shri Krishna, he was overcome with ecstasy. He realised that the Cowboy was None Other than Shri Krishna Himself. He held fast and still more firmly than before to Shri Krishna's Hand and would not leave It, although implored by the Latter. Then Shri Krishna with a jerk of His Hand, got It released from his hold. And Jo! the follow¬ing words spontaneously came out of his mouth. "O Krishna! What wonder is there that You forcibly got Yourself released from the hold of my hand? I shall certainly consider it a great feat of Yours, if You can leave my heart!" This Sloka aptly describes the most loving challenge thrown to Shri Krishna by one of His greatest devotees to leave his heart and the Latter's Bhaktaparadhinata before which the Lord's other powers pale into insignificance. It also shows the unbreakable power of the silken cords of loving devo¬tion to Shri Krishna with which He is bound to His devotees. This is quite in keeping with the Lord's words:- 'Ye yatha mam prapadyante tanstathaiv bhajamyaham' (Gita 4.11), i.e., I serve them in the same way as they serve Me. By practising loving devotion, this stage is reached, when he cannot forget the Lord and His Name, even if he wants to, nor the Lord too can obliterate Him¬self from the devotee's heart and mind, even if requested to do so, as in the above case.556-1
pratyaahritya munih kshanam vishayato yasmin mano dhitsate
baalaasau vishayeshu dhitsati tatah pratyaaharanti manah,
yasya sphurti-lavaaya hanta hridaye yogi samutkanthate
mugdheyam bata pashya tasya hridayaah nishkraantim aakaankshati.556.2
pidaabhir nava-kaala-kuta-katutaa-garvasya nirvaasano
nisyandena mudaam sudhaa-madhurimaahankaara-sankocanah,
premaa sundari nanda-nandana-paro jaagarti yasyaantare
jNaayante sphutam asya vakra-madhuraas tenaiva vikraantayah..556.3
(vidagdha madhba,2.17-1 8)
Shri Rupa Gosvami's following Sloka describes a stage higher than the above, reached by Shri Radhika. "Look at the irony of things! That pretty Maiden Radhika-the Embodiment of innocence, wants to divert Her Mind from 'Krishna', for Whose mere glimpse even the sages yearn with their heart and soul, and divert their minds from worldly objects and concentrate on Him. Similarly the Yogis too try their utmost to have even His slightest glimpse in their hearts as in a flash. But this Shri Radhika, in Her youth¬ful simplicity, wants to rid Her Heart of His memory even, but cannot do so."556.2 "For, those in whose hearts a feeling of selfless love for 'Krishna' sprouts, alone realise that separation from Him causes distress more severe than even the acutest suffering caused by the most deadly and fresh poison known as 'Kalakut'; similarly union with Him causes ecstasy which throws the joy caused by the sweetness naturally flowing from Nectar entirely into the background. In the same way those moments when 'Krishna' Nama does not appear on the tongue should be more bitter than the worst suffering in hell, and the moment when 'Krishna' Nama appears on the tongue or when It is heard by the ears, will cause ecstasy which will surely excel the proverbial sweetness of Nectar, provided there is adequate intensity of love for 'Krishna' Nama in the Sevak."556.3
The following lines show the magic effect of 'Krishna Nama on Shri Radhika, Who is at a loss to know as to what She should do. So She speaks to Her intimate friends thus :-
Who liath made Me hear Shri 'Krishna' Nama?
For It has twanged My vitals by Its charm!
O! My soul is in dire distress!
How charming is Its sweetness!
I ask thee in all meekness.
My mouth can't leave It in any event!
Muttering It every moment,
It causes separation's torment.
All is lost, even My sell-control!
O! Tell Me how I should see Him alone?
If by the prowess of the Name alone,
It thus afflicts My Soul and makes Me feel lone,
OI Tell Me what will not His magic touch cause?
For thus awhile to think 1 pause!
If ever I stay at the place where He stays.
Family name is sure to be stained in disgrace.
I'm doing My best to forget Him and yet,
Quite unable am I Him to forget.
O! What shall I do or where shall I go?
It affects My reputation, I can't forego.
At last it has thus come to pass!
So sings pitcously Dvija Chandidas.
When Shri Radhina is too much afflicted by grief caused by the pangs of separation from Shri Krishna, She wails thus :-
'Tis certain that I shall die, as die I must, But with Krishna-virtues' treasureland whom to trust? My best friends you have been so dear to My Heart! Tattoo My Body, if 1 die, with 'Krishna', on your part, l.alita dear, sure shall utter into My ears 'Krishna' Nama. That on deathbed I may hear My life's Sole Psalm. Nor burn My Body nor consign to Yamuna in a huff, But hang It on safely on the lolly Tamal bough. The Tamal like Krishna is in colour of sky-blue hue, Let My Body, if you please, in unconsciousness rue.
My Belov'd whene'er happens to visit V raja's land, Instilled with life I shall, kenning Him stand.
Unable if I am to sec Him for any reason,
,ct scl,i""at'°n's lire burn Me this very season.
ayi dina-dayaardra naatha he mathuraa-naatha kadaavalokyate,
hridayam tvad-aaloka-kaataram dayita bhramyati kim karomy aham..558.1
Shri Madhavendra Puri - a great devotee of Shri Krishna, was always engrossed in calling 'Krishna' with an intense feeling of love-sick¬ness. Though he was a Sanyasi. he was a great Prem Bliakta. He used to lose his body consciousness and transport with divine ecstasy by the mere sight of a rain-bearing cloud or a peacock, being reminded of Shri Krishna and His eternal Sports. He is the Param Guru of Shri Chailanya Mahaprabhu and is the first off-shoot of the unique cult of unalloyed loving devotion to Shri Krishna. Shri Krishna used to sport with him. as a Cowboy. Shri Madhavendra Puri was always submerged in the intense feeling of separation from Shri Krishna, and Shri Krishna Prem, and in the climax of this particular sentiment and mood, he addressed Shri Krishna and calling Him in utter anguish of heart and uttering his own SlokaSSii' in his last moments, he concluded his Lila in (his world. "Due to the blazing up of a variety of sentiments con¬sequent on the separation from the Divine Beloved, Shri Madhavendra Puri expresses his emotions in his direct appealing address to Shri Krishna as 'Axi', which is an affectionate and appealing term of ad¬dress. Pray bless me with Your Sight. You are ihe Embodiment of infinite sweetness, infinite kindness, and limitless munificence (Madhurya, Karunya, and Audarya). Whereas, I am lacking in ad¬equate power (Anuriipa Abhiruchi) to relish Your sweetness and an adequate craving to plunge myself therein. Out of extreme kindness, You bestow Your sweetness on all who show the least 'Sevonmukhata', irrespective of their fitness to receive your Kindness or not; You drown all those aspirants who show the least 'Sevonmukhata', i.e., a craving for better service while being in service (Sevayam sevayai unmukhata). You are die Protector of all. So, why not protect me? On many occasions in the past, You have protected me. Why not kindly do so again? Or is it mat You are a Tormentor? For You did not hesi¬tate even to kill a woman! You killed Putana without taking her sex into consideration. You are now the Lord of Mathuravasis and have been attracted by townswomen; and that is why You show Your aver¬sion to Vrajavasis, who are rustics like me! You are the Lord of Madhurya Rasa; so why not give me a taste of It too? When will You ever be seen by me? When shall I have the good fortune to have Your Sight? My heart is distressed without You! O Merciful Lord! My heart is extremely restless for what of a sight of You. I cannot bear the separation from You any longer. My heart becomes unsteady and enters into a stupor. Your separation stupifies me. What shall I do? Where shall I go? To whom but You alone shall I resort? What am I doing here? So saying and in extreme agony of heart and anguish, Shri Madhavendra Puri breathed his last." It is with such extreme feeling of separation and anguish of heart that the Lord must be directly called by His Name 'Krishna' by Which He is as good as purchased and is compelled to give His Darsan to His ardent devotee.558.1
sahasra-naamnaam punyaanaam trir-aavrittyaa tu yat phalam,
ekaavrittyaa tu krishnasya naamaikam tat prayacchati..559
inda kiriti sanjpya jaye pasupatastra vaka,
krishnasya pranavutah sann krishna sarathi maptavann..560
kimindo bahuna sonsana manusananda nirvare,
brhamananda mavapyante krasnsa sayo jayama pnuyata..561
(hari bhakti bilas, 2.11.488,489,490)
innan brahamanamatyanto kamate va suraon pibana,
krishna krsne tyheranno sankirtaya suchitamiyatta..562
(hari bhakti bilas,2.494)
"Any one of the Names pertaining to the Descent of Shri Krishna will grant all the advan-tages that one obtains by the thrice repetition of the auspicious thousand Names (Shri Vishnu-Sahasra-Nama)."559 "Arjun, with an eye on the Pasupatastra, having muttered 'Krishna' Nama to the fullest extent, not only got it, but became as dear to Him as His very Soul, Whom he got as his Divine Charioteer."560 "Why praise more? By merely uttering any Name pertaining to 'Krishnavatar' or Krishna's Descent constantly, one can obtain excessive joy right from Brahmananda or Spiritual Bliss leading finally to association with Krishna Himself in His eternal service."561 "One who, having killed a Brahmin with his own hands out of excessive infatuation or lust or having drunk liquor, utters only 'Krishna', 'Krishna' and noth¬ing else, becomes absolutely pure. The word 'Atyanta' indicates 'Sakshat' i.e., in person or with his own hands and in plenty; the participle 'Hanan'. i.e., having killed shows his desisting from such heinous acts. Similarly 'Swam pibari, i.e., having copiously drunk liquor, but has now given up this dirty habit. 'Ahoratramekamev Sankirtya' indicates excess of Sankirtan; or even if he having drunk liquor, day in and day out, utters only 'Krishna', 'Krishna', becomes absolutely auspicious and pure; or even if he drinks liquor day and night, but utters 'Krishna', 'Krishna', he becomes purified."562
krsnetee mangalon nama yasya bachi prabartate,
vasmi vabanti rajendra mahapatak kettayah..563
krishna krsneti yo ma smarati nityash,
jalon vitava yatha ponjjom narkadudharamyahama..564
sansar sarpsondston nastace stkavesajjam,
krsneti baisnaba mantrom srutava mukte vabennarh..565
(hari bhakti bilas, 2.11.497)
"O King! Even crores of the vilest sins of the person are totally destroyed, in whose speech the most auspicious 'Krishna' Nama some¬how predominantly exists, i.e., the 'Krishna' Nama somehow mani¬fests Itself in his mouth, without faith, etc., and unintentionally. His sins are not only immediately destroyed, but his speech too becomes highly propitious. Even if It remains in his mouth as a symbol, with¬out his having any faith, the result is always good, as it is in Its very nature to be very auspicious to all."563 "I lift him who daily remem¬bers even once My Name 'Krishna', even from the most infernal hell, as I lift the earth at the time of the universal destruction; or like the lotus immersed in water, I lift him who is immersed in the hell of worldliness. He will be untouched or unaffected by worldliness any more, indicating his liberation therefrom, as is the case with the lo¬tus that has burst forth from the quagmire."564 "A person hearing the Vaishnav Mantra 'Krishna' - the Divine Remedy even to him who is lost to himself, being bitten by the serpent-like worldliness will be¬come liberated therefrom. 'Krishna' Nama is the medicine to revive a person, who has lost his consciousness, being bitten by the serpent of worldliness. There is no other remedy so sure as this 'Krishna' Nama, i.e., It is second to none."565
naamnaam mukhyatamam naama krishnaakhyam me parantapa,
prayascita masesanam papanamo mocakm param..566
yan yan sthite bapi krishna krsneti kirtayena,
servapapabisudhatma sa gacacheta parmam gatim..567
ballbikant kinte sterupayeh krishnanama te,
kintu jahivagranga jagrannirundhe hi mahavayam..568
"O hero! Amongst all My Names, 'Krishna' is the most im¬portant Name. It is the sole atonement for all sins and is also the Best Rescure. The word 'Mochak' means the Giver or Bestower of the highest Mukti, i.e., Shri Krishna Himself,"566 "He who utters 'Krishna', 'Krishna', in whatever situation he be placed or wherever he may be, attains the Lotus Feet of Shri Krishna in (jolok."567 "O Ballavikanta (Gopa)! Why should you entertain any idea for practis¬ing other courses, so long as the 'Krishna' Nama ever exists on your tongue? When the Name 'Krishna' throbs on your tongue, even Mahakal will be afraid of you. What is the earthly good of following Karmamarga, Jnanamarga, Yoga, etc. or even other forms of devo¬tion, like Sravana, i.e., hearing His Pastimes, etc? When 'Krishna' Nama always manifests on the tongue, It curbs the 'Tritapas' or the three kinds of distress caused by this Sansarov the course of worldly life or It makes him averse to liberation as 'Krishna' Nama is more full of Transcendental Bliss and is of a higher order than the state of liberation. It makes even Krishna subservient to the devotee, in spite of the latter and much against his will."568
" I am telling you,o sambhu nothing but the bare truth, which is to be properly cherished.
Shri 'Krishna' Nama is the Divine Elixir to re¬store even death itself or like the life-restoring remedy to the dead."569"
satyom bravimi te sovem gopaniyamida mam,
mruty sanjivani nama krishna khyamvadharaya..569
(hari bhakti bilas, 2.11.501)
krishnah krishna krishna intyantakale jalpn janturjibitom ye jahati,
adhah sabdoh kalpate tasya muktye bridanamre tisthatenyabruna sthao..570
tevye namestu vababaridhi jirna panksonmagrame khyni bichikhynapadukevyah,
krasneti bornayoga lasravanena yosamananda thurvabati narititaremabrundah..571
(hari bhakti bilas, 2.11.504)
jnaanam asti tulitam ca tulaayaam prema naiva tulitam tu tulaayaam,
siddhir eva tulitaatra tulaayaam krishna-naama tulitam na tulaayaam..571.1
yoga-shruty-upapatti-nirjana-vana-dhyaanaadhva-sambhaavita-svaaraajyam pratipadya nirbhayam ami muktaa bhavantu dvijaah,
asmaakam tu kadamba-kunja-kuhara-pronmilad-indivara-shreni-shyaamala-dhaama-naama jushataam janmaastu lakshaavadhi..571.2
"He who breathes his last, uttering 'Krishna', 'Krishna', 'Krishna', by the first utterance of the Name Kris/ma', he attains to His Lotus Feet and the 'Krishna', 'Krishna' uttered a second and a third time, remain ever indebted to the utterer out of a sense or feeling of shame due to Their indebtedness. Tliis shows that 'Krishna' Nama ever re¬mains in his mouth, i.e., It will always manifest Itself on his tongue; since the Possessor of the Name is not different from the Nama, He too, will ever remain indebted to the utterer, indicating that the Lord too, is won over by uttering His Name. "57° "I bow down to those whom the twin syllables 'Kri-shna' cause to dance out of raptur¬ous joy, as soon as they enter into their ears and the hair on whose bodies to bristle up out of thrills and whose sandals even are quite capable of liberating those stuck in the quagmire of chronic world-liness."571 "Spiritual knowledge has found comparison by the fruits that it accomplishes as in the Sloka 'Salok)<a-sarshti-sarupya, etc.; but it has never been possible to weigh the selfless loving devo¬tion to Krishna, Who is actually won over more by loving devo¬tion than by the acquisition of spiritual knowledge. Similarly the 'Ash!a Siddhis' or the mystic supernatural powers by practising which, everything belonging to this mundane world can be achieved, except the Lord, are of no consequence and can be compared too with the results that they achieve. But Shri 'Krishna' Nama has never been compared, as It is weightier than even Shri 'Krishna' Svarup"571' Those who taste the sweetness of the ever-blissful Shri 'Krishna'Nama, do not care to entertain the least possible longing for liberation in the remotest corner of their hearts. This feeling is described in Shri Isvar Puri's Sloka thus, "Let those twice-born, such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, etc., who practise 'Yoga, Dhyan, Dharana, etc., or follow the teachings of the Srutis or do what they will in a dense lonely forest to achieve concentration of the mind leading upto Atmaramatva or Brahma-sakshatkar' and final emancipation, or roam about from one holy place to another in search of the above. But / shall never be vexed even if I have to pass through lacs and lacs of births, while relishing the sweetness of Shri 'Krishna' Nama of Syamasundar, Who has the splendour of the colour of the collection of nightlotuses inside the bower amongst the dark Kadamba trees. The conclusion is that those people who practise 'Yoga, Dhyan, Dharana, etc.,' have nothing but final emancipation as their ultimate goal; but the Bhakti-rasajna Bhaktas, who can well appreciate and relish the sweetness of the Divine Name 'Krishna', treat that type of liberation as worse than chaff. Shri 'Krishna' -Nama-Sankirtan to these Rasajnas is both the Sadhan and Sadhya, i.e., It is the ultimate end of human existence.571.2
svargaarthiyaa vyavasitir asau dinayaty eva lokaan mokshaapekshaa janayati janam kevalam klesha-bhaajam,
yogaabhyaasah parama-virasas taadrishaih kim prayaasaih sarvam tyaktvaa mama tu rasanaa krishna krishneti rautu..572
pusna nametat punarukta sovamumusnotarm serudayanmu
dina-bandhuriti naama te smaran yaadavendra patito 'ham utsahe,
bha kta-vatsalatayaa tvayi shrute maamakam hridayam aashu kampate..573.1
"The yearning to enjoy the pleasures of heaven, makes all people in their pursuit only very wretched; the desire for liberation only causes intense distress; even the practice of Yoga or abstract medita¬tion, is quite insipid; what is the use of such abortive exertions? So let my tongue giving up all these practices, only shout 'Krishna! Krishna'!"572 "This- my inexplicable existence called 'Krishna' manifesting in my mouth, doubly enhances its beauty, as the rise of the cool moon brings on the swelling of the ocean of my thirst for Thee."573 This SlokcF^^ vividly shows the inexhaustible fund of utter humility of a selfless devotee. "O Yadavendra! O Krishna! When I remember Your Name 'Dinavatsala', i.e., One Who is kind to or the friend of the fallen or miserable souls, It fills me with ever-fresh hopes that I will receive Your succour, because all Your Names have the meaning easily deducible from Their etymology and it is Your Creed to live up to Them. Hut when I hear from other devotees about Your other Name 'Bhaktavatsala', i.e., a Friend of the devotees, my heart actually shudders to think if I will ever he eligible to receive Your Kindness, as I am utterly devoid to Bhakti; as such I may not have the good fortune to have even a particle of Your Grace." This true feeling doubly enhances their (devotees') thirst and craving for intense devotion and Shri Krishna too, being the Em-bodiment of Munificence (Audarya), and
Sweetness, instead of quenching the devotional thirst, enhances it fourfold and this process goes on endlessly, without the least feeling of satiation on either side. This is the true nature of Di¬vine Intoxication of Shri 'Krishna' Nama"'573.1"
Victory to Thee, O Gad! Victory to Tliee!
O Divide Illuminator! Have the better of me!
Thou art Krishna! Victory, victory, victory to Thee.
Thou art Nectar to the ears, the mind, and the eyes.574
kalyaanaanaam nidhaanam kali-mala-mathanam paavanam paavanaanaam paatheyam yan mumukshoh sapadi para-pada-praaptaye procyamaanam,
vishraama-sthaanam ekam kavi-vara-vacasaam jivanam saj-janaanaam bijam dharma-drumasya prabhavatu bhavataam bhutaye krishna-naama.575
"May Shri 'Krishna' Nama, Which is the Reservoir of all that is auspicious, the Destroyer of all the sins of Kali, the Purifi¬er of all that is pure, i.e., the Primeval Source of Purity, the pro¬vision or allowance to the sage desirous of final beatitude to se¬cure for him the highest goal of Golok, the only place of eternal rest, for the words of the wise men like Shri Vyasdev, Sukadev* etc., i.e., whenever the Name is remembered for the materialisations of their actions, their words, without taking the form of advice to others, culminate in the resplendent glorification of Shri Nama Mahatmya, i.e., the grandeur of the Divine Name, and hence the ultimate resting place for the words of the sages,the life-breath of saints who are engrossed in Nama-Sankirtan, and the seed of the tree of Dharma or religious practices, be¬cause all such practices find their origin in Nama alone, provide in profusion for the welfare of all of you."575
namacintamanih krishna scheta nyara sabigrhah,
purnah sudhe nitya mukte minnatuavanna manamineh..576
(hari bhakti bilash ,2.11.503)
"The Name Itself is 'Chintamani', i.e., the wish-yielding (Jem including the achievement of shri krishina because jt is not different from Shri 'Krishna' Svarup. All the phrases in the Sloka are adjectival clauses to the word 'Krishna', Krishna is 'Chaitanya-rasa-vigraha', i.e., the Embodiment of luscious sweetness of Divine Consciousness as (1) 'Asvadya', that which is to be tasted, (2) 'Asvadak', that which imparts taste to others, and (3) 'Asvadan', the act of tasting itself, because the 'Nami', viz., 'Krishna' Svarup is the same as the Name 'Krishna'. Krishna is also the Divine Embodi¬ment of all-alluring sweetness as 'Chaitanya', i.e., Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Who not only tasted the ever-fresh sweetness of 'Krishna' Nama, but also imparted It to one and all, in all possible unimaginable ways that they too should relish Its ravishing sweetness. He is the Embodiment of the 'Rasa' or the relishing of the Supreme Spirit as the essence of all being and source of our sensation. 'Chaitanya' is the self-illuminory principle which increases one's craving to taste the 'Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan-Rasa' more and more, once one tastes of It a bit, i.e., one who tastes even a drop of this Transcendental Ocean of 'Krishna-Nama-Sankirtan-Rasa' is sure to be carried away by Its current and would go on relishing It more and more and never like to come out of It, inspite of himself. Hence, He is Krishna - the dual manifestation of the 'Sacchidananda-Rasa-Riipa', i.e., the Existence-Knowledge-Bliss-Incarnate as 'Nami'- the Possessor of the Name, and the 'Nama- the Transcendental Name Itself. Hence, It is Puma, i.e., endowed with all His potentialities or powers including those to enable them to taste sweetness. He is Suddha, i.e., pure without the least tinge of Maya or His illusory energy and free from any attribute of the material world and its objects. He is Nitya-mukta, i.e., ever-free. As such those who take absolute recourse to chanting of the Name, are also freed, once and for all, from the bondage of world-liness. There is no categorical difference between the 'Nami', and the 'Nama'.576
ishvarah paramah krishnah sac-cid-aananda-vigrahah,
anaadir aadir govindah sarva-kaarana-kaaranam..577
"Shri Krishna- the Supreme Lord known as the 'Govinda', Who is the most perfect Embodiment 0f Existence-Knowledge-Bliss existing from eternity, is the Source of everything and the Pri¬meval Cause of all causes."577 It is already said in Shrimad Bhagavata that "All these are His Partial Manifestations in various degrees, but Shri Krishna is Svayam Bhagavan Himself, i.e., the Supreme Lord,"578 Hence, He is called 'Paramah', Tsvarah', and 'Krishna'. In the Sloka 577 Krishna is the distinctive 'Noun' or 'Name' and all the other terms are Its Attributes qualifying 'Krishna'. "It is also said by sages like, Sukadev that Krishna, Who is Vasudev, Devakinandan, etc., proving clearly that 'Krishna' is the singularly Pre-eminent Name amongst all His Names."579 "At the time of His naming cer¬emony too, Shri Gargamuni said that His Name for that Yuga, would be 'Krishna', because of (1) the heavenly blue colour of His com¬plexion, (2) His power of attracting to Himself all - both animate and inanimate creations, (3) because of His assuming upon Him¬self all the powers of His Partial Manifestations and of ali Yugavataras too in super-abundance which conclusively proves His authority over all, including the other Avataras."580 Because of these, His Name 'Krishna' is etymologically significant, i.e., has all the meaning easily deduciblefrom etymology of the Name, 'Krishna', and (4) includes the meaning of, One Who has the twin syllables (Varnas) 'Kri-shna' in His Name. It is also said in Prabhas Khanda, 'Ohero (Aijun)! Out of all My Names, 'Krishna' is the most important Name."581 In Brahmanda Purana it is said, 'All that is obtained by the thrice repetition of Shri Vishnu-Sahasra-Nama is grandly achieved by the utterance of 'Krishna' Nama once."582 All these facts refer to 'Krishna'only as the Supreme Lord. The Epithet 'Govinda' only explains His special aspect of Mastery, Overlordship, or Indratva over all the sense-organs, i.e., 'Gavendratva' and hence, It qualifies 'Krishna'.
"Hence, by conventional acceptance, the eminence of 'Krish¬na' Nama is proved, the other terms being Its adjective."583 It is clearly mentioned thus:- "He assumed appropriate Forms befitting the three Yugas with suitable tints of complexion, like white, red and yel¬low, which are now merged in 'Krishna' (sky blue) colour. Hence, He will be known as 'Krishna', because that is the tint that predomi¬nates in this Yuga."584 "He has many Names depicting His character¬istic qualities."585 "The syllable 'Krish 'denotes the property of 'draw¬ing towards oneself or atracting', or 'Existence', and the suffix 'na' denotes 'Bliss'. The culmination of these realities in the Supreme Being is 'Krishna',i.e., Who is Eternal Bliss."5*6 "The meaning derived etymologically is also the same. A similar Sloka5s7is met with in the commentary of the 18-letter Mantra in GautamiyaTantra. Tlie root 'Bhu' is used to indicate that from which all wishes originate, which has the same meaning as that of ¦Krishna'. In the Gautamiya Tantra, the root 'Bhu'is used to indicate its quality of 'Existence'. Hence, the root 'Krish'denotes 'Existence'; the suffix 'na'means 'Bliss'; 'Atnui' means Bliss. So if the meaning of 'Krish' is also that of the root 'Bliss' then only all the meanings can be established, because the roots 'Krish', 'Bhu' and 'Ash"are indicative of all 'Kriyas' or actions. In the GautamiyaTantra, even if the root 'Bhu' stands for 'Sattd'ot existence, its meaning is the same as that of the root 'Krish'. When it is said that an earthern jar exists, it refers to its own exist¬ence and not to that of any other object like cloth, etc. Similarly if the root 'Krish'is taken to mean 'attraction', the suffix 'na'means bliss or happiness arising therefrom. 'Samanyadhikarana' or the state of their relating to the same object is not possible; hence, it is to be taken as the use of identity between the cause and effect, as in the statement 'Ayurghritam', i.e., 'ghee is life'. Here though 'ghee' is the 'cause' for the longevity of life, it is taken as 'life' itself. In the same way 'Bliss' is the cause of 'attraction ', and the former has been substituted by its effect, i.e., 'attraction'- the effect of 'Bliss' or the effect is identified with the cause. He Who through His Own Bliss, causes attraction or attracts, is Himself 'Krishna'. "He is also known as 'Param Brahman' because of the ever-increasing su¬periority of His attractive power over those of all. He is also known as the Supreme Lord because of His vastness and His Nature to cause others to increase."5** How He accomplishes this is told in the Srutis. It is also said in the Brihad Gautamiya Tantra thus:- "The root 'Krish' denotes 'Existence' and the suffix 'na' denotes 'Bliss'. Hence, by their union, the term 'Chit'is attributable to Param Brahman only."589 "Krishna is Bliss endowed with the power of attracting all; because of His Blissful Svarup or disposition, the Jiva or Atma be¬comes blissful, being engrossed in Divine Love."5'-"1 "Fie is called 'Krishna' because He attracts all both movables and immovables.
athava karsayate sarvon jagate sthavarjongamam,
kalarupena vagabonstenayon krishna uchyate..591
vishtabhyaaham idam kritsnam ekaamshena sthito jagat.593
eka vasi swargah krasna idayah.594
parah srwatakrusta maa laxmirupah saktaye yasiman.595
krasne be parom devatam.596
purusamusa bhamandhon krishna sangya natosisim.597
krishnam enam avehi tvam aatmaanam akhilaatmanaam,
jagad-dhitaaya so ’py atra dehivaabhaati maayayaa..598
shri-krishna krishna-sakha vrishny-rishabhaavani-dhrug-raajanya-vamsha-dahanaanapavarga-virya,
govinda gopa-vanitaa-vraja-bhritya-gita tirtha-shravah shravana-mangala paahi bhrityaan..599
He is also called 'Kala' because He is the Controller of all.""591 Uddhav says, "Shri Krishna because of His incomprehensible affluence, is the Master of the three worlds. He, Whose all desires are fulfilled and Whose footstool is ever being respected by the tips of the crowns of all the Kings, offering their due tributes to Him, is also ever being served by the goddess of fortune, prosperity, and beauty."592 Shri Krishna says to Arjun, "I am pervading the whole universe with an aliquot part of My Person."593" In the Tapani Smti, it is said. "Krishna is the Sole Controller and He is solely to be sung and glorified by all." 594 "Because of His Overlordship, He is Taramah', i.e.. He Who is served by Shri f akshmi, i.e., the Goddess of affluence of all Saktis or regal powers."595 "That Shri Krishna is the highest God."596" In Shrimad Bhagavata it is said, "I bow down to the Prime¬val Punish known as 'Krishna".597 Shri Sukadev tells Parikshit thus, "Know Him to be Krishna. Who is the Soul of all souls, and Who. for the welfare of all, i.e., to attract the minds of all towards Him¬self, wherein lies their eternal welfare, manifests Himself as a Human Being out of sheer kindness."598" His Pastimes like a Human Being are solely due to His being under the influence of His Kindness. Suta says, "O Krishna O Krishnasakha, i.e., the Friend of Arjun! 0 the most excellent among the Vrishnis! O the Destroyer of spiteful Kings! O Ye of undiminishing prowess! O Govinda, i.e., Controller of all the sense-organs! You Whose Glory is ever be¬ing sung by Your servants like Narada and multitudes of Gopis! O Ye Who are auspicious to the ears! Protect us by instilling in us selfless devotion to You."599
krishna-varnam tvishaakrishnam saangopaangaastra-paarshadam,
yajnaih sankirtana-praayair yajanti hi su-medhasah..600
In this Sloka 'Krishnavarnam tvishakrislmam"'600 the Kali Yugavatar, after the
descent of Svayam Bhagavan Shri Krishna, is referred to as "Who is 'Akrishna', i.e., is fair and yellowish in colour. Wise people adore the splendour of His com¬plexion as in 'Asan Varnastrayo Hyasxo, etc.'. In this Sloka after de¬scribing the three colours of His Complexion for the three Yugas, the colour of the residuary Yuga, viz., of Dvapar adopted by Him is de¬scribed as' Krishna' - heavenly blue hue. Because the Satya and Treta Yugas had already elapsed, the 'Pitavarna' of the Descent refers to the already past Avatar. Here it is said that Shri Krishna is the Fullest Manifestation, i.e., Svayam Bhagavan,551 all the other Avatars are merged or included in Him and all the functions of the Yugavataras will be accomplished by Him only. He, Who descends as Svayam Bhagavan Shri Krishna in Dvapar, will certainly descend as 'Gaur' in the following Kali Yuga, indicating thereby that the 'Gaur' Avatar is the special Descent of Shri Krishna Himself possessing a natural excellence and elegance. This Descent of 'Gaur' is described by Shri Vyasadev with unfailing accuracy with His Own Epithets like •Krishnavarnam', etc., i.e, One in Whose Name the two syllables 'Kri-shna' exist as the Name 'Shri Krishna Chaitanya' discloses His Krishnatva (Svayam Bhagavattva) of Which the twin syllables 'Kri¬shna' connected with His Name are befittingly present; or One Who Himself sings 'Krishna' out of excessive joy arising from the recol¬lection of His ecstatic Pastimes and out of sheer uncontainably exu¬berant kindness to Jivas, preaches It to all of them; or One Who is 'Akrishna', i.e., 'Gaur' (yellowish fair complexioned), by the splendour of His complexion alone, infuses into the people the feel¬ing to take 'Krishna' Nama or Who by His very presence alone in¬spires one and all to utter 'Krishna'; or the Caretaker of all people; Krishna, though He descends as 'Gaur', is realised by His ardent devotees as Svayam Bhagavan Shri Krishna only by the splendour or Divine illumination which conclusively proves that He, i.e., 'Gaur' is the Descent in toto of Shri Krishna only. His Svayam Bhagavattva is elucidated by the explanation of the term 'Sangopangastraparshadam', i.e., He Who is ever present with His Attributes, secondary Attributes, which are in themselves His orna¬ments due to their all-alluring nature and are also His because of their great prowess, and are also His Parshadas as His retinue or at¬tendants residing always near Him; thus He has been experienced by a great many personages of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, etc., or Who lives with His Angas, i.e., Shri Nityananda Prabhu, Shri Advaita Acharya, etc., Who like Him are also the subject of the intense love and es¬teem of all in a like manner; by the second meaning, the same mean¬ing is arrived at. How is He worshipped? He is worshipped with the necessaries of worship to which the words like 'Na yatra yajnesamakhah, etc, Bh. 5.19.24' of gods bear testimony. By the adjective 'Sankirtanprayaih' qualifying the word 'Yajnaih', Shri Vyasadev indicates the subject-matter, viz., 'Sankirtan', i.e., the loud congregational chanting of 'Krishna' Nama in unison and relishing the Bliss thereof. This shows that Sankirtan was also the subject-matter of His followers. Hence, in Saharsa-Nama, the 149th Chapter of Mahabharata in Dan Dharma, all His Names describing His various Attributes and indicative of Descent as 'daur' are met with, of which, the particular Sloka 'Suvarna-varno hemango, etc.,' means, "One Who has the splendour of gold, of yellowish complex¬ion, of beautiful Body, Wearer of the most excellent bracelets, a Sanyasi, etc.," Which are applicable to Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. This has been clearly disclosed by the most eminent Shri Sarvabhaum Bhattacharya, "Othe wasp-like mind! Clasp fast to the Lotus Feet of Shri Krishna Chaitanya Who descends on this earth to manifest the Glory of His loving devotion, which had disappeared with the lapse of time." "In Prahlada's words 'Chhannah kalau yadabhavastriyugotha sa tvarti, Bh. 7.9.38', He is known as 'Tri Yuga' also, as His real Form is concealed (not disclosed) in Kali Yuga, i.e., One Who as¬sumes His Real Forms in Krita. Treta, and Dvapar Yugas.'600""
dhyeyam sadaa paribhava-ghnam abhishta-doham tirthaaspadam shiva-virinci-nutam sharanyam,
bhrityaarti-ham pranata-paala bhavaabdhi-potam vande mahaa-purusha te caranaaravindam..601
athaapi te deva padaambuja-dvaya-prasaada-leshaanugrihita eva hi,
jaanaati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno na caanya eko ’pi ciram vicinvan..602
tad astu me naatha sa bhuri-bhaago bhave ’tra vaanyatra tu vaa tirashcaam,
yenaaham eko ’pi bhavaj-janaanaam bhutvaa nisheve tava paada-pallavam..603
aho ’ti-dhanyaa vraja-go-ramanyah stanyaamritam pitam ativa te mudaa,
yaasaam vibho vatsataraatmajaatmanaa yat-triptaye ’dyaapi na caalam adhvaraah..604
tad bhuri-bhaagyam iha janma kim apy atavyaam yad gokule ’pi katamaanghri-rajo-’bhishekam,
yaj-jivitam tu nikhilam bhagavaan mukundas tv adyaapi yat-pada-rajah shruti-mrigyam eva..605
"O Protector of those gone to You for refuge! O Supreme Lord!I bow to Your Lotus Feet Which are always fit to be mediated upon without the least restnc-'tions of time and place, which destroy all im-pediments like, Karma, Irian, Yoga, to the prac¬tice of unalloyed devotion to You, Which are the wish-yielders, and holy because of Their being the resort ofthe holy river Ganga, Which are ever being extolled by Siva and Brahma, Which Lire (he fittest sanctuary to be sought alter by all, Which destroy the acutest distress of their servants and Which are the ship to cross (his ocean of world-liness."601 "O Omnipresent Illuminalor! 0 Lord Who manifest the six divine excellences! He who is indeed favoured even with an iota of Your Grace, alone knows the true significance of Your grandeur, and no one else, even if he hankers after il for a long time, by practis¬ing everything other than Your loving devotion."602"- "() my Protector! O Divine Fulfiller of all desires! Either in this existence or in any other birth, if it be my good fortune to happen to be counted one amongst Your countless devotees, I shall wholeheartedly serve Your Lotus Feet. Then only such a person would be considered very fortu¬nate and not otherwise."603 "O Lord! Though none of Your wishes yet remains to be fulfilled, You dearly drank (he milk of Vraja's cows and Gopis in the Form of their calves and sons, although all (he sac¬rifices offered from ages immemorial have not been able to satisfy You. How highly blessed indeed are (he cows and (he Gopis of Vraja!"'"604 "I shall consider myself as more than highly fortunate, if I am all* wed to be born in any species, either as a blade of grss or even as a worm, so that I may have a full and thorough (op-to-loe ablution in the feetdiist of any of the Vrajavasis whose very life-breath is Shri Mukunda, a particle of Whose Feetdust is even now being sought after by the Srutis from time immemorial."605
taavad raagaadayah stenaas taavat kaaraa-griham griham,
taavan moho ’nghri-nigado yaavat krishna na te janaah..606
anujaanihi maam krishna sarvam tvam vetsi sarva-drik,
tvam eva jagataam naatho jagad etat tavaarpitam..607
dhig janma nas tri-vrid yat tad dhig vratam dhig bahu-jnataam,
dhik kulam dhik kriyaa-daakshyam vimukhaa ye tv adhokshaje..608
krishnaaya vaasudevaaya haraye paramaatmane,.
pranata-klesha-naashaaya govindaaya namo namah..609
tava kathaamritam tapta-jivanam kavibhir iditam kalmashaapaham,
shravana-mangalam shrimad aatatam bhuvi grinanti ye bhuri-daa janaah..610
naama-sankirtanam yasya sarva-paapa pranaashanam,
pranaamo duhkha-shamanas tam namaami harim param..611
namostatu namarupaya namostatu namajaleepane,
namostatu namasrudhaya namo namamyaya ca..612
" O Krishna! So long as people do not accept You as their own, i.e., so long as they do not form any relationship like Dasya, Sakliya, Vatsalya, and Madhurya, or that of a beloved wife with You, all the peculiarities like passion, love, anger, etc., act as thieves with them, the house becomes a dungeon and the delusion of the mind which makes them think the transient objects and pleasures as eternal bliss and by which they become addicted to the gratification of the senses, fetters their feet. But as soon as they take absolute shelter in You, even anger conduces to the advancement of their devotion to You. O Krishna! The Embodiment of Transcendental Bliss! When people become devoted to You, they naturally treat all the worldly enjoyments, relations, friends, guests, etc., as emblems of Your Grace and all the five passions, like Kama (desire), Krodha (an¬ger), Lobha (greed), Moha (delusion), and Mada (passion), which - in a non-devotee cause his retrogradation, become the support¬ers of his continued progress of devotion. If You do not accept them as Your Own, all these feelings become so to say their curses which jointly and severally bring about their downfall."606
"O Krishna! Pray forgive me. you are Omniscient. You are the Supreme Being. You are the Lord of the universe. This whole creation is treated by me as Yours. I am only Your vassal. Hence, without your Grace I am not lit to acquire the good fortune of these blades of grass and other fortunate beings of Vrindavan."607 "Fie upon us all who are averse to You, O Adhokshaj! Cursed be our births, in spite of our triple purity of birth as Brahmins, purity attained because of the Gayatri Mantra, and the purity because of our performance of the sacrifices (Yajnas)! Cursed be our learning, ourYogic practices and plenty of knowledge too!"608" "1 bow down again and again to Shri Krishna, Who is known as 'Vasudev', the Supreme Being 'Hari', and 'Govinda', Who de¬stroys all kinds of distress of those who have taken shelter in Him."609 "Sages have praised that Your Nectarine Accounts revivify the tor¬mented and sullen souls, that they destroy all kinds of sins, that they are auspicious to the ears, that They are full of Divine Attributes, and that those people who sing Them are indeed very fortunate on the face of the earth."610" "I bow down to the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna, Whose Nama-Sankirtan totally destroys all kinds of sins, i.e., Adhidaivik, Adhibhautik, and Adhyatmik, and only the pros¬trated obeisances to Whom completely eradicates all kinds of distress."611 "I bow down to Him Whose Svarup is the Divine Name, to him who babbles the Name, to him who is purified by the Name and to Him Who is full of Names and to Him Who is saturated with the Names."612
Hast thou a heart to cross life's stormy ocean,
And yearnest thou for luscious Sankirtan's fruition,
And blessings of Fulsome Bliss of Krishna-Prem?
Then take absolute refuge in Gaur-Krishna's Name.
ADDRESS TO MY ERRING SELF
Sing aloud, sing aloud 'Krishna' Nama in prayers,
That cleans mind's mirror of sins' many layers.
Chant aloud, () chant aloud Krishna's sweet Names,
That rid life's fires and the fury of their flames.
Drink deep of the Fount of Krishna's Name aright.
That virtue may thrive as water-lily by moonlight.
I 'tier 'Krishna', utter 'Krishna', utter Krishna's Name.
That enlivens the Lores and Vraja's Fairy Dame.
Delve deep, delve deep in Krishna's lovely Name:
It swells ecstasy's tide and sets all aflame.
Shout 'Krishna', shout Krishna' with your might and main;
Its Nectar sure shall saturate souls innermost grain.
Cry 'Krishna cry Krishna'. 'Krishna' aloud and hold.
That 'Krishna' wins you o'er and holds you in His fold.
See 'Krishna' see 'Krishna' - the Enchanter ol hearts sore:
He envelops the soul with Love right upto the core. 613
Krishna'1 Your Lowers full are' imbued in Your Name'
"Lime and clime control not chain ol Name'You claim.
So Mighty Kind You are and I - horridly, incurably blind.'
Misfortunes sorely grind, by Your Love is untouched my mind. 614
A drooping blade of grass ne'er raises its head.
Nor grumbles e'en a little, when trod on its bed.
So let me be humbler than this grass-blade.
And chant 'Krishna' aloud with tears' raid.
ihe tree offers all it owns, to one who asks.
Lho' itself e'er in drought, rain, and sun basks:
It shelters and traveller from the scorching sun.
And asks naught in return for services done.
Ihe heartless man plunders it of fruit and flow'r.
Of hark and hough: and once for all fells it o'er.
To roof his house; he burns it.' so odd it sounds.'
Man's un-endnig sreed knows no bounds!
Yet matchless is the tree in forbearance:
Pray give me patience in plenty, for once.
Free me of my ego and lust for name and fame.
Make me civil and for ever chant Your Name. 615
I covet not the bait of poesy, pelf, and paradise.
Yet meekly in Ye 1 seek selfless devotion likewise:
In life after life, I care not for any station,
'Twixt Ye and me, I pray for no separation. 616
O Krishna! Lift this luckless slave stuck in worldly mire.
Grievously tormented am I with countless calamities dire!
Pray give me space that a speck of dust would take.
On Your Lovely Lotus Feet, if only, for pity's sake! 617
When shall my eyes, while uttering Thy Name,
Be flooded with tears and my mortal frame
Be bristled with the hair standing on end
And to choke my voice, my feelings would tend? 618
O Govinda! A moment metamorphoses into a Deathless age.
And tears gush out like rivers in rage;
Separation from Ye has cost me so much harm.
That the world to me, has lost all its charm. 619
Let Him hug me - His belov'd to pulp, if He Will.
Or crush my vitals or His absence kill.
Or the Self-Willed Dissolute hold me in fee!
My Sole Overlord is He! O none else than He! 620
THE HYMN OF LIFE
Hail Thee 'Hari Nama! Kali Yuga's Sole Resort! For the ship of life, foul weather's safest Port. Without Thee there's no other Support to seek; With my heart and soul, honestly to Thee I speak.
O 'Hari' Nama! In Thee 1 take refuge with all my heart; Tho' in singing Thy Glories. Upanishads play their part. Yet unable are they to do justice to Thy Greatness. Thou art e'er being sung by Yogis in their sedateness!
O Akshara-Form! Victory to Thee! Thou art always sought, For Thou appeasest e'en those who in worldliness are caught. Thou art e'er being sung by sages with bright prospect. As Thou purifies! e'en a sinner, uttering Thee in disrespect.
O Bhagavan! the Sun of 'Krishna' Name!
Who can aptly describe Thy enduring Fame?
Thy dim reflection, dispelling Universe's ignorance.
Confers on all the boon of Krishna-Prem's affluence.
The deeds of past births, which the Vedas call.
Destiny, remain undestroyed unless endur'd by all;
Yet, unendur'd. Thy dim reflection destroys them as well,
Tho' meditation on Brahman falls to save them from their spell.
Victory to Thee! 0 'Krishna' Nama - the Fount of Divine Bliss! Meditation's pains and troublous rituals Thou dost thus dismiss. O Harbinger of Krishna's Feet! howsoe'erThou art spoken, My Faith in Thee - my Nectar, Life, and Ornament be unshaken!
Thou art both a Means and an End in Itself to me. Make me Thy 'temal slave till the soul in this body be. Without Thy Mercy there's in the world no succour for me1 If Thou deniest my wish, what would my fate be?
Except for Thee there's none I can call my own; O where should I go, if Thou dost me disown? In sins vile, I am sunk o'er head and shoulders. And ruefully I am aflame in their smoulders.
Calling Thee aloud unmotivated. My heart by Thy glamour is captivated. For diffusest Thou resplendent Love around. My soul by Thy Kindness is spell-bound.
God's Grace is the richest possession of mankind, Before which Fate's cruellest blows fail to grind; Death, as it must come, conies to all ere long, Let Gaur-Hare! Gaur-Krishna! be my swan-song.