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PRAMANA-TATTVA

 

 

 

Shrimad-Bhagavatam Describes the Four Kinds of Evidence.

 

Appendix 1

srutih pratyaksamaitihyam anumanam catusthayam

pramanesvana-vasthanad vikalpat sa virajyate

 

          There are four kinds of evidence by which reality may be known: revelation, perception, history and hearsay and inference. (Bhag. 11.19.17)

 

Manu-samhita Describes Three Kinds of Evidence.

 

Appendix 2

pratyaksas-canumananca sastranca vividhagamam

trayam suviditam karyam dharma-suddhim-abhisata

 

          If one wants to understand what is reality, one must consider the three kinds of evidence: Vedic evidence, perception, and inference. (Manu 12.105)

 

The Ancient Vaishnava Madhva Muni Explains the Three Kinds of Evidence.

 

Appendix 3

pratyakse 'ntarbhaved yasmad-atithyam tena desikah

pramanam trividham prakhyat tatra mukhya srutir-bhavet

 

          Since hearsay is included in perception, Madhvacarya has said that the means of proper knowledge are three, among which sruti, or revelation, is the highest. (Prameya-ratnavali 9.2)

 

Divine Sound is the Best Evidence for Understanding Reality

 

Appendix 4

yadyapi pratyaksanumana-sabdaryopamanarthapattyabhava-sambhavaitihya-cesthakhyani dasa pramanani viditani, tathapi bhrama-pramada-vipralipsa-karanapatava-dosa-rahitavacanatmakah sabda eva mulam pramanam

 

          If one carefully examines the ten kinds of evidence, namely pratyaksa, anumana, arya, upamana, arthapatti, abhava, sambhava, aithihya, and centha, one will find that all of them are contaminated with the four defects of material life: cheating, imperfect senses, illusion, and mistakes. Therefore of all of these, revelation, sruti, is considered to be superior for it is above the four defects. Sruti is, therefore, the root of all evidence. (Tattva-Sandarbha, Sarva-samvadini)

 

Appendix 5

pramanera madhye sruti-pramana pradhana

sruti ye mukhyartha kahe, sei se pramana

jivera asthi-vistha dui sankha-gomaya

sruti-vakye sei dui mahapavitra haya

svatah-pramana veda satya yei kaya

"laksana" karile svatah-pramanya-hani haya

 

          [Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said] Although there is other evidence, the evidence given in the Vedic version must be taken as foremost. Vedic versions understood directly are first-class evidence. Conchshells and cow dung are nothing but the bones and the stool of certain living entities, but according to the Vedic version they are both considered very pure.

The Vedic statements are self-evident. Whatever they state must be accepted. If we interpret according to our own imagination, the authority of the Vedas is immediately lost. (Cc. Madhya 6.135-137)