|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Divine Name Haridasa > 12 Against Namaparadhas|
SAFEGUARD AGAINST NAMAPARADHAS
‘krishna-naama’ kare aparaadhera vicaara,
krishna balile aparaadhira naa haya vikaara.
tad ashma-saaram hridayam batedam yad grihyamaanair hari-naamadheyaih,
na vikriyetaatha yadaa vikaaro netre jalam gaatra-ruheshu harshah.
‘eka’ krishna-naame kare sarva-paapa naasha premera kaarana bhakti karena prakaasha.
premera udaye haya premera vikaara sveda-kampa-pulakaadi gadgadaashrudhaara.
anaayaase bhava-kshaya, krishnera sevana eka krishna-naamera phale paai eta dhana.
hena krishna-naama yadi laya bahu-baara tabu yadi prema nahe, nahe ashrudhaara.
tabe jaani, aparaadha taahaate pracura krishna-naama-bija taahe naa kare ankura.
chaitanya-nityaanande naahi esaba vicaara naama laite prema dena, vahe ashrudhaara.
svatantra ishvara prabhu atyanta udaara taanre naa bhajile kabhu naa haya nistaara..209
(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,8.24-38)
sataam nindaa naamnah paramam aparaadham vitanute yatah khyaatim yaatam katham u sahate tad-vigarhaam,
shivasya shri-vishnor ya iha guna-naamaadi-sakalam dhiyaa bhinnam pashyet sa khalu hari-naamaahita-karah.
guror avajnaa shruti-shaastra-nindanam artha-vaadah hari-naamni kalpanam,
naamno balaad yasya hi paapa-buddhir na vidyate tasya yamair hi shuddhih.
dharma-vrata-tyaaga-hutaadi-sarva-shubha-kriyaa-saamyam api pramaadah,
ashraddadhaane vimukhe ’py ashrinvati yash copadeshah shiva-naama aparaadhah.
shrutvaapi naama-maahaatmyam yah priti-rahito ’dhamah,
aham-mamaadi-paramo naamni so ’py aparaadha-krit ..210
AS we have already heard, the nine ways of devotion are compara¬tively far mote powerful than the rest of the sixty-four ways of prac¬tising devotion. Even, amongst the ninefold ways of devotion 'Nama* Sankirtan'208 lops the list. It is the cream churned out of all the devo¬tional activities. No other course is so potent as this one. This course of Nama-Sarikirtan, as the verse expresses is to be performed free from all the offences. Nama-Sankirtan of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna is capable of bringing to us the thrilling experiences of Di¬vine Love. The following verse speaks about the efficacies of one single utterance of the Name of the Lord. All the accumulated heaps of our sins CDmmitted in the present, as well as previous births are destroyed by the power of a single utterance of the Name and awak¬ens ardent devotion, the cause of Prem. By the appearance of Prem, he is favoured with all the accompanying experience of incessant flow of tears, shivering, hair standing on end, etc. He is not in the least affected by worldliness and is blessed with the eternal loving service of Shri Krishna. A single utterance of the Name has got so much power in It. Even after uttering such as highly potential Name again and again, if one fails to achieve the spiritual experience of unalloyed love for the Lord, it may be only on account of the exist¬ence of too many offences in him. The seed of Shri Krishna Nama never sprouts in the heart of one who commits offences against the Name. But Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu and Shri Nityananda Prabhu, Who are quite independent, are very munificent and do not at all take into consideration the aspirant's offences. If one utters Shri Krishna Nama, They immediately and invariably im¬part to him loving devotion, which causes floods of tears to gush out of his eyes. If one does not adopt Both of Them as his Sole Resort, there is no salvation for him.209
According to Padma Purana, there are ten offences210
that an aspirant is likely to commit against the Name. These offences, if not nipped in the bud, will postpone the realisation of the fruit of Shri Nama-Sankirtan, which is Krishna Prem. Aspirants indulging in such offences will not taste the incomparable Bliss flowing from the Eternal Fount of Shri Krishna Nama. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, in spite of all the liberal sanctions He had made in favour of the Holy Name, in¬sisted on all to take the Name without committing any offence against It. (See footnote 157)
To disparage Sadhus or Absolute-realised souls.211 Speaking ill of sadhus, publishing false scandals about them, causing harm or injury to their persons or adopting other violent methods, like disrespecting them, speaking
harsh and impolite words to them, form an offence against the Name. Treating a genuine Sadhu on the same level as that of a non devotee, also comes under the same category of offence. Most people are ignorant of the mean¬ing of the word 'Sadhu'. They take it in a very light and general way; but, really the word 'Sadhu' indicates a Bhakta of Shri Hari, who, like the Lord, is a living embodiment of eternal qualities, viz., existence, knowledge and bliss.
On a careful scrutiny of the religious trends in India, we come across with two different groups of people. From time immemorial, they are pursuing two different courses of approach to realise the Absolute Truth. One group follows an indirect course of ascending process, depending entirely on their own efficiency and reasonings, mostly based on empiric foundations. They give a good deal of lip-loyalty to some of the selected Sastras which they interpret to suit their purpose. According to them, the Absolute is void of any speci¬alities, Name, Form, Quality, Activity, or Entourage. It is designated as the undifferentiated and unqualified Brahman, Who is indescrib¬able in positive terms and hence explained in the Sastras in negative terms. Whereas, the other group, adopt a direct course of descending process and through complete surrender and love to the Supreme Lord, they proceed. They are fully confident of their utter helplessness in realising the godhead by dint of their researches and effi¬ciency. Forgetting their ego and depending solely upon His Mercy they realise Him as a Transcendental Person abundantly rich with all auspicious qualifications, possessing an Eternal Form-a Miracle of Beauty-with sweet Names. They asert with all emphasis that He by His causeless Mercy manifests Himself in the uncontaminated life of a fortunate individual and makes him fit for positively describing Him in a language that is intelligible to persons who are not envious of His Transcendental Svarup.
A majority of the prominent section of our religious population belongs to the first group. Those few who are following the second group are termed as "Bhaktas'. To them Bhagavan, Bhakti, and Bhakta are eternal objects. They do not destroy the eternally distinct posi¬tions of these three by merging them into'one which is none of the three. To place the followers of these two methods having funda¬mentally opposite views into one class is a grave offence against the Holy Name. A genuine devotee of the Lord, mentioned in the sec¬ond category is not an aspirant for wealth, luxuries, or name and fame; no, not even for the realisation of any of the five kinds of liberation. He is exclusively engaged in the constant chant of the Holy Name. The service of the Divine Name is the very essence of his existence. He never expects anything in return from the Lord. "Love is Its Own reward'. This offence committed against the Sadhus is of a grave nature because the Glory of the Holy Name, comes down to this material world through the medium of these Bhaktas. It is their mercy that helps us to derive the benefit of hear¬ing the Divine Name or even realising Godhead. They are the great¬est and real benefactors of humanity who save us from the innumer¬able sufferings of this world of imperfections. They are the living embodiments of the Mercy of the Supreme Lord; His most favourite associates, dearer than His Own Self. As such, He would not tolerate any wrongs, however insignificant they may be, to these devotees.
naashcaryam etad yad asatsu sarvadaa mahad-vinindaa kunapaatma-vaadishu,
sershyam mahaapurusha-paada-paamsubhir nirasta-tejahsu tad eva shobhanam..212
rajasaa ghora-sankalpaah kaamukaa ahi-manyavah,
daambhikaa maaninah paapaa vihasanty acyuta-priyaan..213
shriyaa vibhutyaabhijanena vidyayaa tyaagena rupena balena karmanaa,
jaata-smayenaandha-dhiyah saheshvaraan sato ’vamanyanti hari-priyaan khalaah..214
"No wonder, that those foolish people who misidentify them¬selves with their gross body would disparage a Sadhu. All Bhaktas are above malice. They are ever-forbearing of any misdeed commit¬ted agaisnt them. But, the holy dust of their feet never tolerates such offensive actions of these foolish people. They bring doom upon the offenders. Disparaging great Bhaktas is in the very nature of these sure infidels; because, thereby they dig their own graves."212 "Guided by a malicious propensity, due to the prevalence of excessive Rajas quality in them, they are lustful, cruel-minded like the venomous serpents, irrepressibly arrogant, vainglorious, and awfully disposed to sins; these proud people, the unfortunate victims of the baser ele¬ments of humanity, laugh at the devotees of the Lord."213 "Those wicked people puffed up with the vanities of wealth, lordliness, learn¬ing, high lineage, charity, personal complexion, physical ability, the performance of Vedic sacrifices, deprived of any wisdom in them indiscriminately slander the Supreme Lord Shri Hari and His devo¬tees."214
Sree vishnu sakasat siba namadeh swatantryam nanam.215
shivah shakti-yutah shashvat tri-lingo guna-samvritah,
vaikaarikas taijasash ca taamasash cety aham tridhaa..216
harir hi nirgunah saakshaat purushah prakriteh parah,
sa sarva-drig upadrashtaa tam bhajan nirguno bhavet..217
To regard Shri Vishnu as absolutely different from His auspicious Names, Form, Qualities, etc., or to treat Him on a par with the other lesser gods,215 constitutes an offence. Shri Krishna is the Supreme Godhead, the Tran-
scendental Autocrat. He is the Prime Cause of all other causes, the God of all gods, and the Origin of all objects and entities. All other gods are powerful owing to the inspiration they receive from Him. They are all del¬egated with certain powers by Him. Just as even a costly and highly powerful electric bulb is of no use without current from the power-house, even so, deprived of Shri Krishna's energy, all these gods are powerless entities. Shri Krishna is the Transcendental Power-house from Whom all these gods receive inspira¬tion. Some of the Upanishads have impressively illustrated this fact by a certain incident. No doubt, these minor gods are more powerful than the most powerful man in this world; but they too are subject to the influence of time. They do take birth and though they live for more number of years than we all, they are also to leave this world one day. Shri Hari is free from these transitory influences. He is ever existing above the influence of the time factor, birth, growth, or death. To treat Him as on a par with the other gods who are not inde¬pendent and who receive strength from Him is an offence against the Holy Name. "O King! God Siva is always united with his Sakti (Durga or Maya). He is associated with the three Gunas. The quality of Tamas is his predominant attribute. Being associated with the three Gunas, viz., Sdttva, Rajas, and Tamas, he is called "Trilinga'."216 "On the other hand, Bhagavan Shri Hari is the Supreme Godhead, beyond Prakritl and fully free from the material qualities. He is the Omniscient Lord, the Supreme Witness of all hearts. Those who worship Him get freed from the Gunas and attain His sublime state being void of material attributes."217
sattvam copashamena ca ,
etat sarvam gurau bhaktyaa purusho hy anjasaa jayet.
yasya saakshaad bhagavati jnaana-dipa-prade gurau,
martyaasad-dhih shrutam tasya sarvam kunjara-shaucavat..219
Desregarding the spiritual preceptor.218 He who performs the chant of Shri Hari-Nama at all times is the real precep¬
tor. Such a spiritual master has no other function, even for a fraction of a moment, than the chanting of the Name of 'Shri Hari'. He is the greatest exponent of the Holy Name.The Guru, though he appears before us, talks to us in our language, dresses like us, takes food like others, and behaves with us like a human being, is not an or¬dinary mortal, but he is purely a transcendental personage.An aspirant to the chanting of Nama, and desirous of achiev¬ing success in his efforts, should treat the Guru as a merciful con¬verter of all our evil propensities, erroneous notions, and whimsical behaviours. Unhesitatingly and whole-heartedly, we should obey the commands of our Guru. The advice of the Guru should be obeyed unconditionally without any discrimination. Therein lies the duty of the disciple, his real status. Discarding the Guru and his words of advice, no disciple can realise the Absolute Truth. Deprived of the mercy of the divine Guru, a disciple's endeavours do not fructify. The Name of the Lord never manifests on the tongue of one who disre¬gards his Sad-Guru. "O King! The qualities of Rajas and Tamas are to be conquered by means of the quality of Sattva, which again is to be subdued by indifference to mundane affinities. But, by the grace of the spiritual master, one can easily conquer all these undersirable qualities. He who treats his divine master-a visible manifestation of the Supreme Lord on the mundane plane, and who imparts spiritual knowledge, as an ordinary human being, is doomed for ever. All that he has heard from his Guru or all that hs has studied from the Sastras become utterly futile like an elephant's bath."219
sruti tadanuyayee sastraneenda.220
maayaa-mugdha jivera naahi svatah krishna-jnaana,
jivere kripaaya kailaa krishna veda-puraana..221
(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,20.122)
Speaking too lightly or contemptuously of the sacred and infallible Sastras.220 The Sastras are not the creations of any mortal. They originate directly from the Supreme Lord Himself; accordingly, they are understood by the
wise as self- revealed truths. Shri Vyasadev, one of the Manifestations of the Lord expounded and expanded the same for the enlightenment of the ignorant world. "People who are under the influence of Maya, have no recollection of Shri Krishna or the knowledge about Him. Hence, for the benefit of those forgotten souls, Shri Krishna has manifested out of His Mercy,the Vedas and Puranas."221 Ignorant souls are always under the influ¬ence of numerous erroneous notions. They are utterly ignorant of their eternal welfare and the etfective methods to retrieve it. They are mostly indifferent too. Guided by everchanging views, some¬times they whole-heartedly support complete renunciation while at other times, they run mad after material objects and their enjoyments. For saving these fallen souls from such a pitiable condition and to show them proper light as to their duties, responsibilities, real na¬ture, and their relationship the Merciful Lord has manifested by His sweet Will, the great Sastras. They do not contain any record of the defective and deceptive arguments and conclusions of human brains.
asya mahato bhutasya nihshvasitam etad rigvedo yajur vedah saama vedaatharvaangirasa itihaasah,
puraanam vidyaa upanishadah shlokaah sutraany anuvyaakhyaanaani sarvaani nihshvasitaani..222
brahmaa devaanaam prathamah sambabhuva vishvasya kartaa bhuvanasya goptaa,
sa brahma-vidyaam sarva-vidyaa-pratishthaam atharvaaya jyeshtha-putraaya praaha..223
(Mundaka Upanishad ,1.1.1)
kaalena nashtaa pralaye vaaniyam veda-samjnitaa,
mayaadau brahmane proktaa dharmo yasyaam mad-aatmakah..224
shraddhaam bhaagavate shaastre ’nindaam anyatra caapi hi..225
namah pramaana-mulaaya kavaye shaastra-yonaye,
pravrittaaya nivrittaaya nigamaaya namo namah..226
"From the very breath of the Supreme Person, Isvar, have origi¬nated the four Vedas, the great epics, all the Puranas, Upanishads, Slbka, Sutras, Anuvyakhya, etc."222 "This knowledge of the Brahman, the basis of all other types of learning, was originally taught by Brahma, the primal god, creator, and protector of this world to Atharvan, his first-born son."223 "When these Transcendental Words giving all the detailed knowledge about My proper Self, were to¬tally lost in course of time during the great deluge, once again at the beginning of the creation I explained the very same Truth to Brahma."224 "Shrimad Bhagavata dealing with the Pastimes of the Lord must be specially honoured; but on no account other Sastras should be treated with contempt."225 "Thou art the Supreme Origin, the very Life behind all the senses like eyes, ears, etc., Thou art the Self-evident Knowledge. Thou art Its Exponent Shri Krishna Dvaipayan Vedavyas. Thou art the Source of all the Saslras and hence, the wise address Thee as the Sastro-Yoni. Thou art the Propounder of scrip¬tures, the veritable Nigama that speaks of both I'ravritti (path of attachment to worldliness) and Nivriiti (path ol renunciation from worldly pleasures). We offer our prostrations to Thee again and again."226'
harinama mahiminnee arth vadamatra metadeetee mannam..227
praayena veda tad idam na mahaajano ’yam devyaa vimohita-matir bata maayayaalam,
trayyaam jadi-krita-matir madhu-pushpitaayaam vaitaanike mahati karmani yujyamaanah..228
evam pushpitayaa vaacaa vyaakshipta-manasaam nrinaam,
maaninaam caati-lubdhaanaam mad-vaartaapi na rocate..229
praayashcittaani cirnaani naaraayana-paraanmukham,
na nishpunanti raajendra suraa-kumbham ivaapagaah..230
praayah param purusha te tv ajitendriyaanaam vaartaa bhavanty uta na vaatra tu daambhikaanaam..231
To he under the impression that the whole Glory of the Divine Name explained in the Saslras is merely an exaggeration farfrdm the real facts.227 "Knowcrs of the truth of this mundane world, such as Manu. etc., are not Mahajans or saints in the spiritual spheres. Their intellect is badly bewildered by the Influence of Maha
Mava. Tlie honeyed flowery words of the three Vedas have benumbed their mentality to such a pitch that it is greatly entangled in the shackless ol frutive actions. They are of opinion that the praises on the efiicacv of the Holy Name are simply hyperbolic."228 "Greatly confused ami distracted by the flowery words of the Vedas without
understanding their hidden meaning, the proud and the greedy do not find any relish in My Topics."229 "O King! Just as a pot polluted by the bad smell of wine is not purified even by the efforts of all the rivers put together, even so, the various expiations mentioned in the Sastras relating to fruitive works, however great or powerful they may be, cannot purify a fallen soul averse to Shri Narayana."230 "O Supreme Being! The Lord of my soul! Practice of complete silence, observance of vows, hearing of the scriptures, asceticism, study of the Vedas, practice of daily duties, exposition of the Vedic aphorisms, solitary life, muttering of Mantras and deep absorption in medita¬tion- all these practices of attaining liberaition are very often em¬ployed as the means of livelihood by those, who are the slaves of their senses, but for arrogant persons it is extremely doubtful whether these will be of any use or not."231
tatra prakarante ranarth kalpanam.232
Taking all the efficacious and incomparable Names of the Lord as imaginary."232 Most people are given to a belief that Godhead has no Name. They are of opinion that -any object with a name or form is the production of Maya.
They are perfectly right in their view as far as objects of the mundane world are concerned.But, their opinion on Transcendental Object is totaly mistaken. They make a gross confusion in treating both Transcendental and material
on the same level.
namabalena pape prabruteeh.233
prabhu bale,-toraa aara naa karis paapa,
jagaai maadhaai bale,-aara naare baapa..234
Committing sins repeatedly and intentionally on the strength of the Name.233 After listening to the marvellous Glories of the Divine Name, none should continue with their loath-some activities and sinful tendencies, knowingly
or unknowingly. A firm conviction on the effi¬cacy of the Name is highly praise-worthy and most needed by all. The Divine Name, by chanting which Divine Love is achieved, should never be used for destroying one's sins.Sn Gauranga Mahaprabhu, while at Navadvip, converted two row-dies-Jagai and Madhai, overnight into great saints, an incident that revolutionised both men and gods. According to the records of the court of justice, there were no sins that these two did not commit before their conversion. By some accident, these two had to lace Shriman Mahaprabhu. In a couple of minutes, both became His slaves,i.e., were transformed into ideal devotees. They surrendered uncon¬ditionally to Him; by His causeless Mercy they were filled with re¬morse and were ultimately reformed. He promised to them that He would see that they will not even have to bear the consequences of the sins of their crores of births, on condition that they should not commit sins again. He got an assurance from them to that effect. He said, "You must not commit any more sins." They replied, "We would not do it again."234 From then onwards, they started chanting Shri Krishna-Nama and became great devotees of Shriman Mahaprabhu.
anya suvakree yaveenarmanaon samya mannanm.235
koti ashvamedha eka krishna naama sama,
yei kahe, se paashandi, dande taare yama..236
(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,3.78)
Regarding the Holy Name in the same category as that of all other religious practices, such as moral duties, religious vbws, re¬nunciation, sacrifice, etc.23S
Chanting of Shri Hari-Nama is His direct service. Sankirtan should not be compared with other practices."One utterance of the Name "Krishna" is more beneficial than the performance of even crores of horse-sacrifices. Yama-the god of death will punish that infidel, who compares a single utterance of Shri Krishna-Nama with even crores of horse-sacrifices."236 Altruistic or utilitarian activities that are of¬ten advertised as the sole purpose of human life, are useful so tar as the attainment of material happiness, which is transitory. Not even an iota of spiritual sincerity can be felt in any of those acts, what to speak of pleasing the Lord? Inattentiveness while chanting the Name must be avoided at all costs. Diligence in uttering Shri Krishna-Nama will assuredly hasten the achievement of Shri Krishna Prem.
ashraddadhaane vimukhe ca namopadesah.237
Imparting the Holy Name to persons who Have no faith in and are averse to chanting the Holy Name and who are irreligious from their very birth, constitutes an offence.237 The Holy Name should not be immotives, such as receiving money, earning a name and fame, etc.,as that would amount to a misuse of the Holy Name. A person who is ignorant of the true na¬ture of the Divine Name, and is not only of a receptive disposition but also very anxious to hear and practise it, may be enlightened on the Glories of the Holy Name, according to his capacity and all ef¬forts should be made to inspire him with faith in the Name and the necessity for chanting It with faith.
shrute ’pi naama-maahaatmye yah priti-.238
Want of taste for the chanting or hearing of the Name owing to extreme addiction to worldliness even after listening the Excellences of the Name repeatedly is one of the extremely rave offences that we are prone to commit.238 This attachment to the physical body and the pursuit of worldly pleasures detracts the mind from its true function of devotion to the Name and provokes us to commit offences very often. The commission of the Namaparadhas must under all circumstances, he eschewed by the aspirant There should he no bargaining with the Holy Name for worldly gains.The Name must be uttered for Its Own Sake. The aspirant should chant the Name in a spirit of self-surrender, invoking at every step the blessings of his spiritual master, and make strenuous efforts depending upon the Mercy of the Divine Name to free himself from the aforesaid offences. At every moment he must be conscious of Ms insignificant position and from the bottom of his heart, wail aloud for help from the Divine Lord. An ardent longing and a sincere prayer from the depth of his heart can never result in nothing, Bhagavan is an Embodiment of Mercy. He is always moved by the sincere entreaties of a helpless person. He is the Lord of the destitute and forsaken. If the entreaties are from an anguished heart, drenched with genuine tears the Lord will never remain adamant. He saves him from all the offences.
Constant chanting of the Name is the sole remedy to escape from these offences. "A person who has stumbled down, mokes repeated attempts to get up once, again, taking support on the very same earth from where he has once slipped. "239 "Similarly, the Name is the only refuge for one who has offended It. Hence, chanting the Name incessantly, depending upon Its Mercy, is the surest way that would save an aspirant from the various offences, he has committed against the Name."240" "Now even the greatest crime for which here is no atonement, which cannot be forgiven even by Shri Bhagavan Himself and which does not disappear unless endured, does disappear thus- "Those who are always engaged in oppress¬ing the saintly personages in this world, become not only blessed and pure by the incessant, loud, and clear chanting of Shri Hari-Nama but also become the purifiers of others too. By constantly uttering Shri Hari-Nama, his sins are not only destroyed, but he also becomes Dhanya, i.e., blessed. He becomes perfectly pure himself and acquires the power to purify others too. He also be¬comes the fittest recipient of the precious wealth of loving devo¬tion to Godhead. It is stated in Stotra, etc., that censure of the good and saintly people constitutes the greatest offence against the Name. Ifsuch . censure means an offence against the Name, then words fail to describe adequately the magitude of the most heinous crime of incessantly appressing the Sadhus, who not only never harm anyone, but always do good to all. How unpardonably heinous a crime is meant by the words 'Sajjananam sadadrohaparata'. The Sastras say 'Namnopi San'osuluidah aparadhat Patatyadhah' i.e., one certainly
has to suffer in an infernal hell as an aftermath of an offence against the Name, Which is the Friend or Well-wisher of all. Is there then no expiation for such an offender? Certainly there is! By always resorting to the Name alone, he atones for his offence against the Name. This shows that he who is always engaged in the service of the Name, is not prone to commit an offence; on the contrary, he advances further in devotion leading him to the achievement of the special Prem Bhakti or loving devotion. Hence it is aptly said of him that he becomes pre-eminently blessed."240-1