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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Chaitanya Bhagavata > Caitanya Bhagavata with Commentaries > Adi-khanda > 2-The Lord's Appearance > Adi-khanda 2/51-100

Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata

Adi-khanda -


Vyasa Avatara Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura

Chapter Two: The Lord’s Appearance



CB Adi-khanda 2.51


ye-sthane vaishnava-gana karena vijaya

sei-sthana haya ati-punya-tirtha-maya


Wherever the Vaishnavas go that place becomes a sanctified place of pilgrimage.


Out of humility the great devotees, or swanlike Vaishnavas, consider themselves impure. They play the role of visiting holy places to purify themselves just to deceive the materialists, while in fact they purify even the holy places. Ordinary places become sanctified by the presence of Vaishnavas.


In this regard, Maharaja Yudhishthira said to Vidura in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (1.13.10):

bhavad-vidha bhagavatas      tirtha-bhutah svayam vibho

tirthi-kurvanti tirthani      svantah-sthena gadabhrita

“My Lord, devotees like your good self are verily holy places personified. Because you carry the Personality of Godhead within your heart, you turn all places into places of pilgrimage.”


When the materialistic enjoying mentality is absent in a conditioned soul, he becomes a sadhu. Places inhabited by Vaishnavas are better than ordinary holy places.

CB Adi-khanda 2.52


ataeva sarva-deshe nija-bhakta-gana

avatirna kaila shri-chaitanya-narayana


Therefore Shri Chaitanya had His devotees appear in all different countries.

CB Adi-khanda 2.53


nana-sthane avatirna haila bhakta-gana

navadvipe asi’ sabara haila milana


Although the devotees appeared in various places, they all met together in Navadvipa.


Please refer to the commentary on verse 32.

CB Adi-khanda 2.54


navadvipe haiba prabhura avatara

ataeva navadvipe milana sabara


Because the Lord would appear in Navadvipa, the devotees all gathered together there.


Shri Navadvipa is considered the most glorious abode in the entire universe, for on one hand, Shri Navadvipa is the birthplace of Shri Gaurasundara, the personification of love of God, and on the other hand, innumerable associates of the Lord, who are able to purify the entire world, were also present there. Since the wonderful, sweet prema of Vrindavana was hidden, the six Gosvamis and their followers lived in Shri Vrindavana and broadcast Lord Krishna’s eternal pastimes on the order of Shri Gaurasundara. Similarly, during the time of Shri Gaurasundara, many devotees came from various places to Shri Navadvipa and assisted the Lord in His kirtana pastimes.

CB Adi-khanda 2.55


‘navadvipa’-hena grama tri-bhuvane nai

yanhi avatirna haila chaitanya-gosani


There is no place in the three worlds like Navadvipa, where Lord Shri Chaitanya appeared.


There are fourteen worlds in the material universe. Among them, Bhur, Bhuvar, and Svar are mainly inhabited by materialistic persons. Among these three worlds, Jambudvipa of this earth planet is the best; in Jambudvipa, Bharata-varsha is the best; in the land of Bharata-varsha, Gauda-mandala, which is nondifferent from Shri Vraja-mandala, is the best; and in Gauda-mandala, the most pious nine islands of Shri Navadvipa are the best. There is no place superior to Navadvipa in the three worlds, because Shri Gaurahari, the all-auspicious ocean of mercy, imparted love of God, which is rarely attained even by the demigods, to anyone and everyone without considering whether they were qualified recipients or not. Therefore the glories of Shri Navadvipa are factually incomparable and matchless.

CB Adi-khanda 2.56


‘avataribena prabhu’ janiya vidhata

sakala sampurna kari’ thuilena tatha


Knowing that the Lord would appear, providence arranged all prosperity and opulence in advance.

CB Adi-khanda 2.57


navadvipa-sampatti ke varnibare pare?

eko ganga-ghate laksha loka snana kare


Who can describe the opulences of Navadvipa? One hundred thousand people would take bath at one bathing ghata.


No one is able to describe with words the opulences and prosperity of Navadvipa at that time. Shri Navadvipa-dhama was decorated with all the good fortune of the seven holy cities of India that award liberation-Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridvara, Kashi (Benares), Kanci, Avanti (Ujjain), and Dvaraka-and thus qualified to bear Shri Chaitanyadeva’s transcendental lotus feet, which purify the world. At that time Shri Mayapur-dhama was so thickly populated that innumerable residents and visitors would bathe at each ghata on the Ganges.

CB Adi-khanda 2.58


trividha-vayase eka-jati laksha-laksha

sarasvati-prasade sabei maha-daksha


By the merciful glance of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, hundreds of thousands of children, youths, and old people were expert in the scriptures.


The words trividha-vayase indicate children, youths, and old people. By the mercy of Sarasvati, they were all expert in the scriptures.

CB Adi-khanda 2.59


sabe maha-adhyapaka kari’ garva dhare

balakeo bhattacarya-sane kaksha kare


They were all proud of being great scholars. Even a young boy would challenge his teacher.


The cultivation of knowledge was so mature that people all considered themselves matchless scholars. By the power of their learning, even young students who were still studying competed with elder mature teachers with hopes of winning. The word kaksha in this verse means “competition” or “debate on the scriptures.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.60


nana-desha haite loka navadvipe yaya

navadvipe padile se ‘vidya-rasa’ paya


Many people came from various provinces to study in Navadvipa, because by studying there one achieved a taste for education.


Students interested in studying logic came from Maithila to Navadvipa. Many sannyasis and qualified professors from Varanasi in North India came to study Vedanta in Navadvipa. Many students from Kanci in South India also came to study in Navadvipa. Therefore student communities from various provinces came to Navadvipa and got the opportunity to become expert scholars of various scriptures.

CB Adi-khanda 2.61


ataeva paduyara nahi samuccaya

laksha-koti adhyapaka,-nahika nishcaya


Therefore no one could count the innumerable students and millions of teachers gathered there.


Due to the facility for studying various scriptures, there were innumerable teachers and students in Navadvipa. The word samuccaya means “collection” or “assembly.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.62


rama-drishti-pate sarva-loka sukhe vase

vyartha kala yaya matra vyavahara-rase


By the merciful glance of Rama, the goddess of fortune, everyone lived happily there, but they wasted their time in mundane activities.


Although by the mercy of Lakshmidevi, Navadvipa was full of opulences and the abode of happiness, people who were maddened by material happiness were simply interested to increase their material knowledge in order to gratify their senses. Thus they uselessly spent their time in ordinary worldly dealings. In his book, Shri Chaitanya-candramrita (113), Tridandi Svami Shri Prabodhananda Sarasvatipada has described the mentality of the materialists and tapasvis, who at the time of Shriman Mahaprabhu were proud of their mundane godless knowledge.

CB Adi-khanda 2.63


krishna-rama-bhakti-shunya sakala samsara

prathama-kalite haila bhavishya-acara


The whole universe was devoid of devotion to Krishna and Balarama, and future symptoms of the age of Kali became manifest in the beginning of the age.


At that time, various types of misbehavior, in the form of aversion to the Lord, which was expected to appear at the end of Kali-yuga, began to manifest throughout the universe. People forgot that serving Balarama and Krishna was their only occupational duty.

CB Adi-khanda 2.64


dharma karma loka sabe ei matra jane

mangalacandira gite kare jagarane


People’s religion consisted of fruitive activities, and they would stay awake through the night chanting prayers to Mangalacandi, goddess Durga.


Material knowledge was so predominant at that time that people mistook speculation devoid of devotional service to Hari as scholarship. Ordinary people believed that the supreme goal of following religious principles was to increase their material happiness and prosperity by hearing and chanting songs about Mangalacandi. They actually mistook unnatural nondevotional endeavors for religion and thus increased the covering of desire for sense gratification, fruitive work, and speculative knowledge. They did not consider that worshiping the lotus feet of the Lord’s devotees was the living entities’ only goal.

CB Adi-khanda 2.65


dambha kari’ vishahari puje kona jana

puttali karaye keho diya bahu-dhana


Some people proudly worshiped Vishahari, the goddess of snakes, and others spent great wealth on idol worship.


Ordinary people, particularly the rich mercantile community, lavishly spent money for the worship of Manasadevi [another name of Vishahari]. They purchased the entire brahmana and pandita communities and kept them under their control. They had various idols and deities of demigods and goddesses made, and they donated large sums of money in charity. Even today the practice of making various kinds of idols is current at the time of rasa-yatra. Instead of serving the Deity of the Supreme Lord on the spiritual platform, they followed the system of idol worship and spent huge amounts of money on festivals. Later, they immersed those idols in the water and proved the flickering nature of their worship and their object of worship. Because they spent large amounts of money on useless purposes, the worship of Deities such as Shri Jagannathadeva was rarely found in Bengal.


Another reading of the second line is puttali vibha dite deya bahu-dhana, which indicates that people who were maddened with material enjoyment uselessly and proudly spent money in marriage ceremonies between male and female monkeys, cats, and dolls. In this way they increased their aversion to the Lord.

CB Adi-khanda 2.66


dhana nashta kare putra kanyara vibhaya

ei-mata jagatera vyartha kala yaya


People squandered money on the marriages of their sons and daughters. In this way they wasted their human lives.


Some people considered family life as the goal of life, and they thus spent large sums on the marriages of their sons and daughters. In this way they increased the happiness of those who were averse to Lord Hari. They concluded that getting their daughters and sons married is far better than worshiping the Supreme Lord, and in this way they simply wasted their time in mundane affairs.

CB Adi-khanda 2.67


yeba bhattacarya, cakravarti, mishra saba

taharao na jane saba grantha-anubhava


Even the so-called scholars-the Bhattacaryas, Cakravartis, and Mishras-did not know the real purport of the scriptures.


The words grantha-anubhava mean “summary” or “purport.” It is stated in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (1.2.28-29): “In the revealed scriptures, the ultimate object of knowledge is Shri Krishna, the Personality of Godhead. The purpose of performing sacrifice is to please Him. Yoga is for realizing Him. All fruitive activities are ultimately rewarded by Him only. He is supreme knowledge, and all severe austerities are performed to know Him. Religion [dharma] is rendering loving service unto Him. He is the supreme goal of life.” In his commentary on Bhagavad-gita (2.45), Shri Madhvacarya quotes the following verses: “In the Vedic literature, including the Ramayana, Puranas, and Mahabharata, from the very beginning (adau) to the end (ante ca), as well as within the middle (madhye ca), only Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is explained,” and “All Vedic knowledge is searching after the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” (Katha Upanishad 1.2.15) “The source of dharma, or religious principles, is the Vedas, the smritis, their commentaries, the conduct of sadhus, and the satisfaction of the soul.” (Manu-samhita 2.6) “That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is irreligion.” (Bhag. 6.1.40) Thus the Vedas are primarily concerned with declaring the supremacy of Vishnu. In his commentary on Mahabharata (32-34), Shri Madhvacarya states: “The Vaishnava Puranas are all factual evidence, being the same as the Pancaratra. All the original smritis are also evidence, being supportive. In all of these works, only the supremacy of Vishnu is proclaimed, nothing else. This alone is the final analysis. Other scriptures have been written on the order of Lord Hari for the purpose of bewildering the demons. The statements of these scriptures should not be accepted, as they are meant for the asuras and lead one to the darkness of ignorance.” In his commentary on the Vedanta-sutras (1.2.26) Shri Madhvacarya quotes the following verse from the Padma Purana: “Just as the Purusha-sukta continually glorifies Vishnu, my mind continually glorifies Vishnu.” In his commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, Shri Madhvacarya quotes from the Naradiya Purana as follows: “It is proclaimed that the Vaishnava scriptures consist of the Pancaratra, the Mahabharata, the original Ramayana, the Puranas and the Bhagavatam. The Puranas glorifying Lord Shiva should be adjusted so their statements do not conflict with the Vaishnava literatures. Those who dishonor the Vedas by taking shelter of philosophies like Gautama’s Nyaya, Kanada’s Vaisheshika, [the atheist] Kapila’s Sankhya, Patanjali’s Yoga, and that found in Shaivite Puranas are of low intelligence.”


The Bhatöacaryas, who were expert in teaching, the Cakravartis, who were expert in fruitive rituals, and the Mishras, who were learned scholars, were simply engaged in scriptural debate, therefore they were unable to understand the purport of the shastras and essence of the Vedas. They were simply engaged in the path of useless fruitive activities and mental speculation. They could not understand that the only purpose of all activities of the living entities and the only goal of all scriptures is devotional service for the pleasure of Lord Hari.

CB Adi-khanda 2.68


shastra padaiya sabe ei karma kare

shrotara sahite yama-pashe dubi’ mare


And even after teaching the scriptures, the teachers still engaged in such activities. As a result, both the teachers and the students were punished by Yamaraja.


The teachers by teaching and the students by learning both became entangled in the laws of karma, and due to these temporary endeavors they ultimately became punishable by Yamaraja. In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (6.3.28-29) Shri Yamaraja spoke the following words to his servants in connection with Ajamila: “Paramahamsas are exalted persons who have no taste for material enjoyment and who drink the honey of the Lord’s lotus feet. My dear servants, bring to me for punishment only persons who are averse to the taste of that honey, who do not associate with paramahamsas and who are attached to family life and worldly enjoyment, which form the path to hell. My dear servants, please bring to me only those sinful persons who do not use their tongues to chant the holy name and qualities of Krishna, whose hearts do not remember the lotus feet of Krishna even once, and whose heads do not bow down even once before Lord Krishna. Send me those who do not perform their duties toward Vishnu, which are the only duties in human life. Please bring me all such fools and rascals.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.69


na vakhane ‘yuga-dharma’ krishnera kirtana

dosha vina guna karo na kare kathana


They never explained the religious principle for the age-chanting the holy names of the Lord. They only found faults with others; they never glorified anyone.


Other than the pure devotees who chant the names of Krishna, the selfish conditioned souls who are averse to Krishna are crushed by the stringent laws of karma, and instead of self-realization, they identify themselves with matter and always criticize the people of this world. Therefore Shrila Prabodhananda Sarasvatipada has stated in the Shri Chaitanya-candramrita (5) as follows: “For those who have attained the merciful sidelong glance of Lord Gaura, the world is the abode of happiness and the position of Brahma, Indra, and other demigods is considered no better than that of tiny insects.”


Regarding yuga-dharma, the Shrimad Bhagavatam (12.3.52) states: “Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Vishnu, in Treta-yuga by performing sacrifices, and in Dvapara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra.”


The following verse from the Shri Narayana-samhita is quoted by Shri Madhvacarya in his commentary on the Mundaka Upanishad: “In the Dvapara-yuga people should worship Lord Vishnu only by the regulative principles of the Narada-pancaratra and other such authorized books. In the age of Kali, however, people should simply chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” Instead of glorifying shri-krishna-kirtana as the yuga-dharma, the argumentative and quarrelsome people of that time were busy talking about each other’s temporary faults. As soon as one gives up the glorification of the Lord’s qualities and transgresses the injunctions of the scriptures, one immediately acquires the quality of pride and is swallowed by envy, in the form of fault-finding. In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (11.28.1-2) Lord Krishna speaks to Uddhava as follows: “One should neither praise nor criticize the conditioned nature and activities of other persons. Rather, one should see this world as simply the combination of material nature and the enjoying souls, all based on the one Absolute Truth. Whoever indulges in praising or criticizing the qualities and behavior of others will quickly become deviated from his own best interest by his entanglement in illusory dualities.” When the living entities engage in hearing and chanting about the Absolute Truth, Shri Vrajendra-nandana, they find relief from the quarrelsome nature of Kali-yuga and thus remain fixed in the path of hearing from authorities. Then they no longer discuss topics not related with Lord Krishna.

CB Adi-khanda 2.70


yeba saba-virakta-tapasvi-abhimani

tan-sabara mukheha nahika hari-dvani


All the so-called renunciates and ascetics never chanted the names of Hari.


The word virakta is expained as follows: The mixed feelings born from form, taste, smell, sound, and touch create obstacles in the living entities’ sense gratification from time to time. One who desires and tries to isolate and free oneself from such feelings is called virakta.


The word tapasvi refers to a living entity who tries to gain strength to deliver himself from the danger of being afflicted by the threefold miseries.


Although renunciation and austerity are employed as means of getting relief from the miseries of this world, if they are not engaged in the service of Adhokshaja, they fail to produce the desired results. All kinds of renunciation and austerity are subsidiary eternal assets of devotees who chant the names of the Supreme Lord. The endeavors of those who give up chanting the holy names and separately engage in renunciation and austerity are all useless. The communities of renunciates and ascetics aim for material enjoyment and are thus deprived of the wealth of devotional service to the lotus feet of Shri Hari. Such people cannot expect any success from their laborious practices. Before the advent of Mahaprabhu, the renunciates and ascetics were bereft of devotional service to Hari.


It is stated in the Narada-pancaratra:

aradhito yadi haris tapasa tatah kim

naradhito yadi haris tapasa tatah kim

antar bahir yadi haris tapasa tatah kim

nantar bahir yadi haris tapasa tatah kim

“If one is worshiping Lord Hari, what is the use of severe penances? And if one is not worshiping Lord Hari, what is the use of severe penances? If one can understand that Lord Hari is all-pervading, what is the use of severe penances? And if one cannot understand that Lord Hari is all-pervading, what is the use of severe penances?”


In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (11.20.8 and 31) Lord Krishna tells Uddhava: “Being neither very disgusted with nor attached to material life, one should achieve perfection through the path of loving devotion to Me.” And, “The cultivation of knowledge and renunciation is generally not the means of achieving the highest perfection within this world.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.71


ati-vada sukriti se snanera samaya

‘govinda’ ‘pundarikaksha’-nama uccaraya


Only the most pious people would recite the names of Pundarikaksha and Govinda at the time of taking bath.


Before the Lord inaugurated the sankirtana movement, so-called pious and religious persons chanted the names of Govinda and Pundarikaksha only at the time of taking bath in order to cleanse their sins with water. They considered this a traditional social custom. Otherwise these people never chanted the names of Vishnu even by mistake. Rather, they believed that chanting the names of Govinda and Pundarikaksha by everyone at all times is prohibited. They thought that the names of Govinda and Pundarikaksha should not be chanted by unqualified persons or at improper times. This is how unfortunate and averse to Lord Hari the communities of so-called followers of the Vedas were. Ultimately this consideration was checked by the namnam akari Shikshashöaka verse of the most magnanimous friend of the living entities, Shri Chaitanyadeva.

CB Adi-khanda 2.72


gita bhagavata ye-ye-janete padaya

bhaktira vyakhyana nahi tahara jihvaya


Even when someone explained the Bhagavad-gita or Shrimad Bhagavatam, they would not mention anything about devotional service to the Lord.


In his commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, Shri Madhvacarya quotes the following verse from the Maha-kurma Purana:

bharatam sarva-shastreshu      bharate gitika vara

vishnoh sahasra-namapi      geyam paöhyam ca tad dvayam

“Mahabharata is the best of all scriptures, and Bhagavad-gita and Vishnu-sahasra-nama are the best parts of the Mahabharata. They should always be studied and recited.”


Lord Shri Krishna is the speaker of the Bhagavad-gita, and Arjuna is the listener. Shrimad Bhagavad-gita consists of 700 shlokas in eighteen chapters and is found in the Bhishma-parva of the Mahabharata. It is the first book to be read by persons on the spiritual path.


Shrimad Bhagavatam consists of 18,000 verses and is one of the eighteen Puranas composed by Shri Vyasa. It is the crest jewel of the Satvata-puranas. This spotless Purana is also called Satvata-samhita or Paramahamsi, that which is meant for swanlike persons.


It is stated in the Garuda Purana:

artho ‘yam brahma-sutranam      bharatartha vinirnayah

gayatri-bhashya-rupo ‘sau      vedartha-paribrimhitah

“The meaning of the Vedanta-sutras, the full purport of the Mahabharata, the commentary on Brahma-gayatri, and the fully expanded knowledge of the Vedas are all present in the Shrimad Bhagavatam.” From this statement it is understood that this emperor of all literatures, or spotless pramana, is also a shruti like the Upanishads (see Shrimad Bhagavatam 1.4.7 spoken by Shaunaka Rishi to his spiritual master, Shri Shukadeva Gosvami); it is also nyaya like the Brahma-sutras (see Shrimad Bhagavatam 12.13.15); and it is also smriti like the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Regarding the glories of Shrimad Bhagavatam, one may refer to the Chaitanya-bhagavata, Madhya-khanda, Chapter Twenty-one, and Antya-khanda, Chapter Three; Chaitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila, Chapter One, Madhya-lila, Chapters Twenty, Twenty-four, and Twenty-five, Antya-lila, Chapters Five, Seven, and Thirteen; and Shrila Jiva Gosvami Prabhu’s considerations in the Tattva-sandarbha (18-28). This literature is always discussed among liberated swanlike Vaishnavas.


At that time those who studied pure devotional literatures like Bhagavad-gita and Shrimad Bhagavatam never explained that worshiping the Supreme Lord is the only duty of the living entities. Their recitation and teaching of Bhagavad-gita and Shrimad Bhagavatam was meant for achieving immediate sense gratification, and they thus twisted the meanings of these two books to make them appear like the ordinary book Saptashati-candi, which is meant for satisfying one’s senses. And the nondevotee communities presently recite Gita and Bhagavata in this way. Such recitation of Gita and Bhagavata by conditioned souls who are simply interested in sensual happiness is an obstacle for one’s advancement and simply leads one to hell, because that is never recitation of Gita and Bhagavata. Rather, such recitation is a collection of ordinary mundane words for gratifying the senses. Shri Bhagavad-gita and Shrimad Bhagavatam are the crest jewels of all scriptures, they are as great and as worthy of taking shelter of as Krishna, and they are the transcendental manifestations of shri-krishna-kirtana. They are neither mundane philosophical books nor ordinary poetry that are accessible to the mundane ears and tongues of materialistic people. This class of speakers and listeners who are interested in sensual happiness are ever bereft of the merciful glance of magnanimous Mahaprabhu.

CB Adi-khanda 2.73


ei-mata vishnu-maya-mohita samsara

dekhi’ bhakta-saba duhkha bhavena apara


Seeing the entire world illusioned by the Lord’s external energy in this way, all the devotees felt unlimited distress.


The devotees of the Lord became extremely unhappy seeing the activities of so-called scholars and persons maddened with the materialistic way of life. On seeing persons who under the influence of Vishnu’s illusory energy proudly considered themselves great, the devotees exhibited distress for the benefit of such persons. If proud scholars are openly checked from sinful endeavors, then on the strength of their misguided intelligence, they may attack the devotees who are bestowing their mercy. Such attacks may then hinder their endeavors for spiritual advancement. With this thought in mind, the pure devotees, who are para-duhkha-duhkhi, unhappy for other’s unhappiness, had no alternative other than to display distress on seeing the living entities aversion to Lord Hari. They knew that those foolish living entities under the influence of false ego are bewildered by the covering and throwing potencies of the illusory energy of Vishnu. Such people are travelers on the path of death and in great danger.

CB Adi-khanda 2.74


‘kemane ei jiva-saba paibe uddhara!

vishaya-sukhete saba majila samsara


[They thought:] “How will these people be delivered? The whole world is simply absorbed in material enjoyment.


How will these people facing danger be eternally benefited? The hearts of those devotees were filled with compassion. They understood that living entities who were averse to the Lord were simply absorbed in sensual happiness. In other words, people considered material sense gratification as their immediate self-interest and source of enjoyment. They thus completely forgot pure devotional service to the Lord.

CB Adi-khanda 2.75


balileo keha nahi laya krishna-nama!

niravadhi vidya-kula karena vyakhyana


“People will not chant the names of Krishna even if they are instructed! Rather, they constantly glorify their education and good birth.”


When one of the pure devotees chanted the name of Krishna, the nondevotees would disregard the devotional process of the pure devotees, or paramahamsa Vaishnavas, by proclaiming their own noble birth and exhibiting their prowess in mundane knowledge. Regarding such people, Thakura Shri Narottama has sung as follows:

nitai na balila mukhe,      majila samsara-sukhe,

vidya-kule ki karibe ta’ra.

se sambandha nahi ya’ra,      vritha janma gelo ta’ra,

sei pashu bada duracara

“One who does not chant the names of Nityananda becomes absorbed in material happiness. Of what benefit is such a person’s vidya, or so-called academic education, and kula, birth in high family or great nation? Anyone who has no relationship with Nityananda, is simply spoiling his human form of life. Such a person is like an untamed animal.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.76


sva-karya karena saba bhagavata-gana

krishna-puja, ganga-snana, krishnera kathana


The great devotees, however, followed their prescribed duties like worshiping Krishna, bathing in the Ganges, and discussing topics of Krishna.


The devotees gave up the association of those who were averse to Krishna and continued to chant the names of Krishna, discuss the topics of Krishna, drink the caranamrita of Krishna, serve Krishna, and take bath in the Ganges. The devotees continually engaged is such activities in order to remain aloof from the service of Maya.

CB Adi-khanda 2.77


sabe meli’ jagatere kare ashirvada

‘shighra, krishna-candra, kara sabare prasada’


They all bestowed their blessings on the people of the world and prayed, “O Krishnacandra, please quickly bestow mercy on these people.”


Whenever the devotees failed to change the extremely materialistic pashandis’ mentality by their cultivation of Krishna consciousness, they would pray for Krishna to bestow His mercy on them.

CB Adi-khanda 2.78


sei navadvipe vaise vaishnavagraganya

‘advaita acarya’ nama, sarva-loke dhanya


Residing in Navadvipa at that time was Advaita Acarya, the topmost Vaishnava, who is glorified throughout the world.


Even in that society of such materialistic persons, Shri Advaita Acarya was glorified and worshiped by everyone and accepted as the spokesman for the Vaishnavas.

CB Adi-khanda 2.79


jnana-bhakti-vairagyera guru mukhyatara

krishna-bhakti vakhanite yehena shankara


Shri Advaita Acarya was the most respected teacher. He was as expert as Lord Shiva in explaining the devotional service of Lord Krishna with knowledge and renunciation.


As the greatest teacher of the science of Krishna, devotional service to Krishna, and renunciation of everything unrelated to Krishna, Shri Advaita Acarya preached the glories of pure devotional service to the Lord. He manifested pastimes like those of Shri Rudra, who is the principle acarya for broadcasting devotional service and the inaugurator of the Vishnusvami-sampradaya. Just as Shri Shankaracarya, the incarnation of Shankara, scattered and covered the devotional service of the Lord through his philosophy, arguments, and scholarship in order to bewilder the demoniac people, Shri Advaita Prabhu exhibited the true identity of pure knowledge, devotional service, and renunciation in the course of explaining the devotional service of Krishna by His uncommon endeavors and activities. The acaryas of the Shri Rudra-sampradaya are known as Vishnusvami, because they preach pure devotional service. A few disciples of the Rudra-sampradaya gave up subordination to their spiritual master, or the process of accepting knowledge through aural reception, and practiced adulterated devotional service. They then created a new sampradaya known as the Shivasvami-sampradaya. Shri Shankaracarya appeared in this Shivasvami-sampradaya and vigorously preached adulterated devotional service in this world. Since less intelligent people considered both pure and adulterated devotional service as the same, they were cheated from achieving eternal benefit.

CB Adi-khanda 2.80


tribhuvane ache yata shastrera pracara

sarvatra vakhane,-’krishna-pada-bhakti sara’


He explained all the scriptures that are found in the three worlds and concluded that devotional service to the lotus feet of Krishna is the essence of all teachings.


In the Mahabharata-tatparya (1.53) it is stated:

paramo vishnur evaikas      taj jnanam mukti-sadhana

shastranam nirnayas tv esha      tad anyan mohanaya hi

“Vishnu is the one Supreme Lord. Knowledge of Him is the means of liberation. He alone is the object of the scriptures. To conclude anything else is a cause of delusion.”


Shri Advaita Acarya always preached that one should eternally take shelter of the service of Krishna’s lotus feet, as this is the essence and goal of all scriptures within the three worlds. Shri Advaita Prabhu preached that devotional service to Krishna is the essence of all scriptures and the only objective of Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is Shri Vyasadeva’s natural commentary on the Brahma-sutras, the fountainhead of all scriptures. By preaching Shrimad Bhagavatam, He checked all kinds of false speculation and conclusions that are opposed to pure devotional service. He thus endeavored to establish the attitude of service to the Supreme Lord in the hearts of His audience.

CB Adi-khanda 2.81


tulasi-manjari-sahita ganga-jale

niravadhi seve krishne maha-kutuhale


Shri Advaita Acarya would enthusiastically worship Krishna with tulasi-manjaris and Ganges water.


The Gautamiya-tantra is quoted in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa (11.110) as follows:

tulasi-dala-matrena      jalasya culukena va

vikrinite svam atmanam      bhaktebhyo bhakta-vatsalah

“Shri Krishna, who is very affectionate toward His devotees, sells Himself to a devotee who offers merely a tulasi leaf and a palmful of water.”


Tulasi-manjari is a maha-bhagavata and tadiya-vastu, that which is related to the Supreme Lord. Ganga-jala refers to the nectar emanating from the lotus feet of Lord Krishna or the ingredient used in worshiping Krishna. Various foodstuffs are offered to Krishna with tulasi-manjaris, which are dear to Krishna, and Ganges water, which purifies the world. Shri Advaita Prabhu began to continuously worship Krishna with such ingredients in order to amend the polluted form of Dvapara-yuga worship practiced at the time. His intention was that living entities would give up sense gratification and become devotees by seeing the behavior of pure mahajanas.

CB Adi-khanda 2.82


hunkara karaye krishna-aveshera teje

ye dhvani brahmanda bhedi’ vaikunöhete baje


He loudly called for Krishna in great spiritual ecstasy. That sound vibration pierced the covering of the universe and was heard in the Vaikunöha planets.


Shri Advaita Acarya Prabhu was a plenary incarnation of Lord Vishnu, therefore by His great endeavor and influence His chanting of Krishna’s names crossed beyond the enjoying realm and sensual perception of the material world and echoed in the supreme abode of Vishnu, the transcendental Vaikunöhalokas, which are composed of pure goodness. Within this universe there are fourteen planetary systems, among which Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapaloka, and Satyaloka are situated at the top of the three worlds. Shri Advaita Acarya Prabhu engaged in Lord Hari’s service by chanting the names of Krishna, which crossed beyond these planets born of the material modes of nature and entered into the transcendental realm of Vaikunöha, which is free of all anxiety.

CB Adi-khanda 2.83


ye-premera hunkara shunina krishna natha

bhakti-vashe apane ye haila sakshat


On hearing Advaita Prabhu’s cries of love, Lord Krishna personally appeared, for He is controlled by the love of His devotees.


The Lord of Shri Advaita Prabhu, Shri Krishna, heard Advaita’s loud cries of love, and to fulfil His prayer and accept His pure service the Lord appeared for the benefit of Advaita Prabhu’s followers.

CB Adi-khanda 2.84


ataeva advaita-vaishnava-agraganya

nikhila-brahmande yanra bhakti-yoga dhanya


Therefore Advaita Acarya is the best of all Vaishnavas. There is no comparison to His devotional service in the entire universe.


For all these reasons Shri Advaita Prabhu is the first and foremost of the Vaishnavas. He is famous as the topmost devotee in the entire universe. In this world there is no devotee engaged in the service of Hari like Him. He is personally vishnu-tattva, and as an acarya, He is an incarnation of a devotee and as good as Hari.

CB Adi-khanda 2.85


ei-mata advaita vaisena nadiyaya

bhakti-yoga-shunya loka dekhi’ duhkha paya


In this way Advaita Acarya resided in Nadia in great distress due to people’s lack of devotion.


In order to benefit materialistic persons, Shri Advaita Prabhu displayed the pastime of worshiping Krishna while residing in Mayapur. The pathetic condition of those who were averse to Hari caused excessive pain to His heart.

CB Adi-khanda 2.86


sakala samsara matta vyavahara-rase

krishna-puja, krishna-bhakti karo nahi vase


Everyone in the entire world was engaged in materialistic activities; no one was engaged in worshiping or serving Krishna.


Whether scholar, fool, child, elder, or woman-everyone in Navadvipa at that time was absorbed in the five types of sense gratification. None of them had any taste for constantly serving the worshipable Lord Krishna with their senses. People’s tastes were so perverted that they were simply interested in worldly activities with no inclination for the worship of Lord Hari.

CB Adi-khanda 2.87


vashuli pujaye keha nana upahare

madya mamsa diya keha yaksha-puja kare


Some people worshiped Vashuli (Candi or Durga) with various ingredients, and some people worshiped the Yakshas with meat and wine.


Every item of this world is an ingredient for the service of Lord Krishna. People who were averse to and desiring to cheat Lord Krishna did not accept material ingredients as suitable for Krishna’s enjoyment or satisfaction, rather they considered these ingredients as meant for their own sense enjoyment. They therefore offered those ingredients to Vashulidevi, who awards boons according to her worshipers’ desires, and various imaginary demigoddesses, who were simply instruments for fulfilling their sense gratification. They even considered abominable items like wine and meat as suitable offerings. Some of them concluded that the highest activity in life was to earn money for sense gratification.


The word yaksha-puja is explained as follows: Miserly persons devoid of knowledge of their relationship with the infallible Lord worship Yakshas, who protect material wealth. Those fruitive workers who consider the mantra of Ishopanishad (18): agne naya supatha raye-“O my Lord, please lead me on the right path to reach You,” as an instrument for their sense gratification engage in the worship of Yakshas. It is stated in the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad: yo va etad aksharam gargy aviditvasmal lokat praiti sa kripanah-“He is a miserly man who does not solve the problems of life as a human and who thus quits this world like the cats and dogs, without understanding the science of self-realization.” One may refer to the story of the astrologer and the Yaksha in the Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya-lila, Chapter 20.


The word vashuli is an abbreviation for the name Vishalakshi, or Candi.


The word madya refers to an intoxicating liquor, the drinking of which robs one of the power of discrimination. Wine is a liquid form of intoxication, and ganja, opium, and tobacco are smoked forms of intoxication. Both of these forms of intoxication are used for sense gratification and make one maddened.


The word mamsa refers to a lump of flesh produced from blood, one of the seven fluids of the body. It is one of the ingredients of the gross body, which is born of semen and blood, and it is the food of demoniac people. Although it is true that the flesh of a living entity is not impure so long as the living entity is alive, the flesh taken from a dead body for the purpose of eating is certainly abominable. No one with a sense of discrimination will accept such a disgusting thing; rather, it should be rejected and condemned like urine and stool. Living entities who are interested in eating stool, urine, semen, and blood accept such prohibited foodstuffs for their sense enjoyment. Such items can never be accepted by the demigods, who bestow happiness superior to that of the senses. In particular, the most immoral propensity of envy is attached to the eating of flesh. This is confirmed in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (11.5.11, 14) as follows: “In this material world the conditioned soul is always inclined to sex, meat-eating, and intoxication. Therefore religious scriptures never actually encourage such activities. Although the scriptural injunctions provide for sex through sacred marriage, for meat-eating through sacrificial offerings, and for intoxication through the acceptance of ritual cups of wine, such ceremonies are meant for the ultimate purpose of renunciation. Those sinful persons who are ignorant of actual religious principles, yet consider themselves to be completely pious, without compunction commit violence against innocent animals who are fully trusting in them. In their next lives, such sinful persons will be eaten by the same creatures they have killed in this world.” It is also stated in the Manu-samhita (5.56): “There is no fault in eating meat, drinking liquor, or sexual intercourse, for that is the natural tendency of the living entities, but abstention yields great benefit.”


The word yaksha refers to an apadeva, or semipious spirit, follower of Kuvera.

CB Adi-khanda 2.88


niravadhi nritya, gita, vadya-kolahala

na shune krishnera nama parama mangala


People would constantly dance, sing, and play musical instruments in a great commotion, but they never heard the supremely auspicious names of Krishna.


Dancing, singing, and playing musical instruments are forms of intoxication technically called tauryatrika. Persons who aspire for auspiciousness should never come under the influence of such activities. Such activities induce one to forget Krishna, but dancing, singing, and playing instruments for the service of Krishna are forms of cultivating Krishna consciousness. By such processes, the living entity is supremely benefited. Those who give up the intention of serving Krishna while engaging in dancing, singing, and playing musical instruments out of greed for their own material sense enjoyment are unable to chant Krishna’s names, which bestow supreme benefit. Material sound vibrations never allow one to cultivate Krishna consciousness, rather they attract one to remain busy in sense gratification and thus spoil everything.

CB Adi-khanda 2.89


krishna-shunya mangale devera nahi sukha

vishesha advaita mane paya bada duhkha


The devotees headed by Advaita Acarya were distressed on seeing the people engaged in so-called auspicious activities that were not related to Krishna.


The demigods are never pleased by so-called prayers for auspiciousness that are unrelated to Krishna. The demigods are devotees of Lord Vishnu, and persons devoid of unalloyed service to Vishnu are known as demons. Ideals of perishable temporary auspiciousness not related to Krishna are appropriate for the demons’ selfish mentality, but such ideals may be profitable only temporarily, not permanently. Seeing the nondevotees’ endeavors for temporary concocted auspiciousness, the pure devotees of Navadvipa, particularly Shri Advaita Prabhu, were distressed rather than pleased.

CB Adi-khanda 2.90


sva-bhave advaita-bada karunya-hridaya

jivera uddhara cinte haiya sadaya


By nature the heart of Advaita Acarya was full of compassion, so He mercifully contemplated how to deliver the living entities.


Advaita Prabhu was by nature full of compassion. The examples of compassion found in this material world are most insignificant compared to His compassion. Lord Vishnu and the Vaishnavas have no need for insignificant fruitless compassion like the temporary compassion of displaying mercy on the material body or supplying fuel to the fire of material enjoyment. The kind-hearted Lord Vishnu and the Vaishnava Thakuras actually free the living entities from material bondage for their eternal benefit. It is not possible to deliver the living entities from their enjoying propensity by the examples of cheating compassion that we see in this world of enjoyment. In order to deliver the conditioned souls who are averse to Vishnu from their propensity for imaginary happiness and comfort, one should awaken them to their constitutional position. In other words, one should help such people develop the qualification for receiving the direct mercy of the Supreme Lord.

CB Adi-khanda 2.91


‘mora prabhu asi’ yadi kare avatara

tabe haya e sakala jivera uddhara


“If My Lord descends, then all these fallen souls would be delivered.


The Absolute Truth is fully cognizant, fully independent, and fully self-satisfied. Therefore, if that compassionate Lord appears before the foolish living entities, they will awaken to their constitutional position and attain liberation from material entanglement. This is how Advaita Prabhu felt.

CB Adi-khanda 2.92


tabe ta’ ‘advaita simha’ amara badai

vaikunöha-vallabha yadi dekhana hethai


“My name, ‘Advaita Simha,’ will be justified when I cause the descent of the beloved Lord of Vaikunöha.


Shri Advaita Prabhu, the ocean of mercy, began to speak in the following way, “If I can make the Lord of Vaikunöha appear in this material world and distribute His mercy to the people, then even though I am nondifferent from Vishnu, My supreme title as Vaishnava Acarya will be justified and My happiness will expand.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.93


aniya vaikunöha-natha sakshat kariya

naciba, gaiba sarva-jiva uddhariya


“I will make the Lord of Vaikunöha appear in this world, and we will dance, chant, and thus deliver the fallen living entities.”


“If I can make the Lord of Vaikunöha appear in this material world in order to deliver the living entities from their enjoying propensity through dancing and chanting the holy name of Krishna, then I will truly be happy.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.94


niravadhi ei-mata sankalpa kariya

sevena shri-krishna-pada eka-citta haiya


With this determination, Advaita Acarya constantly served the lotus feet of Shri Krishnacandra with fixed mind.

CB Adi-khanda 2.95


‘advaitera karane chaitanya avatara’

sei prabhu kahiyachena bara-bara


Lord Chaitanya repeatedly confirmed that He incarnated due to the desire of Shri Advaita Prabhu.


It is due only to Shri Advaita Prabhu’s internal endeavor that Shri Chaitanyadeva awakened pure intelligence, in the form of devotional service, in the hearts of the living entities who were absorbed in material sense gratification. In this way everyone was benefited. This was repeatedly stated by Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu Himself.

CB Adi-khanda 2.96


sei navadvipe vaise pandita shrivasa

yanhara mandire haila chaitanya-vilasa


Shrivasa Pandita resided in Navadvipa. Lord Chaitanya enjoyed many pastimes in his house.


Shri Chaitanyadeva performed His pastimes of chanting the holy names of Krishna in Shrivasa Pandita’s courtyard, which is nondifferent from Shri Vrindavana.

CB Adi-khanda 2.97


sarva-kala cari bhai gaya krishna-nama

tri-kala karaye krishna-puja, ganga-snana


Shrivasa Pandita and his three brothers continually chanted the names of Krishna. They would take three baths daily in the Ganga and then worship Lord Krishna.


The words cari bhai refer to Shrivasa, Shrirama, Shripati, and Shrinidhi. The words krishna-nama gaya refer to the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. The word tri-kala means “morning, noon, and evening.” The word ganga-snana refers to taking bath in the Ganges, the nectar emanating from the lotus feet of Shri Krishna, in order to cleanse the dirt accumulated in the heart of the conditioned soul or to give up the propensity of accumulating piety and impiety.

CB Adi-khanda 2.98-99

TEXTS 98-99

nigudhe aneka ara vaise nadiyaya

purve sabe janmilena ishvara-ajnaya

shri candrashekhara, jagadisha, gopinatha

shriman, murari, shri garuda, gangadasa


Many other devotees lived incognito in Nadia. By the will of the Lord, Shri Candrashekhara, Jagadisha, Gopinatha, Shriman Pandita, Murari Gupta, Shri Garuda Pandita, and Gangadasa all took birth before the Lord.


The word nigudhe means “most secretively” or “incognito.”

Shri Jagadisha is described in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (192) as follows: “Shri Jagadisha and Hiranya previously appeared as the wives of the yajnic brahmanas of Vraja. The Lord asked for the grains they offered to Vishnu on the day of Ekadashi.” The Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (143) also says: “Candrahasa, the expert dancer and knower of the mellows of Vraja, has now appeared as Shri Jagadisha Pandita.” A description of Shriman Mahaprabhu’s eating the grains offered to Vishnu on Ekadashi at the house of Hiranya and Jagadisha is found in the Chaitanya-bhagavata, Adi-khanda, Chapter Four, and Chaitanya-caritamrita (Adi 11.30 and Adi 14.39). It is also stated in the Antya-khanda (5.736): “Shri Nityananda Prabhu with His associates are the life and wealth of the most effulgent Shri Jagadisha Pandita.”


Shri Gopinatha Acarya was a brahmana companion of the Lord at Navadvipa. He was the brother-in-law (sister’s husband) of Sarvabhauma Bhaööacarya. It is stated in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (178): The prana-sakhi gopi Ratnavali of Vraja has now appeared as the most pure Gopinatha Acarya.” According to the opinion of others, he was an incarnation of Brahma. The Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (75) states: “Lord Brahma, the Lord of the universe and one of the nava-vyuhas, has appeared as Shri Gopinatha Acarya.” It is also stated in the Chaitanya-caritamrita (Adi 10.130): “There was Sarvabhauma Bhaööacarya, one of the biggest branches of the tree of the Lord, and his sister’s husband, Shri Gopinatha Acarya.”


In this verse shriman refers to Shriman Pandita, a resident of Navadvipa and participant in the Lord’s inauguration of kirtana. At the time of the Lord’s dancing in the mood of Devi, he held a torch. It is stated in the Chaitanya-bhagavata, Madhya-khanda, Chapter Eighteen: “All the beelike devotees happily watched as the lionlike Lord Gaura danced in the mood of Durga. Shriman Pandita held a torch in front of the Lord.” In the Chaitanya-caritamrita (Adi 10.37) it is stated: “The fifteenth branch was Shriman Pandita, who was a constant servitor of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He used to carry a torch while the Lord danced.”


Shri Garuda Pandita was a resident of Navadvipa and an associate of the Lord. It is stated in the Chaitanya-bhagavata (Antya 8.34): “As Shri Garuda Pandita traveled in ecstasy, the poison of a snake had no effect on him due to the strength of his chanting the holy name.” It is stated in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (117): “He who previously appeared as Garuda has now appeared as Shri Garuda Pandita.” In the Chaitanya-caritamrita (Adi 10.75) it is stated: “Garuda Pandita, the thirty-seventh branch of the tree, always engaged in chanting the auspicious name of the Lord. Because of the strength of this chanting, even the effects of poison could not touch him.”


Nimai studied Kalapa grammar from Gangadasa Pandita. His residence was at Ganganagara near the Lord’s house. It is stated in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (53): “Vashishöha Muni, who was the spiritual master of Lord Ramacandra, has appeared as Gangadasa and Sudarshana.” The Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (111) also says: “Gangadasa, who is very dear to the Lord was formerly the gopis’ esteemed Durvasa of Nidhuvana.” It is stated in the Chaitanya-caritamrita (Adi 10.29): “Pandita Gangadasa was the eighth dear branch of the tree of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. One who remembers his activities attains freedom from all bondage.”

CB Adi-khanda 2.100

TEXT 100

eke eke balite haya pustaka-vistara

kathara prastave nama laiba, jani yanra


If I listed the names of all the devotees this book would increase in size, so I will mention those names that I know at the appropriate time.


“If I narrate descriptions of each devotee, then the book will become voluminous. Therefore I will describe only what is known to me at the proper place.”


Commentary and Chapter Summaries of His Divine Grace Om Vishnupada Paramahamsa Parivrajakacarya Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada.