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Vyasa Avatara Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura
Chapter Thirteen: Defeating Digvijayi
CB Adi-khanda 13.1
jaya jaya dvija-kula-dipa gauracandra
jaya jaya bhakta-goshthi-hridaya-ananda
All glories to Shri Gaurachandra, the shining light of the family of brahmanas. All glories to the Lord, who increases the happiness in the hearts of His devotees.
CB Adi-khanda 13.2
jaya jaya dvara-pala-govindera natha
jiva-prati kara, prabhu, shubha-drishti-pata
All glories to the Lord of Govinda the doorkeeper. O Lord, please glance mercifully on the living entities.
CB Adi-khanda 13.3
jaya adhyapaka-shiroratna vipra-raja
jaya jaya caitanyera bhakata-samaja
All glories to the crest jewel of teachers and the king of brahmanas. All glories to the devotees of Lord Chaitanya.
CB Adi-khanda 13.4
hena-mate vidya-rase shri-vaikuntha-natha
vaisena sabara kari’ vidya-garva-pata
In this way the Lord of Vaikuntha enjoyed His scholastic pastimes by vanquishing the scholars’ pride.
CB Adi-khanda 13.5
yadyapiha navadvipe pandita samaja
koty-arbuda adhyapaka nana-shastra-raja
Navadvipa was full of millions of learned scholars, each of whom had mastered various scriptures.
The phrase nana-shastra-raja, if taken as an adjective for the teachers, means that they had mastered various scriptures, in other words, they had complete knowledge of all scriptures; and if taken as a noun, refers to various principle scriptures.
CB Adi-khanda 13.6
bhattacarya, cakravarti, mishra va acarya
adhyapana vina ka’ro ara nahi karya
Bhattacaryas, Cakravartis, Mishras, and Acaryas had no occupation other than teaching.
CB Adi-khanda 13.7
yadyapiha sabei svatantra, sabara jaya
shastra-carca haile brahmareha nahi saya
These scholars were all independent and so victorious in debating scriptures that they disregarded persons as learned as Lord Brahma.
Everyone put forward their independent opinions and endeavored to defeat others. They had no patience to hear the opinion of others in scriptural topics and even disregarded the conclusions of scholars who were as learned as Lord Brahma. They tried to defeat the most respectable scholars through their arguments.
CB Adi-khanda 13.8
prabhu yata niravadhi akshepa karena
parampara, sakshateha sabei shunena
The Lord constantly rebuked these scholars, who had to directly or indirectly hear those taunts.
CB Adi-khanda 13.9
tathapiha hena jana nahi prabhu-prati
dvirukti karite ka’ro nahi shakti kati
Nevertheless, not one of them was able to counter the Lord’s challenges.
CB Adi-khanda 13.10
hena se sadhvasa janme prabhure dekhiya
sabei yayena eka-dike namra haiya
They were so frightened on seeing the Lord that they would humbly try to avoid Him.
The word sadhvasa means “awe and reverence,” “panic,” “fear,” or “suspicion.”
CB Adi-khanda 13.11
yadi va kahare prabhu karena sambhasha
sei-jana haya yena ati bada dasa
Whoever the Lord spoke with would become His staunch follower.
Whenever the Lord addressed someone, that person felt particularly honored and he would thus desire to serve the Lord.
CB Adi-khanda 13.12
prabhura panditya-buddhi shishu-kala haite
sabei janena ganga-tire bhala-mate
Everyone on the banks of the Ganges knew well that the Lord was most intelligent from His very childhood.
CB Adi-khanda 13.13
kona-rupe keha prabodhite nahi pare
iha o sabara citte jagaye antare
Within their hearts they knew that the Lord could not be defeated in argument.
CB Adi-khanda 13.14
prabhu dekhi’ svabhavei janmaye sadhvasa
ataeva prabhu dekhi’ sabe haya vasha
Therefore they naturally became frightened when they saw the Lord, and they were obliged to accept subordination to Him.
CB Adi-khanda 13.15
tathapiha hena ta’na mayara badai
bujhibare pare ta’ne,-hena jana nai
Nevertheless, the influence of the illusory energy is such that no one was able to recognize Him.
CB Adi-khanda 13.16
tenho yadi na karena apana’ vidita
tabe ta’ne keha nahi jane kadacita
No one can possibly recognize the Lord unless and until He reveals Himself.
CB Adi-khanda 13.17
tenho punah nitya suprasanna sarva-rite
tahana mayaya punah sabe vimohite
The Lord is eternally merciful to the living entities in every respect, yet due to the influence of His illusory energy everyone remained ignorant of His identity.
CB Adi-khanda 13.18
hena-mate sabare mohiya gauracandra
vidya-rase navadvipe kare prabhu ranga
In this way Gaurachandra bewildered everyone as He enjoyed His scholastic pastimes in Navadvipa.
CB Adi-khanda 13.19
hena-kale tatha eka maha-digvijayi
aila parama-ahankara-yukta hai’
In the meantime a proud champion of learning arrived in Navadvipa.
Some people say that maha-digvijayi refers to Keshava Kashmiri, or Keshava Bhatta, the disciple of Gangalya Bhatöa of the Nimbarka-sampradaya. In consideration of the time factor, there is a difference of opinion in this regard. In his Dig-darshini commentary on the Hari-bhakti-vilasa, Shrimad Gopala Bhaööa Gosvami Prabhu has quoted many verses from Keshava Bhaööa’s Krama-dipika as evidence. Later on, this Keshava Bhaööa was accepted as an acarya in the disciplic succession of the Nimbarka-sampradaya. If Keshava Bhaööa, the author of Krama-dipika, was accepted in the disciplic succession of the Nimbarka-sampradaya, however, then the author of Shri Hari-bhakti-vilasa would have mentioned it in his writing.
CB Adi-khanda 13.20
sarasvati-mantrera ekanta upasaka
mantra japi’ sarasvati karileka vasha
He was a staunch devotee of goddess Sarasvati; by chanting her mantra he had won her favor.
CB Adi-khanda 13.21
murti-bhede rama,-sarasvati jagan-mata
Sarasvati is the personification of devotional service to Lord Vishnu. Being nondifferent from Lakshmi, she eternally resides on the chest of Lord Vishnu. She is the mother of the universe.
Rama refers to Shri-shakti, or Lakshmi, who resides on the chest of Vishnu. Sarasvati is the personification of devotional service, or Bhu-shakti. She is the consort of the holy name of the Lord.
The phrase jagan-mata refers to Vishnu’s Nila, Lila, and Durga shaktis. Although the features of Rama, Sarasvati, and Durga are different, they are all actually nondifferent from Shri Narayani, or Lakshmi, the internal potency of Shri Narayana. They are all personifications of Lord Vishnu’s service. Since they are all principal ashraya-vigrahas, they are the mothers of the universe.
CB Adi-khanda 13.22
bhagya-vashe brahmanera pratyaksha haila
‘tribhuvana digvijayi’ kari’ vara dila
Due to the brahmana’s great fortune, she appeared before him and blessed him to conquer the three worlds.
Spiritual knowledge, or Sarasvati, hides her real identity from those who are proud, foolish, attached to material enjoyment, and absorbed in the false ego of thinking themselves the doers; and in her shadow form of Dushöa Sarasvati, she deceives them by awarding them benedictions. Though such puffed-up people who receive her benedictions are able to conquer the three worlds, they are eligible for being totally defeated by the Supreme Lord, who is the ultimate giver of all benedictions. Sarasvati-devi never desires that her worshipable Lord may be defeated, so she deceives the conditioned souls who are bewildered by maya from chanting the glories of the Lord’s holy names. When Shuddha Sarasvati-devi sees that her worshiper is not inclined towards the service of the Supreme Lord, she bewilders him with material knowledge, which is her shadow form.
CB Adi-khanda 13.23
yan’ra drishöi-pata-matre haya vishnu-bhakti
‘digvijayi’-vara va tahana kon shakti?
What is the difficulty for her to bless one to become a champion of learning when simply by her merciful glance one achieves devotional service to Lord Vishnu?
When by the nonduplicitous merciful glance of Shuddha Sarasvati-devi one achieves the highest benediction of devotion to Lord Vishnu, then it is easy and extremely insignificant for her to award the people of this world benedictions like becoming a Digvijayi.
CB Adi-khanda 13.24
pai sarsvatira sakshate vara-dana
samsara jiniya vipra bule sthane-sthana
After directly receiving the benediction of goddess Sarasvati, the brahmana traveled from province to province, defeating the local scholars wherever he went.
CB Adi-khanda 13.25
sarva-shastra jihvaya aise nirantara
hena nahi jagate, ye dibeka uttara
All the scriptures resided on the tip of his tongue. There was no one in the world who could answer his challenge.
CB Adi-khanda 13.26
ya’ra kaksha-matra nahi bujhe kona-jane
digvijayi hai’ bule sarva sthane-sthane
Many scholars were not even able to understand his questions, so he easily conquered the scholars wherever he went.
CB Adi-khanda 13.27
shunilena bada navadvipera mahima
pandita-samaja yata, ta’ra nahi sima
He then heard about the glories of Navadvipa, wherein endless learned scholars resided.
CB Adi-khanda 13.28
parama-samriddha ashva-gaja-yukta hai’
saba’ jini’ navadvipe gela digvijayi
Thus after conquering all other provinces, the champion scholar came to Navadvipa along with his opulent entourage, which included horses and elephants.
CB Adi-khanda 13.29
prati ghare ghare prati pandita-sabhaya
maha-dhvani upajila sarva-nadiyaya
As a result, a loud commotion arose in every house and every assembly of learned scholars in Nadia.
CB Adi-khanda 13.30
“sarva-rajya-desha jini’ jaya-patra lai’
navadvipe asiyache eka digvijayi
People everywhere were heard saying, “A champion scholar has come to Navadvipa with a certificate of victory from scholars all over the country.
The word jaya-patra refers to a certificate of conquest that a party who has lost in a battle of arguments or test of scholarship awards to the victorious party. This is proof of the winning party’s superior scholarship.
CB Adi-khanda 13.31
sarasvatira vara-putra’ shuni’ sarva-jane
pandita sabara bada cinta haila mane
When all the learned scholars of Navadvipa heard that he was favored by Sarasvati, they began to worry.
CB Adi-khanda 13.32
“jambudvipe yata ache panditera sthana
saba jini’ navadvipa jagate vakhana
“Of all places of learning throughout Jambudvipa, Navadvipa surpasses all.
Jambudvipa, in which India is situated, is one of the seven islands. By her own glories, Navadvipa was the most famous and celebrated of all places adorned with intelligent people in India.
CB Adi-khanda 13.33
hena-sthana digvijayi yaibe jinina
samsare ei apratishöha ghushibe shunina
“If this Digvijayi is victorious in such a place as this, then scholars all over the world will condemn us.
CB Adi-khanda 13.34
yujhite va ka’ra shakti ache ta’na sane?
sarasvati vara yan’re dilena apane?
“Yet who has the ability to debate with one who has received the blessings of Sarasvati?
CB Adi-khanda 13.35
sarasvati vakta yan’ra jihvaya apane
manushye ki vade kabhu pare ta’na sane?
“Since Sarasvati resides on his tongue, how can a human being debate with him?”
CB Adi-khanda 13.36
sahasra sahasra maha-maha-bhaööacarya
sabei cintena mane, chadi’ sarva karya
Thousands of great Bhaööacaryas left their duties out of anxiety.
CB Adi-khanda 13.37
catur-dike sabei karena kolahala
“bujhibana ei-bara yata vidyabala”
All over Navadvipa people were heard saying, “Now we’ll understand the power of our knowledge.”
CB Adi-khanda 13.38
e-saba vrittanta yata paduyara gane
kahilena nija-guru gaurangera sthane
The students went and informed their teacher, Gauranga, of all these incidents.
CB Adi-khanda 13.39
“eka digvijayi sarasvati vasha kari’
sarvatra jiniya bule jaya-patra dhari’
“A Digvijayi who has been blessed by Sarasvati and who has conquered scholars throughout the world has come with his certificate of victory.
CB Adi-khanda 13.40
hasti, ghoda, dola, loka, aneka samhati
samprati asiya haila navadvipe sthiti
“He has arrived in Navadvipa surrounded by elephants, horses, palanquins, and many followers.
CB Adi-khanda 13.41
navadvipe apanara pratidvandvi caya
nahe jaya-patra mage sakala-sabhaya”
“He has come to Navadvipa seeking an opponent. Otherwise he demands a certificate of victory from the scholars of Navadvipa.”
After arriving in Navadvipa, Digvijayi Pandita searched for a suitable opponent from the rival camp. If there was no suitable scholar in Navadvipa able to debate with him, then the Digvijayi demanded that the scholars issue him a certificate stating that all the scholars of Navadvipa had been defeated by him.
CB Adi-khanda 13.42
shuni’ shishya-ganera vacana gauramani
hasiya kahite lagilena tattva-vani
Hearing the words of His students, the jewel-like Gauranga smiled and began to describe the nature of the Supreme Lord.
CB Adi-khanda 13.43
“shuna, bhai saba, ei kahi tattva-katha
ahankara na sahena ishvara sarvatha
“Listen, dear brothers. The Supreme Lord never tolerates false pride.
Hearing about Digvijayi’s bragging from the Navadvipa students, who were afraid of their imminent defeat, Shri Gaurasundara solaced them by describing the nature, or truth, of the Supreme Lord as follows: “The Supreme Lord, who is the controller of maya, completely destroys the false ego of proud persons who are controlled by maya-that is, He destroys the pride of proud persons-and does not assist them in maintaining their pride in any way. As stated in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.14.20): “O supreme creator and master, You defeat the false pride of the faithless demons and show mercy to Your saintly devotees.”
CB Adi-khanda 13.44
ye-ye-gune matta hai’ kare ahankara
avashya ishvara taha karena samhara
“Whenever the Lord sees someone proud of some personal quality, He certainly removes the cause of that pride.
Three modes of material nature are present in this material kingdom. The three modes keep their identities intact by remaining distinct while mixing with the other modes. When the modes of passion and ignorance are subdued by the mode of goodness, a living entity becomes situated in the mode of goodness. But even in such a mode of goodness, a specific relationship with the modes of passion and ignorance still remains. When the specific relationship with both passion and ignorance is completely absent in the mode of goodness, it is called vishuddha-sattva or nirguna-pure goodness or transcendence. In order to manifest His Vaikunöha pastimes by bringing into equilibrium the ever-conflicting three modes of nature, under whose control intoxicated egoistic persons exhibit their pride, the Supreme Lord removes the opposing nature of the modes and establishes them on the platform of transcendence. The false ego born of the modes of nature is agitated by time, in other words, the concepts of “I” and “mine,” which are born from the modes, are found within the time factor and are destroyed in due course of time. Therefore the relationship of the living entities with the modes of nature is only temporary, not eternal. The three states of birth, maintenance, and death, which are born of the modes of nature, are not eternal. Therefore they are ephemeral. Activities performed with aversion to the Lord by living entities who consider themselves the doers are inferior, while activities performed as service by living entities who consider themselves servants of the Lord are superior or eternal.
CB Adi-khanda 13.45
phalavanta vriksha ara gunavanta jana
‘namrata’ se tahara svabhava anukshana
“The nature of both the tree laden with fruit and the man decorated with good qualities is that they bow down with humility.
Just as a tree bends down with a burden of fruits, persons who are in the mode of goodness exhibit humility as a result of their good qualities. Persons who are averse to the purport of statements like “a little education is dangerous,” “a small fish jumps too much,” and “a castor oil plant grows like a tree” praise their own small achievements due to material destitution and thus become reluctant to display humility before others. That is why Shri Gaurasundara has taught for the benefit of people in general that only those persons who consider themselves lower than the straw in the street are always eligible to serve the Supreme Lord by chanting the holy name of Hari. The living entities possess minute quantities of the Lord’s nature. In the Bhagavad-gita the living entities are described as para prakriti, or superior nature. While exhibiting pastimes as the spiritual master for the entire world and while describing the nature of the living entities who possess saintly qualities, Shri Gaurasundara has displayed the ideal example of actual humility.
CB Adi-khanda 13.46
haihaya, nahusha, vena, bana, naraka, ravana
maha-digvijayi shuniyacha ye ye-jana
“You must have heard of the great Digvijayis of the past like Haihaya, Nahusha, Vena, Bana, Naraka, and Ravana.
Haihaya, or Kartaviryarjuna, was the King of Mahishmatipura. He received one thousand arms by the blessing of Lord Dattatreya and was killed by the hands of Lord Parashurama. A description of these incidents is found in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (9.15.17-35), the Mahabharata (Tirtha-yatra-parva of the Vana-parva 115.10-18 and 116.19-24), the Hari-vamsha (1.33), the Vayu Purana (Chapter 94), the Matsya Purana (Chapter 43) and the Markandeya Purana (Chapter 16).
Nahusha was born in the womb of Svarbhanavi by Ayu, who was the son of Pururava, the saintly king of the dynasty of the moon-god. He was the father of Maharaja Yayati. A description of Nahusha’s becoming intoxicated by opulence, illusioned, and falldown is described in the Mahabharata (Ajagara-parva of the Vana-parva, 280.11-14, 181.30-37 and Udyoga-parva 11.10-24, Chapter 12, and Chapter 17), the Hari-vamsha (1.28), the Vayu Purana (Chapter 92), and the Brahma Purana (Chapter 11).
Vena was the ghostly haunted, atheistic son of the saintly King Anga. A description of his atheism born of self-worship, his immediate destruction by the curse of brahmanas who observed his cruelty towards other living entities, and the appearance of Maharaja Prithu from the churning of his arms is found in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (4.13.39-49 and 4.14.1-46). Vena was averse to serving the Lord through lust, fear, envy, familial relationship, affection, or devotion and averse to the strong favorable cultivation of Krishna consciousness, so as a result of his heinous sins he fell into the darkest region of hell forever. That is why there was no hope for his deliverance.
The saintly King Yudhishöhira spoke to Shri Narada Muni in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (7.1.32) as follows:
katamo ‘pi na venah syat pancanam purusham prati
tasmat kenapy upayena manah krishne niveshayet
“Somehow or other, one must consider the form of Krishna very seriously. Then, by one of the five different processes mentioned above, one can return home, back to Godhead. Atheists like King Vena, however, being unable to think of Krishna’s form in any of these five ways, cannot attain salvation. Therefore, one must somehow think of Krishna, whether in a friendly way or inimically.”
The hundred-armed Bana was a dear servant of Rudra and son of Maharaja Bali, the king of the demons. His other name is Mahakala. A description of Bana and the vanquishment of his pride by Krishna is found in the Tenth Canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam, Chapters 62 and 63, and in the Hari-vamsha (2.1.18).
Naraka was a great demon born in the womb of Bhumi, mother earth, by the touch of Varahadeva. His death at the hands of Krishna is described in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.59.1-22), in the Hari-vamsha (2.63), and in the Vishnu Purana (5.29).
Ravana’s birth, austerities, and pride resulting from victories in battle by the influence of a benediction are described in the Ramayana (Uttara-kanda, Chapters 9-39). Descriptions of his anger on hearing news of the death of Khara and Dushana at the hands of Shri Rama and the incidents beginning with his kidnapping of maya Sita up to his death are found in the Ramayana (Aranya-kanda, Chapters 31-56, Sundara-kanda, Chapters 4-22, Lanka-kanda, Chapters 6-16, 26-31, 40, 59, 62, 63, 93, 96, 101, 103, and 111), in the Mahabharata (Draupadi-harana-parva within the Vana-parva, Chapters 274, 277, 280, 284, and 289), and in the Shrimad Bhagavatam, Ninth Canto, Chapter 10.
The word maha-digvijayi refers to brahmanas who conquer the eight directions on the strength of their knowledge, kshatriyas who conquer the eight directions in battle on the strength of their arms, and vaishyas who conquer the eight directions on the strength of their wealth, earned through farming and trade.
CB Adi-khanda 13.47
bujha dekhi, ka’ra garva curna nahi haya?
sarvatha ishvara ahankara nahi saya
“Try to think, whose pride was not smashed? The Supreme Lord never tolerates anyone’s false ego.
CB Adi-khanda 13.48
eteke tahara yata vidya-ahankara
dekhibe ethai saba haibe samhara”
“Therefore you will see this Digvijayi’s scholastic pride vanquished here in Navadvipa.”
CB Adi-khanda 13.49
eta bali’ hasi’ prabhu shishya-gana-sange
sandhya-kale ganga-tire ailena range
After saying this, Nimai smiled. Then in the evening He took His students to the bank of the Ganges.
CB Adi-khanda 13.50
ganga-jala sparsha kari’, ganga namaskari’
vasilena shishya-sange gauranga shri-hari
After sprinkling some Ganges water on His head and offering obeisances, Lord Gauranga sat down on the bank with His students.
Commentary and Chapter Summaries of His Divine Grace Om Vishnupada Paramahamsa Parivrajakacarya Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada.