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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Verses > Gaudiya Kanthahara > Prayojana-tattva




The Definition of Bhava



suddha-sattva-visesatma prema suryamsu-samyabhak

rucibhis-cittatma srnyakrd-asau bhava ucyate


          As bhakti develops beyond the stage of ruci, and the heart, mind, and intellect are softened by divine love, one comes to the stage known as bhava-bhakti. This transcendental stage is beyond the modes of material nature, and is saturated with the qualities of suddha-sattva: transcendental goodness. At that time one's heart becomes illuminated like the sun, for bhava-bhakti is like a ray of prema-bhakti. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.3.1)


Mahaprabhu's Verse on Bhava



nayanam galad-asru-dharaya vadanam gadgada-ruddhaya gira

pulakair nicitam vapuh kada tava nama-grahane bhavisyati


          O My Lord, when will My eyes be decorated with tears of love flowing constantly when I chant Your holy name? When will My voice choke up in ecstasy (bhava), and when will the hairs of My body stand on end while chanting Your holy name? (Siksastakam 6)


The Causes of Bhava, Transcendental Emotion



yan martya-lilaupayikam sva-yoga-

maya-balam darsayata grhitam

vismapanam svasya ca saubhagarddheh

param padam bhusana-bhusanangam


          The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-maya. He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. These pastimes were wonderful for everyone, even for those proud of their opulence, including the Lord Himself in His form as the Lord of Vaikuntha. Thus His transcendental body is the ornament of all ornaments. (Bhag. 3.2.12)

The Lord's Sweet Nature as the Opulent Lord of Threes



svayam tv asamyatisayas tryadhisah


balim haradbhis cira-loka-palaih



          Lord Shri Krishna is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune and opulence. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to his feet. (Bhag. 3.2.21)


The Symptoms of Bhava Appear in Those Who Cultivate the Holy Name in the Association of Devotees



parasparanukathanam pavanam bhagavad-yasah

mitho ratir mithas tustir nivrttir mitha atmanah

smarantah smarayantas ca mitho 'ghaugha-haram harim

bhaktya sanjataya bhaktya bibhraty utpulakam tanum


          One should learn how to associate with the devotees of the Lord by gathering with them to chant the glories of the Lord. This process is most purifying. As devotees thus develop their loving friendship with one another, their rati, or transcendental happiness, and their satisfaction gradually increases. And by thus encouraging one another they are able to give up sense gratification, which is the cause of all suffering.

          The devotees of the Lord constantly discuss the glories of Lord among themselves. Thus they constantly remember Him and remind one another of His qualities and pastimes. In this way, by their devotion to the principles of bhakti-yoga, the devotees please the Lord, who takes away from them everything inauspicious.

          Being purified of all impediments, the devotees awaken to pure love of Godhead, which can only be obtained from those who have it for bhakti alone can cause bhakti. Thus, even within this world, their spiritualized bodies exhibit symptoms of transcendental ecstasy, such as standing of the bodily hairs on end. (Bhag. 11.3.30-31)


The Practical Symptoms of Bhava



ksantiravyartha kalatvam viraktirmana sunyata

asabandhah samut-kantha namagane sada rucih

asaktis-tad gunakhyane pritis-tad-vasati-sthale

ityadayo 'nubhavah syurjata-bhavaokure jane


          In those within whom bhava-bhakti has awakened, the following symptoms will be found: tolerance, eagerness to utilize one's time in the devotional service of the Lord, detachment from material things, humility or pridelessness, ardent hopes of receiving the Lord's mercy, eager and anxious longing for the Lord and his service, a constant taste for chanting the Lord's holy name, eagerness to glorify the Lord and discuss his pastimes, and a longing to live in a holy place where the Lord has performed his pastimes. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Purva Vibhaga 1.3.25)


Two Kinds of Raga-marga the Practitioner and the Perfected Soul



seva sadhaka-rupena siddha-rupena catra hi

tad-bhava-lipsuna karya braja-lokanusaratah


          A person desiring to attain the mood of Krishna's devotee should render service both with his material body as well as spiritual body following in the footsteps of the residents of Vraja. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Purva Vibhaga 1.2.295)



bahya, antara, ihara dui ta' sadhana

'bahye' sadhaka-dehe kare sravana-kirtana

'mane' nija-siddha-deha kariya bhavana

ratri-dine kare vraje krsnera sevana

nijabhista krishna-prestha pacheta' lagiya

nirantara seva kare antarmana hana


          There are two processes by which one may execute this ragmnugm bhakti external and internal. When self-realized, the advanced devotee externally remains like a neophyte and executes all the sastric injunctions, especially hearing and chanting. However, within his mind, in his transcendental spiritual body, he serves Krishna in Vrndavana in his particular way. He serves Krishna twenty-four hours, both day and night. (Cc. Madhya 22.156-157,159)


The Development of Prema into Sneha, Raga, Anuraga, Bhava, and Mahabhava



syad-drdheyam ratih prema prodyan snehah kramadayam

syan-manah pranayo rago 'nurago bhava ity api

bijam iksuh sa ca rasah sa gudah khanda eva sah

sa sarkara sita sa ca sa yatha syat sitopala


          When rati, or constant affectionate attachment to Krishna, is very fixed, steady, and determined, then it is known as prema, or pure love of God. The development of such divine love may be compared to the refinement of sugar. Just as in the development of sugar first there is the seed, then the juice, then molasses, then crude sugar, refined sugar, sugar candy, and rock candy, so in the same way, rati matures into prema, and then sneha, mana, praraya, raga, and anuraga and bhava. (Ujjvala-nilamani, Sthayibhava Pra 53-54)



sadhana-bhakti haite haya 'rati'ra udaya

rati gadha haile tara 'prema' nama kaya

prema vrddhi-krame nama sneha, mana, pranaya

raga, anuraga, bhava, mahabhava haya


          By regularly practicing devotional service (smdhana-bhakti), one gradually becomes attached to Krishna. This is called rati. Then rati becomes intensified, it becomes, prema. The basic aspects of prema, when gradually increasing to different stages are sneha, mana, praraya, raga, anuraga, bhava, and mahabhava. (Cc. Madhya 19.177-178)


One With Eyes of Prema Can See the Supreme Person




santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti

yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


          I worship Govinda, the Primeval Lord, who is Syamasundara, Krishna Himself with inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged with the salve of love. (Brahma-samhita 5.38)


The Shelter of Madhurya-rasa-bhakti




tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih

goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


          I worship Govinda, the Primeval Lord, residing in His own realm, Goloka, with Radha, resembling His own spiritual figure, the embodiment of the ecstatic potency possessed of the sixty-four artistic activities, in the company of Her confidantes (sakhis), embodiments of the extensions of Her bodily form, permeated and vitalized by His ever-blissful spiritual rasa.

 (Brahma-samhita 5.27)


The Direct and Indirect Tasting of Rasa



etavad eva jijnasyam tattva-jijnasunatmanah

anvaya-vyatirekabhyam yat syat sarvatra sarvada


          A person searching after the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, must certainly search for this in all circumstances, in all space and time, both directly and indirectly. (Bhag. 2.9.36)


The Definition of Rasa



vyavatitya bhavana-vartma yas camatkrtibharabhuh

hrdi sattvojjvale badham svadate sa raso matah


          When one transcends the status of ecstatic love and is situated on the highest platform of pure goodness, one is understood to have cleansed the heart of all material contamination. In that pure stage of life, one can taste this nectar, and this tasting capacity is technically called rasa, or transcendental mellow. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 2.5.132)


The Qualification for Madhurya-rasa



yadi hari-smarane sarasam manah yadi vilasa-kalasu kutahalam

madhura-komala-kanta-padavalim srnu tada jayadeva-sarasvatim


          If you at all wish to fill your consciousness with the remembrance of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna and enter into a serving position within their sublime pleasure pastimes on the banks of Radha-kunda, then listen carefully to this sweet and poignant song of Jayadeva, which is filled with the narration's of their divine love. [Within this verse there is relationship (sambandha) and the means of attaining perfection (abhidheya). The qualifications (adhikara) for entering one's constitutional position in the confidential pastimes of Radha-Madhava, rendering Them service, and realizing the highest ecstasy in that position, is attainable by those rasika devotees who are free from all anarthas. They are qualified to read this book and thus reach the highest goal (prayojana). (Gita-govinda 1.3)

The Prohibition for Those Who are Unqualified



naitat samacarej jatu manasapi hy anisvarah

vinasyaty acaran maudhyad yatharudro 'bdhi-jam visam


          One should never imitate the behavior of great persons. If out of foolishness an ordinary person imitates such behavior [as Krishna's dancing with the gopis], even mentally he is doomed, just as one who imitates Rudra by swallowing a ocean of poison. (Bhag. 10.33.30)


The Separation Experienced in Madhurya-rasa



yugayitam nimesena caksusa pravrsayitam

sunyayitam jagat sarvam govinda-virahena me


          O Govinda! Feeling Your separation, I am considering a moment to be like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence. (Siksastakam 7)



amuny adhanyani dinantarani hare tvad-alokanam antarena

anatha-bandho karunaika-sindho ha hanta katham nayami


          O Hari! O Friend of the helpless! You are the only ocean of mercy! Because I have not met You, my inauspicious days and nights have become unbearable. I do not know how I shall pass the time. (Krishna-karnamrta 41)



aslisya va pada-ratam pinastu mam adarsanan marma-hatam karotu va

yatha tatha va vidadhatu lampato mat-prana-nathas tu sa eva naparah


          I know no none but Krishna as My Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles Me roughly in His embrace or makes Me broken-hearted by ignoring Me completely. He is completely free to do whatever He wants, for He is a debauchee, yet He is still My worshipful Lord, unconditionally. (Siksastaka 8)


Extreme Separation



ayi dina-dayardra-natha he mathuranatha kadavalokyase

hrdayam tvadaloka-kataram dayita bhramyati kim karomy aham


          O my Lord! O most merciful Master of Mathura! When shall I see You again? Because of my not seeing You, my agitated heart has become unsteady. O most beloved one, what shall I do now? (Padyavali, Madhavendra Puri)


The Determined Prayer of One Who Aspires to Worship Krishna in Madhurya-rasa



na dharmam nadharmam sruti-gana-niruktam kila kuru

braje radha-krishna-pracura-paricaryam iha tanu

sacisunum nandisvara-pati-sutatve guruvaram

mukunda-presthatve smara paramajasram nanu manah


          O mind! Disregard the piety and impiety mentioned in the Vedas. Render eternal, confidential, loving service to the lotus feet of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna in Vraja. Always meditate on the lotus feet of the son of Saci, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who is nondifferent form the son of Nanda. And always meditate on gurudeva, who [as the representative of Shrimati Radharani] is the most beloved of Mukunda [Shri Krishna]. (Manah-Siksm 2)


Thus ends the Eighteenth Jewel of Gaudiya-Kanthahara, entitled Prayojana-tattva.