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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura > Ujjvala Nilamani Kiranah

Ujjvala Nilamani Kiranah

A Ray of Light from the Ujjvala Nilamani

(the resplendent, bright blue sapphire of Lord Krishna)


Shri Viswanath Cakrabarti Thakur


[Ujjval Nilamani is a composition by Shri Rupa Gosvami]

Ujjval Nilamani Kiran is composed by Shri Viswanath Cakrabarti Thakur.


Shri Shri Krishna Saranam

I take shelter of Shri Krishna



After having, completed the description of Shri Bhaktirasamrta Sindhu Bindu, a delineation of the topmost pinnacle of mellows (ujjval ras) is now being undertaken. In these loving mellows Shri Krishna plays the part of the hero, the crest jewel amongst all lovers. 


Nayak-vibhed (Different kinds of divisions amongst Heroes)


The crest jewel of all dramatic actors, Shri Krishna, is most perfect in Gokul, more perfect in Mathura, and perfect in Dvaraka - these are His three principal modes of acting. Each of these heroic actors can again be classified according to four distinctions:  Dhirodatta, Dhiralalita, Dhiroddhata, and Dhirasanta.


The personality of Dhirodatta resembles Lord Ramacandra in terms of gravity, humility, His quality of always offering proper respect to fitting persons, and other such wonderful qualities which endear Him to everyone. The personality of Dhiralalita is like Kamadeb. He is submissive to His lover, free from care or anxiety, endowed with new youthfulness, and very witty or humorous.  The personality of Dhiroddhata is similar to Bhimasena in terms of arrogance and impudence.  He is a conceited braggart, possessed of intense and passionate anger and has the tendency to impose his will upon others even to the point of dissimulation and beguilement.  The personality of Dhirasanta is exemplified by Yudhisthira. His predominant qualities are religiousness, mastery over his senses, and possession of knowledge of the scriptures.


The above mentioned four classifications are each further subdivided into two and again four other subdivisions. One subdivision is pati and upapati. These two divisions refer to svakiya and parakiya rasas, as pati means husband and upapati means paramour. The other subdivision consists of four types: 1) Anukul 2) Dakkin 3) Satha and 4) Dhrsta. Anukul means someone who is attached to only one lover whereas someone who behaves equally with many lovers is called Dakkin. That person who speaks agreeably and amiable before his lover but tries to do her harm in her absence is called Satha. Someone who comes before one lover, decorated with signs of love making from another lover, but who remains unafraid and tells lies on order to cover the real truth, is known as Dhrsta.

In this way, 96 different kinds of lovers can be described.


In Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu Bindu it has been described that the permanent mellow of the topmost pinnacle of all mellows (ujjval ras) is priyata rati: the mutual experience of ecstacies by Krishna and the gopis during remembrance of and meeting with each other. Priyata rati can be described as a kind of conceit or pride experienced in the heart of the gopis arising from the intense affection that they feel towards Shyamsundar, "amar pranpati" - "The Lord of my life and breath!" The dwelling place of this amorous attachment is in the lady-lovers of Krishna (the gopis). Therefore, they (the gopis) are known as the asray-alamban - the shelter and support of this sentiment. Because the hero (Krishna) appears as the object of this sentiment, He is known as the visoy-alamban. These sentiments are awakened by hearing, remembrance of the Qualities, Name, Fame, Form, etc., of the object, Shri Krishna.


So the crest jewel amongst all lovers, Shri Krishna, is the object; Shri Radhika and the other mistresses (gopis) are the shelter and support of these loving sentiments and the Qualities, Names, etc. which manifest or reveal these sentiments are known as uddipan-vibhab.


Nayika-vibhag (Division amongst female lovers)


The first twofold division amongst female lovers is: 1) Svakiya and  2) Parakiya. The gopis who worshipped goddess Katyayani and who were later married with Krishna according to the Gandharva rites of marriage are called sviya. Separate from them are the gopis headed by Dhanya who are parakiya. The more experienced gopis headed by Shri Radhika, who are very much beloved by Shri Krishna, are parakiya. Beside them there are some gopis in Gokul who though they are sviya, are actually parakiya due to the fear they feel in front of their superiors, like their mother and father. In Dvaraka, all of the queens, headed by Rukmini, are sviya.


Amongst these two types of lovers there are three other subdivisions: 1) mugdha 2) madhya & 3) pragalbha. Madhya is further divided into three, according to different types of feigned anger (man). That lover, who with irony, pun, innuendo and ambiguous expression sarcastically and with affected importance rebukes the hero, is known as Dhiramadhya: whereas Adhiramadhya simply uses harsh and unkind words due to being overpowered by anger. That lover who uses a mixture of both kinds of language is called, Dhiradhira madhya (Shri Radha).


The lover who conceals her anger yet is disinterested in being embraced by Shri Krishna, is called Dhira-pragalbha. Examples of this are Candravali, Palika and Bhadra. Those who severely scold Shri Krishna with the force of a raging storm, using language described as Karnotpal(?) are Adhira pragalbha. This nature is exemplified in the gopi, Shyamala. Lovers like Mangala however, who withhold their anger and only slightly reprimand the hero are called, Dhiradhira pragalbha.


There is only one type of mugdha. The personality who is controlled by this sentiment becomes so enraged and indignant that they don't say anything.


In this way, there are three kinds of madhya; three kinds of pragalbha (impudent, shameless, unabashed, forward, daring, intrepid, impertinent, insolent, saucy, pert, cheeky); and one kind of mugdha (stunned, bewildered, stupefied). In all, that makes seven.  Then amongst these, some are sviya and some are parakiya which makes fourteen. There is also one more type which is similar to mugdha and is called kanyakao. Thus a total of fifteen different kinds of female lovers have been described.


Asta-nayika bhed (Eight divisions amongst lovers)


1) abhisarika  2) basaksajja  3) virahotkanthita  4) vipralabdha  5) khandita  6) kalahantarita  7) prositabharttrka  8) svadhinbharttrka.


That lover who causes Shri Krishna to make an assignation with her and who herself keeps that tryst with Krishna is called abhisarika. That lover who, desiring to enjoy with her beloved, prepares a bed within a makeshift room, constructed within the forest groves, and who decorates that place and prepares flower garlands and pan is called basaksajja. The lover who becomes anxious and impatient due to feeling separation when Krishna is late in arriving is known as virahot-kanthita. That lover who has intimated by hints and gestures, to meet her, yet is `stood up' by Shri Krishna is called vipralabdha. That lover who meets Shri Krishna in the morning, seeing His body decorated with signs of the previous night's love making with another gopi and who becomes very angry towards Him becomes known as khandita (or manavati - a woman in a fit of pique). That lover whose resentment has subsided and who then feels repentance is called kalahantarita. The lover who has become extremely miserable as a result of Shri Krishna's having gone away to Mathura is known as prositabharttrka. That lover, who after having enjoyed love making with Shri Krishna, asks Him to adjust her clothes, ornaments and hair is known as svadhin bharttrka. The previously mentioned fifteen different types of lovers, when differently affected by these eight emotions, can produce a total of one hundred and twenty different situations of affected and disaffected lovers. Again, all of these lovers can be classified according to uttam (best), madhyam (medium) and kanistha (least). Thus there are a total of three hundred and sixty divisions.


Amongst all of these lovers, the beautiful gopis of Braja, some of them, like Shri Radha and Candravali are nitya siddha, eternally perfected. Then, some of them are sadhan-siddha (perfected as a result of executing devotional service). Still others were in their previous lives, munis (sages), srutis (personified Vedas) and debis (demigoddesses).


Nayika ganer svabhava (Natures of lovers)


Among all of these aforementioned lovers, some of them have a very hot, sharp or acute nature (prakhara), like Shyamala, Mangala, etc. Some of them have a mediate nature, like Shri Radha, Pali, etc. While others are very gentle, supple and meek (mrdvi) like Candravali, etc.


Then, amongst the lady lovers of Shri Krishna, some of them are sapaksa (partisan), some suhrdpaksa (well-wishers), some tatastha paksa (marginal), and some are vipaksa (opposed).


Partial to Radharani are Lalita, Visakha, etc. Shyamala (who is herself the leader of a group of gopis), is not only partisan but a very close friend and companion of Shri Radha as well. Bhadra is neutrally situated, whereas Candravali is an opponent or adversary. Amongst these four groups some are bama (left wing) and some are right wing (dakkin).


[Left wing - Those who are very persevering n the matter of man (pique, feigned resentment out of love); who become angry if their pique is neglected, are impervious to the hero (that is, they are unyielding to Him) and whose language can be very stern.

Right wing - They are completely unforgiving in the matter of man; they present just and reasonable arguments before the hero but when solaced by the hero they become docile and submissive.]


Shrimati Radhika is left wing; madhya; She wears a blue skirt or sari, with a red veil. Lalita is sharp; of a hot nature (prakhara) and wears cloth the colour of peacock feathers. Visakha is left wing; madhya; and wears cloth decorated with stars. Indurekha is left wing; prakhara (pungent and acrid) and wears cloth the colour of a sunrise. Rangadevi and Sudevi are left wing; their nature is acute (prakhara) and their cloth is red in colour. All of them have a golden coloured bodily complexion. Campaklata is left wing; madhya and wears blue coloured cloth. Citra is right wing; gentle by nature and wears blue cloth. Tungavidya is right wing, hot nature and wears white coloured cloth. Shyamala is left wing, generous and kind, hot nature and wears red cloth. Bhadra is right wing, gentle and wears cloth decorated with pictures (printed / multicoloured). Candravali is right wing, docile and wears blue cloth. Her friend Padma is right wing, yet hot tempered. Saibya is right wing and gentle. These two sakhis both wear red cloth.


[Madhya - that sakhi is known as Madhya, in whom sharpness and mildness are equally present. The balance of these two opposite qualities mollifies her intensity and thus she is known as madhya. Such a lover is equibalanced in terms of bashfulness and lust, her speaking can be slightly impertinent, yet the delivery of her words has a cadence and beautiful, musical quality about it typified by ecstatic emotion. Her nature is powerful and influential. In the matter of man (at the time of feeling piqued) she can be sometimes docile and sometimes cruel.]


Duti Bhed (Different kinds of messengers)


In the conjugal mellow there are two kinds of messengers. A lover, revealing her emotions and intentions, can act as her own messenger, otherwise she can take into her confidence one of her reliable followers, who, as a friend, carries out the duties of a messenger. Close companions who act as messengers fall into three categories: 1) amitartha  2) nisrstartha  and 3) patraharini. The messenger who, without speaking conveys her messages by gesture and hints is called amitartha. The nisrstartha messenger accomplishes everything as she is instructed and takes personal responsibility for causing the meeting to take place. The messenger who sends her messages and executes her duties by way of letters is known as patraharini.


All of these messengers are fully conversant in the fine arts, able to predict one's fortune, celibate, expert at attending to one's needs, nursemaids and sylvan goddesses. In Braja, Shri Krishna has three messengers: Bira, Brinda and Bamsi. Bira is saucy in speech, Brinda is sweet-tongued and fair spoken, while Bamsi is the accomplisher of all deeds.


Sakhi Bhed (Different kinds of sakhis)


There are five types of sakhis:  1) sakhi  2) nitya sakhi  3) pran sakhi  4) priya sakhi and  5) paramprestha sakhi. Amongst them some are sama-sneha and some are visam sneha.


Those who are more affectionate  towards Krishna are called sakhis. Some of the sakhis are Brinda, Kundalata, Vidya, Dhanistha, Kusumika, Kamada, Atreyi, etc. The nitya sakhis are more affectionate towards Shri Radha. Some of the nitya sakhis are Kasturi, Manojna, Mani-manjari, Sindura, Candanvati, Kaumudi, Madira, etc. The principal amongst the nitya sakhis are called pran sakhis. Some of the pran sakhis are: Tulasi, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyambada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Basanti, Kalabhasini, Ratnabali, Malati, Karpurlatika, etc.


All of them are almost equal in beauty with the Queen of Brindaban, Shri Radhika. Malati, Candralatika, Guncura, Barangada, Madhavi, Candrika, Prem-manjari, Tanumadhyama, Kandarpasundari, etc. are amongst the tens of millions of beautiful Braja priya sakhis. The chief amongst them are the param prestha sakhis. Even though Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campaklata, Rangadevi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indurekha are equally affectionate towards Radha and Govinda, still they are prejudiced towards Shri Radha.


Bayo Bhed (Age differences)


The Braja Gopis ages are divided into four groups:  1) bayah sandhi  2) navyayauvan 3) byakta yauvan and  4) purna yauvan.  Kalavati, etc., has just come into adolescence (kaisor) - bayah sandhi. Dhanya, etc. are just in the prime of adolescence (kaisor / 10-15) navya yauvan. Shri Radhika and others are in the age group - byakta yauvan - the age at which the breasts become clearly defined, the belly is marked with three lines, and all of the bodily limbs have a glow and lustre about them. Candravali, Padma, etc. are in the age group purna yauvana - at this age the hips become wider, the waist is very thin, the body becomes very lustrous, the breasts become big and the thighs take on the appearance of banana tree trunks.


Uddipan vibhab (Different kinds of stimulation for ecstatic love)


There are many kinds of stimulation for ecstatic love; some of which are: Krishna's and the gopi's qualities, Their Names, ecstatic dancing, the music of the flute, milking of the cows, ornaments, (Krishna's and the gopis') songs (about Krishna and the gopis), the signs born on their lotus foot prints, peacock feathers, necklaces of gunja (a small red, hard berry with a black dot on it), ornaments for the head and ears, the sight of a dark rain cloud (which is the colour of Krishna's body), etc.


Anubhab (transformations produced in the mind and body due to experiencing ecstatic emotions)


There are many types of anubhab. Amongst them, bhav, hab, hela, sobha, kanti, dipti, madhurya, pragalbhata, audarya, dhairya, lila, vilas, vicchitti, vibhram, kilakincit, mottayita, kuttamit, bibbok, lalit and vikrta; have been designated by these figures of speech. The first transformation that is observed in an unaffected and composed state of mental equilibrium is called bhab. The condition which is indicated by bending of the neck and expansion of the eyes and eyebrows is known as hab. When the breasts throb, other ecstatic symptoms such a horripilation (standing of the hairs on end) take place and the belt and clothes loosen and begin to slip off - this is called hela. The bodily ornaments are described as sobha (lovely and lustrous) due to the influence of bodily beauty and physical enjoyment. Kanti is the grace or loveliness which becomes noticeable during the blooming of new youth. When kanti becomes even more enhanced due to certain times, places or circumstances then it is known as dipti (blazing, glittering radiance). When the body becomes languid due to fatigue from dancing or any other related physical exertion, this is called madhurya. Inverted physical enjoyment is called pragalbhata (boldness, intrepidity). During the time of intense anger, if the symptoms of humility are expressed it is called audarya. Even though there is the likelihood that one will be afflicted with sorrow if he (or she) remains steady in attachment and in love, then this is known as dhairya. Imitation of the activities of the hero is called lila. When the face becomes very cheerful and gay at the time of being together with one's darling, this is known as vilas (wanton dalliance).


Even though one is wearing less clothes and ornaments, when He (or she) still appears very charming and lovely this is called vicchitti. When going out to meet one's lover, as a result of being very busy in order to keep the tryst, when the flower garlands and necklaces decorating one's body become disarrayed this is called vibhram. During Radha and Krishna's pastimes, for instance, when Krishna blocks Radharani's path and simultaneously She is moved by the following emotions, namely, pride due to excessive mirth, intense desire, crying, laughing, jealousy, fear and anger, the aggregate of all of these simultaneously present symptoms is called kilakincit. By receiving news of one's lover, when the hairs stand on end and other ecstatic symptoms are present and intense desire is manifested, this is known as mottayita. When the lover's lips are being bitten and there is forcible attraction to her breasts which produces delightful pleasure yet she outwardly gives the appearance that she is being pained, this is called kuttamit. Though one greatly desires something, when he (or she) shows disregard towards that object due to being overly affected by pride, then this is known as vibbok. When one moves his eyebrows, makes various gesticulations and gestures and waves his hands and arms in order to shoo away a bumble bee, then this attempt is called lalit. Due to feeling shame, one sometimes may not admit to having done something, but when this deception becomes revealed it is known as vikirta. These are the twenty ecstatic embellishments.


Beside these, there are two more ecstatic symptoms. Even though one already knows something but pretends he doesn't and thus asks a question, this question is called maugdhya. When one feels fear due to seeing some bumble-bees in front of his (or her) most dearly beloved then this is known as cakit.


There are a few other ecstatic symptoms which will be only briefly referred to: negligence in binding one's belt, upper garment or hair; various gestures and gesticulations: yawning, slight shaking of the nose, breathing, etc.


Sattvik (Symptoms of existential ecstatic love)


Next are the eight symptoms of existential ecstatic love beginning with becoming stunned and perspiration, as well as their gradual development through the stages of smoking, burning, blazing and bright illumination.


Byabhicari (Further symptoms which express overwhelming ecstatic love)


Various emotional stages, beginning with dejection, indifference, etc. which help to establish the permanent mellow.


Bhavot pattyadi


Next there are four conditions which manifest themselves:  1) bhavotpatti  2) bhav-sandhi  3) bhav sabalya and  4) bhav santi.  The appearance of an emotion in the heart is called bhavotpatti. When two emotions combine together it is known as bhav sandhi. When one emotion becomes defeated by another emotion that is called bhav savallya. When an emotion disappears it is called bhav santi.


Sthayi bhab (Permanent mellow)


In Ujjval Ras, the topmost pinnacle of all devotional mellows is madhur-rati (the conjugal attachment that the gopis feel for Krishna). This madhur rati is of three kinds:  1) sadharani  2) samanjasa and  3) samartha. The sadharani madhur rati found in Kubja is, like an ordinary gem, rare. The royal queens of Dvaraka, beginning with Rukmini, are possessed of samanjasa rati. This is compared to cintamani (touchstone). The gopis of Braja (Braja devis) are possessed of samartha rati. This is compared to the Kaustubha gem. Briefly, that attachment which has as its design and intent one's own personal enjoyment is called sadharani. That attachment which has as its purpose the enjoyment which accrues both to Krishna and one's self, from being His wife, is called samanjasa. That attachment which has as its intent, the exclusive pleasure of Shri Krishna, which He obtains by enjoying others' wives, is called samartha.


Now the fully mature condition of samartha rati is being described.

In the first stage the attachment is in the seedling stage. Pure love is compared to sugar-cane; affection is compared to sugar-cane juice; man (pique) is compared to molasses; then pranoy (intimacy) is compared to raw sugar; rag (deep attachment), characterized by an insatiable desire to have Krishna - even having obtained His association one wants Him even more - is compared to sugar; anurag (passionate devotion) is compared to highly refined sugar; and finally mahabhab (ecstatic love) is compared to rock candy.


As a result of feelings or tendencies acquired in previous births, or due to taking great delight in hearing and chanting of Krishna's pastimes, when the mind becomes so attached, that it's condition is described as contiguous or fastened to Shri Krishna, then this is called rati. Even though there may be impediments, when it is seen that rati doesn't wane or decline then it is known as prem. When the heart melts due to intense love it is called sneha. When this sneha acquires the quality of tadiyata bhab (the feeling that I belong to Krishna) as it does amongst Candravali and others, then it is called ghrita-sneha. When this feeling becomes even further transformed, due to being mixed with such fondness for the hero that it approaches over indulgence, then it becomes suras sneha. Amongst Shri Radha and some of the other Braja badhus, the further quality of madiyata bhab (Krishna belongs to me) transforms this affection into Madhu-sneha. Just as honey, when combined with another foodstuff imparts such a distinctive flavour and a savour to whatever it is combined with, rather than its own taste being particularly affected by the combined substance, similarly the affection felt by Shrimati Radhika for Shri Krishna doesn't depend or rely on any other emotion but it's self. Thus it has become celebrated as madhu sneha.


Due to very excessive affection, when there is sufficient reasonable or insufficient, unreasonable cause, or because of anger produced from jealousy, or in the absence of any cause whatsoever, when the affections acquire some crooked aspect then it is called man. Amongst Candravali and the other gopis, sometimes this man is accented by a right wing nature and sometimes by a left wing nature. The feigned anger (man) of Radharani and Her followers is called Lalit man.


When man becomes further advanced and one believes that the body, mind and senses of her beloved have become united with her own, then this is known as pranoy. This is of two varieties - sakhya and maitrya.


When pranoy increases to the point that suffering which is in relationship to Krishna is experienced as happiness, then that is called rag. This is of two varieties - nilima and raktima. The rag of Candravali and her followers is nilrag. That rag which surrounds (or covers) a self-centred nature is called nilrag. When this type of rag (attachment) is perpetually desired or striven for, then it becomes known as shyam rag. Bhadra and her followers possess this type of attachment. Shri Radha and Her followers possess manjistha rag. This attachment is neutral and does not conceal any inner purpose. Shyamala and her followers possess kusumbha rag. Because there is some motivation for happiness it is considered to be somewhat inferior. The position of the attachment (rag) has to be understood in accordance with the qualities of the person who possesses that attachment. When one experiences at every moment, that her attachment to Shri Krishna appears to be newer and newer, ever fresh and extraordinarily wonderful, then that attachment is called anurag. In anurag one desires that non-living objects which have some relationship with Shri Krishna might take birth; even in the personal presence of Shri Krishna one feels separation; and when there actually is separation one feels His (Krishna's) presence. These kinds of actions are inspired by anurag.


Hereafter, mahabhab is being described. Mahabhab is of two kinds: rurha and adhirurha. Even while enjoying the happiness of Krishna's association one sometimes feels greatly aggrieved due to apprehension of some (imaginary) malady or distress (persecution). Then also, when one cannot tolerate not to see Krishna, even for the brief moment that the eyes involuntarily blink, these symptoms or conditions indicate the presence of rurha mahabhab. When, on account of one's emotional state, she cannot possibly even consider any comparison between the happiness obtained in tens of millions of universes with even a particle of the happiness that is produced by being in Krishna's association, and vice versa, can also not entertain any comparison between the suffering that comes from being bitten by a snake or stung by a scorpion with the pain the misery that comes from being separated from Shri Krishna, the state that generates this happiness and sorrow due to being either united with or separated from Shri Krishna, is known as adhirurha mahabhab.


Again there are two divisions of this adhirurha mahabhav: namely modan and madan. When due to a particular emotion, ecstatic transformations occur in a blazing state in the body of our heroine, and at the sight of these transformations Krishna and the gopis are amazed and given cause to feel greatly alarmed, then that particular emotion can be recognized as modan. This emotion (of modan) can only be found in Radharani's camp, not elsewhere. Modan is known as mohan when experienced during separation. When this emotion rises up in Shrimati Radhika's heart during the agony of separation, then Shri Krishna, though He is lying in the embrace of the queens of Dvaraka, becomes unconscious. By the influence of this emotional state the entire universe is plunged in grief and even lower animals, such as birds, begin to cry. These are some of the effects of Mohan. Very frequently this Mohan makes its appearance in the "Queen of Brindaban." One variation of this state is called divyonmad in which are found the moods of ecstatic love called udghurna, citrajalpa, etc. When in mahabhab unlimited different moods and emotions take their birth, when in even the garlands of forest flowers there is found jealousy, in the untouchables like the Pulindas there is found pride and the fortunate position of even the malati creeper who is in union with the tamal tree is being described, that mahabhab then becomes known as madan. This is superior to all; that is, it is the topmost pinnacle of love and affection, equal to or above which nothing else is to be found. This is to be found only in Radha, nowhere else.


Now the shelter and support of these various emotions (bhab) is to be ascertained.

In Kubja, who possesses sadharani rati, the limit of prem is present. In the queens of Dvaraka, who possess samanjasa rati, the limits of anurag are to be found. Therein Satyabhama and Laksana correspond to Shrimati Radharani. Rukmini and the other queens are the corresponding representatives of Candravali. The progression of the love for Krishna of the priya narma sakhas (cowherd boys of Braja) is up to anurag. The gopis of Braja (Brajasundori gon) who possess samartha rati, possess a deeper love of Shyamsundor, which is up to the limit of mahabhab. Amongst Subal and some of the other cowherd boys, the limits of their love can be found to also extend up to mahabhab. However, adhirurha mahabhavb is only found to be present in Shri Radha's camp, not within any other party group. Then mohan is only to be found in Shri Radha, Lalita, Visakha and their followers. And finally, madan is existent only in Shri Radha.


Sthayi bhab is of two varieties, differentiated according to separation and union. Separation (vipralambha) has four divisions: purbarag, man, premvaicittya and prabas. Before there is actual physical union, when one's attachment is characterized by over anxiousness and impatience then that is called purba rag. From this, different conditions or circumstances emerge: lalasa (longing), udbeg (anxiety), jagamon (sleeplessness), krsata (weakness), jarata (lethargy), byagrata (eagerness), byadhi (disease), unmad (madness), moha (fainting) and mrtyu (death). Man is of two types:  sahetuk and nirhetuk. Nirhetuk is alleviated and mitigated on its own. Sahetuk is abated by sam (conciliatory speeches), bhed (separation), kriya, dan (presenting gifts), nati (bow, salutation, obeisances), upeksa (neglect) and rasantor (suddenly becoming fearful / ie. that Krishna may go away, etc.). Speaking sweet words is called sam, showing one's own opulences while proclaiming the heroine's worthlessness is called bhed, demonstrating some fear through the confidants is called kriya; presenting cloth and flower garlands is called dan; offering obeisances is called nati; exhibiting indifference and empathy is called upeksa. Rasantor means proposing the future bestowal of some fear or other type of suffering (threats). The sign(s) that man has been pacified are tears, smiling, etc.


Now prem vaicittya is being described.

This occurs when, even though Krishna is nearby, due to excessive anurag (attachment), one thinks that He is not there, then this separation is called prem vaicittya.


There are two types of pravas (sojourn) - kinciddur nistha and sudur nistha. When Krishna takes the cows out into the pasture that is called kinciddur nistha. When He goes to Mathura, however, that is called sudurnistha. In this instance the previously mentioned ten conditions become very predominantly manifest.


Sambhog (enjoyment in union) is also of four kinds. The union which takes place after purvarag, in which the lips are bruised with the nails, etc., because it is shortened, abridged or abbreviated is called sankipta (condensed) sambhog. The union which takes place after man, because it is mixed with words of jealousy, envy and anger, is called sankirna (limited). The union that takes place after Krishna returns from the pastures with the cows, because it is tangible, is called sampurna (complete). That union that takes place after Krishna returns from afar, because it is accomplished very apparently is called samriddhiman (thriving, flourishing). Seeing, touching, speaking, blocking the path, playing in the forest, playing in the water, stealing the flute, pastimes in a boat, playing hide and seek, drinking honey, etc. are just some of the unlimited varieties of sambhog (enjoyment in union).


For those who have not studied grammar, yet still are devoted to worshipping and serving the lotus feet of Shri Hari, may this Ujjval Nilamani Kiran show them the path.