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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Verses > Verses About Gopas

Verses About Gopas


from Kali das's bhoj Nivand)? Reference Sudarshanacarya-vrndavana


kada vrndaranye vimala-yamuna-tira puline

carantam Shri govindam haladhara-sudamadi-sahitam

aye krishna swamin madhura-murali-vaadana vibho!

praseedetyaa krosan nimisam-iva-neshyaami divasaan



O Beautiful Govinda! When will I see you in the forest of Vrndavana enjoying wandering on the clear purifying sandy banks of the Yamunaa, herding the cows with Haladhara, Sudaama and other boys.


" Crying out in anticipation, 'Alas! O Krishna, O Master, You sweet flute player! When will that time come, when you will be pleased by my calling out plaintively to you and I will see such a vision, I shall accept a moment [of that vision] as

lasting for many days."



In this translation I have changed the syntax (as is permissable in verse), to "nimisam divasaan iva neshyaami" - "A moment like days I shall take".


"neshyaami" means, "I shall take". If we were to follow the syntax of this verse, then we would really have him say, "I shall take the days to be like a moment." We could keep this syntax and propose that he meant to say, "In Your absence, I wish the days could pass just like a moment until I would see You again."


Or, similar to the comment below, he remembers how it was in the past and hopes that it will be like that again, "Again I shall take the days just like a moment."


(from Kali das's bhoj Nivand)? Reference Sudarshanacarya-vrndavana)


Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.62).


The devotee who gave me this verse told me that in the commentary of bhaktamala, the acharya's comment, "neshyaami means (we shall take)-one day to be like a chaturyuga.


Previously I played with you for many days, but it was so nice, the time (nimisam) went so fast. Now in separation from You, we are (taking the days) to be like burning in chaturyugas, so, when will we see your smiling face again and again, if only for a moment?"



This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.62).


Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.18.30


drstva pralambam nihatah balena bala-salina

 gopah su-vismita asan  sadhu sadhv iti vadinah



drsva-seeing; pralambam-Pralambasura; nihatam-killed; balena-by Lord Balarama; bala-salina-who is by nature very powerful; gopah-the cowherd boys; su-vismitah-most astonished; asan-became; sadhu sadhu-"very wonderful, very wonderful"; iti-these words; vadinah-speaking.



The cowherd boys were most astonished to see how the powerful Balarama had killed the demon Pralamba, and they exclaimed, "Excellent! Excellent!


Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.18.31


asiso `bhigrnantas tam prasasamsus tad-arhanam

pretyagatam ivalingya prema-vihvala-cetasah



asiso -benedictions; `bhigrnantas -offering profusely; tam-to Him; prasasamsus -they praised; tat-arhanam-Him who was worthy of such; pretya-having died; agatam-come back; iva-as if; alingya-embracing; prema-out of love; vihvala-overwhelmed; cetasah-their minds.



They offered Balarama profuse benedictions and then glorified Him, who deserves all glorification. Their minds overwhelmed with ecstatic love, they embraced Him as if He had come back from the dead.







gupta-gostha raksa raksa mam tathadya pankajaksa


yajna--sacrifice; bhanga--broken; rusta--angered; sakra--indra; nunna--sent; ghora--terrible; megha--of clouds; cakra--hosts; vrsti--of rains; pura--by a flood; khinna--distressed; gopa--of the gopas(t10; viksana--seen; upajata--manifested; kopa--anger; ksipta--placed; savya--left; hasta--hand; padma--lotus; dharita--held; ucca--tall; saila--mountain; sadma--abode; gupta--protected; gostha--vraja; raksa--please protect; raksa--please protect; mam--me; tatha--in that way; adya--now; pankajaksa--O lotus-eyed lord.


O lord who became angry to see the gopas troubled by the great floods and rains from the terrible clouds sent by indra angry at the stopping of His yajna, O lord who lifted the great hill with your left lotus hand, O lord who protected vraja, O lotus-eyed lord, please, please protect me in the same way.




"All glories to Krishna's vayasyas, who are just like Krishna in their age, qualities, pastimes, dress and beauty. They are accustomed to playing on their flutes made of palm leaves, and they all have buffalo-horn bugles ornamented like Krishna's with jewels such as indraneela and with gold and coral. They are always jubilant like Krishna. May these glorious companions of Krishna always protect us!"


He once said to Balarama, "My dear brother, when My companions were being devoured by the Aghasura, hot tears poured down from My eyes. And as they were washing My cheeks, My dear elder brother, for at least one moment I completely lost Myself."


Within Gokula, Krishna's vayasyas are generally divided into four groups: (1) well-wishers, (2) friends, (3) confidential friends and (4) intimate friends. Krishna's well-wisher friends are a little bit older than Krishna, and they have some parental affection for Him. Because of their being older than Krishna, they always try to protect Him from any harm. As such, they sometimes bear weapons so that they can chastise any mischievous persons who want to do harm to Krishna. Counted among the well-wisher friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksa, Indrabhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Vijaya and Balabhadra. They are older than Krishna and are always thinking of His welfare.

One of the elderly friends said,:


 "My dear Mandalibhadra, why are you wielding a shining sword as though you were running toward Aristasura to kill him? My dear Baladeva, why are You unnecessarily bearing that heavy plow? My dear Vijaya, don't be unnecessarily agitated. My dear Bhadravardhana, there is no need to make these threatening motions. If you will all look more closely you will see that it is only a thundercloud upon Govardhana Hill; it is not the Aristasura in the shape of a bull, as you have imagined."


 These older, well-wishing friends of Krishna had imagined a large cloud to be the Aristasura, appearing in the shape of a huge bull. In the midst of their excitement one of them ascertained that it was actually only a cloud on Govardhana Hill. He therefore informed the others not to take the trouble of worrying about Krishna, because there was no present danger from Aristasura.


Among the well-wisher friends, Mandalibhadra and Balabhadra are the chiefs. Mandalibhadra is described as follows. His complexion is yellowish, and his dress is very attractive. He always carries a stick of various colors. He wears a peacock feather on his head and always looks very beautiful. Mandalibhadra's attitude is revealed in this statement:


"My dear friends, our beloved Krishna is now very tired from working with the cows in the pasturing grounds and from traveling all over the forests. I can see that He is very fatigued. Let me massage His head silently while He is taking rest in His house. And you, Subala-you just massage His thighs."


One devotee described the personal beauty of Baladeva as follows:

 "Let me take shelter of the lotus feet of Balarama, whose beauty is enhanced by the earrings touching His cheeks. His face is decorated with tilaka made from kasturi [musk], and His broad chest is decorated with a garland of gunja [small conchshells]. His complexion is as white as an autumn cloud, He wears garments of blue color, and His voice is very grave. His arms are very long, touching His thighs, and He has shown His great strength by killing the Pralamba demon. Let me take shelter of this chivalrous Balarama."


"My dear Visala, please take this fan of lotus leaves and fan Krishna so that He may feel some comfort. Varuthapa, you just brush the scattered hairs on Krishna's head which have fallen upon His face. Vrsabha, don't talk unnecessarily! Immediately massage Krishna's body. His arms have become tired from fighting and wrestling with that demon. Oh, just see how our friend Krishna has become tired!" These are some examples of the treatment given to Krishna by the sakhas.


"My dear beautiful friend, when Krishna, the son of Maharaja Nanda, was taking rest within the cave of a hill, He was keeping His head on the arms of Shridama, and He was putting His left hand on Dama's chest. Taking this opportunity, Devaprastha, out of his strong affection for Krishnaa, immediately began to massage His legs."


Sometimes a confidential friend would come before Krishna and embrace Him with great affection and love. Another friend would then come up from the rear and cover Krishna's eyes with his hands. Krishna would always feel very happy by such dealings with His confidential friends.


Out of all these confidential friends, Shridama is considered to be the chief. Shridama used to put on a yellow-colored dress. He would carry a buffalo horn, and his turban was of reddish, copper color. His bodily complexion was blackish, and around his neck there was a nice garland. He would always challenge Krishna in a  joking friendship. Let us pray to Shridama to bestow his mercy upon us!


 Sometimes Shridama used to address Krishna, "Oh, You are so cruel that You left us alone on the bank of the Yamunaa, and we were all mad from not seeing You there! Now it is our great fortune that we are able to see You here. If You want to pacify us, You must embrace each one of us with Your arms. But believe me, my dear friend, a moment's absence from You creates great havoc, not only for us but for the cows also. Everything becomes disarranged, and we become mad after You."


"My dear Krisangi [delicate one], just see how Subala is whispering Your message into Krishna's ear, how he is delivering the confidential letter of shyama-dasi silently into Krishna's hand, how he is delivering the betel nuts prepared by Palika into Krishna's mouth, and how he is decorating Krishna with the garland prepared by Taraka. Did you know, my dear friend, that all these most intimate friends of Krishna are always engaged in His service in this way?"


Out of the many intimate priya-narmas, Subala and Ujjvala are considered to be the most prominent.


Subala's body is described as follows. His complexion is just like molten gold. He is very, very dear to Krishna. He always has a garland around his neck, and he wears yellow clothing. His eyes are just like lotus flower petals, and he is so intelligent that by his talking and his moral instructions all the other friends take the highest pleasure. Let us all offer our respectful obeisances unto Krishna's friend Subala!

The degree of intimacy shared by Krishna and Subala can be understood by the fact that the talks between them were so confidential that no one else could understand what they were saying.


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.48


arunambaram uccaleksanam madhupuspavalibhih prasadhitam

harinilarunci haripriyam maniharojjvalam ujjvalam bhaje


The description of Ujjvala, another intimate friend, is given as follows. Ujjvala always wears some garment of orange color, and the movements of his eyes are always very restless. He likes to decorate himself with all kinds of flowers, his bodily hue is almost like Krishna's, and on his neck there is always a necklace of pearls. He is always very dear to Krishna. Let us all worship Ujjvala, the most intimate friend of Krishna!


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.49


asya sakhyam, yatha


sakta `smi manam avitum katham ujjvalo `yam

dutah sameti sakhi! yatra milaty adure

sa `patrapa `pi kulaja `pi pativrata `pi

ka va vrsasyati na gopavrsam kisori


About the confidential service of Ujjvala, this statement is to be found, addressed by Radharani to one of Her friends: "My dear friend, it is impossible for Me to keep My prestige! I wanted to avoid talking to Krishna anymore-but just see! There `again is His friend Ujjvala, coming to Me with his canvassing work. His entreaties are so powerful that it is very difficult for a gopi to resist her love for Krishna, even though she may be very bashful, devoted to her family duties and most faithful to her husband."


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.50


Ujjvala says:

sphurada tanu taranga vardhita nalpavelah

sumadhura rasa rupo durgama vara parah

jagati yuvatijatir nimnaga tvam samudras

 tadiyam aghahara tvam eti sa vadhvinaiva


"My dear Krishna, O killer of Aghasura, You have extended Your loving affairs so much that You can be compared to the great ocean, which is without limitations. At the same time, the young girls of the world, who are all searching after the perfect lover, have become just like rivers running into this ocean. Under the circumstances, all these rivers of young girls may try to divert their courses to some other place, but at the end they must come unto You."


Preyo Bhakti Rasaarnava 3.1


Vrajendra nandanam vande sa-raamam jalada prabham

shreedaamaadyaih parivritam sakhya-prema-pariplutam


Obeisances unto Vrajendra-Nandan of raincloud complexion, accompanied by Raam, surrounded by Shreedaama and the other boys, over-flooded with the love of the cowherd boys.




sakhya-bhaavah param bhaavo mama preetikarah sadaa

sakhyaat parataram naanyat tasmaat sakhyena maam yaja


"The mood of sakhya-bhaava is supreme amongst all ecstatic emotions. It is the cause of My incessant pleasure. There is no higher consciousness than that of the cowherd boys. Therefore worship Me as a friend in the mood of sakhya"


(Naaradeeya Puraana) quoted in (Preyo Bhakti Rasaarnava  Ch.1)


Jaladhara-sasi-varnau gopa-vesau kisorau

sahacara-gana-vrindaih kreedamaanau vrajesau

nata-bara-jita vesau neela-peetaambaraadhyau

jagata-janana-hetoo raama-krishnau nato 'smi


The pair of complexions like a rain-cloud and the moon,

The pair dressed as cowherd boys, the pair of youths,

The pair engaged in sporting with the assembly of their friends;

The pair who are the Lords of Vraja,

The pair whose dress eclipses that of the best of dancers,

The pair fond of wearing blue and yellow garments,

The pair who are the source of all living entities in the universe,

The pair known as Raama and Krishna-unto whom I offer my obeisances.




ujjvala varanam krishna-roopam jala-dhara roopam krishna-balaraamam

jayatam jayatam krishna sasa roopam bhakta manah vanchaa purnakaaram


Glories, Glories to the beautiful splendid forms of Krishna-Balarama of complexion like a rain-cloud and the moon, who alone can completely satisfy the mental desires of Their devotees. (To only think and serve Them).


Bhakti Sudhara Rasa


namaste girirajaya shri govardhana namine asesa klesa nasaya paramananda dayine


I offer my respectful obeisances unto the King of hills (or the king of the hill) Whose name is Govardhana. He destroys unlimited miseries and bestows the highest bliss. (Govardhana hill at Yoga-pitha in Mayapura)


Vraja Bhakti Vilasa


Govardhana gire tubhyam gopanam sarva-raksakam

namaste deva rupaya devanam sukha dayine


I offer my obeisances unto Govardhana hill, who always protects all the cowherd men. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Shri Krishna who manifested a giant form and who always increases the pleasure of His devotees.



SB 10.11.36


vrndavanam govardhanam yamuna-pulinani ca

viksyasid uttama priti rama-madhavayor nrpa



vrndavanam-the place known as Vrndavana; govardhanam-along with Govardhana Hill; yamuna-pulinani ca-and the banks of the River Yamuna; viksya-seeing this situation; asit-remained or was enjoyed; uttama priti-first-class pleasure; rama-madhavayoh-of Krishna and Balarama; nrpa-O King Pariksit.



O King Pariksit, when Rama and Krishna saw Vrndavana, Govardhana and the banks of the River Yamuna, They both enjoyed great pleasure.


SB 10.11.39-40


kvacid vadayato venum ksepanaih ksipatah kvacit

kvacit padaih kinkinibhih kvacit krtrima-go-vrsaih

vrsayamanau nardantau yuyudhate parasparam

anukrtya rutair jantums ceratuh prakrtau yatha



kvacit-sometimes; vadayatah-blowing; venum-on the flute; ksepanaih-with a device of rope for throwing; ksipatah-throwing stones to get fruit; kvacit-sometimes; kvacit padaih-sometimes with the legs; kinkinibhih-with the sound of ankle bells; kvacit-sometimes; krtrima-go-vrsaih-by becoming artificial cows and bulls; vrsayamanau-imitating the animals; nardantau-roaring loudly; yuyudhate-They both used to fight; parasparam-with one another; anukrtya-imitating; rutaih-by resounding; jantun-all the animals; ceratuh-They used to wander; prakrtau-two ordinary human children; yatha-like.



Sometimes Krishna and Balarama would play on Their flutes, sometimes They would throw ropes and stones devised for getting fruits from the trees, sometimes They would throw only stones, and sometimes, Their ankle bells tinkling, They would play football with fruits like bael and amalaki. Sometimes They would cover Themselves with blankets and imitate cows and bulls and fight with one another, roaring loudly, and sometimes They would imitate the voices of the animals. In this way They enjoyed sporting, exactly like two ordinary human children.


SB 10.21.7


Shri-gopya ucuh

aksanvatam phalam idam na param vidamah

sakhyam pasun anavivesayator vayasyaih

vaktram vrajesa-sutayor anavenu-justam

yair va nipitam anurakta-kataksa-moksam



Shri-gopyah ucuh-the gopis said; aksanvatam-of those who have eyes; phalam-the fruit; idam-this; na-not; param-other; vidamah-we know; sakhyah-O friends; pasun-the cows; anuvivesayatoh-causing to enter one forest after another; vayasyaih-with Their friends of the same age; vaktram-the faces; vraja-isa-of Maharaja Nanda; sutayoh-of the two sons; anu-venu-justam-possessed of flutes; yaih-by which; va-or; nipitam-imbibed; anurakta-loving; kata-aksa-glances; moksam-giving off.



The cowherd girls said: O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Maharaja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vrndavana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision.


SB 10.21.8




madhye virejatur alam pasu-pala-gosthyam

range yatha nata-varau kvaca gayamanau



cuta-of a mango tree; pravala-with young sprouts; barha-peacock feathers; stabaka-bunches of flowers; utpala-lotuses; abja-and lilies; mala-with garlands; anuprkta-touched; paridhana-Their garments; vicitra-with great variety; vesau-being dressed; madhye-in the midst; virejatuh-the two of Them shone forth; alam-magnificently; pasu-pala-of the cowherd boys; gosthyam-within the assembly; range-upon a stage; yatha-just as; nata-varau-two most excellent dancers; kvaca-sometimes; gayamanau-Themselves singing.



Dressed in a charming variety of garments, upon which Their garlands rest, and decorating Themselves with peacock feathers, lotuses, lilies, newly grown mango sprouts and clusters of flower buds, Krishna and Balarama shine forth magnificently among the assembly of cowherd boys. They look just like the best of dancers appearing on a dramatic stage, and sometimes They sing.


SB 10.21.9


gopyas kim acarad ayam kusalah sma venur

damodaradhara-sudham api gopikanam

bhunkte svayam yad avasista-rasam hradinyo

hrsyat-tvaco `sru mumucus taravo yatharyah



gopyah-O gopis; kim-what; acarat-performed; ayam-this; kusalam-auspicious activities; sma-certainly; venum-the flute; damodara-of Krishna; adhara-sudham-the nectar of the lips; api-even; gopikanam-which is owed to the gopis; bhunkte-enjoys; svayam-independently; yat-from which; avasista-remaining; rasam-the taste only; hradinyah-the rivers; hrsyat-feeling jubilant; tvacah-whose bodies; asru-tears; mumucuh-shed; taravah-the trees; yatha-exactly like; aryah-old forefathers.



My dear gopis, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krishna's lips independently and leave only a taste for us gopis, for whom that nectar is actually meant! The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo trees, shed tears of pleasure. His mother, the river on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation, and therefore her blooming lotus flowers are standing like hair on her body.


SB 10.21.16


drstvatape vraja-pasun saha rama-gopaih

sancarayantam anu venum udirayantam

prema-pravrddha uditah kusumavalabhih

sakhyur vyadhat sva-vapusambuda atapatram



drstva-seeing; atape-in the full heat of the sun; vraja-pasun-the domestic animals of Vraja; saha-together with; rama-gopaih-Lord Balarama and the cowherd boys; sancarayantam-herding together; anu-repeatedly; venum-His flute; udirayantam-loudly playing; prema-out of love; pravrddhah-expanded; uditah-rising high; kusuma-avalabhih-(with droplets of water vapor, which are like) groups of flowers; sakhyuh-for his friend; vyadhat-he constructed; sva-vapusa-out of his own body; ambudah-the cloud; atapatram-an umbrella.



In the company of Balarama and the cowherd boys, Lord Krishna is continually vibrating His flute as He herds all the animals of Vraja, even under the full heat of the summer sun. Seeing this, the cloud in the sky has expanded himself out of love. He is rising high and constructing out of his own body, with its multitude of flower-like droplets of water, an umbrella for the sake of his friend.


SB 10.21.18


hantayam adrir abala hari-dasa-varyo

yad rama-krishna-carana-sparasa-pramodah

manam tanoti saha-go-ganayos tayor yat




hanta-oh; ayam-this; adrih-hill; abalah-O friends; hari-dasa-varyah-the best among the servants of the Lord; yat-because; rama-krishna-carana-of the lotus feet of Lord Krishna and Balarama; sparasa-by the touch; pramodah-jubilant; manam-respect; tanoti-offers; saha-with; go-ganayoh-the cows, calves and cowherd boys; tayoh-to Them (Shri Krishna and Balarama); yat-because; paniya-with drinking water; suyavasa-very soft grass; kandara-caves; kanda-mulaih-and edible roots.



Of all the devotees, this Govardhana Hill is the best! O my friends, this hill supplies Krishna and Balarama, along with Their calves, cows and cowherd friends, with all kinds of necessities-water for drinking, very soft grass, caves, fruits, flowers and vegetables. In this way the hill offers respects to the Lord. Being touched by the lotus feet of Krishna and Balarama, Govardhana Hill appears very jubilant.


SB 10.26.25


deve varshati yajna-viplava-rusha vajrasma-varshanilaihi

sidat-pala-pasu-striy atma-sharanam drstvaanukampy utsmayan

utpaatyaika-karena shailam abalo lilocchilindhram yatha

bibhrad gostham apan mahendra-mada-bhit priyan na indro gavaam




"Indra became angry when his sacrifice was disrupted, and thus he caused rain and hail to fall on Gokula, accompanied by lightning and powerful winds, all of which brought great suffering to the cowherds, animals and women there. When Lord Krishna, who is by nature always compassionate, saw the condition of those who had only Him as their shelter, He smiled broadly and lifted Govardhana Hill with one hand, just as a small child picks up a mushroom to play with it. In this way He protected the cowherd community. May He, Govinda, the Lord of the cows and the destroyer of Indra's false pride, be pleased with us."


Madhya 18.38


vamas tamarasaksasya  bhuja-dandah sa patu vah

krida-kandukatam yena  nito govardhano girih



vamah-the left; tamarasa-aksasya-of Krishna, who has eyes like lotus petals; bhuja-dandah-arm; sah-that; patu-let it protect; vah-all of you; krida-kandukatam-being like a toy; yena-by which; nitah-attained; govardhanah-named Govardhana; girih-the hill.



Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, "`May the left arm of Shri Krishna, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotus flower, always protect you. With His left arm He raised Govardhana Hill as if it were a toy.'"


SB 10.19.10


krishna krishna maha-vira he ramamogha vikrama

davagnina dahyamanan prapannams tratum arhathah



krishna krishna-O Krishna, Krishna; maha-vira-O most powerful one; he rama-O Rama; amogha-vikrama-You whose prowess is never thwarted; dava-agnina-by the forest fire; dahyamanan-who are being burned; prapannan-who are surrendered; tratum arhathah-please save.



[The cowherd boys said:] O Krishna ! Krishna! Most powerful one ! O Rama! You whose prowess never fails! Please save Your devotees, who are about to be burned by this forest fire and have come to take shelter of You!


SB 10.19.10


nunam tvad-bandhavah krishna na carhanty avasaditum

vayam hi sarva-dharma-jna tvan-nathas tvat-parayanah



nunam-certainly; tvat-Your; bandhavah-friends; krishna-our dear Shri Krishna; na-never; ca-and; arhanti-deserve; avasaditum-to suffer destruction; vayam-we; hi-moreover; sarva-dharma-jna-O perfect knower of the nature of all beings; tvat-nathah-having You as our Lord; tvat-parayanah-devoted to You.



Krishna! Certainly Your own friends shouldn't be destroyed. O knower of the nature of all things, we have accepted You as our Lord, and we are souls surrendered unto You!


Preyo Bhakti Rasarnava mentions quoting from Adhi Samhita:


yah krishnah so 'pi raamah syaad yo raamah krishna eva sah anayor antaraadarsi saMsaaraan na nivarttate


He who is Krishna is He who is Raama, and He who is Raama is He who is Krishna. Anyone who sees Them as being different will never leave the world of birth and death.


From Paadma Puraana Uttara Khanda:


yo vai Krishna sa vai raamo yo raamah krishna eva sah

yuvayor naantaraM me 'sti praseeda tvaM jagan-maya


He who is Krishna is certainly He who is Raama, and He who is Raama is certainly He who is Krishna. These two youths are non-different. O pervaders of the Universe! May you be pleased with me!


Hari Vamsha (Vi 7.4):


eka-kaaryaantaraagataav eka-dehau dvidha-kRtau

eka-caryau mahaa-veeryaav ekasya shishutaaNgatau


This pair acts for one purpose although appearing different: This pair is one body; This pair has split into two; This pair moves and walks as one; This pair is greatly chivalrous; This pair, of one substance, appears in the bodies of two young boys.


Raame krishne ca yo jeevo vibhinnaatmaM karoti ca

vaaso 'pi niraye tasya vadanteeti maharsayaH


That jeeva who makes a distinction between the souls of Raama and Krishna verily lives in hell. This is spoken by the great sages.


Hari Vamsa (Vi 14.48)


ahaM yaH sa bhaavena yaH so 'haM sanaatanaH

dvaav eva vihitau hy aavaam eka-dehau mahaabalau


That which I am, you are also He. That which is He is eternally Me. We have only become two; We are certainly one in two bodies, a pair endowed with great power."


PadyAvalI (117).

It's attributed to RAmAnuja:


dvija-strINAM bhakte mRduni vidurAnne vraja-gavAM

dadhi-kSIre sakhyuH sphuTa-cipita-muSTau mura-ripo

yazodAyAH stanye vraja-yuvati-datte madhuni te

yathAsId Amodas tam imam upahAre 'pi kurutAm


        "O Lord Mura-ripu, just as you delighted in the succulent meals offered by the yajJika brAhmaNas' wives, the foodstuffs of Vidura, the dairy products of Your cows in Vraja, the puffed rice in the fist of Your friend (SudAmA), the breast-milk of Your mother Yashoda, and the sweets given to You by the young girls in Vraja, so I hope You will accept even this offering."


said to have been written by VallabhAcharya



Vraje vasAntAm nava nIta choram gopAnganAnAm ca dukUla choram

Aneka janmArjIta pApa choram chorAgragAnyAm tam purushAm namAmi


All Glories to the resident of Vraja who is the thief of fresh butter. He is the stealer of the clothes of the Gopis. He steals the accumulated sins of many births. Unto the chief of all thieves, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances.


SB. 10.12.39


sakrd yad-anga-pratimantar-ahita

  manomayi bhagavatim dadau gatim

 sa eva nityatma-sukhanubhuty-abhi-

  vyudasta-mayo 'ntar-gato hi kim pumah


 If even only once or even by force one brings the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead into one's mind, one can attain the supreme salvation by the mercy of Krishna, as did Aghasura. What then is to be said of those whose hearts the Supreme Personality enters when He appears as an incarnation, or those who always think of the loutus feet of the Lord who is the sourse of transcendental bliss for all living entities and by whom all illusion is completely removed?




 satam ayam sara-bhrtam nisargo

  yad-artha-vani-sruti-cetasam api

 prati-ksanam navya-vad acyutasya yat

  striya vitanam iva sadhu varta


 Paramahamsas, devotees who have accepted the essence of life, are attached to Krishna in the core  of their hearts, and He is the aim of their lives. It is their nature to talk only of Krishna at every moment, as if such topics were newer and newer. They are attached to such topics, just as materialists are attached to topics of women and sex.


Vraja-vilasa-stava, by Raghunatha dasa Gosvame, verse 12


Vilokya krishnam vraja vaama netraah sarvendriyaanaam nayanatvam eva

aakarnya tad-venu-ninaada bhangeem aicchan punas taah shravanatvam eva


"when the beautiful eyed girls of vraja saw Lord Krishna, they wished all their senses were eyes, and when they heard the waves of music from His flute, they wished all their senses were ears" (Rupa Gosvami's Padyavali)


The splendor of Lord Balarama's transcendental form eclipses many millions of glistening rising moons, and the slightest scent of His boundless strength is sufficient to destroy many armies of demons. Although He knows the supernatural power of His younger brother, Krishna, still, out of love for Him, He never leaves Him alone in the forest even for a moment. I offer my prayers to Lord Balarama, the enemy of Dhenukasura.




1) vaidagdhi sara sarvasva murti liladhidevatam

shri radham ramayan nityam rama ity abhidhiyate


"The Supreme Lord is called Rama because He performs pastimes of pleasure with the most beautiful Shri Radha."


2) namaste tu halagrama!    namaste musalayudha!

namaste revati-kanta!          namaste bhakta-vatsala!

namaste balinam srestha!     namaste dharanidhara!

pralasvare! namaste tu        ehi mam krishna-purvaja!


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.48


arunambaram uccaleksanam madhupuspavalibhih prasadhitam

harinilarunci haripriyam maniharojjvalam ujjvalam bhaje


The description of Ujjvala, another intimate friend, is given as follows. Ujjvala always wears some garment of orange color, and the movements of his eyes are always very restless. He likes to decorate himself with all kinds of flowers, his bodily hue is almost like Krishna's, and on his neck there is always a necklace of pearls. He is always very dear to Krishna. Let us all worship Ujjvala, the most intimate friend of Krishna!


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.49


asya sakhyam, yatha


sakta `smi manam avitum katham ujjvalo `yam

dutah sameti sakhi! yatra milaty adure

sa `patrapa `pi kulaja `pi pativrata `pi

ka va vrsasyati na gopavrsam kisori


About the confidential service of Ujjvala, this statement is to be found, addressed by Radharani to one of Her friends: "My dear friend, it is impossible for Me to keep My prestige! I wanted to avoid talking to Krishna anymore-but just see! There `again is His friend Ujjvala, coming to Me with his canvassing work. His entreaties are so powerful that it is very difficult for a gopi to resist her love for Krishna, even though she may be very bashful, devoted to her family duties and most faithful to her husband."


Shri Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu 3.3.50


Ujjvala says:

sphurada tanu taranga vardhita nalpavelah

sumadhura rasa rupo durgama vara parah

jagati yuvatijatir nimnaga tvam samudras

 tadiyam aghahara tvam eti sa vadhvinaiva


"My dear Krishna, O killer of Aghasura, You have extended Your loving affairs so much that You can be compared to the great ocean, which is without limitations. At the same time, the young girls of the world, who are all searching after the perfect lover, have become just like rivers running into this ocean. Under the circumstances, all these rivers of young girls may try to divert their courses to some other place, but at the end they must come unto You."

Shrila Rupa Goswami's padyavali, Sudainya-ukti, verse 59.


namani pranayena te sukrtinam tanvanti tundotsavam

dhamani prathayanti hanta jalada-syamani netranjanam

samani sruti-saskulim muralika jatany alankurvate

kamanivrta-cetasam iha vibho nasapi na sobhate


namani-the names; pranayena-with love; te-of You; sukrtinam-of the saintly devotees; tanvanti-manifest; tunda-for the mouth; utsavam-a jubilant festival; dhamani-the bodily splendor; prathayanti-manifests; hanta-indeed; jalada-of a raincloud;(who gives water) syamani-the dark color; netra-for the eyes; anjanam-ointment; samani-the music; sruti-saskulim-the ears; muralika-from the flute; jatani-produced; alankurvate-decorates; kama-in material sense gratification; anivrta-finding happiness; cetasam-in our hearts; iha-here; vibho-O almighty Lord; na-does not; asa-desire; api-also; nah-to us; sobhate-appear beautiful.


O My Lord! Your holy name has affectionatly manifested a festival in the  mouths of pious people. (devotees). Your bodily splendor, like a dark raincloud, are the black ointment for their eyes. The music of Your flute has decorated their ears. But our heart has been occupied with material desires, so, we do not desire to relish this. It does not appear beautiful to us. 


Shrila Prabodhananda Sarasvati's Chaitanya-Candramrta, verse 49.


Kalah kalair balina indriya-vairi-vargah

shri-bhakti-marga iha kantaka-koti-ruddhah

ha ha kva yami vikalah kim aham karomi

chaitanyacandra yadi nadya krpam karosi


    kalah-the time; kalih-the age of Kali; balinah-very strong; indriya-senses;vairi-vargah-enemies; shri-bhakti- of devotional service; margah-the path; iha-here; kantaka-of thorns; koti-with millions; ruddhah-obstructed; ha-alas; ha-alas; kva-where?; yami-shall I go; vikalah-weak and agitated; kim-what?; aham-shall I; karomi-do; chaitanyacandra- O Lord Chaitanyacandra; yadi-if; na-not; adya-now; krpam-mercy; karosi-You do;


Now it is the age of Kali. My enemies, the senses, have become very strong. The splendid path of pure  devotional service is blocked by millions of brambles. I am weak and agitated. Alas! Alas! Where can I go? O Lord Chaitanyacandra, if now You will not give me Your mercy, what can I do?


Shrila Rupa Goswami's astadasa-cchandah-stava verse 11 (part 2)


api spharamode pratipada sudha-koti-madhure

  purana-gramantar vahati tava lila-rasa-jhare

mano-vatsah patum visaya-visa-garte visati me

krpa-yastya turnam damaya tam amum tarnaka-pate


api-although; sphara-intense; amode-sweet fragrance; pratipada-at every moment; sudha-of nectar; koti-millions; madhure-sweetness; purana-of the Puranas; grama-the multitude; antah-within; vahati-flowing; tava-of You; lila-of transcendental pastimes; rasa-of nectar; jhare-in the swift stream; manah-of the mind; vatsah-the calf; patum-to drink; visaya-of material sense happiness; visa-of the poison; garte-in the hole; visati-enters; me-of me; krpa-of mercy; yastya-with the stick; turnam-quickly-damaya-bring under control- tam-it; amum-him; tarnaka-pate-O Lord of the calves.


          Although the very sweet nectar stream of Your transcendental pastimes swiftly flows through the Puranas, the calf of my mind has now entered a ditch to drink the poison of material sense happiness. O Lord of the calves, please quickly curb him with Your stick of mercy.


Shrila Visvanath Chakravarti's Vrndadevi-astakam, text 7


Tvam kirtase satvata-tantra-vidbhir  lilabhidhana kila krishna-saktih

tavaiva murtis tulasi nr-loke  vrnde namas te caranaravindam


tvam-you; kirtase-are glorified;-satvata-tantra-vidbhih-by those who know the Satvata- Tantra; lila-pastimes; abhidhana-by the name; kila-indeed; krishna-of Lord Krishna; saktih-the potency; tava-your; eva-indeed; murtih-form; tulasi-tulasi; nr-loke-in human society: vrnde-unto Vrnda-Devi; namah-obeisances; te-unto you; caranaravindam-lotus feet.


They who are learned in the Satvata-tantra glorify you. You are Krishna's pastime potency. The Tulasi plant is your form in the world of men. O Vrnda, I bow to your lotus feet.


Shrila Visvanath Chakravarti's Vrndadevi-astakam, text 8


bhaktya vihina aparadha-laksaih   ksiptas ca kamadi-taranga-madhye

krpamayi tvam saranam prapanna    vrnde namas te caranaravindam


bhaktya-of devotional service; vihinah-devoid; aparadha-of offenses; laksaih-with thousands; ksiptah-thrown; ca-and; kama-of lust; adi-and other inauspicious qualities; taranga-of the waves; madhye-in the midst; krpamayi-O merciful one; tvam-you; saranam-shelter; prapannah-attain.vrnde-unto Vrnda-Devi; namah-obeisances; te-unto you; caranaravindam-lotus feet.


          O merciful one, they who have  no devotion and they whom millions of offenses have thrown into the waves of lust and other vices take shelter of you. O Vrnda, I bow to your lotus feet.


SB 3.15.19    


mandara-kunda-kurabotpala-campakarna-   punnaga-naga-bakulambuja-parijatah

gandhe 'rcite tulasikabharanena tasya

yasmims tapah sumanaso bahu manayanti


mandara--mandara; kunda--kunda; kuraba--kuraba; utpala--utpala; campaka--campaka; arna--arna flower; punnaga--punnaga; naga--nagakesara; bakula--bakula; ambuja--lily; parijatah--parijata; gandhe--fragrance; arcite--being worshiped; tulasika--tulasi; abharanena--with a garland; tasyah--of her; yasmin--in which Vaikuntha;  tapah --austerity; su-manasah--good minded, Vaikuntha minded; bahu--very much; manayanti--glorify.





     Although flowering plants like the mandara, kunda, kurabaka, utpala, campaka, arna, punnaga, nagakesara, bakula, lily and parijata are full of transcendental fragrance, they are still conscious of the austerities performed by tulasi, for tulasi is given special preference by the Lord, who garlands Himself with tulasi leaves.




     The importance of tulasi leaves is very clearly mentioned here. Tulasi plants and their leaves are very important in devotional service. Devotees are recommended to water the tulasi tree every day and collect the leaves to worship the Lord. One time an atheistic svami remarked, "What is the use of watering the tulasi plant? It is better to water eggplant. By watering the eggplant one can get some fruits, but what is the use of watering the tulasi?" These foolish creatures, unacquainted with devotional service, sometimes play havoc with the education of people in general.

     The most important thing about the spiritual world is that there is no envy among the devotees there. This is true even among the flowers, which are all conscious of the greatness of tulasi. In the Vaikuntha world entered by the four Kumaras, even the birds and flowers are conscious of service to the Lord.


Bhakti-Rasamrta sindhuh 1.2.203)

Atha Tadiyanam sevanam, Tulasyah, yatha Skande-


ya drsta nikhilagha-sangha-samani sprsta vapuh pavani,

roganamabhivandita nirasani siktantakatrasini

pratyasatti-vidhayini bhagavatah krishnasya sanropita

nyasta taccarane vimukti-phalada tasyai tulasyai namah


In the Skanda Purana there is a statement praising the tulasi tree as follows:


 "Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the tulasi tree, which can immediately vanquish volumes of sinful activities. Simply by seeing or touching this tree one can become relieved from all distresses and diseases. Simply by offering obeisances to and pouring water on the tulasi tree, one can become freed from the fear of being sent to the court of Yamaraja [the King of death, who punishes the sinful]. If someone sows a tulasi tree somewhere, certainly he becomes devoted to Lord Krishna. And when the tulasi leaves are offered in devotion at the lotus feet of Krishna, there is the full development of love of Godhead." (NOD page 99)


    In India all Hindus, even those not belonging to the Vaishnava group, take special care of the tulasi tree. Even in great cities where it is very difficult to keep a tulasi tree, people are to be found very carefully keeping this plant. They water it and offer obeisances to it, because worship of the tulasi tree is very important in devotional service. (NOD PAGE 100)





In the Skanda Purana there is another statement about tulasi, as follows:

Bhakti-Rasamrta sindhuh 1.2.204-205)

(Tatha ca tatraiva-there is another statement)


drsta sprsta tatha dhyata kirtita namita stuta

ropita sevita nityam pujita tulasi subha

navadha tulasim devim ye bhajanti dine dine

yuga-koti-sahasrani te vasanti harergrhe


 "Tulasi is auspicious in all respects. Simply by seeing, simply by touching, simply by re-membering, simply by praying to, simply by bowing before, simply by hearing about or simply by sowing this tree, there is always auspiciousness. Anyone who comes in touch with the tulasi tree in the above-mentioned ways lives eternally in the Vaikuntha world." (NOD PAGE 100)


( also see SB.11.3.30-31 how associating with devotees frees one of material desires.)