Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Divine Name Haridasa > 04 At Shantipura




AT Santipur, Haridas Thakur met the great Shri Advaita Acharya and prostrated himself before him and the latter, being extremely de¬lighted, embraced Thakur Haridas and received him with all cordiality. Advaita Acharya, an eld-

erly person, was the leader of the Vaishnav com-munity in Navadvip. He came from a Brahmin family of high lineage. His ancestors were very eminent in learning. Originally belonging to Sylhet (Assam), he became a disciple of the great saint Shri Madhavendra Puri, and in subsequent years settled at Santipur and later on at Navadvip. He was fairly well-to-do. The people of Santipur as well as Navadvip, regarded him with great respect for his vast learning of the Sastras, pious life and sincere devotion. He was one of the select few of the eternal associates of Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu.


Advaita Acharya arranged a lonely hut for Thakur Haridas on the banks of the Ganges and daily explained to him the real import of Shrimad Bhagavata and Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita. Haridas Thakur had his alms of food everyday from the house of Advaita Acharya, and spent his days completely lost in the eddies of Spiritual Bliss. He remained absorbed in the topics, relating to the Sportive Pastimes of the Lord, in the company of this revered host. While days rolled on unnoticed in such unparalleled spiritual happiness, Haridas Thakur approached Advaita Acharya one day, with a humble request. "Holy sir! What is the benefit of feeding me daily? This is a place noted for brahmins. Many eminent persons of high lineage are here. Ignoring all of them, the great hospitality that you are extending to me, may possibly offend them all. Yes, it may pave the way to some social trouble. Hence, I appeal to you from the bottom of my heart, not to continue it, and to do such actions that may be agreeable to the social and spiritual principles of one's life."


tumi khaaile haya koti-braahmana-bhojana”

eta bali, shraaddha-paatra karaailaa bhojana..29

(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita3.220)


Advaita Acharya was an eminent scholar of sound principles,folding an extraordinary position amongst the devotees. He knew ls position pretty well. He knew that in this age of Kali, it is well

mgh impossible to get a crore of Brahmins. He asked Haridas Thakur to shed all such baseless fears, and assured him,

that he would do only such observations, that are sanctioned by the sacred Sastras. "By feedJ ing you, a crore of Brahmins are really fed."29 With this reply, he offered Haridas Thakur the food cooked on the occasion of the anniversary-' Sraddha-day'. The above deed undoubtedly is a severe and inexcusable violation of the existing social code. According to the prevailing customs, amongst the orthodox Brahmins, such food can be offered only to members of their own community. Giving it to any one outside the community and specially to one who is a non-Hindu, is a grave violation of the custom of the community. By this action, the great Advaita Acharya is not to be misunderstood as one, who has trespassed the social prin¬ciples or Vedic Vamasram Dharma. He has, in fact, laid bare before and taught the wofld the unique position of a genuine devotee, over all castes and creeds, and his sole eligibility, to accept the offerings of even high cast Brahmins, on such special occasions. The above fact is not against the Sastras.




'Among thousands of Brahmins, one who performs Vedic rites is superior? amongst thousands of such Vedic Brahmins, one who is well-versed in the meanings of the Vedic lore, is superior; amongst a crore of Brahmins well-versed in the Sastras, a devotee of Shri Vishnu is considered to be still more superior and even amongst thousands of devotees of Shri Vishnu, a single-minded devotee of Shri Krishna is spoken of as the supreme most."30


Such was the lofty position, that Thakur Haridas enjoyed, even before the great Advaita Acharya, the leader of the Vaishnav commu-nity at Navadvip.


Advaita Acharya's sympathy to the fallen humanity, has no par¬allel elsewhere. The deplorable condition of the people moved his heart. He wished to do something substantial to them. He devised ways and means, for the deliverance of all these suffering souls. He took an oath for bringing on Earth, the Manifestation of Bhagavan Shri Krishna, in the midst of all, and started regularly worshipping Him, with the Ganges water, and teh sprays of Tulasi, a very effica¬cious method mentioned in the Sastras. Haridas Thakur too, with renewed enthusiasm and faith, went on with his chanting of the Name, eagerly expecting the Advent of Shri Krishna. Influenced by the sin¬cere devotion, and repeated entreaties of both Advaita Acharya and Haridas Thakur, the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, manifested his Advent into this world, and inundated our country from Himalayas to Cape Comorin like a furious deluge with Divine Name, the swelling waves of which  overflowed in all directions, making the inhabitants beneficiaries of this great onrush. "The cult of unalloyed devotion of Shri Krishna, reached its high¬est degree of development, and received its great impetus on the ap¬pearance of Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu-the Fullest Manifestation of Shri Krishna, Who was born in Navadvip, on the banks of the Ganges, a little over four hundred and fifty years ago, and flourished for nearly half a century. He was Shri Krishna Himself manifested in the form of His great devotee, Shri Krishna is the Mystery and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is.Its Explanation. Whenever Shri Krishna comes on earth as the Mystery of Love in the junction period of Dvapar and Kali,- He comes again in the Form of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as the explanation of that Mystery, 5000 years after, to show mankind the way to Himself."*


"Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's Love, Devotion and spirituality will ever remain unparalleled. He preached Shri Krishna, the Seed and Soul of Love Absolute, and while preaching, He would burst f°rth in praises of Shri Krishna. And all India was flooded with Shri Chaitanya's Divine Love."*


"Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu preached and proved the po-teggy of Shri Krishna's Name-that His Name is the Lord Himself.

If anybody says, 'Krishna', 'Krishna', mentally or loudly and concentrates his mind on It, he is bound to absorb Its Love-Nec¬tar, be drunk with Its Ecstasy, see Krishna in Form and in ev¬erything and finally go to Golok after passing out of this life. The world has never seen such an Avatar, the Manifestation of All-Love-Krishna."*


"Like master, like servants. His apostles were of such purity and sublimity that it would be hard to find one such like them even in India of the past. Anyone of them was competent to save a whole world, they left thousands of books on Shri Krishna and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's Career and Teachings, which are of the utmost value to the students and adherents of all religions of all climes, ages and denominations. Love is the theme of every book, and it is difficult to resist its essence pouring into you as you read them. For Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu can not be understood without first understanding Shri Krishna and His Lila on Earth." *


The doing of great personalities like Haridas Thakur, etc., do not submit to the reasoning faculties of ordinary limited human in¬telligence. They continue to remain an enigmatic puzzle even to the best of the brains of the world. Listening to them with real faith, is the only course open to us. Haridas Thakur's career in this world, is crowded with many miraculous and thrilling incidents. It is simply impossible to record each and every such deed. To add to the glories of Haridas Thakur, of which we have already heard, Shri Krishnadas Kaviraj Gosvami explains another incident.


Once, sitting in his cave as usual, Haridas Thakur was reciting loudly the Holy Name. It was a fullmoon day. The cool and silvery moonlight spread over the country, making the atmosphere all around very fascinating. The

sparkling ripples of the Ganges flowing close by added fresh beauty and solitude to the pre¬vailing calm outlook. The entrance to his -cell was sanctified by the presence of a Holy Tulasi plant, grown in an elevated place, specially erected for the purpose. The whole scenery, both inside and outside that cave of Haridas Thakur, was so lovely that it would easily steal away any heart.


At this moment there appeared in this charming scene a beauti¬ful woman. The glowing lustre around her, was so dazzling, that it .drove away all the darkness, making the place fully illuminated. The sweet fragrance of her body, mixing with the gentle breeze, made all the ten quarters delightful. The sweet ringing of her ornaments, was more captivating to the ears, than the melodious songs of the Gandharvas. Gently she bowed down to the Tulasi, Perambulated the same, and approached the entrance of Haridas Thakur's cave. With folded hands, she worshipped his feet, and taking her seat on the threshold spoke thus:- "Truly, you are a benefactor to the whole world. Both in appearance and qualities, you are an exception. Enchanted by these, I have come over here, to enjoy your loving company. Please have the kindness, to accept my humble request. You are a great devo¬tee. Devotees are by nature, embodiments of kindness and sympa¬thy. They are ever exceptionally merciful, to the suffering human-ity."


So saying, this attractive stranger woman, tried to convert the great Haridas Thakur, by various charming gestures and postures, the sight of which undoubtedly, would violently disturb the mental equilibrium of even great Munis. But these efforts of the young woman, did not prove effective before Haridas Thakur. He was a hard nut to crack. He remained firm. He, on the contrary, pitied the unfortunate woman, and said, "I have taken an oath of chanting a special fixed number of Names daily. Till the fixed Cjuota of Names is completed, it is impossible to attend to any other work. This is my vow. When my routine of Kirtan is over, I may have enough time for rest. Be seated at the entrance and attend the chanting of the Name. On completion of my vow, 1 shall certainly agree to your proposal."


Thakur Haridas, who was deeply absorbed in constant medita¬tion on the Name of Shri Krishna, was totally unconscious of the ex¬ternal world. Hence, all the attempts of this bewitching woman, re¬sulted in an utter failure, before our great saint, yes, they ended as 'wasted fragrance in desert air'.


At the end of the tliird day, when she was totally disappointed, she approached once again Haridas Thakur with these words. "You have deceived me, by your consoling words, for all the past three days. It seems there is no end of your Kirtan, either during the day or the night."


On hearing her words Haridas Thakur replied, "What can 1 do? I am helpless. I have already taken an oath. How can I break it now?" She now understood him well. She was convinced beyond any doubt, that she was only 'making attempts to extract sunbeams from cu¬cumbers'. All her hopes were frustrated. She thought that there was no use of meddling with him any further. She, therefore, finally de¬cided to reveal herself before him. With all reverence she bowed down to Haridas Thakur, and said, I am Maya, the deluding energy of Godhead. I came to test you once. I can claim that I have deluded all Jivas, from Brahma downwards. None could stand my test. But, today I accept my utter failure. My pride is humbled. Yes, I am mis¬erably defeated by you. You are the only exception, that I have ever witnessed. You are a great 'Mahabhagavata'. By a mere sight to your person, and by listening to your chanting of the Holy Name, my heart is completely purified. I too long to remain absorbed in drinking the Nectarine Bliss emanating from the Divine Name. Ah! What a mar¬vellous and soul-stirring experience it is! Have the mercy to initiate me too with the sweet Name of Shri Krishna. The whole of India is submerged under the sweeping currents of Divine Love. Everyone is carried away by this inundation. Really why India? The whole world is exceptionally fortunate. Those who are deprived of this great in¬fluence, are the most unfortunate, amongst the creation of the Lord. Even in crores of births, there is little hope for one, who has not tasted the Bliss of Divine Name. On a previous occasion I had ac¬cepted the Holy Name 'Rama' from the great Siva. Now, I eagerly long to be favoured with the Name 'Krishna' by your grace and I humbly request you to initiate me into the same. The Name 'Rama' is well-known for its characteristics of delivering one and all from the thraldom of Maya, whereas the Name 'Krishna' distinguishes Itself by imparting 'Krishna Prem' in addition. Pray bless me with the Name of Shri Krishna and make me fit to experience this surging ocean of Divine Love." With these words, she worshipped the feet of Haridas Thakur. Her prayer was granted. How can one escape the overflowing kindness of Thakur Haridas? Yes, she was initiated with the Name of Shri Krishna.


Why did~Mayadevi request Haridas Thakur for the Name of Shri Krishna when she had already been initiated with the Name of Shri Rama by no less a personage than the great Siva? Is there any differ¬ence between the Names of the Lord? Is it essential that everyone should repeat the Name of Shri Krishna? What harm is there if we utter the name of Kali, Siva, Ganapati, Kartikeya, etc.? A person of a thoughtful disposition, is often confronted with similar questions, when he comes accross such typical occurrences. Doubts are the out¬come of misunderstandings. Proper enlightenment on the subject, clears all our misconceptions. A correct idea of the Absolute Truth, or the Ultimate Reality, Whom we know by the common epithet-'Godhead' and "a true conception of Shri Krishna', are sure to help us satisfactorily, in solving this problem. This definitely would help us, to wipe out all our erroneous notions.


To any Hindu in India Shri Krishna is not a strange figure. Though,most of the people in India, lamentably lack, in having a proper un¬derstanding, of His Real Personality, and thesignificance, underlying His Divine Deeds, He

is widely known, even amongst the unletteredmasses. Shri Krishna! How sweet is the Name Itself! Ah! Is there anything sweeter to the heart of lovers than this pretty little Enchanter, full of pranks, fun and frolic? He is the Love, Light, Life and the very Soul of Vrindavan, the very life-breath of the Vrajavasis. Millions of people from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, hail His Glories, sing the fascinating events of His marvellous Deeds, listen with rapt attention to his soul-stirring Mes¬sages, repeat His sweet Names and experience flashes of His contact which is verily ineffable joy and satisfaction in their hearts. There is no occasion in India amongst the majority of Hindus, when Shri Krishna is not referred to in one way or other. Whether in the days of festivities or on marriage occasions, whether in times of weal or woe, or in time of social rejoicings, it has become a habitual custom, to remember Him, and to sing His captivating Pastimes, in the midst of enexplicable heartfelt feelings of love and enthusiasm. He holds a continuous sway in the hearts of lacs and lacs of inhabitants in India. He is the most popular Figure, the sweetest Object of veneration and worship. He is the most Beloved Lord and Saviour-nay, the Abso¬lute-Par-Excellence.


Numerous conceptions about Shri Krishna are current even amongst eminent scholars in India. His inconceivable potency pre¬vents all the empiric thinkers, and their efforts from having a thor¬ough conception of His Divine Personality. He is moulded by each of these savants, in his own thoughts, giving new colours and shapes,to His Divine Personality and Deeds. If at all,we are interested to know something genuine about him ,we must necessarily listten to the authentic scriptures, that speak of Him and rely on the words of those pure devotees, who have realised Him in His true nature. The remarks of critics are based on their individual un¬derstandings, purely gathered through the material senses. It is obvi¬ously evident, that the mundane reasoning faculties, have no access to Divine Objects. Hence, depending solely on the statements of or¬dinary critics, or the so-called scholars, we cannot get a true concep¬tion of Shri Krishna, His Divine Personality, Deeds, or Messages. Such statements only take us away, from the real facts, by the weight of intellectual representations, based on individual ideas of a defective nature. Almost all the conclusions of today, are changed and replaced, by new reasons tomorrow. Intellectual conclusions are, therefore, in¬complete and unsteady, even in the visible plane of matter. There¬fore, wise persons take their firm stand, on the revealed scriptures, which alone can unfold the Truth before us.


The numerous conceptions, about Shri Krishna that exist, them¬selves are a sound proof, that most of these scholars, are ignorant of His Real Personality. Each one, is depicting Him in the way, that is intelligible to him.


The first group regards Shri Krishna, as one of the endless De¬scents of Bhagavan Shri Vishnu. To them, Shri Vishnu is the Supreme Godhead. The word 'Vishnu', literally means one Who pervades the entire universe. Our Puranas have described various Descents of Bhagavan Vishnu, appearing in this world on different occasions, for fulfilling manifold purposes, concerned with the administration of the universe. The Name of Shri Krishna, too, is included in the list of the many Descents, that have manifested in this mortal plane. Some of them (forming the second group), after making a deep study of these Descents, Their Deeds, etc., distinguish Shri Krishna, as the fullest or the most perfect (Puma Avatar), of all such Manifestations of the Divinity. They take Him as 'Class One' of all these Avatars. And a third section of people realise Him as a Personal Manifestation (Saguna Brahman) of the Impersonal Absolute (Nirguna Brahman).Accroding to them the Ultimate Reality is conceived as one that is void of all attributes. All intellectual empiric thinkers of the world, are supporters of this view. They hold, that the Absolute is incompre¬hensible to human understanding, and as such, is indefinable. This Attributeless Absolute, incarnates into this world, for various pur¬poses, and Shri Krishna is the best of such Manifestations. A fourth section of men, do not enter into any of these controversies, discus¬sions or abstract philosophical speculations They are very simple in their views. They are contented with the historic records, and hence they declare Him as a mighty warrior, a great hero, and a powerful ruler of the yadav race. They see in Him an eminent politician, of marvellous tactics and ingenuity, of surpassing far-sightedness, a keen statesman, an uncompromising and a terrible chastiser of the wicked, a great conqueror of extraordinary strategical abilities, a successful oppressor of innumerable tyrannical exploiters, and an able and just administrator. A fifth group proclaim Him as the foremost of the Prophets, Who ever grace the world, Who by His philosophical ex¬positions, infused new vigour in the teeming millions of the world. Yet a sixth section of the society, usurping the power of Judge, in their arrogance, laugh at Him as a voluptous enjoyer. These stiff-necked, dry intellectualists, boast too much of their purity, and scale the moral merits, of Divine Personalities from a low material level, and pass remarks on Them. A seventh group, simply deny taking Him, as merely allegorical-the product of a poet's mind. Thus, if we make a patient, and careful scrutiny of the prevailing notions, we can till gather many curious views, on the Divine Personality of Shri ""ishna. The fundamental reason, of these varying and mostly con-icting views, on this unique Personality, is due to the fact that Shri Krishna, is an incomprehensible Personality, in Whom all the con¬tradictory qualities, such as unity (Ekatva), and diversity, fullness and division, simultaneously exist.


ete caamsha-kalaah pumsah krishnas tu bhagavaan svayam,

indraari-vyaakulam lokam mridayanti yuge yuge..31

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,1.3.28)


A thorough and reliable account of His most charming Person¬ality, marvellous Carrer and rejuvenating Teachings, can be had from Mahabharata, Harivamsa, Shrimad Bhagavata and some other Puranas, like Brahma Vaivarta Purana, etc.; of these, Shrimad Bhagavata, is the foremost authority. Shrimad Bhagavata, the epitomised quintessence of all the Sastras, whose chief purpose is the glorification of Bhakti, and 5n Krishna Lila, declares Him as 'Absolute-Par- Excellence'. "When the world is oppressed in every age by the tyrannical con¬quests of the enemies of Indra, i.e., the demons, His partial Manifes¬tations make this world happy by destroying them. These Descents are the Partial Avataras of the Supreme Lord- Shri Krishna, Who is Svayam Bhagavan Himself."31


vagastwa dharta   ansa etyaiveediyate, tadhon kulama khyanta kala tarsyadhamuchyate,

tadaon sahktee rakhyata abesh syantadarkah eboun chatuh sastyvage aisyatarah paratmnah..32


After giving a long list of all the Avataras, such as (1)Chatuhsanas, (2) The Divine Boar-Varah, (3) Narada, (4) Nara and Narayana, (5) Kapil, (6) Dattatreya, (7) Yajna,(8) Rishabh, (9) Prithu, (10) The Divine Fish-

Matsya, (11) The Divine Tortoise-Kurma, (12)Dhanvantari, (13) Mohini, (14) Nrisimha, (15) Vaman, (16)Parasuram (17) Vyas, (18) Rama, (19) Balaram, (20) Shri Krishna (21) Buddha, and (22) Kalki, Who were merciful enough to manifest Their appearances in different ages for the welfare of humanity, Vyasdev, emphatically distinguishes Shri Krishna, as the Supreme Godhead Himself. All the rest are only His partial Manifestations and secondary incarnations, either in part (Amsa), or in part of part (Kala)32,


 But Shri Krishna is not an Ava¬tar; He is Avatari Himself, the very Fountain-source of all the Avataras from Whom the various Manifestations originate. He is the Eternal Reality Who reveals Himself to us in the three as¬pects as 'Brahman', 'Paramatma'and 'Bhagavan'.


 vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnaanam advayam,

brahmeti paramaatmeti bhagavaan iti shabdyate..33

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,1.2.11)


"The Tattva which the knowers of reality declare as 'Advayajnan' is expressed by the designation of 'Brahman', 'Paramatma' and 'Bhagavan'."33


The above Sloka gives a beautiful exposition of the Absolute Reality, summarising all the philosophical conceptions of the various religions of the world. All the notions of the world about the Absolute Truth find its place in this exposition, the Ultimate Reality or Tattva is spoken of as Advayajnan. Very often, the term 'Advayajnan' is confused with the Nirguna Advaita Tattva or the Attributeless Brahman of the monistic school. The word "Advaya', i.e., one without a second or Sole, is used only in the sense that there is no other second entity equal or superior to that of the Supreme Lord. The word 'Advaya' never denies the existence of other entities, as many often misunderstand. Though the Reality is termed by the word 'Indivisible Knowledge', It reveals to Its differ¬ent votaries, in different ways, according to the particular capacity of realisation they possess, viz., these three aspects as 'Brahman', 'Paramatma' and 'Bhagavan'. These Revelations are not to be con¬fused as entirely independent objects, but as aspects of the One and the Same Reality. The above described variation, in their realisation, is due to the difference in their angle of vision, caused by the diver¬gent methods, adopted by the votaries, and in the degree of surren¬der, they offer the Supreme Reality.


yasya prabhaa prabhavato jagad-anda-koti- kotishv ashesha-vasudhaadi-vibhuti-bhinnam,

tad brahma nishkalam anantam ashesha-bhutam  govindam aadi-purusham tam aham bhajaami..34

(bramh sahinty,5.40)


The first of these three Aspects of Revelation, viz., Brahman is in fact the unqualified (Nirvisesh), and imperfect (Asamyak) Mani¬festation of Bhagavan, Who is the most perfect Person, in Whom all the qualities are most per-fectly developed. Bhagavan is abundantly quali- fied with an infinite number, of most auspicious and perfect Attributes. In Bhagavan, we experi¬ence a full display of all the Saktis, or energies; but in Brahman they remain only in a potential state. Brahman in other words, is the philo¬sophical Absolute, in which the various attributes and powers, re¬main undifferentiated. Hence, the Attributeless Brahman of the Upanishads, is an incomplete or Imperfect Manifestation (Asamyak Avirbhav), of the Absolute Divinity. Brahma Samhita describes this Aspect, of the Supreme Divinity, as His Bodily Effulgence. "I wor¬ship Govinda, the Primeval Lord, Whose effulgence is the source, of the non-differentiated Brahman, mentioned in the Upanishads, be¬ing differentiated from the infinity of glories, of the mundane uni¬verse, and Who appears as the Indivisible, Infinite and Limitless truth."34


brahmano hi pratishthaaham amritasyaavyayasya ca,

shaashvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikaantikasya ca..35



Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita adds to the same issue thus:- "I am, in¬deed, the Mainstay of Brahman, and the very ground of immortality. I am also the basis of the eternal religion, and of perpetual Divine Bliss."35 Brahman is the ultimate goal of all Jnanis.


Paramatma, the second Aspect of Divine manifestation, is more qualified than Brahman, the first one. But when compared with Bhagavan, this Aspect is only a Partial (Amsik) Manifestation, having relation chiefly to Maya

Sakti, and Jiva Sakti. Paramatma remains as the Immanent Lord, both in the unconscious mate¬rial universe, as well as in the conscious Jiva souls, who are numerically infinite. It is Paramatma, Who looks af¬ter the functions of creation, preservation, and dissolution of the in¬finite number of worlds, in various aspects, and He is the regulator of both the individual Jiva, and the collective world. Paramatma is the ultimate goal, of all the Ashtanga Yogis.


Bhagavan represents the highest, in the long list of the count¬less, Divine Manifestations. He is realised as • Person, with Whom is associated, distinctive features, potencies, at-tributes, abodes, and entourage in the company

of His internal energy. In Bhagavan, there is a direct, and full display of His Antaranga Svarup Sakti. The other two Saktis, Bahiranga Maya Sakti. and the Tatastha Jiva Sakti, are displayed indirectly, through the medium of His Partial Aspect Paramatma. Bhagavan is the pos¬sessor of all Saktis- the Sarva Saktiman, the Summum bonum of Bhaktas. The word 'Bhagavan' is defined thus:-


Aishvaryasya samagrasya viryasya yashasah shriyaah,

 jnaana-vairaagyayosh caiva shad iti bhagavaan ganah..36

 (vishnu purana,) 


aatmaaraamaash ca munayo nirgranthaa apy urukrame,

kurvanty ahaitukim bhaktim ittham-bhuta-guno harih..37

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,1.7.10)


"He is a Person, in Whom the six Divine Qualities of Aisvarya-majesty, or special power to attract, and bring under control all sen¬tient and insentient like; Vfrvo-prowess or an unusual and miracu¬lous influence, resembling precious gems, magic spells, etc., that could win over any power, on the face of the earth; Yasas- name and fame or an incomparable reputation, arising from various excellent qualities of body, mind, and speech; Shri- prosperity, all kinds of wealth; Jnan- knowledge, such as omniscience; and Vairagya-dispassion or non-attachment to the objects, of the material world, in short, absolute freedom from Bahiranga Maya Sakti, are developed in the fullest degree. Bhagavan is entirely free, from any influence of the material attributes, such as Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. These Gunas or attributes are due to the influence of His Bahiranga Maya Sakti. Since she, being subservient to Him, is unable to exercise any influ¬ence on her Lord. As such, Bhagavan is above all these material at¬tributes. The various qualities, that the Sastras attribute to Him, are all of Divine Essence."36

"The nature of the Attributes of Shri Hari, is such that it compels, even great sages, who delight in themselves, and who are dispassion¬ate to the core, to render loving selfless services to the Lord."37


The principles and virtues described in the three Aspects, viz., Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan, can be realised, in their most perfect and infinite development, in the Personality of Bhagavan Shri Krishna. Hence, Shrimad Bhagavata, Shri Brahma Samhita, Shrimad Bhagavad-Gita, and a host of Sastras unanimously and unambigu¬ously, declare Shri Krishna as the Absolute Godhead, in Whom all other Aspects, are fully identified.


jnaanam vishuddham paramaartham ekam anantaram tv abahir brahma satyam,

pratyak prashaantam bhagavac-chabda-sajnamm yad vaasudevam kavayo vadanti..38

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,5.12.11)


"The Indivisible Knowledge alone, is the Eternal Truth. It is the Sublime Truth, beyond the jurisdiction of mundane qualities, the full¬est entity in Himself, all-pervading, and void of transformation (this illustrates the unqualified Aspect, Brahman). The same Truth is im¬manent, in all the jivas, and unaffected by the events of the world (this explains Paramatma.-fhe Partial Aspect). The most perfect sta¬tus, of Indivisible Knowledge is Bhagavan. The wise call Him by the Name 'Vaasudev', He being the Son of Shri Vasudev."38

Many hold the view, that the Absolute Truth, or Knowledge is an abstract one, void of any Form, Power, Name, Attributes, Activi¬ties, etc. This statement, though popular amongst the classes, to a great extent, and amongst the masses to some extent, is not well founded, on the authority of   the stars .it is merely one-sided interpreta¬tion, of the texts of the Sastras. Puranas declare Him as Infinitely Powerful. His energies are inscrutable, and beyond the reach of human thought and reason, and they are capable of per¬forming, most impossible effects. These energies are not concocted things or imaginary objects. They are of the essence of the Lord. They are inseparable entities; but the Lord in His infinite power, tran¬scends all of them.


"Saktis of Shri Vishnu are of three kinds. They are (1) Para Sakti (Chit Sakti), (2) Kshetrajna (Jiva. Sakti), and (3) Avidya (Maya Saktv)."39


The Para Sakti is otherwise, known, as svarup or Antaranga Sakti; Maya Sakti is understood otherwise, as Bahiranga Sakti, and the Jiva Sakti as Tatastha or Marginal Sakti.

The Svarup Sakti is again classified in three different aspects as Sandhini, Samvit and Hladini Saktis. In her Sat aspect, she is Sandhini. This Sandhini Sakti is the energy of the existence of all. In her Chit aspect, she is known as Samvit, the energy, of self-enlightening knowl¬edge. This is the energy, that helps the promotion of knowledge. In htvAnanda aspect, she is Hladini, the delight imparting energy. It is by the influence of this energy, delight is experience. Svarup Sakti is concerned, directly with all the activities, and expansions in the Di¬vine Realm. Maya Sakti causes the creation, sustenance, and disso¬lution of phenomenal world, and Jiva Sakti is bringing out, infinite number of Jivas, which are the expressions of the Tatastha or Jiva Sakti of Bhagavan.


Of these three Saktis, the Hladini Sakti is the most important. She transcends the other two. Shri Radhika, Who is the eternal con¬sort, and the most favourite of all the devotees of Bhagavan Shri Krishna, is represented, as the highest Manifestation of the Hladini Sakti.*0 Shri Radhika has attained the most sublime sttfge of Mahabhav,^ which is unattainable to any other devotee. Application of material attributes of Shri Radhika, the Invariable Embodiment of Prem Bhakti, is the outcome of sheer ignorance, absence of proper understanding, of Her Real Personality. Without the least distinction of any classification of sex, Shri Radha and Shri Krishna as Sakti and Saktiman (Possessor of Sakti) are identical. Sakti is inseparable from her Possessor, as noted in the case of fire, and its burning capacity. In fact, Sakti and Saktiman are not altogether, two different Personali¬ties. They are One and the Same, Indivisible Truth, manifested as the Divine Couple, out of the inconceivable potency of the Lord, for giving fillip to the Transcendental Sportive Activities.


"The chief of the gopis is Shri Radha, the Consort of Shri Krishna, in Glory and on Earth. 'Radha' means adoration or Love-Devotion. Shri Radha is the Embodied Manifestation of Shri Krishna's Love-Prin¬ciple, the Energy of His Soul, the Principle of Shri Krishna, which sets His Love in motion. Radha is inside of Krishna as His Prin¬ciple of Love-Energy, and She is outside of Krishna, as the Em¬bodiment of that Principle. Radha is the first Active Principle of Nature, the Active Love-Principle, which unconsciously gives birth, to creation and pervades it as the purest spiritual energy. Like Krishna, She is above, and out of reach of the creative Car¬dinal Attributes. Krishna is the Soul. Radha is the Heart-Soul and Her eight other companions are the eight chief devotional aspects, and the other Gopies the inclinations and minor attributes of Her Ensouled mind. Radha and Her chief companions are Krishna's chief companions in Golok. They came with Him in glory and were born in Vrindavan as Gopis. Other Gopis, who were in the Rasa dance, were manifestations of Vedic hymns, and truths which are entities in nature, the form-centres of Nature's purest sentiments and conceptions. Other Gopis were manifestations of goddesses, the Presiding Deities of Nature's spiritual forces, and attributes, while others were manifestations, of some of the highest illuminated male saints (Rishis), who had prayed for ages and ages, in every birth to serve the Lord personally, with the tender devotion of a loving woman. The love of these Gopis for Shri Krishna was absolutely selfless. They loved Him for the sake of the spontaneous, causeless love they felt for Him and Which His Personality inspired in them, for Shri Krishna was that causeless Love Itself. The Rasa dance represented the vi¬brations of the Soul-absorbed Mind, vibrations which filled the uni¬verse, with the nectar of Bliss, and destroyed its Karma of a whole Kalpa, the Karma  which formed its Prarahdha for the time."*


"Shri Krishna danced separately with each Gopi. Each Gopi has Her Own Krishna beside Her. One Krishna became as many as there were Gopis and yet It was the Selfsame Krishna. One soul played like so many Souls with so many hearts and yet the hearts saw but One Soul. Each Gopi saw Her Own Krishna and was unconscious of any other, as she danced, absorbed in that Shri Krishna, round and round, arms found necks, eyes into eyes, all forgetting, the world forgot, round and round in the whirl of ecstasy, afloat on the waves of Love, that is Bliss-round and round, the Lover and the Loved, the Little Soul twining round the Great Soul, the Great Soul pouring Its Nectar into, the Little Soul." *


"Ignorant writers and prudish religionists of the West, have dared to call this Gopi Lila of Shri Krishna, as shocking to all religious sense, in the face of the fact, that three hundred and odd millions of Hindus of the present day and myriads of millions of Hindus of the past, whose giant intellect and all-towering height of spirituality, the world of today are beginning to wonder at-call this Lila the most Transcen¬dental of all the Divine Deeds, that have ever been performed on the face of the globe. According to these, little critics of the greatest Avatar of the Supreme Deity, that Supreme Deity cannot possess any other sentiments of love than those of a Father and a Sav¬iour, that God ought not to feel or show the love of a husband for his wife or of a lover for his lady-love. If this be the fact, will they answer the question as to whence has man got these sentiments, if not from his Maker, of Whom he is but an imperfect image? Whence has he got them if not from the Source of Creation itself of which he is such a tiny part and product? This denial to God of the possession of a lover's sentiment, implies an impertinence, which God alone, out of His infinite affection for His creatures, can pardon. It only betrays the dense ignorance of these critics in regard to the origin and laws of creation and of the relations of creation with its Creator."*


"Nature (creation) is the materialised Will-force of God. The Will-force of God, is a reflection of God Himself-the objectified phases of the semblance of manifoldness of the Absolute One. God is the Husband and the Energy of His Will, Nature is His Wife. God is the Lover and Nature is His Lady-Love. By His All-Per¬vading essence the only support and sustenance of Nature, He clasps His Lady-Love to His bosom and dances with Her to the intricate steps of the music of Her Laws. This is the Rasa dance in the aggregate, the Rasa dance that is being performed every moment within Nature, though hidden from our outlooking physi¬cal vision. What is true of the Great Universe is also true of its min¬iature, man. Within our heart of heart, is the forest of Vrindavan, in which the microscopic blue river of Love-Yamuna, flows, lapping with thrills of joy, the bank of the bowery lawn where Shri Krishna-our Soul-with His Gopis-on ensouled mental aspirations-is perform¬ing His ever-favourite, never-ending Rasa dance. And we are uncon¬scious of it all, because of our mind's outer ken is employed outside of us with outer objects. If we can withdraw the mind's vision from outwards and direct it into the depth of our heart, then will belief come in the Rasa dance of Krishna, with its practical realisation. We are then of Vraja and each of us, of the enlightened inner eye, a dancing Gopi-male or female, whatever we may be externally, it matters not. We are all Gopies, human-male or human-female, we are all spiritually feminine, for Shri Krishna alone is the One Male and we all, particles, of Nature, are all female. We are all the lady¬loves, the brides and wives of our One Husband, Lover and Beloved-Shri Krishna. In the working out of the ever-beneficial laws of Inner Nature- the laws that throb for the weal of mankind- this innermost performance of Nature's constant Rasa dance, with Her Lord is re¬flected for a time, upon Her outer surface to fill outer Nature, and mankind with the ecstasy of its supermost spirituality, the blessing of the Absolute Love."*


The conception of all these inherent Saktis, establishes beyond any doubt that the Absolute Truth, that is known by the word 'Bhagavan' is a Perfect Person. He is not a Formless Entity as many depict. He is a Person in Whom infinite attributes, and energies in¬separably exist. In many places of our Sastras, words, such as Anando Glum, Rasa Ghcm, etc., are freely used in association with the Per¬sonality of Bhagavan. The importance of these words can never be ignored. They make us understand, that Bhagavan is a Person, pos¬sessing a Murti, or a Form of His Own. Since we are in the habit of measuring every object, that is placed before us, and our experience of Divine Objects, are insignificantly poor, our ideas of this Person¬ality of the Lord are mostly erroneous. The very idea of a Murti, or Form of the Lord, throws us in a whirlpool of thoughts, and confu¬sions suggestive of materialistic speculations. Almost all these ef¬forts, end like those of 'attempting to milk rams'. This Form of the Lord, is not to be understood, as something gross, like that of the material body of human beings. The Body of Bhagavan is non-phe¬nomenal. This Body consists entirely of pure Existence, Knowledge and Bliss; as such It is always spoken of as 'Satchidananda Vigrah'. This Body is not essentially different of an organic body and a soul, as in the case of human beings. His Being and His Body are One and the Sanje. The Sastras declare that the Body of the Lord is like that of a human being. The similarity that they speak, is only in respect of the form and not of the ingredients. The Sastras in certain places, speak of Him as Formless. This statement is only to deny the pres¬ence of a material body or material senses in Him. The same Sastras too, dilate on the beauty of Lord's Form to a great length taking minutely each and every limb one after another. Do they expound contradictory theories and increase confusions in the minds of igno¬rant men? No, never. They with all emphasis, establish the existence of the self-existing natural Form of the Lord which is of a purely Divine stuff. The Lord is not subject to any change as we notice in the case of material objects; but due to His inconceivable power, He is capable of adopting any type or any number of Forms as He pleases. The Ascension and Descension of Bhagavan is merely actuated by His free will. This Divine Form of the Lord doubt unthinkable to the materially minded. It is a matter of realisation and not one of argument, persons who are guided by dry empirical reasonings, fail to understand this conception of a Transcendental Personality. These barren intellectualists, sublimely unconscious of their own limita-tions, of their profound incapacity and unwillingness to fathom even the simplest problem presented to them talk nowadays, as if they are gifted with an inexhaustible fund of impenetrating reason. They boldly come forward with their assertion that they can accept nothing, let it be of any source, that is not passed through the crucible of their rea¬son and acknowledge no scriptures, however authentic they may be, or the sound sayings of eminent saints. Some one has spoken of this mistaken notion in the following Sloka very impressively.


"Gems lie littered at the feet and glass adorns a crown. None but the ignorant confounds the two and thinks the glass to be a gem and the gems, glass. To a wise person, glass will always be glass and a gem always a gem."42

Between the sound reasonings based on practical realisations found in the infallible Sastras of our noble religion Sanatan Dharma and the conclusions of barren empiricists, guided by the understand¬ings and experiences of the deceptive senses of man, who is liable to fall a victim to manifold errors, the relation has all along been that of the gem and the glass, deceptive to the ignorant but clear to any one not blinded by vain and unwarranted pretensions. The conclusions of empiric wisdom, however convincing they be on the surface, are only mere expressions of half- truths and untruths.


These empiric scholars are under the impression that when the Absolute wishes to make His Manifestation into this world, He does so by Himself entering into a body made of flesh, blood and bones. For the sake of understanding they thus use the word incarnation for such Divine Manifestations. This conclusion is entirely baseless and 's due to the absence of a proper conception regarding the Nature nd Potentialities of Divine Lord. In Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Shri Krishna Himself throws proper light on this issue.


"Persons actuated by extreme ignorance disregard My Human orm as they are utterly oblivious of My true Supreme Nature and f the fact that I am the Supreme Lord of the universe."4'A great saint of the modern age from Bengal has interpreted the above Sloka in a simple and inspiring manner, the free rendering of which is as follows:-


"My Real and Eternal Form which is grossly misunderstood by persons under the influence of sheer ignorance is invariably of Sat (existence), Chit (knowledge), and Ananda (bliss). My ener¬gies do function in accordance with My Own Will and Grace. But, I remain unconcerned with all their actions. Whenever I wish, I make Myself visible to the mundane world. This act is carried out through the operation of My internal potency and mainly guided by My own compassion to the fallen souls. My energy being subservient to Me, cannot have any influence over Me. I am fully beyond the ken of any material nature or law. I am Omnipotent and Self-Effulgent. My Own Will is the cause of My coming to the world. No other power is capable of inducing Me for such a Manifestation. Those who are quite ignorant of My eternal nature and Personality associate Me with various mundane attributes. My Supreme Personality resembles a hu¬man form, but it is wholly non-phenomenal. It is a most Beauti¬ful Form of Eternal Adolescence and of a Medium Stature. These ignorant persons suppose this Eternal Form of Mine to be mor¬tal one, subject to the influence of Maya or My illusory potency."


The scriptures describe the Form of the Lord sometimes as two-handed and sometimes as fourhanded, etc., and as possessing vari¬ous limbs and organs like head, eyes, feet, etc. In fact, the various Forms manifested by the Lord are all eternal and co-exist in Him. Of all the Forms manifested by the Lord, the two-handed one with a wonderful flute in His hands is the best and'most beautiful.


The various Attributes of Bhagavan explained in the Sastras are not imposed upon Him from outside. They are on the other hand invariable aspects of His Own Self and as such they are all his inherent Attributes. These At-tributes can be summarised thus:- (1) Capacity to pervade in and over all objects and places, (2) capacity for self-manifestation, (3) capacity to be above the gross and subtle bodies, (4) capacity for not being subject to transformations or changes, such as birth, existence, growth, transformation, decay and destruction, (5) capacity to be invisible to mortal eyes, and (6) capacity to be above mundane influence in mat¬ters, such as birth, form and action.


From the innumerable unambiguous texts of the various Sastras one can without any difficulty understand the true Nature and Per¬sonality of Bhagavan and how He is fully identified with the Person¬ality of Shri Krishna, Who is not merely an Avtar alone, as many un¬derstand, but the Avatari Himself- the Absolute-Par- Excellence. To deal with all these minute details in course of this brief narration is



"Shri Krishna Who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has a Body formed of All-Existence, Knowledge and Bliss. He is the Beginningless and yet Origin of all and He is the Cause of all


The Manifestations or the Avataras of Shri Krishna are innumer¬able like the waves of an ocean. They are mainly grouped under six heads. (1) Purushavataras, (2) Gunavataras, (3) Lilavataras, (4) Manvantaravataras, (5) Yugavataras, and (6) Saktyavesavataras.

Though categorically there is no difference between the various Avataras of the Lord, yet Shri Krishna is superior to all the others, inasmuch as there are certain special qualities noticed in Him which are in excess over those mentioned in His Avataras of the above six categories.


This difference is not-to be treated from a material point of su¬periority and inferiority complexes. Any such discrimination of mun-ane nature would be a blasphemous commission of a grave offence gainst the Lord. The consequences of such offences are nothing but total doom.


The qualities of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna are innumerable. These qualities as experienced and expressed by his favourite devo¬tees ae summarised into sixty-four.


*U.RT. 3ni33-HH; 3n!XM-3°U9

(1) : Possessing a charming body, (3) Possessed of all the excellent characteristics, (3) Radiant, Heroic and shining, { Strong,: Youthful, (u)Bret Acquainted with many and strange languages, (c) Truthful, (%) Capable of pleasant speech, (lo)  Eloquent, J: Learned and wise, (13)Intelligent, (13) : Possessed of ge¬nius,  Crafty,  Ingenious, (IE,) set: Dexterous and quick. (IW) fHIl: Grateful, (id)  Resolute, : Possessing a knowledge of fit time, place and object or considerate to circumstances, place, time and person, (3o): Acting according to the Sastra, adept in Sastric lore, (31)  Pure and purifying, (33) Self-controlled, (3?) Steadfast, : Capable of tolerating unbearable suffering, (3M) : Forgiving, (3E,) *NR: Profound, (31s) Contented and placid, (3d) WT: Equable, (W) Liberal in gift, (?o) Dutiful, (31)SR: Brave, (33): Compassionate, (33) Respectful, : Amiable nd well behaved, (34)  |tara. Modest, (3w)  Protector of devotees, (3d)Happy, (3R) of Uie devotee, («o) Controllable by love, («l) *: Beneficent to all, («3) H3Pft Subjugator of enemies, («3)  Famous, (««): Popular, : Partial to the good, refuge to die good and virtu¬ous, (HE,)  Enchanter of women, : Pre-eminently adorable, worshipped by all. («d)prosperous, cRtoiaThe Pre¬eminent, (Mo) Independent and supreme.

the above fifty qualities are present in the human beings to a very limited extent.

(Ml): Unconditioned, (M3): Omniscient, (M3): F.vernew, (MW): Having self-existent, self-conscious, blissful compact form, (MM): Possessed of all powers and perfection.

The above fifty-five qualities are pre sentjn Brahma, Siva, etc.. in a greater degree than in human beings, but to a far lesser extent than in Bhagavan Himself

(ME,): Possessed of infinite and indescribable powers, (M«: Holder of infinite universes and possessing crores of Forms


Shri Krishna stands distinguished from other Avataras by vir¬tue of His Madhurya or Sweetness.


He is an Ocean of Transcendental Pastimes in which inexhaustible waves of Lilas keep the devotees drowned in extreme wonder and enchantment. The marvellous raptures those sports create in the hearts of the devotees, are

          beyond the capacity of expression. There is no vocabulary in human, celestial or in any other language that can do full justice to this soul-captivating Sportive Activities of the Lord. Uddhav speaks thus in Brihad Vaman Purana:- "Let the most delightfull Sportive Deeds of Shri Narayana, the Lord of Lakshmi, and His innumerable Manifesta¬tions appear in my heart, but the wonderful Rasa dance which en¬chants even the heart of my Master Shri Krishna, the Lord of Dvaraka is indeed marvellously bewitching to me."46


Shri Krishna manifests His Sports in His three Eternal Abodes of Dvaraka, Mathura, and Vrindavan. Shri Krishna's Manifestation is full


All the above sixty qualities are present in a perfect form in Shri Narayana and other important Avataras of the Lord. (E,I)An ocean of the most wonderful and captivating pastimes, (E,3); Ever encircled by a host of devotees profi¬cient in their incomparable, confidential loving service to Him, (E,3)wonderful Flutist Who attracts the rrrindd of die inhabitants of all the three worlds, by the melodious music of His Flute, (Ex): Unequally sweet and marvellously Beau¬tiful Form that not only attracts both movables and immovables but also enchants Him.

All the above sisty-four Divine Qualities are present in their most perfectly developed condition in Shri Krishna. The Divine Qualities of Shri Krishna, as we have already read, are infinite in number. They are never exhausted and none can comprehend die limit of such virtues. These Quali¬ties or Gunas are not 1'rakrita or phenomenal.

in Dvaraka, fuller in Mathura, and fullest in Vrindavan, from the point of Madhurya rasasvada. Leaving Vrindavan, He never resides in any other place. Vrindavan is the most favourite Sporting Land of Shri Krishna.47


"Shri Krishna being All-Love, He knows nothing but Love,gives and accepts nothing but Love, acts nothing but Love,

breathes nothing but Love, speaks nothing but Love, Shri krishna is Love itself, the Love that destroys all dis-

tance, the Love that draws the Lover and the Loved closest to each other. It knows no ceremoney, knows no formal respect. It knows no motive. Love is its own cause, motive, and satisfaction. Divinity demands our reverence and inspires us with awe. Despite its strong attraction, we can but adore it from a dis¬tance, we cannot approach it too near. But Love draws us to its bosom and holds us close. Love is a master and Love is a slave. It knows no barrier, sees no faults -nay, sees virtue in faults. It re¬sponds to its own clear call or vibrates to the voice of its own inspi¬ration and blesses its own creation with greater gifts of its own wealth. In the four kinds of Bhakti, viz., Dasya, Sakhya, Vatsalya, and Madhurya, the last, i.e., the feeling of a loving wife to her lord sums up (he essence of all the foregoing three feelings. It is the highest and tenderest feeling of devotion. The true wife is the servant, friend, mother, and lover of her husband. She is slave, equal, and supe¬rior by virtue of her all-surrendering love. Every forms of pure love is self-surrender. The love that knows no surrender or sacri¬fice is a mockery. It mocks itself more than its object, for sacri¬fice is its chief test and best expression. Love that only loves, if loved, is pure selfishness. It is self-deception. But the Love that loves for its own sake and is the fullest satisfaction in itself, the love that loves whoever or whatever its object loves, is the Love Absolute that Shri Krishna is. The human soul that develops it, binds Shri Krishna thereby and holds Him its prisoner for good. When that Love develops the tenderness of a Loving wife, it cap¬tivates the Heart of hearts, and entrances the Soul of souls -Shri Krishna."


mayi nirbaddha-hridayaah saadhavah sama-darshanaah,

vashe kurvanti maam bhaktyaa sat-striyah sat-patim yathaa..47.1

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,9.5.66)

para-vyasanini naari vyagraapi griha-karmasu,

tad evaasvaadayaty antar nava-sanga-rasaayanam..47.2

(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,1.211)


 "Those Sadhus who have fixed their hearts and minds in Me and who share others' woe as if it were their own, win Me over through loving devotion like a chaste and virtuous wife loyally devoted to her equally dutiful and devoted husband."47.1' The tie of relationship that is existing between a paramour and his sweetheart goes a step further than the one that is explained in the above para. It tres¬passes all the social barriers conventional formalities, obligatory responsibilities, reverence, conservatism, and the like, and wends its way straight to an unfathomably deep pool of free and refined love. This feeling finds a beautiful expression in the following Sloka:-"A married woman, having her husband, who loves her paramour though engrossed in her household duties enjoys in the heart of her heart the raptures of ever new union with the latter."*1-2 The intensity of feelings for her paramour knows no limits because it is something inexplicable that she has fallen in love with in her paramour and that too when the object of her carnal love, i.e., her husband is living by her side. She loves the paramour in spite of herself. The course of illicit love is very strange. Love is said to be blind, but illicit love is definitely blind. Its ways are crooked. She always feels in her heart thus: "How much more beneficial would it have been if this thorn of her husband were removed to pave the way for her paramour in the house, so that she could serve him with her mind, soul, and body." In majority of cases, to an unbiassed person, it is seen that the par¬amour is farinferior to her busband, in such points as looks, phy-. sique, wealth, etc.; but she is under the uncontrollable spell of that blind and intense carnal love which considers no risk too great for meeting the object of her love, because the chances of meeting are few and far between. So every meeting becomes a novelty to her, as it involves many escapades, escalades and even hair-breadth escapes to surmount. All the incidents of her meeting with him, remain fresh in her memory for a longer time than in the case of her first meeting with her husband. The intensity of the feeling of love though it is illicit, is uncontrollable. Similarly a devotee practising the loving devotion to Shri Krishna though apparently engrossed in worldly activities, is secretly in the innermost recess of his heart harhouring an intense feeling of Divine Love to Shri Krishna and continues to taste the ever new luscious sweetness of ever fresh intercourse or communion with his Beloved Shri Krishna without any external show of the same.


atati yad bhavaan ahni kaananam truti yugaayate tvaam apashyataam,

kutila-kuntalam shri-mukham ca te jada udikshataam pakshma-krid drishaam..48

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,10.31.15)


He is always surrounded by a host of loving devotees, the depth of whose feelings fail to find an analogy elsewhere. "O most loving One! When You go away in the day-time to the pasture lands of Vraja, we are utterly deprived of Your sight. To us those moments of sepa¬ration are more than an aeon and when once again after Your return at the end of the day we see You and satiate our yearning by feasting upon Your bewitching Face, beautified with the flowing curls of hair, we cannot hear to lose sight of You even for a fraction of a second. Our impatience reaches its climax and we take the creator Brahma to be a dullwitted person for providing us with eyelids that deprive us of Your sight by their constant twinklings."48




"O Destroyer of the demon Agha! By Your charming company, many of those memorable moonlit nights rolled on, as the twinkling of an eye; but alas! Now afflicted as we are, by the pangs of Your separation even a fraction of a moment, appears as more than an age."49


savanashas tad upadhaarya sureshaah shakra-sharva-parameshthi-purogaah,

kavaya aanata-kandhara-cittaah kashmalam yayur anishcita-tattvaah..50

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,10.35.15)


The soul-maddening powers of the wonderful Flute of Shri Krishna is the popular subject, that is much discussed in diverse ways. Who,in India has never heard of the enchanting re-sults of this mysterious instrument? "When Shri

Krishna plays on the Flute in His original, varied, and soul-captivating tunes, great gods like Indra, Siva, Brahma, and many others like Skanda, Katyayani, Ganes, etc., listen to them with their heads and hearts full of reverence. Though, they are all experts-nay, even founders in various tunes, rhythm, etc., they get confused over the new types of tunes and their melodies."50


To speak on the glories of this enchanting and favourite instru¬ment of Shri Krishna, is like a pigmy's attempts, aspiring after the moon. The melodious sound of this Flute wrought inexpressible and unimaginable wonders in fhehearts of sages like Sanak, Sanandan, etc., Their meditation was greatly disturbed, their minds being com¬pletely captured by the sound. The movements of the clouds high up in the sky became arrested; Narada with his celebrated 'Tumbury' was overtaken repeatedly by ineffable joy and never-ending surprise. Brahma was astounded beyond measure for words to express; it swelled eagerness in the heart of the King Bali with accompanying restlessness, and the great Lord Anantadev shook His Head with im¬measurable joy; such are the astounding effects of this instrument that penetrated and spread in all the ten directions. How tremendous was its influence in the hearts of the milk-maids of Vraja who dedi¬cated their hearts unconditionally to Shri Krishna and got utterly con¬fused even in their routine activities; who without the least hesitation abandoned their nearest of kith and kin, social rules and even care of their own bodies extremely dear to them? What a marvellous attain¬ment? Even the movements of the sun and moon, and even the time-wheel too stopped. Rivers started flowing upwards, movables turned to immovables and vice versa. Birds, beasts, etc., all lost their con¬sciousness. All conscious became unconscious and the unconscious conscious ones.


yan martya-lilaupayikam sva-yoga-maayaa-balam darshayataa grihitam,

vismaapanam svasya ca saubhagarddheh param padam bhushana-bhushanaangam..(Shrimad Bhagavatam,3.2.12)


krishna-maadhuryera eka svaabhaavika bala krishna-aadi nara-naari karaye cancala,

shravane, darshane aakarshaye sarva-mana aapanaa aasvaadite krishna karena yatana..51

Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,(4.147-148)


"The Divine Form which Bhagavan Shri Krishna manifested in this world through the medium of His Yoga Maya and for the pur¬ pose of making everyone understand the miracu- lous capacity of His internal energy which is capable of bringing out the appearance of such extraordinarily Beautiful Forms and which is at the same time most suitable for His Pastimes like that of human beings. This Form is so bewitching not only to the world but even to Shri Krishna Himself that He is enchanted with the same. It is the pinnacle of excellence and perfection, a charming ornament of ornaments, a miracle of matchless beauty."51


kaa stry anga te kala-padaayata-venu-gita-sammohitaarya-caritaan na calet tri-lokyaam,

trailokya-saubhagam idam ca nirikshya rupam yad go-dvija-druma-mrigaah pulakaany abibhran..52

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,10.21.40)


"Which woman in all the three worlds, O Beloved Lord Shri Krishna! who after being captivated by the over-melodious and rav¬ishing tunes of Your wonderful Flute, would not deviate from the laid-out moral codes of her religion? By beholding Your most Beau¬tiful Form that enchants the hearts of all beings in the three worlds, cows, beasts, birds and even trees stand surcharged with incompa¬rable joy."52



aparikalita-purvah kash camatkaara-kaari sphurati mama gariyaan esha maadhurya-purah,

ayam aham api hanta prekshya yam lubdha-cetaah sa-rabhasam upabhoktum kaamaye raadhikeva.

aapana-maadhurye hare aapanaara mana aapanaa aapani caahe karite aalingana..53

(Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita,8.147-148)


Shri Krishna seeing His reflection (Image) on the wall bedecked with gems, was stunned with Its all-alluring grandeur and soliloquised thus :- "This ravishing flood of exquisite sweetness, never compre¬hended by Me anywhere before overpowers Me! Alas! I too being covetous of relishing His sweetness like Shri Radhika, ardently desire to enjoy Him."53


madhuram madhuram vapur asya vibhor madhuram madhuram vadanam madhuram,

madhu-gandhi mridu-smitam etad aho madhuram madhuram madhuram madhuram..54

(krushna karnamruta,92)


"Indeed, how sweet is this Form of Shri Krishna! O His Face, how to express! It surpasses all conceptions of beauty and the sweet fragrance flowing from His Body is exceptionally bewitching. His sweet and gentle smile is marvellously fascinating and abundantly sweet."54


advaitam acyutam anaadim ananta-rupam aadyam puraana-purusham nava-yauvanam ca,

vedeshu durlabham adurlabham aatma-bhaktau govindam aadi-purusham tam aham bhajaami..54

(bramh sahintee,5.33)


From what has been so far explained above, it goes without say¬ing that Shri Krishna is unparalleled in Beauty. Even Cupid feels alarmed at such a matchless complexion. This Enchanter of Vrindavan is always in the charming dawn of eternal Youth. He is ever in the charming Youth as is seen in the commencement of the fifteenth year.

Each limb of His is capable of performing the function of all other limbs and the most fascinating 'Triple Bent Stature' of His, with His Flute of marvellous Powers is His Eternal Form.55


Shri Krishna, as we have already understood, distinguishes Him¬self as superior to all of His other Manifestations with respect to the four special qualifications described above. These four qualifications are absent in all other Descents of the Lord that are so far made known to us.


Who would not be tempted to behold with his eyes such a charm¬ing Figure? Certainly every man and woman may long for it. But how? He is not visible to the material eyes, which are running hither and thither to enjoy the various forms of this world. His beauty can be experienced by a fortunate person who possesses a pair of eyes saturated with loving devotion.



premaanjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santah sadaiva hridayeshu vilokayanti,

yam shyaamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam govindam aadi-purusham tam aham bhajaami..56

(bramh sahintee,5.38)


"I worship Govinda-the Primeval Lord, Who is Syamasundar-Shri Krishna Himself with inconceivable innumerable Attributes, Whom the pure devotees see in their hearts with the eyes of devotion tinged with the salve of love."56


Mukhyastu panchdha santah preeteeh prayaschah bastlah,

 madhureschy tymee janeya yathaprubanutamah.


haasyo ’dbhutas tathaa virah karuno raudra ity api,

bhayaanakah sa-bibhatsa iti gaunash ca saptadhaa..57

(bhakti rashambrut sindhu,2.5.115-116)


In addition, Shri Krishna is an embodiment of all the mellow quali¬ties (Rasas) which are described as twelve in number.57 Of these, five are the important ones, and the remaining seven are the secondary ones. The unique position of Shri Krishna is such that any devotee with any of the above Rasas can worship Him to His entire satisfac¬tion. The other Manifestations of the Lord do not possess this capac¬ity. They can be approached only with specific and limited types of these Rasas. Shri Ramachandra too is accessible to be worshipped by more Rasas in excess of these qualities, in respect of other Manifes¬tations of the Lord. But in the forms of worship of all these Descents of the Lord, the one feeling that predominantly works throughout, is awe and reverence. As such, the perfect and well developed form of worship actuated by spontaneous love or Prem is unobserved in the case of the service of other Avataras. The solitary exception of this loving service can be noticed only in the Personality of Shri Krishna. In Him we notice a rare and marvellous combination of all Attributes and Rasas.


mallaanaam ashanir nrinaam nara-varah strinaam smaro murtimaan

gopaanaam sva-jano ’sataam kshiti-bhujaam shaastaa sva-pitroh shishuh,

mrityur bhoja-pater viraad avidushaam tattvam param yoginaam

vrishninaam para-devateti vidito rangam gatah saagrajah..58

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,10.43.17)


"When Shri Krishna with His elder Brother Balaram entered into the arena of Kansa, though He was of extremely tender age, obvi¬ously having a very delicate Body and an inexpressibly sweet com¬plexion, He appeared as a thunderbolt to the two wrestlers Mushtik and Chanur, both of whom possessed bodies like mountains, with incontestable Herculian strength and intensely hard limbs; to all the persons assembled there, especially of Mathura, He appeared as the Gem amongst men; the young womenfolk viewed Him as the veri¬table Cupid Himelf in visible Form; to the cowherds or Gopas He appeared as their Kith and Kin; as an uncompromising Chastiser to the wicked rulers, who are the oppressors of good-natured, innocent and devoted persons; as a Child, an object of compassion to His par¬ents like Nanda, Vasudev, Devaki, etc., as the cruel death itself to Kansa; as an ordinary human being to the ignorant and offenders, like the faithful servants, priests, etc., of the wicked Kansa; as the Supreme Reality to sages like Sanak, etc., and as the Absolute Godhead, the veritable Object of their worship to the people of the Vrishni race."58


Mankind with their limited capacity and understanding are ab¬solutely at a loss to gauge His innumerable Glories which are enig¬matic puzzled even to great gods and sages.


yam brahmaa varunendra-rudra-marutah stunvanti divyaih stavair vedaih saanga-pada-kramopanishadair gaayanti yam saama-gaah,

dhyaanaavasthita-tad-gatena manasaa pashyanti yam yogino yasyaantam na viduh suraasura-ganaa devaaya tasmai namah..59

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,12.13.1)


"I offer my innumerable prostrations to the Supreme Lord, Whom Brahma, Varuna, Indra, Rudra, Marutas extol by singing His Divine praises, Whom the Vedas with Upanishads and other complementary texts always eulogise, Whose excellences are sung by the followers of Sama Veda, Whom the Yogis behold in their minds lost in com¬plete contemplation and the limit and extent of whose Glories are incomprehensible even to gods and Asuras."59




"I offer my prostrated obeisances to Shri Krishna of the most wonderful and incompreshensible sportive energy, by Whose mere Will a vast ocean turns into a tract of land and a piece of ordinary land to an ocean, atomic and microscopic particles of dust metamor¬phose into a huge mountain and mountains to atoms, a weak blade of grass to a mighty thunderbolt and a thunderbolt to a light blade of grass, a bjazing fire as cooling as that of a forzen block of ice, and cold ice gains the capacity of burning objects."60


vaatsalyaad abhaya-pradaaha-samayaad aartaarti-nirvaapanaad

    audaaryaad agha-shoshanaad aganita-shreyah-pada-praapanaat,

sevyah shri-patir eva sarva-jagataam ete yatah saakshinaah.

    prahlaadash ca vibhishanash ca kari-raat paancaaly ahalyaa dhruvah..61



"On the strength of these six virtues, such as (1) filial affection, (2) affording shelter to the helpless, (3) saving the distressed, (4) extreme munificence, (5) the capacity to destroy sins, and (6) offer¬ing innumerable other auspicious attainments, that Shri Krishna alone, the Supreme Lord of all the worlds, ought to be worshipped by us, as the great devotees, like Prahlada, Vibhishana, Gajendra, Draupadi,Ahalya, and Dhruv furnish testimony by their individual instances."61


tirtham cakre nriponam yad ajani yadushu svah-sarit paada-shaucam

vidvit-snigdhaah svarupam yayur ajita-para shrir yad-arthe ’nya-yatnah,

yan-naamaamangala-ghnam shrutam atha gaditam yat-krito gotra-dharmah

krishnasyaitan na citram kshiti-bhara-haranam kaala-cakraayudhasya..62

(Shrimad Bhagavatam,10.90.47)


"What wonder is there, if the importance of the sacred river Ganges- the great renowned ancient pilgrimage and the Feetwash of Bhagavan, is rendered insignificant by the growing marvellous Glories of Shri Krishna, the greatest of the Holy Personages, Who, now appearing in the clan of the Yadus, is shining with unprec¬edented brilliance. Because of this, the importance of the sacred places of pilgrimages and Shrines has been greatly lowered. It is a wonder of wonders that both His foes like Kansa, etc., and His most favourite loving devotees like Vraja-Devis, attained His Real Self; the former by merging in His glow and the latter by enjoying the company of His Ravishing Svarup. What a shocking surprise is, that the great Lakshmi, for attaining a particle of whose grace, even gods like Brahma, etc., make repeated efforts, failed to enjoy the company of Shri Krishna, like the Gopis in getting access to the celebrated Rasa dance? What a marvellous achievement! Yes, the two syllables 'Kri' and 'Shna', are far superior to the Names of His Partial Manifestations, like Narayana, etc., and perform won¬ders over their recorded efficacies- the very hearing or chanting of Which, saves mankind from all that is inauspicious and Which ex¬cels all other Names in Its capacity to impart the most sublime munificence- Krishna Prem. The establishment of respective du¬ties in the various clans of Rishis, which delivers mankind all over the earth from all the evils and maintains the entire universe also, is solely credited to none else than Shri Krishna alone. Hence, is it any wonder then for Him to destroy the burden of sins of the earth by His weapon, the wheel of time? Not at all. Ridding the earth of her load of sins, by which people are astonished, for Shri Krishna is no feat at all. It is a mere child's play to Him."62"


Even the sands on the sea-beach, or the stars in the galaxy may possibly be counted; but certainly it is impossible to recount the innumerable Glories of Shri Krishna. The great Anantadev with His thousand mouths speaking for countless number of years, frankly accepts His defeat to do full justice in touching even a portion of His Deeds. When such is the case, how could we, human beings, victims of countless inabilities and shortcomings, groping in dark¬ness, and lying in the midst of all unfavourable surroundings, be¬set with endless obstacles, speak of the Divine Excellences of Shri Krishna? It is His Mercy alone that enables us to speak even this much about Him. Our knowledge about Him mainly depends upon the degree of Mercy that we have attained from Him. Just as differ¬ent birds flying in the vast sky, feel satisfied in the belief that they have reached the highest position, even so, human beings too feel contented, while giving vent to certain expressions on Shri Krishna and His unfathomable Excellences according to their limited ca¬pacity.


raama raameti raameti rame raame manorame,

sahasra-naamabhis tulyam raama-naama varaanane.


sahasra-naamnaam punyaanaam trir-aavrittyaa tu yat phalam,

ekaavrittyaa tu krishnasya naamaikam tat prayacchati..63

(bramhand puran,2.11.477)


Just as Shri Krishna stands distinguished in maters of Beauty, Sweetness, Revealing Capacity, Depth of Love, and Sportive Deeds, even so, His name occupies a higher position over all other Names of the Lord. The Names  0f Bhagavan are infinite in number. None can limit the same. Yet, by His Mercy, the 'thou¬sand Names' are manifested in this world. In the words of the great Siva, "One single Name 'Rama' is equivalent to the utterance of one thousand other Names of ShriVishnu. Then again, a single ut¬terance of the word 'Krishna' once, grandly accomplishes the result for which the sacred thousand Names (Sahasranama) have to he repeated thrice."63



tunde taandavini ratim vitanute tundaavali-labdhaye

 karna-kroda-kadambini ghatayate karnaarbudebhyah sprihaam,

cetah-praangana-sangini vijayate sarvendriyaanaam kritim

 no jaane janitaa kiyadbhir amritaih krishneti varna-dvayi..64

(bidgdha madhab,1.15)


" 'Kri' and 'Shna' these two syllables, ah! What a marvellous fountain of ineffable joy! Really it is a vain attempt to measure the fund of incomparable Bliss It contains. How can I express Its as¬tounding experiences? Its inexpressible sweetness; It is unimagin¬able! When It dances wildly on the tongue, It suddenly creates a longing to possess an infinite number of tongues at one time; when It just enters into the cavities of the ears, lo! It brings in automati¬cally a burning desire to have thousands of ears. No sooner it be¬comes the bosom companion on the arena of consciousness, than It overcomes the actions of all the senses and impels them all in Its Own service. It is beyond my comprehension to gauge what kind of intensely mysterious sweetness, the twin syllables 'Kri-shna' are imbibed with!"64


yad-darshane pakshma-kritam shapanti vidhim sahasraaksham api stuvanti,

vanchanti driktvam sakalendriyaanaam kaam kaam dashaam vaa na bhajanti lokaah..65

(bruhat bhagbatmruta,2.5.110)


"How blessed is the Sahasraksha (Indra) to have been gifted with thousand eyes to enjoy the Divine Beauty of Shri Krishna! Cursed be that Brahma for giving man only two eyes and that too with eyelashes, which bar his continuous vision of Him. How for¬tunate he would have been, if all his sense-organs had been en¬dowed with the power of vision! Lo! What ecstatic state of mind people are driven to in their yearning to have His fullest vision!"65



"Let me have hundreds of millions eyes to enjoy Your Beauty, a like number of ears to hear Your melodious voice, an equal number of noses to inhale the floods of Your fragrance, millions and millions of tongues to relish Your innate sweetness and billion billions hearts to hug You."66




kah pareta-nagari-purandarah ko bhaved atha tadiya-kinkarah,

krishna-naama jagad-eka-mangalam  kantha-pitham urari-karoti cet.


brahmaandaanaam koti-sankhyaadhikaanaam aishvaryam yac cetanaa vaa yad-amshah,

aavirbhutam tan-mahah krishna-naama tan me saadhyaan saadhanam jivanam ca..67



From the above facts relating to the Svarup of Shri Krishna, the sublime position He occupies and the special capacity of His Name, particularly 'Krishna',67 I hope much of our doubts of Mayadevi's  acceptance of Shri Krishna-Nama-Mantra are answered.