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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Divine Name Haridasa > 15 Potentialities of Naam Sankirtan




A FEW quotations from different Puranas, dealing with all the po¬tentialities of Shri Nama-Sankirtan have been given below for the ben¬efit of the kind readers with a view that they may feel impelled to relish their sweetness. The primary object of Shri Nama-Sankirtan is to have Its Asvadan or relishing Its sweetness and also having 'Shri Krishna Prem'. Though the destruction of all sins results as a sec¬ondary effect of even Namabhas, an aspirant should in all humility avoid the committing of sins and should not wilfully persist in com¬mitting them simply because by uttering the Name, all of them, in¬cluding those sins of past births are destroyed. Though there are the best of medicines to counteract and prevent the infection of many of the worst diseases, no one, except a foolhardy person, would take the risk of catching the contagion just to test the remedy.


akhilapape namulynatabam.365


1. Shri Nama-Sankirtan destroys all sins 365



"Splendid. Indeed, you are extremely pure because of your un¬shakable faith in the Name of the Lord Inexpressible is the glory of having faith in Shri Hari-Kirtan. Just as the rising of the sun dispels all darkness, even so, by having faith in Shri Hari-Kirtan, all the dark sins are completely destroyed."366 "Henceforward none need fear the fire-like sins. The Holy Names of Shri Govinda are like a formation of rain-bearing clouds. Even a small drop from these clouds will surely destroy the worst conflagration of sins."367 "Even if a man utters the Name of the Lord quite helplessly, he is immediately and totally freed from all his sins even as the deer that has been frightened by a lion."368 "O Maitreya! By performing various religious functions, observing different rites, one may be free from the sins committed, but the instinct in repeating it is not eradicated. By the performance of Kirtan of the Lord's Name even this instinct is destroyed, just as, when gold and other metals are melted by fire all the impuri¬ties therein, however subtle, are burnt out"369


"What wonder is there, if all our sins are dispelled by the mere Kirtan of the Immortal and Indestructible Lord! When even His re¬membrance arrests the way to hell, meditation of Him is so captivat¬ing that he who is blessed by its benefits, becomes extremely ad¬dicted to It, and hence considers the happiness of heaven as a stum¬bling block. Dedicating one's mind to His contemplation, even the attainment of the abode of Brahma appears insignificant. He grants these pure souls the eternal state of salvation by His land manifestation of Himself in their hearts for ever."370 "By performing the Kirtan of the God of gods, both in the mornings and evenings regularly, one attains the abode of Heaven duly freed from all sins."371 "The very Name 'Narayana' is a renowned thief in this world. Just as thieves steal away the wealth hoarded with great difficulty, the mere sound of this Name removes all the hoards of sins accumulated in innumer¬able births."372 "Just as the blazing fire of the final cataclysm de¬stroys the entire world, even so, the Name of Shri Govinda when chanted with or without devotion burns away all our sins."373


"The Name 'Govinda' destroys thousands of sins committed, even when It is uttered while calling a person bearing that Name."374 t "Just as a tiny spark of fire even if inadvertantly touched definitely burns, so also, by the mere appearance of the Name of Shri Hari on one-'s lips, all his sins are fully destroyed. Just as the burning prop¬erty is the natural function of fire, even so, it is in the very nature of the syllables of the Name of the Lord to destroy all the sins."375 "For human beings, extremely blind by the influence of sense-objects, and possessing an egoistic mind of T and 'mineness', the only way of deliverance from all their sins is the Holy Name of Shri Hari."376 "Even while on dacoity, if a mortal utters the Name 'Hari', once at least, the way to the womb of his mother is closed to him, i.e., he is saved from the shackles of births and deaths, and he is no more un¬der the jurisdiction of Yama (god of death)."377


"One, who becomes a favourite of Shri Hari by chanting the Name 'Govinda', easily and forthwith is rid of all his grave sins, like com¬mitting thousands of murders of Brahmins, adultery with the wife of spiritual preceptor even crores of times and innumerable thefts.""* "Just as fire never fails to burn things, even if it is touched inadvert¬ently, so also when the Name 'Govinda' is uttered under any pre¬text, It destroys all our sins."379 "Just as darkness is dispelled by the rising of the sun, soalso by chanting the Name 'Krishna' of incom¬prehensible splendour, all our sins are totally destroyed."380 "() best of the Brahmins! Apart from the Kirtan of Shri Hari, I do not see any potential course for the atonement of all the sins of humanity.""1 "Ajamil, even by unwittingly uttering the Name of Shri Hari - the storehouse of auspiciousness, has indeed atoned for the sins of crores of births. The utterance of the Name 'Hari' is the only atonement for all the sins, such as theft of gold and other valuables, drinking of liquor and like intoxicants, treachery to friends, murder of Brahmins, illicit behaviour with the wife of one's own preceptor, murder of women, slaughtering cows, patricide, regicide, and various other sins of a similar character, because the Lord Himself feels for those, who chant His Name even once, as His own, and hence shoulders the responsibility to protect them."382


"That perfect purification that sinners obtain by chanting the Name of Shri Hari, is not in the least, attained by the various expiatory rites, or vows recommended by the social codes of the great Manu, etc., or even by the knowers of Brahman. The chanting of the Names of the Lord never stops with merely destroying the sins alone, but it helps the sinners to experience the glorious Attributes of the Lord."383 "Taking the Name of Vaikunth even indirectly, under any pretext, while cutting jokes, while singing or even slightingly, destroys all the sins committed. If a person even in distress, utters the syllables 'Hari' even helplessly, either while falling down from a high sto-reyed building or a tree, stumbling while walking on the road, with ' his bones fractured, bitten by a venomous serpent, burnt by fire, or hurt by weapons, he will not have to undergo any more tortures any¬where."384 "Just as a blazing fire bums down to ashes heaps of grass, even so, the utterance of Shri Hari-Nama, of excellent renown, consciously or unconsciously, destroys all the sins of those who utter His Name."385 "Sinners of all kinds including the slayer of Brahmin, slaughterer of his father, of the cow, of the mother, the killer of the preceptor, one living on the flesh of dogs, and even a Chandal, will certainly be purified by uttering the Name of Shri Hari."386 "All sins committed in past and present births and those that may occur in future as well, are soon destroyed by the effect of the fire-like "Govinda Kirtan'."387


"Those who are always hostile to the Sadhus, and oppress them in manifod ways, are the worst of offenders. Even the All-merciful Lord too, never pardons them. There are no remedies mentioned in the Sastras that can save them from the conse¬quences of their grave offences. But, the Glory of the Divine Name is so astounding and efficacious, that It destroys even such un¬pardonable offences. By constant recourse to the chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, mankind is not only completely freed from all kinds of offences, but also blessed."388 "Of all the crores of sanctifying processes existing in the world, none is comparable to the effects of the constant chanting of Shri Krishna-Nama."389 "No sinner is capable of committing sins to the extent that a single utterance of the Name of the Lord could destroy. The capacity of the Name to destroy the sins is far greater than the sinner's capacity to com-mit them."390 "The capacity of the Divine Name to destroy every¬thing that is inauspicious, is so great, that even a most degraded fel¬low living upon the flesh of dogs, even by innumerable efforts, will not be able to commit sins."391 "There are no sins in this terrible Kali Yuga, committed by human beings, either physical, oral, or mental that the chanting of the Name 'Govinda' cannot destroy."392 "By pour¬ing water, fire is extinguished, by the rising of the sun, darkness is dispelled, even so, in the age of Kali, the singing of Shri Hari-Nama is the only atonement for all floods of sins."393 "When by the efficacy of the chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, even the worst of sinners, daily en¬gaged in committing sins, are completely freed from their evil ef¬fects, and offered deliverance from all the tortures of worldly life, what wonder is there that It would quickly destroy all the wicked influence of Kali?"394 "The observance of the different kinds of the most drastic expiatory and purificatory rites, will not sanc¬tify a person to that extent as the Sankirtan of the all-clever Shri Madhav, with the utterance of 'Govinda', does."395


The above statement of the Puranas is fully illustrated by a par¬ticular incident in the career of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. During His time, Bengal was ruled by Syed Allaudin Hussain Shah. This Hussain Shah, in his early days was a minor employee under a promi¬nent Hindu chieftain by name Subuddhi Roy. For some faults of his, one day Subuddhi Roy whipped him. Time reversed their status in life. By some providential accident, Hussain Shah, his erstwhile employee ascended the throne of Bengal. One day, the wife of Hussain Shah noticed the marks of beatings on her husband's body. Hussain Shah explained the reason for the marks in detail. His wife insisted on her husband to take away Subuddhi Roy's life for his cruelty. Hussain Shah flatly refused the request as it was an act of great in¬justice to one, who was his protector, once. Later on, after discus¬sions, both of them came to a compromise. Hussain Shah agreed to deprive him of his caste, by compelling him to drink polluted water, and he carried out the decision.


Subuddhi Roy then no longer desired to live in his society. He forthwith left for Banaras. There, he met various scholars and asked them the means of atonement for this sin. They all desired him to drink hot ghee and thereby to put an end to his sinful life. By his luck, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, visited Kasi at this time. Subuddhi Roy was highly delighted to hear the news. He felt that he may enter¬tain some hopes from Shriman Mahaprabhu to come out of this tantalising situation. Accordingly, one day Subuddhi Roy, explained the whole matter including the Pandits' suggestion for ending his life, to Shriman Mahaprabhu. On hearing Subuddhi Roy, Shriman Mahaprabhu replied, "Go from here to Vrindavan and chant Shri Krishna-Nama constantly. All your sins will surely be washed out by a single dim reflection of the Name (Namabhas). A second chanting of the Name would enable you to attain to the Feet of Shri Krishna. A further utterance of the Name will establish you as an eternal servant of Shri Krishna in His Own Abode and this is the arrangement of expiation even to the worst of sins."396


2. Shri Nama-Sankirtan purifies the chanter's family, associates, etc.3*7


"Continuous utterance of Shri Hari-Nama purifies the hearts of even the worst of sinners and enables them to uplift their society."398 "Those extremely blessed and purified souls, who sing the Name 'Govinda' with a delighted heart and single-minded devotion sustain the entire earth."399 "The tongue of a Vaishnav is not satis¬fied by saving merely the speaker alone, but by loudly proclaiming the Name and Glories of the Lord, it sanctifies the whole world."400" "When a person, merely by singing Your Name sanctifies not only himself, but his listeners as well, is there a need to mention that I am purified by a touch of Your Lotus Feet?"401 "O Nrisinha! Those who with a delightful heart loudly utter Your Name are really the Sadhus. They are verily the genuine benefactors of mankind."402 3. Shri Nama-Sankirtan destroys all diseases403


"Frightened by hearing the utterance of the Names, O Achyuta! • O Bliss Embodied! O Govinda! All the diseases get cured, I avow '  this is an invariable truth."404 "O Samba! Diseases are not cured by other medicines; but by using this great medicine of Shri Hari-Nama, they are definitely removed."405 "I offer my prostrated obeisances to the Infinite Lord, because by remembering Him and singing His Names, all the physical and mental ailments are forthwith rooted out."406 "A person who is highly afflicted by acute and chronic diseases and oppressed by the ruling powers, is relieved of all his fears and anxieties by the mere chanting of the Name of Shri Narayana"407


4. Shri Nama-Sankirtan dispels all griefs40S


"Incessant chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, destroys all diseases and obstacles. This Name is the best remedy for the rooting out of all misfortunes."409 "Continuous chanting of Shri Hari-Nama destroys all kinds of sins, removes obstacles, and strikes at the very root of dis¬tress of all kinds."410 "Just as the sun dispels darkness, or a heavy wind drives away formations of clouds, even so, the Infinite Lord manifesting in the hearts of those persons who listen, and chant the narrations connected with His glorious Deeds, destroys all their mis¬eries."411 "Persons who are perplexed and depressed in spirits, those who are sluggish, those who are awfully frightened, and those who are attacked with virulent diseases, are all totally freed from all their afflictions, both physical and mental, and attain perfect happiness, by uttering the word 'Narayana."412 "By the mere chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, the Lord of incomprehensible prowess, cruel beings like Yakshas, demons, ghosts, evil spirits, etc., flee away. Shri Nama-Sankirtan excellent remedy to destroy all evils."413 "There is no doubt that Shri Nama-Sankirtan, even when uttered in times of hunger, thirst, or when tumbling down, is the best course to wipe out all sufferings."4'4 "Tlie blazing flames of infatuation, that is spread¬ing daily, is burning down mankind incessantly. But the fires would never burn, when one, either uttering or listening Shri Hari-Nama, takes shelter in the cooling shadows of. rain-bearing clouds of Shri Hari-Nama."415


5. Shri Nama-Sankirtan removes the sufferings caused by Kali416


"Hereafter there is no fear of the sharp fangs of the evil seipent of Kali. By the conflagration of 'Govinda-Nama', not only they are , burnt but will be also reduced to ashes."417 "In this terrible Kali Yuga,

those men, who have taken resort to the chanting of Shri Hari-Nama alone, have fulfilled the noble puipose of their life. Kali can do no harm to them."418 "The age of Kali is unable to do any harm to those persons who utter daily 'O Kesav! O Hare! O Govinda! 0 Vasudeva! 'O Infinite One like the universe!" And such other Names."419 "O eminent man! Kali (the personification of the Kali Yuga) does not torment those people who perform the Kirtan of Shri Vasudev - the Supporter of the universe."420


6.       Shri Nama-Sankirtan redeems persons destined to hell421


"The dwellers of the infernal regions in hell, as they uttered Shri Hari-Nama, being instilled with devotion to Shri Hari, went to Vaikunth Loka."422 "By chanting Shri Hari-Nama, even the worst of sinners who are being tortured for long in the horrible hell, are completely liber¬ated."42'^


7.       Shri Nama-Sankirtan destroys destiny424

"Hence for those who are after the attainment of liberation, there is .no other method so competent as the incessant chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, because Shri Hari-Nama-Sankirtan does not harness the human mind into actions (Karma Kanda) but cuts asunder their re¬straints; whereas, the expiatory rites once again prompt the mind for impure actions, influenced by the qualities of Rajas and Tamas."425 "People in this age would never worship the Supreme Lord Shri Hari, Whose Name even if unconsciously uttered by a man at the thresh¬old of death, bedridden, extremely afflicted, deprived of strength, and unable to move the limbs even, attains the highest goal, com¬pletely freed from all the evil bonds of Karma."426 "Even a worm¬like person, utterly inferior and insignificant in position, uttering the Name 'Govinda' everyday, having controlled his senses, is totally freed from all the sins, and shines like a god."427


8. Shri Nama-Sankirtan destroys all offences428


"There is no doubt whatsoever that I definitely pardon crores of offences of the person who utters My Names with implicit faith."429


9. Shri Nama-Sankirtan grandly fulfills all wants430


"Any fault of the Vedic Mantras caused by the defective pronun¬ciation or tune, flaws arising from the irregular performance of Tantric rites, any other defects in the observance due to non-conformity of time, place, articles, or persons, are completely removed by the ef¬fect of Shri Nama-Sankirtan."431 "I offer my prostrated obeisances to the Supreme Lord Achyuta by Whose recollection or by the utter¬ance of sacrifices and such other holy rites, are fully remedied."432


10. Shri Nama-Sankirtan is superior to all the Vedas433


"By uttering the two syllables 'Ha-ri' one derives all the ben¬efits arising from the study of all the four Vedas, such as Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva. Hence, the exponents of Sastras emphasize that the effect of uttering the Nama 'Krishna' is far superior to that of the study of Vedas."434 "O my dear! Pray do not peruse the Rig, Yajur, or Sama Vedas; daily utter 'Govinda', Shri Hari's Name which is worth singing.''435 "Even each Name of Shri Vishnu is far superior to the study of all the Vedas; one Name 'Rama' is equal to one thousand Names of Shri Vishnu."436


 11. Shri Nama-Sankirtan is far superior to all pilgrimages437 "Why should one visit Kurukshetra, Kasi, or Pushkar, if on the tip of his tongue always dance the two syllables 'Ha-ri"438 "The effects of constantly chanting the Name 'Krishna' is by far superior to that of making crores of pilgrimages."439  "There are crores of pilgrimages; but when compared with the chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, the benefit that one can derive from such pilgrimages is not even equal to an infinitesimal fraction of the result arising from the chanting of the Name."440"© son! If you are really interested in your deliverance, utter the Name 'Govinda' clearly and repeatedly. Of whu avail are the various Sastras, such as Vedas and Agamas, and the innumerable pilgrimages?"441


12. Shri Nama-Sankirtan is far superior to all holy acts **2 "Holy acts, such as presenting a crore of cows on the occa¬sion of the solar eclipse, residing on the banks of the Ganges at Prayag (Allahabad) for a Kalpa, performing billion sacrifices, and offering gifts of gold in quantities as large as 'Sumeru' are not even a part of a hundredth part of what you gain through the Kirtan of Shri Govinda."443 "The observance of any number of pi¬ous deeds, such as constructing wells, starting hospitals, etc., render the ties of worldliness- tighter and tighter, resulting finally in ines¬capable bondage; but Shri Hari-Nama alone leads one to the Lotus Feet of Shri Hari. "444 "O King! If you covet the fruit of performing a thousand Vajapeya sacrifices daily, do chant the Name 'Govinda' on getting up from the bed early at daybreak."445'^ great King! What benefits would the study of Sankhya principles or Tattvas, which helps towards a discriminative understanding of the soul arid matter, afford you? Or even, of what avail would the prac¬tice of the eightfold Yogas be to you? If you actually aim deliver-ance, then, do utter the Name 'Govinda'."446


13. Shri Nama-Sankirtan grants all prayers **7


"The constant chanting of the Name 'Krishna', roots out all the evil influence of the six enemies (lust, anger, greed, infatua¬tion, pride, and prejudice), is an adept in destroying all other hostile causes and is the root of the spiritual well-being."448 "O chief amongst Brahmins! A hundred desires of a person are fulfilled when he chaj^s Shri Hari-Nama through any motives."449 "The Kirtan of the Name 'Krishna' enables the attainment of all auspicious re¬sults, increases longevity, destroys the innumerable diseases, helps gaining both enjoyment and liberation, and the attainment of even Vaikunfh itself."450 "I bow down repeatedly to all those persons who take the Name 'Vishnu', even if they do so in joke or ridicule, as they too are extremely blessed and fortunate."451 "Those who utter My Names at all times, are indeed fortunate and blessed. They have in¬deed achieved everything achievable having taken this birth."452 "In¬deed, he is blessed who utters even once the Name 'Hari', which is extremely rare to sinners in this age of Kali! There is no doubt about it."453 "Great men who appreciate good qualities, and adopt the es¬sence, praise   this age, as in this Kali, the uttering of the Name 'Krishna' is the only practice that helps one to attain all the achieve¬ments of humanity."454 "The Sankirtan of Shri Hari-Nama is the no¬blest penance in this age. As such Hari-Nama is the noblest penance in this age. As such, to please Shri Krishna, it is imperatively nec¬essary to practise the chanting of His Name."455


14. Shri Nama-Sankirtan possesses all kinds of power456


"Those powers by which all sins are dispelled by the observance of holy acts, such as gifts, vows, penances, and pilgrimages, by the service of gods, saints, etc., by the performance of Sacrifices like Asvamedha, Rajasuya, etc., and by gaining the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit, etc., have been attracted from these performances and pursuits by Shri Hari and imbued in His Own Names, Shriman Nama dispels all the most awful sins like a whirlwind that blows up even the heaviest of obstacles in its way or like the sun dispelling pitch-darkness."457 "For attaining the ultimate goal, it is incumbent upon everyone to employ (utter) the Name which he likes best, of the Wielder of the Disc, the God of gods, Who is All-powerful."458


15. Shri Nama-Sankirtan imparts bliss to the whole universe454

"O Hrishikes! By singing Your Glory, the whole universe re¬joices and becomes engrossed in It. The demons being awfully afraid, run away helter-skelter in all directions, and a galaxy of Siddhas of¬fer their prostrations to you."460


16. Shri Nama-Sankirtan makes one universally adorable461

"Those who utter the Names 'Narayana', 'Jagannatha', 'Vasudev', 'Janardan' daily, are the most revered persons through¬out the universe."462 "I daily offer my prostrated obeisances to him, who utters the Name 'Hari', while in his sleep, taking his food, walk¬ing, sitting, getting up, speaking, etc."463 "My humble repeated pros¬trations to all those women, Sudras, and even Chandalas, or others of sinful births, who constantly utter the Name 'Hari' with implicit faith."464


17. Shri Nama-Sankirtan singularly rescues even an absolutely helpless one465

"Even those persons having no other resort, on account of their births in sinful sections of society, those who are deplorably engrossed in creature-comforts, who inflict sufferings upon others, are devoid of learning and dispassion , are bereft of any celibacy, and who are totally abandoned by all Dharmas and who only utter the Name'Krishna' all easily attain that rare Resort, unattainable by even all those who practise all their religious rites."466


18. Shri Nama-Sankirtan can be practised everywhere and at all times 467 "O Lubdhak'.For chanting Shri Hari-Nama, there are no restric¬tions at all of place and time. There is no objection to utter His Name even with an unclean mouth."468 "Shri Hari is the Sanctifier of every¬thing; hence, there is no need of observing any taboo, such as pollu¬tion, in uttering His Name; It should be uttered always and every¬where."469 "For uttering the Name no consideration of place, time, or purity, etc., need ever be observed. The Name alone is quite independent and does fulfil all the desires of Its votaries."470 "The utterance of the 'Rama' Nama repeatedly, delivers all from bondage. It never depends upon time or place, or purity and impurity."471 "O King! There is no special rule in selecting place or time for uttering Shri Hari-Nama. In acts like gifts, sacrifices, uttering Mantras, etc.,

these are, no doubt, observed; but never for chanting the Name."472


19. Shri Nama-Sankirtan achieves Shri Krishna Himself473

"O earth! He who utters Names like 'Vasudev', 'Achyuta', 'Ananta', 'Narayana', etc., constantly, devotes himself to Me in¬deed!"474 "O King! Of what avails is the study of Sankhya principles, or the practice of Yoga? If you yearn for Shri Krishna, do shout the Name 'Govinda'."475 He, who utters the two syllables 'Ha-ri' be¬comes fit to attain Moksha, i.e, Shri Krishna, as it amounts to his hav¬ing grandly accomplished all the practices."476 "Even if persons, with distracted and impure mind, always utter Shri Hari-Nama, they are freed from all sins and attain the Supreme Resort like Sisupal, the ruler of the Chedi country."477 "He who utters the Name 'Narayana' even once, avoiding all laziness, becomes pure-hearted and exclu¬sively devotes himself to the Supreme Lord."478 "Even a person, who keeps illicit connection with others' wives, and practises malicious wickedness on others, becomes pure-hearted by the chanting of Shri Hari-Nama, and attains Shri Krishna's Lotus Feet."479 "Even one, who is rid of all religious conducts and addicted to the commission of various sins, attains Shri Krishna's Lotus Feet through Nama-Kirtan;there is not the least doubt in it."480 "Even sinners, howsoever they utter any of the Lord's Names or hear It, are purified and attain the Lord's Lotus Feet."481


"The twin syllables 'Ha-ri' are the provision for the life's journey, the remedy for the disease of worldliness, and the Sweet Resort for the cessation of grief and deep anguish."482 "Luscious sweetness - ever new at every moment, flows incessantly from Shri Murari's Names, and as such are pregnant with the nectar of music. Those who sing Them aloud unabashed and joyously, are truly the liberated souls, while living. There is no doubt about it."483 "O Lord! Those who in their helpless state, at the time of their death, utter Your Names describing the Attributes, Accounts, etc., of Your Descents, destroying the accumulated sins of many births at once, reach You Who are the naked (uncovered) luminous eternal Truth. 1 take absolute shelter in You."484 "Sankirtan of the Lord's At¬tributes, Accounts, Names, etc., are more than enough to destroy such sins of people, because the sinful dying Ajamil by calling his son Narayana by his name, attained liberation."485


20. Shri Nama-Sankirtan leads to Vaikunth 486

"People who, while moving, standing, sleeping, inhaling, or ex¬haling, or even with want of faith, utter the Name 'Hari' - the tram-pier of Kali, i.e., destroyer of its sins, attains his true nature of libera¬tion. Can there be any doubt of his attaining the highest Dham, i.e., Golok, if he does so with devotion?"487 "Even if a Brahmin has illicit intercourse with a Chandal woman in menses, or eats food cooked in intoxicating liquors, but utters the Name 'Hari' at the time of his death, abandoning that very day the heap of sins arising from his past sinful actions, and being liberated from the bondage of worldli¬ness, attains residence with Him."488 "He, on the tip of whose tongue the word 'Hari' always exists, i.e. who always utters 'Hari' attains Vishnu Loka, being freed from the cycle of rebirths."489 "He who utters 'Krishna', 'Krishna' wherever he be, achieves the highest goal of Shri Krishna's loving service, all his sins being destroyed."490 "The Name 'Kesav' that is uttered, is the highest and purest of auspicious deeds, the sole passport to go to Shri Govinda's Abode and that alone is the only place of good deeds in this world."491 "The sinner (the adulterous) Ajamil uttering the Name of Shri Hari in the act of calling his son by his name, at the time of his death, went to Shri Hari's best Dham."492 "Ajamil - the resort of all sins, uttering 'Narayana' under the semblance of calling liis son, went to Vaikuntli How much better would the result be, it* It is uttered with im¬plicit faith?"493


"Those who sing the Names of Shri Vishnu - Who has black bee¬like Eyes on His Lotus Face, like the Face of Shri Lakshmi, holds the conchshell, lotus, the disc, the bow and arrow, the mace and sword in His Hands, and Who is the Bestower of boons, sure shall go to the Abode of Shri Madhusudan."494 "That a person who utters 'Krishna' out of fear of worldly life and is freed therefrom, attains His Lo¬tus Feet, is quite certain."495 "Even, he who is given to the habit of committing the worst sins at all times, attains to the Ultimate goal Vaikunth by Shri Nama-Sankirtan"496 "0 great King! If you really aspire after the attainment of the supreme knowledge, and thence the realisation of Eternal Abode, chant constantly with great regard the Name 'Govinda'."497


21. Shri Nama-Sankirtan pleases Shri Krishna498

"By chanting the Name 'Vasudev', even a patient or a drunkard becomes eternally free and attains the pleasure of Shri Maha Vishnu."499 "O Vipras! Shri Kesav is pleased with him, who performs the Sankirtan of Shri Vishnu's Name, even when he is hungry, thirsty, or stumbling."500 "O blessed one! He who utters the Name 'Vishnu', while he is hun¬gry, thirsty, or while stumbling, etc., pleases Shri Kesav."501


sree vagavadd sikaree twama.502


gitava ca mama namanee nartayenamam sanneedhao,

ind brabimee te satyon kriteihon tena carjuna.

gitava ca mama namanee rudantee mama sanneedhao,

tesamahon parikrite nanyakrite janardanah..504

(adi purana,446,447)

jitnatena jitnatena jitnate netee nischtam,

jihagre vartate yasya hariritya khyaradruyam..505

(hari bhakti bilash,2.11.449)


22. Hence Shri Nama-Sankirtan wins over Shri Krishna502 "The fact Shri Krishnaa (Draupadi) cried aloud piteously calling Me, by My Name 'Govinda', though very far from her, cannot be obliterated from My Heart, I am over head and ears in her debt."503 "O Arjun! 1 swear before you that I become practically purchased by those who sing the Names in My presence and dance, and those who sing My Names and weep before My Shri Murti; I - Janardan, being unpurchasable by others, become purchased by them."504 "Truly he, on the tip of whose tongue the twin syllables 'Ha-ri' exist, has allured and attracted the Lord once and for all."505


parampurusarth tavam.506


idmevo hi manglya metadevodhnarjnam,

jiveetasya falachotadaya damodarakirtnam..507

etdeva paron gyanameta deba parntapah,

etdeva paron tatvaon basudeba sya kirtanam..508


23. Shri Nama-Sankirtan Itself is the highest End of human existence506

"The Kirtan of Shri Damodar is the most auspicious attainment, the earning of the highest wealth (Prem), and the very purpose of human life."507 "The Kirtan of Shri Vasudev is the sublime learning, the highest penance and the supreme truth."508


vakti prakaresu sresthayam.509

adhachicha tasmaranao visnu brahayasena sadhyate,

ostha spandan martena  kirtanantu tate varam..510

yena janmasataoh purba vasudevah samrchitah,

tanmukhe harinamanee sada tisthanti varata..511


yadvayarchya hari vaktya krute kratu sataorapee,

falaon prapane tyavikalaon kalau gobindakitnata.512

(hari bhakti bilash,2.11.455)

dhyaayan krite yajan yajnais    tretaayaam dvaapare'rcayan

yad-aapnoti tad-aapnoti    kalau sankirtya keshavam..513

(bisnu purana,456)


                 24. Shri Nama-Sankirtan is the highest form of devotion 509

"The Smarana (remembrance) of Shri Vishnu, which destroys all the sins, is accomplished with great exertions; but His Kirtan (ut¬terance) is completed just by the movement of lips. Hence it is better than remembrance."510 "O Bharata! Hari's Names will mani¬fest Themselves on the tongue of the person who has worshipped Shri Vasudev in hundreds of births."511 "All the fruits that one derived in Satya Yuga by devotedly worshipping Shri Hari even by hundreds of sacrifices, is obtained unimpaired by the Kirtan of Shri Govinda in Kali Yuga."512 "What is obtained by meditation in Krita, by offer¬ing sacrifices in Treta, and by worshipping Shri Vishnu in Dvapar,is all obtained by the Sankirtan of Shri Kesav in Kali Yuga."513


krishna-varnam tvishaakrishnam saangopaangaastra-paarshadam,

yajnaih sankirtana-praayair yajanti hi su-medhasah..514

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,11.5.32)

hare narmova namovo namovo mama jivanama,

kalao nastyevo nastyevo nastyevo gatirnyatha.

sakrudu charyatnyeva harernam chidatamakam,

falon nasya khymo baktun sahastuadane bidhih..515

(bruhat naradiya purana,460,461)

raka radinee namanee srusuata devi jayate,

priteerma manaso nityon ramanamavisakaya..516

(padma purana,462)

e ser han sarvojagtaon namnao visnohi japakh,

satyon satyon vadamyesa hareernama gati nrunam.517

(hari bhakti bilash,2.11.463)

sradhaya helaya nama stantee mama jatnabh,

tesaon nama sada parth vartate hrudaye mama.518


"The Manifestation of the Supreme Lord in the age of Kali is that of One Who chants constantly the Name of Shri Krishna, but Whose Bodily complexion is the very opposite, i.e., of a molten gold, Who is accompanied by His constant companions, and attendants, and the weapon-like Names of Shri Hari; Who is worshipped in this age by the Sankirtan-like sacrifices by the really wise men."514 "Shri Hari-Nama alone, Hari-Nama alone, and Hari-Nama solely is my very life. There is no other go, there is no other go, no other go than His Sankirtan." "Brahma, even if he has athousand mouths, will not be able to describe the transcendental fruit of the utterance of Shri Hari-Nama uttered even once."515 "O Devi! When I hear any names beginning with the syllable 'Ra', my mind always becomes happy, thinking that It will be 'Rama-Na'ma'."516 "I am the lord of all the worlds and am a meditator of Shri Krishna-Nama. I tell you the truth and nothing but the truth that Shri Hari-Nama is the Sole Resort."517 "O Partha! There is always a niche in My Heart for all the names of those, who loudly proclaim My Name with or without faith."518



namayoktana janana drastava singdhe vabatee ye narh,

sa yati parmon sthano visnuna saha modate.

tasmanamaanee kenteya vajaswa dadamanash,

namayoktah priye smakon namayokte vabarjuna..520

(adi purana,470-471)



"There is no knowledge, religious vow, meditation, or any other attainment that is equal or superior to the Name. Neither renuncia¬tion, control of the mind, any meritorious deed, nor the highest aspi¬ration is equal to, or higher than the Name. It is the Name alone that is the highest form of Mukti; the Name alone is the ultimate end in life. Resort to the Name alone yields the highest kind of peace; resort to the Name alone is the abiding welfare; resort to the Name is the highest devotion; recourse to the Name alone is the ultimate end of knowledge. Attachment to the Name alone is the highest Love; rec¬ollection of the Name alone is. the true remembrance; the Name alone is the Root Cause of all beings and the Name alone is their Sole Master; the Name alone is the highest Object of worship, and the Name alone is the highest amongst all spiritual masters."519 If a per¬son, on seeing devotees engrossed in the chanting of the Name, becomes attached to them, he achieves Golok of Shri Krishna and rejoices in His company, i.e., with Me. Hence, O Partha! Take the Names with a firm determination, as a person who is satu¬rated with the Name is dear to Me; hence O Arjun! I again im¬plore you to take to the service of the Name."520"


sreemana visuambhre debo harikirtantatparh,

apredhoh panditasya sreevasya pure vasana.

yakhiya cakar slokasya vakhya manasya tachunu.521

harernama harernama harernameva kebalam,

kalau nastyeba nastyeba nastyeba gatirnyatha..522

(Shri krasna Charitamrita,2.2.26,27,28)

haro premana mano haratee sansarca harateeti pryojnadayamuktama.523

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,2.2.42)

 na pumanadipurusah kalavstyevo rupvan,

 namaswarupina tantu janihi Sita Advaita dasitu kevalama..524

 vastryon hareernama chadarth sarvo dehinama,

 evo karcha jivano papanao nasahetave..525

 (Shri krasna Charitamrita,2.2.29,30)


"The following is the exposition on the "Harernama Harernama' Sloka in the house of Shrivas Pandit, as recorded by Murari Gupta in his’ shri  Krishna Chaitanya Charitamrita', also known as 'Shri Murari Gupta's Karacha', which is an account of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by Shri Murari Gupta, who was an eye-witness Of Shriman Mahaprabhu's Career and His Teach¬ings: - "On another day, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu - the Divine Illu¬minator, while deeply engrossed in Shri Hari-Sankirtan, gave a dis¬course on the 'Harernama, etc., 'Sloka at the house of Shrivas Pandit.521 Shri Hari-Nama, Hari-Nama, and Hari-Nama alone is the Sole Resort; there is no other, no other, no other go except Shri Hari-Nama in the age of Kali.522:: In Kali Yuga the Primeval Lord pre¬vails verily in the Form of Shri Hari-Nama, i.e., in His 'Paramaksharakriti'. Accept that His Svarup is His Mama. He is but 'Kevalam', i.e., the Bestower of final emancipation. 'Kevalam' also means 'Krishnaprem-rasa-svada-prapakam' and hence *mirunamayam'. i.e., the Bestower of 'Sevasvada' of the luscious sweetness of loving devotion to Shri Krishna. This shows that Shri Hari-Nama is 'Karunamaya', i.e., pulsating with kindness, as it is in Its very nature to show kindness to those who have Its Abhas. It re¬moves the heart and mind that are engrossed in worldliness and em¬ploys them in Shri Hari with loving devotion.523 In the Sloka 'Harernama', the indeclinable 'Eva' is used to mean 'Hari-Nama' alone and nothing else, i.e., unaided or unaccompanied by any feel¬ings of devotion, etc., of the acquisition of Jnan, Karma, Yoga, etc., on the part of the aspirant, i.e., by Namabhas alone, all the sins of the Jiva are not only destroyed, but he becomes eligible to receive Shri Krishna Prem too.524

 The 'Hari-Nama' in the Sloka (522) above is repeated thrice to lay emphasis on It or to show the vehemence of Shri Hari-Nama to all the aspirants like the Jnanis, Karmis, Yogis, Bhaktas, etc., or others who do not fall under these four heads to acquire a fondness for It. The indeclinable 'Eva' in the second line of the Sloka (522) is repeated thrice, to show that nothing else other than Shri Hari-Nama, is able to destroy the sins of a Jiva. All the actions like acqui¬sition of knowledge (Jnan), Karma such as building of hospitals, Dharmasalas, etc., renunciation (Tyag), penance, etc., will never de¬stroy one's sins.525


om aasya jaananto naama cid-viviktan mahante vishno sumatim bhajaamahe.

maha sarvoprakaskam tat evo servobedadhabirvabat.

tatha choktaon shribrhamana namamayastadasa khyaramantrprasange tapaneeya srutau.

tesuakhyaresu vabisya jagadrupaon prakasayana iti.526

(hari bhakti bilash,2.11.410)

sarvotatwaprakasarth kebalon manyate ca hi,

prarabdhakarma neerbano kathyte dutavadeeveeh.527

vabe deeti ca bodarth kebalyon kebalon samrutama,

krusnaprema rasaswadaprapaonk karuna mayama.529

tatswarupaon hareernam yonyadeba vadate pumana,

tasya nastyeba nastyeba gateeritybadata swayam..530

(Shri krasna Charitamrita,2.2.31,32,33)



 The word 'Kevalam'is used to indicate that all the 'Tattvas', i.e., all the true or first principles are manifested from or owe their origin to Shriman Nama alone, i.e., Nama is described as 'Mahah' which is explained by Shri Sanatan Gosvami as under :-Shriman Nama discloses everything. All the Vedas, etc., too originate from the Divine Name alone.526

 It is also said by Brahma in the Tapani Sruti in connection with the eighteen syllable-Mantra full of Names - 'Having manifested the future creation in those syllables'. But the Ve'dantins belonging to the monistic school of philosophy hold that 'Kevalam' or 'Kaivalyam' means the final emancipation arising from the extinction of 'Prarabdhakarma'. The word 'Kevalam'is used in Sloka (522) to indicate its full meaning of achieving for the ardent devotee of Shri Hari-Nama, the power of having a thorough relish of the loving devotion to Shri Krishna, i.e., 'Krishna-prem-rasasvada-prapakam', in addition to its power of destroying all the sins by Its Abhas and not in the sense of the Vedantins, where their 'Kaivalyam' or final emancipation is attained by Bhog or by enduring their prarabdha, 527  The word 'Kevalam' is used in place of 'Kaivalyam-bhavet', i.e., the ultimate result will surely be auspicious; but 'Kevalam' (522) means that which will be conducive to the achieve¬ment or attainment of the ability to have a thorough taste of the de¬lightful sweetness of loving devotion to Shri Krishna. The meaning of the root 'Keva' is 'Sevan' and the termination 'la' is used in the sense of 'Vrisli' having the meaning to grant or bestow or impart. Hence the word 'Keval' is taken to mean that which grants 'Asvadan' or relish of the 'Krishna-prem-rasa', i.e., enduring sweetness of Di¬vine Love to Shri Krishna. Therefore, Shri Hari-Nama is the 'means'or the 'Sadhan' to achieve 'Krishna-prem-rasavada'. Shri Hari-Nama is also the end of human achievements. The termination 'la'means 'con¬sists of, 'constituted of, 'embodiment of, or 'having the constitu¬tion of. Hence, Shri Hari-Nama is the very embodiment of 'Krishna-prem-rasa-svada'. So it is both the 'Sadhan' (means) and the 'Sadhya' (end in Itself). Shri Hari-Nama by Its very constitution imparts Its 'Asvadan' to Its adherent and is full of or saturated with kindness or 'Karunamayam', i.e., It does not at all take into consideration the aspirant's fitnes or the want of it to receive Its kindness. The Sloka 'Nama chintamani'528' strengthens the view.529   This conclusively proves that Shri Hari's Svarup is Shri Hari-Nama. There is no dif¬ference or distinction between the two. For a person who holds the contrary view or says otherwise, there is no salvation or goal. This is quite certain as Shriman Mahaprabhu has Himself said so."530 The Slokas given below from 'Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita Mahakavya'by Shri Kavikarnapur, convey the meaning identical with the ideas con¬ veyed in Shriman Mahaprabhu's discourse on ¦Hare-rnahld' Sloka.531


"I bow down to Shri Krishna-Nama. "O Nama! The Vedic texts say that Mukti (emanci-pation) which is ever hankered after by the Yo¬gis, is achieved by Your Abhas or dim reflec¬tion. O Lord! Be pleased to shower Your Grace on me to enable me to write my commentary on You; 1 do not even beg for access of devotion to You " The author begins his praise of the Divine Name:-"O Hari-Nama! I take absolute shelter in You, the tips of Whose nails forming the limits of Your Lotus Feet are illumined by the lustre, emanating from the jewel necklace, viz., the Upanisiiads forming the crest of all the Vedas and Who is ever being served by multitudes of liberated souls, viz., the Yogis.'"'532


"O Hari-Nama! I unconditionally take absolute resort in You. The Upanishads form the crests of Srutis which are the jewel neck¬laces, by the lustre of which are illumined the tips of the nails, form¬ing the limits of the Lotus Feet, establishing thereby the identity or oneness of the Nama and Nami, i.e., One Whose Name It is. By the lustre from the jewel necklaces on the heads of the personification of the Vedas, are illumined the nails of Your Lotus Feet. The meaning is that all the Vedas respectfully salute Your Lotus Feet. In conclusion, it is established that there is no difference between the Nama and the Nami consequent on the use of such terms as 'Feet, Nails, etc' The author describes the qualifications of the Nama in his direct address to It (Him) by the term 'Mukta-kulairupasyamanam'. The Sarna Veda sings thus:- "Who else other than the man-the killer of the innocent beasts will desist from the praises, etc., of the Lord, which are the divine panacea for all worldly ills, alluring to the ears and the mind, and which are ever being sung by those whose minds have ceased to have any attraction to the worldly desires." "O King! It has already been decided by the Sastras that the incessant utterance of Shri Hari-Nama is the sole and sure means for the Yogis, who strive to free themselves from the clutches of worldly desires, and cherish to be free from all fears." Thus the Glory of the Name is described by the Srutis and Smritis, etc. The term 'Yogi' also means those who desire union or intercourse with the Lord."532

"To the query how I shall give shelter to you who are full of sins, the second Sloka is the answer:- " Victoiy to You O Nama! Who have taken the Form of Aksharas (syllables) for gratifying the people. O You WIio are ever being sung by liosts of sages! If You are just uttered even out of want of respect, You wipe out that thick covering of sins.533


 "O Nama! O the One, ever being sung by the sages! Be victori¬ous Tlie idea is that You should display Your greatness which con¬sists in Your capacity to destroy completely all the accumulated sins. 'Anadarat', i.e., without respect, means that the unintentional taking of the Nama, etc., as in the case of Ajamil on his deathbed, or utter¬ing a little of the Name jokingly or out of contempt, destroys the layers of the most heinous sins not of this mortal frame alone, but even of the Lingadeha or the subtle body. Footnote Nos. 243, 375, and 451 are in support of this particular contention. So the Smritis sav about the power of the Nama to destroy all the sins. Hence, by remembering Your prowess, purify me. The sense is that I am the propagator of Your Glory. You have taken the Form of Transcenden-tal Aksharas or syllables to entertain Your devotees. This indicates Your kindness. The Transcendental Aksharas are indicative of 'Turarupatva' of Shri Krishna, i.e., 'Chit-svarup'. The Smritis say, 'O Vishnu ! We take resort to Your Nama only, being convinced about Its greatness, Its Spiritual Form and Its Transcendental Blissful Nature." y is the highest luminous fruit, i.e . Chit-svarup of all the Yedic creepers.' This shows that the Svarup of the Aksharas is also Tran¬scendental in the same way as the Forms of the Avataras, like the Divine Swan, the Divine Boar, of the Transcendental Krishna."533


"The Namabhas or the dawning of the Nama. alter burning out all sins of the person, does not halt there, but it further imparts to him devotion or Bhakti to Its Possessor, i.e., Shri Krishna. "0 Bhagavan!O the Sun of Shri Krislma-Nama! Which Pandit in this world will ever be able to aptly describe Your prowess? By the dawning ofYour Abhas, even the pitch-darkness of this mundane existence is swallowed up and a loving devotion to You is simultaneously conferred on him, who is blind to the cardinal principles ofDharma and aim of life. "S34


"O Krishna! O the Sun of Krishna-Nama! Which scholar in this world will ever be able to explain Your most exalted Glory? None at all. Why? Because even Your Abhas in the form of utterance of Your praises, etc., bestows loving devotion on those who are engulfed in the darkness of worldliness. Thus being blind to the very essence of his existence, even a wise and learned person will never be able to fathom the magnitude of Your Glory; at the most tie may only be able to guess it, but not to have an exact idea except one, who knows the secrets of the truths about you. This idea is clearly elucidated in the words of Sruti "Aum Asya, etc." The prefix 'A denotes mere or just mention of the Nama, (even unintentional, jokular, contemptuous, etc,,) that imparts a loving devotion to Shri Krishna "5U


"Thus if absolute shelter is taken in Sn Han-Nama, then It < e stroys the Prarabdha, without the person having to undergo its influ¬ence and which is terminable only after it is enduitd   "Tlie Vedfa proclaim at the top of their voice that Prarabdha, i.e., the apcumu-lated good or bad actions of previous births, which are not destruct¬ible even by the constant revelation of Brahman, completely disap¬pears, the moment Shri Hari-Nama dawns on the tongue of Its devo¬tee."™


"O Nama! That Prarabdha Karma, which even by the unbroken meditation on Brahman, practised continuously like unbroken stream of oil, does not reach its end, without the person having to suffer from its good or bad consequences, takes to its heels, the moment Shri Hari-Nama dawns on the tongue of that person; thus the Vedas pro¬claim at the top of their voice. By the achievement of knowledge of Brahman, the fruits of the meritorious and sinful deeds, which are being accumulated in this birth only, are destroyed. The Srutis say, "He surmounts both the good and bad consequences of the deeds performed in" When the accumulated or sinful deeds of the past births begin to bear fruits, they are called Prarabdha. This Prarabdha diminishes only when its fruits, good or bad, are endured and not even by the acquisition of knowledge of Brahman. The Srutis '  say:- "They will adhere to him so long as I do not free him from their consequences." Thus it has been decided by the revered author of the aphorisms- "Even when he has experienced the Supreme Spirit, the consequences of the sins which are being committed in this life are destroyed." This is adduced by the Srutis. Similarly, the reduction and the destruction of the consequences of the other meritorious deeds too, will take place only when the form or body in which one is caused to be born as a result of Ms Prarabdha. falls and then only his liberation takes place. Thus it is clear that the meritorious and sinful deeds of this birth, which have not commenced to bear fruits, are alone destroyed by Brahma-Vidya. But those of the previous births which have already commenced to bear traits, are not destroyed by Brahma-Vidya, until their good or evil consequences have been un¬dergone. This Prarabdha Karma, the Srutis proclaim, melts away by the utterance of Shriman Nama alone. Tlie Srutis say, "Know that a person who is born out of sins, will have the disposition to practise nothing but wickedness alone." Because it is said that 'all' the sins are destroyed by the utterance of Nama, it is clear that the word 'air includes all the sins arising out of Prarabdha also. Having thus described it, the Satyayan, i.e., an oblation for remedying a wrong in the performance of a rite, is quoted:- "His sons receive presents, the doers of good deeds will be their friends, and they will hate the evil doers." Kaushitakinah say, "When it comes to the distribution ot their good or evil actions, his dear kinsmen gain the good, and those who are not dear, receive the bad actions." Hence, the venerable au¬thor of Sutras or Aphorisms says thus:- "Hence, the 'Anyapi\ i.e., even the sins amongst the two kinds of Sukrits and Dushkrits are washed away, i.e., it is to be accepted that the meritorious or sinful deeds, which have begun to show their effects, of persons, who have taken absolute resort in Nama, with full loving devotion to It, are completely annihilated without their having to undergo their influ¬ence." Because the Srutis say, "That his Prarabdha will stick to him so long as I do not liberate him from its consequences and that it will disappear only when he suffers its consequences, etc."535


"This Nama is very kind, as in order to give indescribable differ¬ent kinds of joys to its devotees, It reveals Itself in manifold forms. " O Nama! O the Son ofNanda! Yours are manifold Forms (Svarupas) such as Aghadaman, Yasodanandan, Nandanandan, Kamalanayan (Lotus-eyed), Gopichandra (the Moon amongst the star-like Gopis), Vrindavanendra (the Lord of Vrindavan), Krishna, Pranatakaruna (Merciful to those taking absolute shelter at Your Feet). May my love to You ever grow in intensity and profusion.'""16


"Your great kindness is quite evident; hence, I take absolute shel¬ter in You alone. "0 Nama! Your two Svarupus, viz., one that is con¬veyed (Vachva) and one that conveys (Vachak) shine. Of the two die Latter is kinder than the Former, because a person who has commit¬ted countless offences against the Vachya Svarup, i.e., Shri Krishna

Svarup, has all his sins destroyed and even it submerged in the ocean of bliss, the moment he serves the Vachak Svarup (Shri Krislma-Nama), by mouth by uttering Shri Krishna-Nama."^7


"O Nama! You shine in two Forms as Nami and Nama, i.e., Shri Krishna-Svarup and Shri Krishna-Nama. This 'Vachyam' is the all-pervading Svarup full of Bliss, as the Supreme Lord. In the 'Vachak' Form, You assume the Form of Transcendental group of letters (Vania-prachaya-rupa) like 'Krishna', 'Govinda', etc. There we take the Latter, i.e., 'Varna-prachaya-rupa' Which is Vachak as more kind than Your Vachya-Svarup. Why? Because, if a person commits noth¬ing but countless offences on every side, against Your Vachya-Svarup, i.e., Shri Krishna-Svarup, he by simply serving Your Vachak-Svarup by mouth, i.e., by uttering Shri Krishna-Nama, gets all his sins de¬stroyed and takes a deep plunge in the ocean of eternal bliss of lov¬ing devotion to You. "Tliere is no doubt whatsoever that I forgive that person, who sings My Nama with implicit faith, of crores of his of¬fences and becomes blessed." The Nama and the Nami are One and the Same. The Smritis say again, "Nama Chintamani", i.e., the jewel that fulfils all desires, is Shri Kiishna, i.e., Whose Svarup (Form) is Chaitanya Rasa, i.e., enlivening, luscious sweetness or Nama Chintamani is Shri Krishna Chaitanya, Who animated the whole of India, with the Divine Consciousness of Shri Krishna by His incessant and ecstatic utterance of Shri Krishna-Nama. He is the fullest Mani¬festation, ever pure, ever free, as there is no difference between the Nama and the Nami."5i7


"Verily, if all the thirty-two kinds of offences against the Nami. i.e., against Its Svarup mentioned in the Puranas are destroyed by uttering the thirty-two Names, and ten Namaparadlias or offences against the Nama, such as scandalisting the Bhaktas, etc., by the ut-terance of the ten Names, even then It is the Nama alone that does the trick, "O Nama! O Krishna! I bow to You Whose lustre (Kanti) is all-pervading and Who are the destroyer of all the offences of those who have taken absolute refuge in You, Wliose Svarup is delightfully charming, giving intense enlivening and celestial happiness. I bow to You Who are the object of festivity and rejoicing to the whole of Gokul."™


"O Nama! O Krishna! I offer my prostrated obeisance to You, Who remove all kinds of distress arising from the commission of offences against You, by those who whole-heartedly depend upon You. If one commits an offence against the Nama through inadvertance or howsoever, by clearly and loudly uttering the Nama always, he should take absolute shelter in It. The Names alone re¬move the sins of those who commit Namaparadhas. They should take to the uttering the Nama tirelessly, as They (Names) alone will enable such persons to achieve the highest goal of Shri Krishna Prem, and the Asvadan or relishing the delicious sweetness of Shri Nama-Sankirtan, provided they desist from the commission of such offences. Kindly forgive me for the existing offences. It should be understood from the above Sloka, that the Names are muttered or uttered simultaneously refraining from committing Namaparadhas. One should practise the Nama, being free from the offences at the same time. To Him Whose Svarup is of Transcendental ecstasy, as in the Sloka "'Nama Chintamani, etc." I bow to Him Who causes intense joy to the whole of Gokul and Who is the fullest Manifesta¬tion."538


"Now he (Shri Rupa Gosvami) prays for manifestation of Shriman Nama on his own tongue. "O Shri Krishna-Nama! O the Enlivener of Narada's lute! O the Causer of the floods of Divine Ecstasy oozing out nectarine waves, kindly dance on my tongue in all Your sweet¬ness to Your heart's content for ever.'59


"You are the Enlivener of Narada's lute; Whose inundation of the sweetness, resembles the exudation of nectarine billows. O Krishna-Nama! Kindly manifest Yourself on my tongue with ardent love to Your heart's content, for I am devoid of any power to grasp You. You Yourself kindly reign supremely on my tongue. Because of the outstanding qualities of Shri Krishna-Nama, the Mahanubhav (Shri Rupa Gosvami) at the conclusion humbly begs of Shri Krishna-Nama alone to throb on the tongue. This is be¬cause Shri Krishna Himself says that of all His Names Shri Krishna-Nama is the most important. The fruit of reading the Namashtak is made clear in the Ashtak only; hence, it is not separately stated. So ends the commentary on Shri Namashtak. If Shri Rupa Gosvami, who is an ocean of mercy, had not written 'the Stavamala' or the collec¬tion of praises, the devotees would not have known and enjoyed the sweet qualities of the Son of the Lord of Vraja, His Svarup and His Lilas, etc."539