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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > Compiled and Imp Scriptures > Chaitanya Bhagavata > Caitanya Bhagavata with Commentaries > Adi-khanda > 13-Defeating Digvijayi > Adi-khanda 13/101-150

Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata

Adi-khanda -


Vyasa Avatara Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura

Chapter Thirteen: Defeating Digvijayi



CB Adi-khanda 13.101-102

TEXTS 101-102

apane ananta, caturmukha, pancanana

yan’sabara drishtye haya ananta bhuvana

tan’ra o payena moha yan’ra vidyamane

kon citra,-se viprera moha prabhu-sthane?


Lord Brahma, Lord Ananta, and Lord Shiva create, maintain, and annihilate innumerable universes. When even they are bewildered before the Lord, then what is surprising if this brahmana was bewildered?


The bewilderment of Lord Anantadeva by Lord Gaura-Narayana is described in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (2.7.41) in the following words spoken by Brahma to Narada: “Neither I nor all the sages born before you know fully the omnipotent Personality of Godhead. So what can others, who are born after us, know about Him? Even the first incarnation of the Lord, namely Shesha, has not been able to reach the limit of such knowledge, although He is describing the qualities of the Lord with ten hundred faces.”


After Brahma, the creator of the universe, stole the calves and cowherd boys of Vraja, Lord Krishna, in order to bewilder Brahma and destroy the lamentation of the cowherd boys’ mothers, personally accepted the forms of the cowherd boys and calves and continued enjoying His pastimes in the pasturing grounds for one year. At that time, seeing the gopis’ and cows’ excessive love and affection for their offspring and being unable to understand the cause, Lord Balarama thought as follows: “Who is this mystic power, and where has she come from? Is she a demigod or a demoness? She must be the illusory energy of My master, Lord Krishna, for who else can bewilder Me?” (Bhag. 10.13.37)


The bewilderment of Caturmukha Brahma is described in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.13.40-45) as follows: “When Lord Brahma returned after a moment of time had passed (according to his own measurement), he saw that although by human measurement a complete year had passed, Lord Krishna, after all that time, was engaged just as before in playing with the boys and calves, who were His expansions. Lord Brahma thought: ‘Whatever boys and calves there were in Gokula, I have kept them sleeping on the bed of my mystic potency, and to this very day they have not yet risen again. A similar number of boys and calves have been playing with Krishna for one whole year, yet they are different from the ones illusioned by my mystic potency. Who are they? Where did they come from?’ Thus Lord Brahma, thinking and thinking for a long time, tried to distinguish between those two sets of boys, who were each separately existing. He tried to understand who was real and who was not real, but he couldn’t understand at all. Thus because Lord Brahma wanted to mystify the all-pervading Lord Krishna, who can never be mystified, but who, on the contrary, mystifies the entire universe, he himself was put into bewilderment by his own mystic power. As the darkness of snow on a dark night and the light of a glowworm in the light of day have no value, the mystic power of an inferior person who tries to use it against a person of great power is unable to accomplish anything; instead, the power of that inferior person is diminished.” See also Chaitanya-bhagavata (Adi 1.72), which quotes Shrimad Bhagavatam (2.7.41). [This verse is also quoted at the beginning of this purport.]


The bewilderment of Pancanana Shiva is described as follows: When Lord Hari, in the form of Mohini, bewildered the demons and gave the demigods nectar to drink, Lord Shiva, who rides on a bull and who is the husband of Bhavani, along with his wife, Uma, and his followers, went before Lord Hari to see His form as Mohini. Shiva worshiped the Lord and spoke in the following words found in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (8.12.10): “O my Lord, I, who am considered to be the best of the demigods, and Lord Brahma and the great rishis, headed by Marici, are born of the mode of goodness. Nonetheless, we are bewildered by Your illusory energy and cannot understand what this creation is. Aside from us, what is to be said of others, like the demons and human beings, who are in the base modes of material nature [rajo-guna and tamo-guna]? How will they know You?” Elsewhere in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (8.12.22 and 25) Shri Shukadeva Gosvami speaks to Maharaja Parikshit as follows: “While Lord Shiva observed the beautiful woman playing with the ball, She sometimes glanced at him and slightly smiled in bashfulness. As he looked at the beautiful woman and She watched him, he forgot both himself and Uma, his most beautiful wife, as well as his associates nearbyLord Shiva, his good sense taken away by the woman because of lusty desires to enjoy with Her, became so mad for Her that even in the presence of Bhavani he did not hesitate to approach Her.”


A description of the bewilderment of other demigods is found in the Kena, or Talavakara, Upanishad as follows: “The Supreme Brahman (Vishnu) alone gave victory to the demigods in their battle with the demons. By the victory of the Supreme Brahman (Vishnu), the demigods became glorious, but due to foolishness they thought, ‘This is our victory, this is our glory.’


“The Supreme Brahman (Vishnu) understood the foolishness of the demigods and appeared before them (as a Yaksha or Gandharva). But even though the demigods saw the Supreme Brahman before them, they nevertheless asked, ‘Who is this great personality in the form of a Yaksha?’ They could not clearly understand.


“They said to Agni, ‘O knower of the Vedas, who is this great personality? You should get to know Him fully.’ Agni said, ‘It will be done.’


“When Agni went before the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Brahman said to Agni, ‘Who are you?’ Agni replied, ‘I am Agni, the celebrated knower of the Vedas.’


The Supreme Brahman said, ‘Being so, what power do you have?’ Agni replied, ‘I can burn to ashes everything within this material world.’


The Supreme Brahman placed a straw before him and said, ‘Burn this.’ Agni went before the straw and was unable to burn it with his entire strength. Being defeated by the Supreme Brahman, Agni returned to the demigods and said, ‘I could not fully understand who this great personality in the form of a Yaksha is.’


Thereafter the demigods said to Vayu, ‘O Vayu, who is this great personality in the form of a Yaksha? You should get to know Him fully.’ Vayu said, ‘It will be done.’


“When Vayu went before the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Brahman said to Vayu, ‘Who are you?’ Vayu replied, ‘I am Vayu, the celebrated wind.’


“The Supreme Brahman said, ‘Being so, what power do you have?’ Vayu replied, ‘I can blow away anything within this material world.’


“The Supreme Brahman placed a straw before him and said, ‘Blow this.’ Vayu went before the straw and was unable to blow it away with his entire strength. Being defeated by the Supreme Brahman, Vayu returned to the demigods and said, ‘I could not fully understand who this great personality in the form of a Yaksha is.’


“Thereafter the demigods said to Indra, ‘O Indra, who is this great personality in the form of a Yaksha? You should get to know Him fully.’ Indra said, ‘It will be done.’ When Indra went before the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Brahman disappeared from his sight.


“When Indra saw the beautiful, golden female form of Uma-devi in the same sky, he went before her and directly asked, ‘Who is this great personality in the form of a Yaksha?’


“She (Uma-devi) clearly told him, ‘He is the Supreme Brahman (Vishnu). By His (Lord Vishnu’s) victory you have become glorious.’ Upon hearing these words of Uma-devi, Indra became fully convinced that He was the Supreme Brahman, or Vishnu.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.103

TEXT 103

lakshmi-sarasvati-adi yata yogamaya

ananta-brahmanda mohe’ yan’sabara chaya


Unlimited universes are bewildered by maya, the shadow of Lakshmi, Sarasvati, and other internal potencies of the Lord.


Yogamaya removes the covered and thrown conditions born from the conditioned souls’ enjoying propensity and assists the conditioned souls in achieving the unalloyed service of Krishna. And when this same Yogamaya is accepted as the object of enjoyment by persons who are averse to the Lord, she immediately bewilders, punishes, and sends them to the prison house, this material world. The conditioned souls in the material sky, which is their field of enjoyment, are eligible for being covered by ignorance due to their propensity for temporary enjoyment. Since the principles of ignorance, abomination, and interruption are absent in the eternal abode of the spiritual sky, even though Yogamaya has the propensity for favorable service to the Lord, due to the enjoying spirit of the conditioned souls, who are averse to the Lord, she bewilders them by creating illusions that are unfavorable for the service of the Lord. Maya and her opulences, who are like shadows of the Lord’s spiritual energies such as Lakshmi and Sarasvati, spread a network of nescience, which is converse to spiritual knowledge, by awarding mundane knowledge to the averse conditioned souls who are wandering throughout the universe. Maya, the external energy, and her opulences, who are the shadows of Maha-Lakshmi, the internal potency of the Lord in the spiritual sky, and who bewilder the averse conditioned souls, are also bewildered on seeing the Lord’s supreme opulences as they constantly engage in the service of the Lord while considering themselves the fully dependent maidservants of the Lord. In the mood of maidservants, they serve the Lord for His ultimate satisfaction. And to create further illusion for the living entities who are averse to the Lord, she is seen from the material point of view as Maya, the bestower of the fruits of work. It is stated in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (1.7.4-6): “He saw the Absolute Personality of Godhead along with His external energy, which was under full control. Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of material nature, thinks of himself as a material product and thus undergoes the reactions of material miseries. The material miseries of the living entity, which are superfluous to him, can be directly mitigated by the linking process of devotional service.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.104

TEXT 104

tahara payena moha, yan’ra vidyamane

ataeva pache se thakena sarva-kshane


Yet she is also bewildered in the presence of the Lord, and therefore she always stands behind Him.

CB Adi-khanda 13.105

TEXT 105

veda-karta shesha o moha paya yan’ra sthane

kon citra,-digvijayi-moha va tahane?


When the compiler of the Vedas and even Ananta Shesha are bewildered in the presence of the Lord, then what is surprising if the Digvijayi is bewildered?


The word veda-karta refers to either Lord Brahma or Krishna-dvaipayana Vyasa. At the time of stealing the calves and on seeing the multi-headed Brahmas at Dvaraka, Brahma became bewildered. After compiling the Mahabharata and the Puranas on the bank of the Sarasvati, Shri Vyasadeva also felt dissatisfied. Being bewildered by the wonderful pastimes of Gopi-jana-vallabha, Shesha, or Anantadeva, aspired to accept subordination to the gopis.


When such great, powerful, and opulent demigods and sages become bewildered by the supreme opulences of Lord Narayana, then what is astonishing if either the insignificant living entities, who are servants of those demigods and sages, or the deceived Digvijayi will also become bewildered? It is stated in the Bhagavad-gita (7.14): “This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.” In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (8.12.39) the Supreme Lord speaks to Lord Shiva as follows: “My dear Lord Shambhu, who within this material world but you can surpass My illusory energy? People are generally attached to sense enjoyment and conquered by its influence. Indeed, the influence of material nature is very difficult for them to surmount.”


In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.14.21) Brahma prays to Lord Krishna as follows: “O supreme great one! O Supreme Personality of Godhead! O Supersoul, master of all mystic power! Your pastimes are taking place continuously in these three worlds, but who can estimate where, how and when You are employing Your spiritual energy and performing these innumerable pastimes? No one can understand the mystery of how Your spiritual energy acts.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.106

TEXT 106

manushye e saba karya asambhava bada

teni bali,-tan’ra sakala karya dada


It is impossible for ordinary living entities to understand the activities of the Supreme Lord, therefore His activities are transcendentally glorious.

CB Adi-khanda 13.107

TEXT 107

mule yata kichu karma karena ishvare

sakali-nistara-hetu duhkhita-jivere


In fact, the activities performed by the Supreme Lord are all meant for the deliverance of the conditioned souls.


The Supreme Lord, who incarnates out of His causeless mercy, regularly manifests His various pastimes in order to award supreme eternal benefit to the averse living entities of this world. All of His pastimes are performed with a desire to deliver the living entities. In this regard, one should particularly discuss the Shrimad Bhagavatam verse (10.14.8), beginning tat te ‘nukampam. Being intoxicated by apparently sweet but ultimately inauspicious conceptions, the averse conditioned souls find and point out faults even in the eternally beneficial supreme will of the Lord. That is why they are conditioned or ignorant. When out of good fortune the living entity understands that he is the eternal servant of Krishna, then he no longer has any fear or distress.

CB Adi-khanda 13.108

TEXT 108

digvijayi yadi parajaye praveshila

shishya-gana hasibare udyata haila


As the Digvijayi faced defeat, the Lord’s students were on the verge of laughing.


The phrase parajaye praveshila means “he began to face defeat.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.109

TEXT 109

sabarei prabhu karilena nivarana

vipra-prati balilena madhura vacana


The Lord, however, forbade them from laughing and sweetly spoke to the brahmana.

CB Adi-khanda 13.110

TEXT 110

“aji cala tumi shubha kara’ vasa-prati

kali vicariba saba tomara samhati


“You please go home for today, and tomorrow we will discuss some more.


The words shubha kara’ mean “begin your journey or proceed.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.111

TEXT 111

tumi o haila shranta aneka padiya

nisha o aneka yaya, shui thaka giya”


“You must be tired after your long recitation and it’s getting late. Please go take rest.”


The phrase nisha o aneka yaya means “it is also late at night.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.112

TEXT 112

ei-mata prabhura komala vyavasaya

yahare jinena, seha duhkha nahi paya


The Lord’s behavior was so gentle that whoever was defeated by Him felt no distress.

CB Adi-khanda 13.113

TEXT 113

sei navadvipe yata adhyapaka ache

jiniya o sabare toshena prabhu pache


After defeating each of the teachers in Navadvipa, the Lord satisfied them with His sweet behavior.

CB Adi-khanda 13.114

TEXT 114

“cala aji ghare giya vasi’ punthi caha

kali ye jijnasi’ taha balibare caha”


The Lord continued, “Let us go home today. Then after looking at your books, come tomorrow and answer My questions.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.115

TEXT 115

jiniya o ka’re na karena teja-bhanga

sabei hayena prita,-hena ta’na ranga


Even after defeating someone, the Lord did not insult them, and thus everyone was pleased with Him. Such were the pastimes of the Lord.


The word teja-bhanga refers to the hampering of one’s prestige.

CB Adi-khanda 13.116

TEXT 116

ataeva navadvipe yateka pandita

sabara prabhura prati mane bada prita


That is why all the learned scholars of Navadvipa were so affectionate to the Lord.

CB Adi-khanda 13.117

TEXT 117

shishya-gana-samhati calila prabhu ghara

digvijayi haila bada lajjita-antara


As the Lord returned home with His students, the Digvijayi felt great shame.

CB Adi-khanda 13.118

TEXT 118

duhkhita haila vipra cinte’ mane-mane

“sarasvati more vara dilena apane


In distress, the brahmana thought, “I’ve been personally blessed by Sarasvati.

CB Adi-khanda 13.119-120

TEXTS 119-120

nyaya, sankhya, patanjala, mimamsa-darshana

vaisheshika, vedante nipuna yata jana

hena jana na dekhilun samsara-bhitare

jinite ki daya, mora sane kaksha kare!


“Till now I’ve not met a single person-whether a scholar of Nyaya, Sankhya, Patanjala, Mimamsa, Vaisheshika, or Vedanta-who could even compete with me, and what to speak of defeating me!


“I have met scholars who were expert in the six branches of philosophy, and what to speak of defeating me, they did not even try to enter into debate with me.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.121

TEXT 121

shishu-shastra vyakarana padaye brahmana

se more jinila,-hena vidhira ghatana!


“This brahmana merely teaches children’s grammar, and He defeated me? This is certainly an act of providence!


“This brahmana boy is a teacher of ordinary grammar in primary education. But alas, due to misdeeds I had to face defeat by Him. Among the six limbs of the Vedas, grammar is like the face of the personified Vedas and is the preliminary scripture for students engaged in studying the scriptures, but it is an undisputed fact that one cannot become expert in literature, alankara, smritis, or philosophical works simply by possessing expertise in learning and teaching grammar. Nevertheless this young boy, who is expert in grammar, has defeated even an experienced champion of the scriptures like me.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.122-123

TEXTS 122-123

sarasvatira vare anyatha dekhi haya

eho mora citte bada lagila samshaya

devi-sthane mora va janmila kona dosha?

ataeva haila mora pratibha-sankoca?


“It appears that Sarasvati’s benediction has proven false, which awakens doubts in my mind. Otherwise, have I committed some offense at her feet? Is that why my intelligence was diminished?


“Since I have been defeated by this young brahmana grammarian I can now understand that the benediction I received from my worshipable goddess Sarasvati-devi has proved a complete failure! Therefore various doubts are arising within my mind. The goddess whom I had pleased and from whom I had thus received the benediction for becoming a Digvijayi must be displeased as a result of my offenses. Otherwise why would my great ingenuity in learning be defeated by an ordinary young grammarian?”

CB Adi-khanda 13.124

TEXT 124

avashya ihara aji bujhiba karana”

eta bali’ mantra-jape vasila brahmana


“I must find out the cause of my defeat.” Thinking in this way, the brahmana began chanting his mantra.

CB Adi-khanda 13.125

TEXT 125

mantra japi’ duhkhe vipra shayana karila

svapne sarasvati vipra-sammukhe aila


After chanting for some time the distressed brahmana fell asleep, and in a short time Sarasvati appeared before him in a dream.

CB Adi-khanda 13.126

TEXT 126

kripa-drishtye bhagyavanta-brahmanera prati

kahite lagila ati-gopya sarasvati


Goddess Sarasvati glanced mercifully on the fortunate brahmana and confidentially spoke as follows.

CB Adi-khanda 13.127

TEXT 127

sarasvati bolena,-“shunaha, vipra-vara!

veda-gopya kahi ei tomara gocara


“O best of the brahmanas, listen as I disclose to you the secrets of the Vedas.

CB Adi-khanda 13.128-129

TEXTS 128-129

ka’ro sthane kaha yadi e-sakala katha

tabe tumi shighra haiba alpayu sarvatha

yan’ra thani tomara haila parajaya

ananta-brahmanda-natha sei sunishcaya


“If you disclose these topics to anyone, you will meet a quick death. Know for certain that He by whom you were defeated is the Lord of innumerable universes.


Sarasvati-devi appeared in a dream before Digvijayi Pandita, who had chanted her mantras, and said, “If you disclose to anyone the most confidential topics that I am telling you regarding the covered incarnation of the Lord, then your death is certain.”


It is said that since Keshava Bhatta, the spiritual master of Gangalya Bhatta, revealed the information about Shriman Mahaprabhu that was given to him in a dream by Sarasvati, he met with a premature death. Therefore Gangalya Bhatta again initiated a brahmana from Kashmir and gave him the name Keshava. From this popular hearsay, it is clearly understood that the Digvijayi Pandita referred to herein is not Keshava Kashmiri, rather he is a pandita named Keshava Bhatöa.

CB Adi-khanda 13.130

TEXT 130

ami yan’ra pada-padme nirastara dasi

sammukha haite apanare lajja vasi


“I am an eternal maidservant at His lotus feet, and I’m embarrassed to appear before Him.

CB Adi-khanda 13.131

TEXT 131


“‘The illusory energy of the Lord cannot take precedence, being ashamed of her position, but those who are bewildered by her always talk nonsense, being absorbed in thoughts of ‘It is I’ and ‘It is mine.’’


After Narada Muni inquired about the actual identities of Lord Vishnu and Maya, Brahma offered obeisances to the Supreme Lord and spoke the following verse from Shrimad Bhagavatam (2.5.13):

vilajjamanaya yasya      sthatum iksha-pathe ‘muya

vimohita vikatthante      mamaham iti durdhiyah

 “Since the verse previous to this [i.e. Bhag. 2.5.12] describes the Lord’s relationship with Maya and her insurmountable position, the Supreme Lord also appears to be under the control of Maya. This doubt is removed by this verse. Thinking, “The Supreme Lord knows well about my duplicitous nature and cheating propensity,” Maya is ashamed to stand before the Lord and is unable to manifest her own prowess; but being bewildered by such Maya, we, who are bewildered by nescience, become proud (while thinking in terms of ‘I’ and ‘mine’). This verse also answers the question of the previous verse regarding who created this universe.” (Shridhara Svami)


“Being bewildered by Maya, who feels embarrassed to stand before the vision of the Lord, who is faultless and full of transcendental qualities as a result of His sac-cid-ananda nature, we glorify ourselves in terms of ‘I’ and ‘mine.’” (Krama-sandarbha)


“The word vilajjamanaya in this verse indicates that Maya’s act of bewildering the living entities is not very palatable to the Supreme Lord. Though Maya knows this, according to the principle: ‘persons who are averse to Krishna become fearful as a result of their absorption in objects not related to Krishna,’ Maya has from time immemorial been unable to tolerate the living entities’ aversion or lack of knowledge of the Supreme Lord. She thus covers the real identity of the living entities and places them in an unnatural position.” (Tattva-sandarbha (32) of the Bhagavata-sandarbha)


“Without understanding their relationship with the Supreme Lord, both those who give respect and those who accept respect are eligible for being bewildered by Maya, who stands behind the Lord. This is being described in this verse. Considering vilajjamana, or ‘the Supreme Lord certain knows my duplicity,’ Maya, like a deceitful wife, is ashamed to stand before the Lord. In other words, she stands behind the Lord. Being bewildered by this Maya, the living entities proudly think in terms of ‘I’ and ‘mine.’ Aversion to the Lord should herein be understood as the back of the Lord. As soon as one is averse to the Lord, he becomes influenced by Maya; but when he is inclined towards the Lord, the influence of Maya is not found.” (Sarartha-darshini)

CB Adi-khanda 13.132

TEXT 132

ami se baliye, vipra, tomara jihvaya

tahana sammukhe shakti na vase amaya


“O brahmana, although I speak through your tongue, in front of Him I have no power.

CB Adi-khanda 13.133-134

TEXTS 133-134

amara ki daya, shesha-deva bhagavan

sahasra-vadane veda ye kare vyakhyana

aja-bhava-adi yan’ra upasana kare

hena ‘shesha’ moha mane yanhara gocare


“What to speak of me, even Lord Ananta Shesha, who explains the Vedas with thousands of mouths and who is worshiped by Brahma and Shiva, He is also bewildered in His presence.

CB Adi-khanda 13.135

TEXT 135

parabrahma, nitya, shuddha, akhanda, avyaya

paripurna hai’ vaise sabara hridaya


“He is the Supreme Brahman, the eternal, pure, complete, and inexhaustible Lord, who is situated in everyone’s heart.


Shri Gaurasundara lies in the ocean of milk in the form of Aniruddha, the localized Supersoul in the hearts of all living entities, and lies in the Garbhodaka Ocean in the form of Pradyumna, the aggregate Supersoul and source of all universes. He is complete, undivided, infallible, and eternally pure. Since He is Kshirodakashayi Vishnu, considering Him separate from Garbhodakashayi Vishnu is an obstacle for achieving full knowledge. Since He is Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, considering Him separate from Kshirodakashayi Vishnu is an obstacle in self-realization. Since He is Karanodakashayi Vishnu, considering Him separate from Sankarshana is an obstacle in complete realization of the Absolute Truth. Actually the one Absolute Truth, original Personality of Godhead, Gaura-Krishna, is Baladeva, the first catur-vyuha, the second catur-vyuha, and the three Vishnus who lie on the Karana, Garbhodaka, and Kshira Oceans. Considering the localized, aggregate, Karana, Garbha, and viraö forms of Vishnu as separate from the Absolute Truth enhances the conditioned souls’ material conceptions and illusions. In order to remove these conceptions, Sarasvati-devi disclosed that Shri Gaurasundara is the source of all Vishnu incarnations and nondifferent from Vrajendra-nandana, the son of the King of Vraja.

CB Adi-khanda 13.136-137

TEXTS 136-137

karma, jnana, vidya, shubha-ashubhadi yata

drishyadrishya,-tomare va kahibana kata

sakala pralaya (pravarta) haya, shuna, yan’ha haite

sei prabhu vipra-rupe dekhila sakshate


“Fruitive activities, mental speculation, material knowledge, pious and impious activities, direct and indirect perception, and more than I am able to say-all these are (created and) destroyed by that Lord you just met in the form of a brahmana.


The word karma refers to Vedic rituals such as the performance of fire sacrifices, which aim at enjoying the fruits of those activities in this world. The goal or destination of karma is bhukti, or material enjoyment; the goal or destination of jnana, or speculating on impersonal Brahman, is mukti, or liberation; and the goal or destination of bhagavad-bhakti, or devotional service to the Supreme Lord, is one, not separate, or nondifferent; in other words, it is bhagavat-prema, or love of God. The word vidya in this verse refers to material knowledge, the purpose of which is sense gratification. In the Mundaka Upanishad (1.5) it is stated: tatrapara rig-vedo yajur-vedah sama-vedo ‘tharva-vedah shiksha kalpo vyakaranam niruktam chando jyotisham iti.-“All the Vedas-Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda and their corollaries known as shiksha, kalpa, vyakarana, nirukta, chanda and jyotisha-belong to the inferior system of material knowledge [apara vidya].”


The word shubha-ashubha means “auspicious and inauspicious,” or “good and bad.” As stated in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (11.28.4):

kim bhadram kim abhadram va      dvaitasyavastunah kiyat

vacoditam tad anritam      manasa dhyatam eva ca

“That which is expressed by material words or meditated upon by the material mind is not ultimate truth. What, therefore, is actually good or bad within this insubstantial world of duality, and how can the extent of such good and bad be measured?”


In the Chaitanya-caritamrita (Antya 4.176) it is said:

‘dvaite’ bhadrabhadra-jnana, saba--’manodharma’

‘ei bhala, ei manda’,--ei saba ‘bhrama’

“In the material world, conceptions of good and bad are all mental speculations. Therefore, saying, ‘This is good, and this is bad,’ is all a mistake.”


The word drishyadrishya refers to all objects situated in direct or indirect perception. Another reading for this word is dushyadushya, which means “eatable and noneatable, or pure and impure, items of material enjoyment.”


Devotional service to the Lord is neither created nor destroyed. Everything else has a creation and a destruction. That object by whom this creation and destruction is accomplished is the Supreme Lord, Shri Gaurasundara, whom you have seen as a young Bengali brahmana grammarian. Though He is the only cause of the creation, maintenance, and annihilation of this world, He is the controller of maya and transcendental to the modes of nature. Therefore do not accept Him as Lord Brahma, who creates all material objects under the shelter of passion, or Lord Shiva, who annihilates under the shelter of ignorance.


Another reading for karma is bhukti, or material enjoyment, and another reading for drishyadrishya is dushyadushya. Those items that are seen through our mundane vision are called drishya, and items that are beyond our mundane vision and most difficult to understand, yet are nevertheless material, are called adrishya. One’s perception of Yogamaya, the spiritual potency of the Lord, from the platform of devotional service and another’s perception of Mahamaya, the material energy, from the platform of material enjoyment are not the same.

CB Adi-khanda 13.138

TEXT 138

abrahmadi yata, dekha, sukha-duhkha paya

sakala, janiha, vipra, ihana ajnaya


“Know for certain that everyone including Lord Brahma enjoys happiness and distress according to His will alone.


All the demigods headed by Brahma enjoy happiness and distress under the control of maya, but Lord Vishnu is not a living entity who enjoys the fruits of temporary happiness and distress. The demigods headed by Brahma are controlled; in other words, they are under the subordination of maya and are sons of the universal mother, who holds the entire universe within her womb. But Lord Vishnu is the controller of maya, and Mahamaya, the universal mother who holds the entire universe within her womb, stands embarrassed behind the Lord.

CB Adi-khanda 13.139

TEXT 139

matsya-kurma-adi yata, shuna avatara

ei prabhu vina, vipra, kichu nahe ara


“Listen, dear brahmana, all incarnations such as Matsya and Kurma are nondifferent from Him.


Though the naimittika, or occasional, incarnations of Vishnu such as Matsya and Kurma engage in Their eternal pastimes in Vaikunöha, They appear within this world for some special purpose. Gaurasundara Himself appears in various occasional incarnations in Vaikunöha as portions and plenary portions, and from there He descends within this material world. There is actually no difference between Gaurasundara and incarnations like Matsya and Kurma; the only difference is in Their pastimes.


One should refer to the purport of Chaitanya-bhagavata (Adi 2.169 and 171-173) for a description of Gaura-Krishna’s incarnations like Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nrisimha, Vamana, and Ramacandra. [This paragraph also applies to the following three verses.]

CB Adi-khanda 13.140

TEXT 140

ei se varaha-rupe kshiti-sthapayita

ei se nrisimha-rupe prahlada-rakshita


“In the form of Lord Varaha, He rescued the earth, and in the form of Nrisimha, He protected Prahlada.

CB Adi-khanda 13.141

TEXT 141

ei se vamana-rupe balira jivana

yan’ra pada-padma haite gangara janama


“In the form of Vamana, He is the life and soul of Bali. The Ganges appears from His lotus feet.


The incarnation of Vamanadeva is clearly mentioned in the Rik-samhita. The description of Vamana’s pastimes is given in the Rik-samhita in order to award the qualification on neophyte devotees for studing the Vedas. The purport is that all objects of enjoyment within the three worlds, which through material calculation is the ultimate limit for conditioned souls who are prone to material knowledge, are brought under control by the exhibition of the supreme prowess of that personality, the powerful Vamanadeva, whose characteristics are found as codes in the mantras of the Rig Veda. While describing the prowess of this Trivikrama Vishnu, Mahabharata, the purport of the Vedas, narrates the glories of His other incarnations. And the purport of Mahabharata has been elaborately explained in the Shrimad Bhagavatam. Since according to the consideration of the atheists, Trivikrama Vishnu’s prowess is limited, they cannot agree to accept the incarnations of Vishnu, the controller of maya. One is able to perceive the Lord only on the strength of mercy bestowed by the Lord. Persons who depend solely on material knowledge are always baffled in their attempts to understand the nature of the Absolute Truth, like a dwarf’s attempt to catch the moon. The mundane mental speculators see the all-pervading Vishnu in a limited form due to not realizing their own selves and are thus bereft of the service of Lord Vishnu. They then consider themselves under the control of material nature and exhibit materialistic false ego as a result of foolishness born of maya. Such persons who are attached to objects not related with the Lord are cheated of the Lord’s mercy. One should discuss the Kaöha Upanishad (1.2.23) and Mundaka Upanishad (3.2.3), wherein it is stated: yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyas/ tasyaisha atma vivrinute tanum svam-“The Lord is obtained only by one whom He Himself chooses. To such a person He manifests His own form.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.142

TEXT 142

ei se haila avatirna ayodhyaya

vadhila ravana dushöa ashesha-lilaya


“This Lord appeared at Ayodhya and then killed Ravana as one of His innumerable pastimes.

CB Adi-khanda 13.143

TEXT 143

uhane se vasudeva-nanda-putra bali

ebe vipra-putra vidya-rase kutuhali


“He is known as the son of both Vasudeva and Nanda, and now He has appeared as the son of a brahmana to enjoy scholastic pastimes.

CB Adi-khanda 13.144

TEXT 144

vede o ki janena uhana avatara?

janaile janaye, anyatha shakti ka’ra?


“Do the Vedas know this incarnation of the Lord? Who has the power to know unless the Lord reveals Himself?

CB Adi-khanda 13.145

TEXT 145

yata kichu mantra tumi japile amara

digvijayi-pada-phala na haya tahara


“The title of Digvijayi is not the real fruit of your chanting mantras to worship me.

CB Adi-khanda 13.146

TEXT 146

mantre ye phala, taha ebe se paila

ananta-brahmanda-natha sakshate dekhila


“The real fruit of your chanting is that you have now directly seen the Lord of innumerable universes.

CB Adi-khanda 13.147

TEXT 147

yaha shighra, vipra, tumi ihana carane

deha giya samarpana karaha uhane


“Therefore, O brahmana, go immediately and surrender yourself at His lotus feet.

CB Adi-khanda 13.148

TEXT 148

svapna-hena na maniha e-saba vacana

mantra-vashe kahilana veda-sangopana


“Don’t ignore my words by considering this only a dream. I am controlled by your chanting and have therefore informed you of that which is unknown to the Vedas.”

CB Adi-khanda 13.149

TEXT 149

eta bali’ sarasvati haila antardhana

jagilena vipra-vara maha-bhagyavan


Speaking these words, Sarasvati disappeared and the most fortunate brahmana woke up.

CB Adi-khanda 13.150

TEXT 150

jagiyai matra vipra-vara sei-kshane

calilena ati ushah-kale prabhu-sthane


Immediately after getting up, the brahmana went in the early morning to the Lord’s residence.


Commentary and Chapter Summaries of His Divine Grace Om Vishnupada Paramahamsa Parivrajakacarya Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada.