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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Chaitanya Bhagavata > Caitanya Bhagavata with Commentaries > Adi-khanda > 7-Sri Visvarupa Takes Sannyasa > Adi-khanda 7/51-100

Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata

Adi-khanda -

By

Vyasa Avatara Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura

Chapter Seven: Shri Vishvarupa Takes Sannyasa

 

 

CB Adi-khanda 7.51

TEXT 51

“parama adbhuta katha kahila, gosani!

tribhuvane emata kothao shuni nai

TRANSLATION

“O Gosvami, I have never before heard such wonderful narrations within the three worlds.

CB Adi-khanda 7.52

TEXT 52

nija-putra haite para-tanaya krishnere

kaha dekhi,-sneha kaila kemana-prakare?”

TRANSLATION

“Please explain to me how the gopis displayed more affection for Krishna, another’s son, than for their own sons.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.53-56

TEXTS 53-56

shri-shuka kahena,-“shuna, raja parikshit

paramatma-sarva-dehe vallabha, vidita

atma vine putra va kalatra bandhu-gana

griha haite bahira karaya tata-kshana

 

ataeva, paramatma-sabara jivana

sei paramatma-ei shri-nandanandana

ataeva paramatma-svabhava-karane

krishnete adhika sneha kare gopi-gane

TRANSLATION

Shukadeva Gosvami replied, “O Maharaja Parikshit, it is well-known that the Supersoul is dear to all. When the soul leaves the son, wife, or friend, their body is taken out of the house. Therefore the Supersoul is the life of everyone. That Supersoul is the son of Nanda Maharaja. Thus the gopis have more affection for Krishna due to His natural characteristics as the Supreme Soul.”

COMMENTARY

In their description of sayujya liberation, or merging in Brahman, the followers of shuddha-dvaita (purified dualism) accept that the soul and the Supersoul remain together. It is understood from the dva suparna verse in the Vedas that the soul and the Supersoul are both present in one vessel. As soon as a soul is bereft of the service of the Supersoul, he develops material conceptions. Although the soul and the Supersoul are both present in this world, which is manifested by the spiritual potency of the Lord, there nevertheless remains a difference between them. Yet there is nothing abominable or inferior in this difference. In order to establish the oneness of the Absolute Truth, this nondual substance has been explained under various doctrines like shuddha-dvaita (purified dualism), vishishtadvaita (specific monism), shuddhadvaita (purified monism), and dvaitadvaita (monism and dualism). The pastimes of the Lord with His associates further confirm the spiritual variegatedness of the nondual Absolute Truth. The inferiority of material variegatedness has unreasonably and illegally attacked the impersonalists’ flow of thought. A servant of the Absolute Truth who is expert in the conclusion of personalism finds in the philosophy of acintya-bhedabheda a wonderful and proper balance in all the above-mentioned pure conclusions on the Brahma-sutras.

 

In the constitutional position of the Lord’s associates, there is no motive other than service to Shri Nandanandana, the Supersoul. In other words, the abominable mundane consideration of duality found in the imperfections and differentiations between subjects and objects in this material world cannot be equally established in the nondual kingdom of Vaikuntha. The Supersoul and the soul are related with each other as well-wishers. As soon as the living entity forgets that relationship, maya immediately arranges for him various temporary relationships like wife and children in this material world. The deluding external energy of the Supersoul has two functions-covering and throwing. When the living entity becomes entangled in this material world, he falls under the control of the material modes of nature and due to his misconceptions he accepts various sense objects, beginning with a wife and children. In this way he is separated from the service of the Absolute Truth, Vrajendra-nandana. From this misconception and forgetfulness of Krishna, the living entity develops the mentality of “I am the enjoyer of all material tastes and forms, like my wife and children.” This is not the constitutional duty of a living entity; it is simply a mental concoction. In other words, the living entity is awarded designations by the covering and throwing potencies of maya and he enjoys the respective results of those designations. But material conceptions are never able to touch a pure living entity. The eternal propensity of a living entity is to cultivate Krishna consciousness. A living entity accepts his material designations as himself due to nondevotional misconceptions. Under the influence of such misconceptions the conditioned souls become impersonalists, or worshipers of the impersonal homogeneous Brahman, while some are inclined to enjoy heaven or hell due to their intense urge for material enjoyment. When the pure living entity with material designations and bewildered intelligence becomes a Mayavadi, he is covered by the false conception of spiritual and material oneness, which produces a whirlwind of imaginative considerations of oneness between the living entities and Brahman and oneness between the material nature and Brahman. When the soul leaves the body, he can immediately understand, “I am not the body. If I were the body, then why did my relatives attempt to return the five elements of my body to the five material elements at the time of my funeral. Since I am separate from the material body, after leaving my body those related to it consider it detestful and want to throw it out of the house.”

 

Although the material world, which is created by the external energy of the Supersoul, is not false, it is also not eternal, that is, it is prone to change. The eternal soul and the temporary mind both possess the consciousness of being the doer, yet there is a difference between the two.

CB Adi-khanda 7.57

TEXT 57

eho katha bhakta-prati, anya-prati nahe

anyatha jagate kene sneha na karaye

TRANSLATION

This, however, applies only to the devotees, not others. Otherwise, why doesn’t everyone show affection for Krishna?

CB Adi-khanda 7.58

TEXT 58

‘kamsadiha atma krishne tabe himse kene?’

purva-aparadha ache tahara karane

TRANSLATION

Why do demons like Kamsa envy Krishna, the Supreme Soul? This is due simply to previous offenses.

CB Adi-khanda 7.59-60

TEXTS 59-60

sahaje sharkara mishta,-sarva-jane jane

keha tikta vase, jihva-doshera karane

jihvara se dosha, sharkarara dosha nai

ataeva sarva-mishta chaitanya gosani

TRANSLATION

Everyone knows that sugar is sweet by nature, but if the tongue is diseased then the sugar will taste bitter. That is the fault of the tongue, not the sugar. The conclusion is that Lord Chaitanya is the sweetest of all.

COMMENTARY

Although sweet sugar tastes bitter to the jaundice infected tongue, the sweetness of sugar has no bitterness. Similarly, there cannot be any lack of love in Shri Chaitanyadeva, who is the source of all auspiciousness. Those who cannot understand Shri Chaitanyadeva to be their worshipable Lord are in that position because of their offenses. In terms of His position as the doer, Shri Chaitanyadeva is directly Krishna; but the material vision of the conditioned souls is infected with imperfection and ignorance, so they consider Shri Chaitanyadeva an ordinary living entity with anu-cetana, minute consciousness, while in fact He is vibhu-cetana, the supreme consciousness.

CB Adi-khanda 7.61

TEXT 61

ei navadvipete dekhila sarva-jane

tathapiha keha na janila bhakta vine

TRANSLATION

Although everyone saw the Lord in Navadvipa, no one could recognize Him other than the devotees.

COMMENTARY

Although bhakti, the eternal propensity of the soul, is present in every living entity’s heart, it is impossible for the conditioned souls to realize just as it is impossible to see one’s face in a dusty mirror. In such a state, the eternal propensity of the living entities, service to Krishna, remains dormant. Therefore they are seen to have a taste for karma and jnana. That is why the service of the Lord is found only in persons who have a service attitude.

CB Adi-khanda 7.62

TEXT 62

bhaktera se citta prabhu hare sarvathaya

viharaye navadvipe vaikunthera raya

TRANSLATION

The Lord of Vaikuntha attracted the hearts of all the devotees as He enjoyed His pastimes in Navadvipa.

CB Adi-khanda 7.63

TEXT 63

mohiya sabara citta prabhu vishvambhara

agraje laila calilena nija-ghara

TRANSLATION

After thus enchanting everyone’s heart, Lord Vishvambhara returned home with His elder brother.

CB Adi-khanda 7.64

TEXT 64

mane mane cintaye advaita mahashaya

“prakrita manusha kabhu e balaka naya”

TRANSLATION

Shri Advaita Prabhu considered to Himself, “This boy is not an ordinary person.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.65

TEXT 65

sarva-vaishnavera prati balila advaita

“kon vastu e balaka,-na jani nishcita”

TRANSLATION

Then Advaita said to the Vaishnavas, “I don’t know what sort of boy He is.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.66

TEXT 66

prashamsite lagilena sarva-bhakta-gana

apurva shishura rupa-lavanya-kathana

TRANSLATION

All the devotees then began to praise the beauty and charm of that wonderful child.

CB Adi-khanda 7.67

TEXT 67

nama-matra vishvarupa calilena ghare

punah ailena shighra advaita-mandire

TRANSLATION

Vishvarupa returned home simply out of formality, then as soon as possible He returned to Advaita’s house.

CB Adi-khanda 7.68

TEXT 68

na bhaya samsara-sukha vishvarupa-mane

niravadhi thake krishna-ananda-kirtane

TRANSLATION

The desire for material enjoyment never appeared in the mind of Vishvarupa. He constantly remained in the ecstasy of chanting Krishna’s names.

CB Adi-khanda 7.69

TEXT 69

grihe aileo griha-vyabhara na kare

niravadhi thake vishnu-grihera bhitare

TRANSLATION

Even when He was at home, He never engaged in household activities; rather, He would always stay in the temple room.

COMMENTARY

The word vishnu-griha is explained as follows: formerly in every brahmana’s house there was a separate room for keeping the Deity form of Narayana [shalagrama]. This Deity room is known as the vishnu-griha. While at home, Shri Vishvarupa would generally pass His time worshiping or meditating in the Deity room.

CB Adi-khanda 7.70

TEXT 70

vivahera udyoga karaye pita-mata

shuni’ vishvarupa bada mane paya vyatha

TRANSLATION

When His mother and father spoke of arranging His marriage, Vishvarupa felt great mental pain

CB Adi-khanda 7.71

TEXT 71

“chadiba samsara”,-vishvarupa mane bhave

“cali’ yana vane”,-matra ei mane jage

TRANSLATION

Vishvarupa thought to Himself, “I will leave home and go to the forest.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.72

TEXT 72

ishvarera citta-vritti ishvara se jane

vishvarupa sannyasa karila kata dine

TRANSLATION

The heart of the Lord is known only to the Lord. Thus after a few days Vishvarupa left to take sannyasa.

CB Adi-khanda 7.73

TEXT 73

jagate vidita nama ‘shri-shankararanya’

calila ananta-pathe vaishnavagraganya

TRANSLATION

He then became known throughout the world as “Shri Shankararanya.” As He traversed the path of devotional service to Lord Krishna, He became celebrated as the topmost Vaishnava.

COMMENTARY

Vishvarupa accepted sannyasa in the Shri Shankara-sampradaya and became famous by the name Shri Shankararanya. At that time there were ten names for sannyasis being used in the Shankara-sampradaya. The name Aranya is one of those ten names. These ten names for sannyasis were previously used in the Vishnusvami-sampradaya. After these Vishnusvami sannyasis had a quarrel with the ekadandi-sannyasis from the Shivasvami-sampradaya, they entered into the Shankara-sampradaya. In the original Vishnusvami-sampradaya, however, there were 108 names used for sannyasis. By the influence of the Shivasvami-sampradaya, the Vedic sannyasi names were reduced to ten after the time of Shankaracarya.

After traveling throughout the country, Shri Shankararanya arrived at Pandarapura, in the district of Sholapur, near Bombay, and took samadhi on the bank of the Bhima River. It is said that Shri Shankararanya, the king of sannyasis, entered the Deity of Shri Viththalanatha, or Shri Vithoba. While traveling to South India many years later (in 1511), Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu went to Pandarapura and heard from Shri Ranga Puri about Shri Vishvarupa’s disappearance. At that time Pandarapura was a famous place of pilgrimage and populated by many sadhus and Vaishnavas.

CB Adi-khanda 7.74

TEXT 74

calilena yadi vishvarupa-mahashaya

shaci-jagannatha dagdha haila hridaya

TRANSLATION

Vishvarupa’s departure from home left Shaci and Jagannatha grief-stricken.

CB Adi-khanda 7.75

TEXT 75

goshthi-saha krandana karaye ubharaya

bhaira virahe murccha gela gaura-raya

TRANSLATION

Shri Gauranga cried loudly along with His family members and eventually fell unconscious out of separation from His brother.

COMMENTARY

The word ubharaya means “loudly.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.76

TEXT 76

se viraha varnite vadane nahi pari

haila krandana-maya jagannatha-puri

TRANSLATION

I am unable to describe their feelings of separation, by which Jagannatha Mishra’s entire house became inundated with crying.

COMMENTARY

The word jagannatha-puri refers to the house of Jagannatha Mishra, or the present day Yogapitha in Shri Mayapur.

CB Adi-khanda 7.77

TEXT 77

vishvarupa-sannyasa-dekhiya bhakta-gana

advaitadi sabe bahu karila krandana

TRANSLATION

Understanding that Vishvarupa has taken sannyasa, Advaita and the other devotees all began weeping.

COMMENTARY

At the time of Shriman Mahaprabhu, the study of Vedic scriptures was prominent in Navadvipa, which was referred to as Gaudapura by Maharshi Panini. In order to demonstrate that one’s material attachment is not destroyed without such study, many personalities headed by Shri Gaurasundara’s elder brother, Shri Vishvarupa, accepted sannyasa and thus increased the glories of Gaudapura, the center of education at that time. The acceptance of sannyasa by Shri Gaurasundara and Shri Purushottama Bhattacarya is mentioned in many Gaudiya devotional scriptures. Apart from them, many other jewel-like scholars like Shri Ishvara Puri, the disciple of Shri Madhavendra, often visited Gaudapura, the center of education. After traveling to the holy places with His sannyasa guru, Shri Nityananda Prabhu also came to Gaudapura and met Shri Gaurasundara.

The sannyasi disciples of both Keshava Bharati and Shri Madhavendra Puripada illuminated the path of accepting sannyasa for members of the varnashrama society. Surrounded by many Mayavadi sannyasis, Prakashananda Sarasvati of Kashi simply wasted his time in arguments based on mental speculation. Shrimad Prabodhananda Sarasvati, a tridandi-sannyasi of the Shri Ramanuja-sampradaya, and other tridandipadas like Shri Madhvacarya accepted tridandi-sannyasa and engaged in the service of Lord Hari as practiced in the line of the original Sarvajna Vishnusvami. In the varnashrama society of that time, respect and honor was offered to sannyasis by all communities. Later on the dari-sannyasis engaged in panca-makara 1 like eating fish and meat and drinking wine and thus brought deformation and harm to the principles of the sannyasa order. This is certainly a matter of great concern. In order to check this degradation, the pure Gaudiya devotees have now reintroduced the process of tridanda-sannyasa, which was more recently present in this world by name only, and thus bestowed happiness and great auspiciousness on the community of Vaishnavas.

 

Although the crying of Shri Advaita Prabhu appeared to be caused by feelings of separation, it is understood by the solacing words of Jagannatha Mishra’s friends that the learned scholars were overjoyed from this incident. The tears of lamentation of the attached householders, who are averse to the sannyasis’ renunciation, and the tears of ecstasy of the devotees, who are fond of the sannyasis’ service at the lotus feet of Mukunda, are not of the same nature.

CB Adi-khanda 7.78

TEXT 78

uttama, madhyama, ye shunila nadiyaya

hena nahi,-ye shuniya duhkha nahi paya

TRANSLATION

Everyone in Nadia who heard about the incident-whether ordinary or exalted devotee-all felt unhappy.

CB Adi-khanda 7.79-80

TEXTS 79-80

jagannatha-shacira vidirna haya buka

nirantara dake ‘vishvarupa! vishvarupa!’

putra-shoke mishracandra haila vihvala

prabodha karaye bandhu-bandhava sakala

TRANSLATION

Jagannatha Mishra and Shacidevi were both heart-broken and continually cried out, “Vishvarupa! Vishvarupa!” Shri Mishra was overwhelmed with lamentation for his son, so his friends and relatives all tried to pacify him.

COMMENTARY

Jagannatha Mishra’s display of affliction due to lamentation for his son like that of a ordinary father for his son was actually to deceive persons who are bewildered by material objects like their sons. The glorification of Shri Vishvarupa’s acceptance of sannyasa and engagement in worshiping Krishna increased the prestige of the daiva-varnashrama sannyasis, who destroy the lamentation born of material enjoyment.

CB Adi-khanda 7.81

TEXT 81

“sthira hao, mishra, duhkha na bhaviha mane

sarva-goshthi uddharila sei mahajane

TRANSLATION

“Dear Mishra, please control yourself. Do not feel sad, for that great personality has delivered us all.

CB Adi-khanda 7.82

TEXT 82

goshthite purusha ya’ra karaye sannyasa

trikoti-kulera haya shri-vaikunthe vasa

TRANSLATION

“When someone takes sannyasa, millions of family members are promoted to Vaikuntha.

CB Adi-khanda 7.83

TEXT 83

hena karma karilena nandana tomara

saphala haila vidya sampurna tahara

TRANSLATION

“Your son has perfected his education by this act.

CB Adi-khanda 7.84

TEXT 84

ananda vishesha aro karite yuyaya”

eta bali’ sakale dharaye hate-pa’ya

TRANSLATION

“Therefore it is befitting for you to feel even more happy than before.” Saying this, they all held the hands and feet of Jagannatha Mishra.

CB Adi-khanda 7.85

TEXT 85

“ei kula-bhushana tomara vishvambhara

ei putra haibe tomara vamsha-dhara

TRANSLATION

“Your son Vishvambhara is the ornament of your dynasty.

CB Adi-khanda 7.86

TEXT 86

iha haite sarva duhkha ghucibe tomara

koti-putre ki karibe, e putra yahara?”

TRANSLATION

“He will eradicate all your suffering. If one has a son such as Him, what is the need for millions of sons?”

CB Adi-khanda 7.87

TEXT 87

ei-mata sabe bujhayena bandhu-gana

tathapi mishrera duhkha na haya khandana

TRANSLATION

In this way all of Jagannatha Mishra’s friends tried to pacify him, but his distress remained unmitigated.

CB Adi-khanda 7.88

TEXT 88

ye-te-mate dhairya dhare mishra-mahashaya

vishvarupa-guna smari’ dhairya pasaraya

TRANSLATION

If somehow or other he regained his composure, as soon as he remembered Vishvarupa’s qualities, he again lost his patience.

CB Adi-khanda 7.89

TEXT 89

mishra bole,-“ei putra rahibeka ghare

ihate pramana mora na laya antare

TRANSLATION

Shri Mishra said, “I have no reason to believe that this son will remain at home.

CB Adi-khanda 7.90

TEXT 90

dilena krishna se putra, nilena krishna se

ye krishnacandera iccha, haiba sei se

TRANSLATION

“Krishna gave me a son, and then He took Him away. Whatever Krishna desires, that is what will happen.

CB Adi-khanda 7.91

TEXT 91

svatantra jivera tilarddheka shakti nai

dehendriya, krishna, samarpilun toma’ thani”

TRANSLATION

“Independent of You, the living entities have no power whatsoever. Therefore, O Krishna, I’m surrendering my body and senses unto You.”

CB Adi-khanda 7.92

TEXT 92

ei rupe jnana-yoge mishra mahadhira

alpe-alpe citta-vritti karilena sthira

TRANSLATION

In this way the most sober Jagannatha Mishra gradually controlled his mind through the process of jnana.

COMMENTARY

Jagannatha Mishra’s modified form of vatsalya-rasa that was born from physical consideration was destroyed when Vishvarupa took sannyasa, and he realized that the eternal Absolute Truth, Lord Vishnu, was his son. Such realization frees one from the shackles of mundane parenthood and is real sannyasa.

CB Adi-khanda 7.93

TEXT 93

hena mate vishvarupa haila bahira

nityananda-svarupera abheda-sharira

TRANSLATION

That is the story of how Vishvarupa, who is nondifferent from Nityananda Svarupa, left home.

CB Adi-khanda 7.94

TEXT 94

ye shunaye vishvarupa-prabhura sannyasa

krishna-bhakti haya tara chinde karma-phansa

TRANSLATION

Whoever hears the pastimes of Vishvarupa’s acceptance of sannyasa attains devotional service to Lord Krishna and freedom from the bondage of fruitive work.

COMMENTARY

Shri Vishvarupa Prabhu is Sankarshana and is therefore nondifferent from Shri Nityananda Svarupa. The prakasha expansion of Mula-sankarshana Shri Baladeva-Nityananda Prabhu in Maha-Vaikuntha has appeared as Vishvarupa in gaura-lila.

 

If one hears the pastime of Vishvarupa’s accepting sannyasa, he will attain freedom from the bondage of fruitive activities. Shri Vishvarupa has three expansions-the first purusha incarnation, Karanodakashayi Vishnu, the second purusha incarnation, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, and the third purusha incarnation, Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. If a living entity understands these three Vishnu forms in truth, he can attain freedom from the material concept of life.

CB Adi-khanda 7.95

TEXT 95

vishvarupa-sannyasa shuniya bhakta-gana

harishe vishada sabe bhave anukshana

TRANSLATION

As the devotees heard about Vishvarupa’s accepting sannyasa, they simultaneously felt happiness and lamentation.

CB Adi-khanda 7.96

TEXT 96

“ye va chila sthana krishna-katha kahibara

taha krishna harilena ama’ sabakara

TRANSLATION

They said, “Whatever little opportunity we had for discussing the topics of Krishna together, Krishna has taken away.

CB Adi-khanda 7.97

TEXT 97

amarao na rahiba, cali’ yana vane

e papishtha-loka-mukha na dekhi yekhane

TRANSLATION

“Let us also leave home and go to the forest, then we will not see the faces of these sinful people.

COMMENTARY

The phrase papishtha-loka-mukha refers to the faces of persons who are averse to Krishna and expert in material life.

CB Adi-khanda 7.98

TEXT 98

pashandira vakya-jvala sahiba va kata

nirantara asat-pathe sarva-loka rata

TRANSLATION

“How long must we tolerate the burning words of these atheists? They are all continuously engaged in materialistic activities.

CB Adi-khanda 7.99

TEXT 99

‘krishna’ hena nama nahi shuni karo mukhe

sakala samsara dubi’ mare mithya sukhe

TRANSLATION

“We do not hear the name of Krishna from anyone’s mouth. The entire world is absorbed in illusory happiness.

COMMENTARY

The words mithya sukha refers to the temporary happiness derived from sense gratification. Only the atmaramas, or self-satisfied souls, can experience the eternal happiness of serving Lord Vishnu. When the perishable sensual happiness of the conditioned souls who are averse to Vishnu is checked, or when the object of their happiness is destroyed, that same temporary happiness turns into misery.

CB Adi-khanda 7.100

TEXT 100

bujhaile keha krishna-patha nahi laya

uladhiya aro se upahasa karaya

TRANSLATION

“Even if they are instructed, they will not take to devotional life. On the contrary, they taunt us, saying:

COMMENTARY

The materialists were maddened with temporary material happiness. They could not understand the Supreme Absolute Truth, and as a result, they became scornful and laughed. But actually they were unable to understand the service of Adhokshaja Krishna by the strength of their sensual knowledge. Rather than understanding that devotional service to Lord Krishna is the only necessity, such materialists become attached to this world and the fruits of their work.

 

Commentary and Chapter Summaries of His Divine Grace Om Vishnupada Paramahamsa Parivrajakacarya Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada.