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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Verses > Gaudiya Kanthahara > Jiva-tattva

Jiva-tattva

 

 

The Jiva is a Separated Infinitesimal Particle

(Vibhinamsa) of the Lord

 

10.1

svamsa-vibhinamsa-rupe hana vistara

ananta vaikuntha-brahmande karena vihara

svamsa-vistara catur-vyuha, avatara-gana

vibhinnamsa jiva tanra saktite ganana

 

          Krishna expands into many forms. Some are personal expansions, and some are separate expansions. Thus He performs pastimes in both the spiritual and material worlds. The spiritual worlds are the Vaikuntha planets, and the material universes are brahmandas, gigantic globes governed by Brahma's. Expansions of His personal self like the quadruple manifestations of Saokarsana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Vasudeva descend as incarnations from Vaikuntha to this world. The separated expansions (vibhinnams) are living entities. Although they are expansions of Krishna they are counted among His different potencies. (Cc. Madhya 22.8-9)

 

10.2

 

mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah

manah-sasthanindriyani prakrti-sthani karsati

 

          The living entities in this world are My eternal atomic parts. Because of conditioned life, they are struggling hard with the six senses, including the mind. (Bhagavad-gita 15.7)

 

The Nature of the Jiva is Transcendental Substance

 

10.3

na jayate mriyate va kadacin nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah

ajo nityah sasvato 'yam purano na hanyate hanyamane sarire

 

          For the soul there is never birth or death. Having once been, he never ceases to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying, primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain. (Bhagavad-gita 2.20)

10.4

nainam chindanti sastrani nainam dahati pavakah

na cainam kledayanty apo na sosayati marutah

 

          The soul can never be cut into pieces, nor can he be burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind. (Bhagavad-gita 2.23)

 

10.5

acchedyo 'yam adahyo 'yam akledyo 'sosya eva ca

nityah sarva-gatah sthanur acalo 'yam sanatanah

 

          This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be never be burned nor dried. He is everlasting, all-pervading, un-changeable, immovable, and eternally the same. (Bhagavad-gita 2.24)

 

The Jiva is a Particle of a ray of Paramatma

 

10.6

yathagneh ksudra visphulioga vyuccarantyevam evasmadatmanah

sarve pranah sarve lokah sarve devah sarvani bhutani vyuccaranti

 

          As innumerable sparks emanate from a fire, so all the jivas with their particular characteristics emanate from the Paramatma, along with the gods, planets, animate and inanimate beings. (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.1.20)

 

10.7

isvarera tattva yena jvalita jvalana

jivera svarupa yaiche sphuliogera kana

 

          The Lord is like a great blazing fire, and the living entities are like small sparks of that fire. (Cc. Adi 7.116)

 

The Jiva is Conscious Atomic Energy

 

10.8

balagra-sata bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca

bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantyaya kalpate

 

          If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. And this living entity is capable to attain the unlimited Lord. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 5.9)

 

The Infinitesimal Soul is Pure,

but Sometimes is Involved in Piety and Impiety

 

10.9

anurhyera atmayam va ete sinitah punyam capunyan ca

 

          This soul is atomic, and sometimes takes shelter of piety and impiety. (Madhva-bhasyoddhrta Gautama-sruti-vakaya 2.3.18)

10.10

eso' nuratma cetasa veditavyo

yasmin pranah pancadha samviesa

pranaiscittam sarvamotam prajanam

yasmin visuddhe vibhavatyesa atma

 

          The soul is atomic in size and can be perceived by perfect intelligence. This atomic soul is floating in the five kinds of air (prana, apana, vyana, samana, and udana). It sits within the heart and spreads its influence throughout the body. When the soul is purified from the contamination of the five kinds of material air, its spiritual influence is exhibited. (Mundaka Upanisad 3.1.9)

 

The Soul Pervades the Body With Consciousness

 

10.11

yatha sarva-gatam sauksmyad akasam nopalipyate

sarvatravasthito dehe tathatma nopalipyate

 

          The sky, due to its subtle nature, does not mix with anything, although it is all-pervading. Similarly, the soul, being spiritual, although it is in the body, does not mix with the body. (Bhagavad-gita 13.33.)

 

The Evidence of Vedanta on the Nature of the Soul

 

10.12

gunadvalokavat

 

          Just as fire pervades a room by its light the soul pervades the body by its quality of intelligence. (Brahma-sutra 2.3.24)

 

Two Kinds of Souls Bound and Liberated.

 

10.13

sei vibhinnamsa jiva dui ta' prakara

eka 'nitya-mukta', eka 'nitya-samsara'

'nitya-mukta' nitya krishna-carane unmukha

'krishna-parisada' nama, bhunje seva-sukha

'nitya-bandha' krishna haite nitya-bahirmukha

'nitya-samsara', bhunje narakadi duhkha

sei dose maya-pisaci danda kare tare

adhyatmikadi tapa-traya tare jari' mare

 

          The jivas are divided in two categories. Some are eternally liberated, and others are eternally conditioned. Those who are eternally liberated are always awake to Krishna consciousness, and they render transcendental loving service at the feet of Krishna. They are eternal associates of Krishna, and eternally enjoy the transcendental bliss of serving Krishna. Apart from these ever-liberated devotees, there are the conditioned souls who always turn away from the service of the Lord. They are perpetually conditioned in this material world and are subjected to the material tribulations brought about by different bodily forms in hellish conditions. Owing to being opposed to Krishna consciousness the conditioned soul is punished by the witch of the external energy, maya. He suffers the threefold miseries caused by the body and mind, the inimical behavior of other living entities, and natural disturbances caused by the demigods. (Cc. Madhya 22.10-13)

 

The Soul's Constitutional Position

 

10.14

jivera 'svarupa' haya krsnera 'nitya-dasa'

krsnera 'tatastha-sakti', 'bhedabheda-prakasa

suryamsa-kirana, yaiche agni-jvala-caya

svabhavika krsnera tina-prakara 'sakti' haya

 

          The living entity's constitutional position is to be an eternal servant of Krishna. As a manifestation of Krishna's marginal energy he is simultaneously one and different from the Lord, like a particle of sunshine or fire. Krishna has three varieties of energy: cit-sakti, tatastha-sakti, and maya-sakti. (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109)

 

The Jiva is an Eternal Servant of Krishna

 

10.15

sabrahmakah sa-rudrasca sendra devam maharsibhih

arcayanti surasestham devam narayanam harih

 

          The Brahmas, Rudras, Indras, and Maharsis, as well as the demigods all worship the Supreme God, Shri Narayana, Hari. (Prameya-ratnavali 5.2 as quoted from the Mahabharata)

 

The Jiva is Krishna's Tatastha sakti

 

10.16

tasya va etasya purusasya dve eva sthane bhavata idamsca paraloka

sthananca sandhyam trtiyam svapna-sthanam tasmin sandhye sthane tisthannete ubhe sthane pasyatidanca paraloka-sthananca

 

         There are two states of the jiva in bondage the state with a corporeal body in the world and the state without a corporeal body in the world gained after death. There is an intermediate state that of sleep (dream). In this intermediate state one may at times have a dream of both worlds. Whatever is the way to the conditioned state of being in the other world, having obtained that way, one sees the evils of both this world and the joys of the other world. When he goes to sleep, he takes a little of the impressions of this variegated world, puts the body aside, and creates a dream body in its place, revealing his own brightness by his own light and dreams. Then he becomes illuminated. (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 4.3.9)

 

The Jiva, is a Manifestation one With and

Different From the Lord

 

10.17

'mayadhisa' 'maya-vasa' isvare-jive bheda

hena-jive isvara-saha kaha ta' abheda

gita-sastre jiva-rupa 'sakti' kari' mane

hena jive 'bheda' kara isvarera sane

 

          The Lord is the master of His potency, and the jivas are the servants of His potency. That is the difference between the Lord and the living beings. You may say that they are the same, but in Bhagavad-gita the living being is established as the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord. (Cc. Madhya 6.162-163)

 

10.18

bhakti-yogena manasi samyak pranihite 'male

apasyat purusam purnam mayam ca tad-apasrayam

 

          Fixing his mind by perfectly engaging it in bhakti-yoga, without any tinge of materialism, he saw the Supreme Person along with His external energy, maya, which was under full control. (Bhag. 1.7.4)

 

10.19

yaya sammohito jiva atmanam tri-gunatmakam

paro 'pi manute 'nartham tat-krtam cabhipadyate

 

          Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of nature, thinks himself a material product; thus he suffers the reactions of material miseries. (Bhag. 1.7.5)

 

The Jivas are Dependent on God

 

10.20

nityo 'nityanam cetanas cetananam

eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman

tam atmastham ye' nupasyanti dhiras-tesam

santih sasvati netaresam

 

          Of the innumerable, eternal, conscious beings, there is one eternal Supreme Being. He maintains the innumerable living beings according to individual work and reaction of work. By His expansion as Paramatma that Supreme Lord is also present within the heart of every living being. Only through saintly persons, who can see that Supreme Lord within and without, can one attain perfect and eternal peace (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13)

 

10.21

ekasmad-isvaran-nityac-cetanat-tadrsa-mithah

bhidyante na bahavo jivas-tena bhedah sanatanah

 

          The above verse explains that both the Supreme Lord and the individual souls are eternal and conscious. By affirming their eternal condition, their eternal distinction is also affirmed. (Prameya-ratnavali 4.5)

 

Suddhadvaita on the Difference Between Jiva and Isvara

 

10.22

yatha samudre bahavas-taranga statha vayam brahmani bhuri jivah

bhavet tarango na kadacidabdhi stvam brahma kasmad-bhavitasi jiva

 

          O soul, in the same way that there are unlimited waves in the ocean so within the ocean of consciousness there are innumerable jivas. If a wave cannot become the ocean, how can a jiva soul become the Supreme Lord? (Tattva-muktavali 10)

 

The Difference Between Jiva and Isvara is Eternal

 

10.23

idam jnanam upashritya mama sadharmyam agatah

sarge 'pi nopajayante pralaye na vyathanti ca

 

          By being fixed in this knowledge, one can attain to the transcendental nature, which is like My own nature. Thus established, one is not born at the time of creation nor disturbed at the time of dissolution. (Bhagavad-gita 14.2)

 

Sruti on the Eternal Difference Between Jiva and Isvara

 

10.24

pranaikadhina-vrttitvad vagadeh pranata yatha

tatha brahmadhinavrtter-jagato brahmatocyate

 

          As speech and other organs are also called prana or life air because their functions are dependent upon the functioning of the life air. So somethimes the material world is called Brahman because it functions by Brahman's support. (Prameya-ratnavali 4.6)

 

10. 25

na vai vaco na caksumsi na srotrani na manamsityacaksate

prana ityevacaksate, prana hyevaitani sarvani bhavanti

 

          [Baladeva Vidyabhusana develops his point by quoting from the Upanisads] The different senses, such as the voice, sense of sight, sense of hearing, and the mind, all are known as the life force, but the actual life force is different from all these senses, which depend on it. They are named after the life-force, although it is actually different from them. The idea is that although the senses are dependent on the life force, and may be collectively known as the life force, they are all distinct. In the same way, the souls, which are dependent on Brahman, are sometimes known as Brahman, in order to show their origin, but they are always distinct from Brahman. (Chandogya Upanisad 5.1.15)

 

Sankara was Really a Proponent of the Difference

Between Jiva and Isvara

 

10.26

shri sutra-karena krto vibhedo yat-karma-karturvyupadesa uktah

vyakhya krta bhasyakrta tathaiva guham pravisthaviti bhedavakyaih

 

          "Karma-karturvyhpadesacca." In this sutra the author, Vedavyasa, recognizes the eternal distinction between Brahman and the jiva. Thus the eternal distinction between the soul and God is established by Vedanta. In Sankaracarya's commentary on the Brahma-Sutra, guham pravisthavatamanau hi tad-darsanat, "It is therefore seen that both the jiva and Paramatma occupy the heart." (Brahma-Sutra 1.2.11), Sankaracarya quotes the "rtam pibantau" Upanisad verse, Katha Upanisad 1.3.1. This verse asserts, "There are two selves residing in the core of the heart the jiva and Paramatma. The jiva enjoys the fruits of karma whereas Paramatma directs the soul to do good. Those who know Brahman speak of these two as being as distinct as shadow and light". The sutra upon which this comment is made comes in reply to a question as to the difference between "intelligence" (buddhi) and the jiva. The sutra explains that Paramatma is the source of intelligence and accepts the distinction between Paramatma and the jiva. By quoting this verse in his commentary, Sankaracarya substantively agrees with the intent of the author of the Brahma-sutra, and recognizes the difference between the soul and God. (Tattva-muktavali 5.83)

 

Note: The word karma here means object or Brahman. The word kartur (agent) here means jiva according to Baladeva Vidyabhusana. Therefore, the line quoted means, "There is a difference between the object and the agent or between the soul and God.

 

10.27

yadyapi ha jagate isvare bheda nai

sarvamaya paripurna ache sarvathani

tabho tomahaite se haiyachi "ami"

ama haite nahi kabhu haiyacha tumi

yena samudrera se "taranga" loke bole

tarangera samudra na haya kona kale

ata eva jagat tomara, tumi pita

ihaloke paraloke tumi se raksita

yaha haite haya janma, ye kare palana

tare ye na bhaje, varjya haya sei jana

ei sankarera sloka ei abhipraya

iha na janiya matha ki karye mudhaya

 

          [In his heart, Sankara is a servant of Krishna, although he has given many arguments promoting oneness just to confuse the atheists and bewilder the demons. In admitting this to Lord Chaitanya, Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya said:] Whatever Sankaracarya says, his ultimate intent is to promote the service of Krishna. A verse from Sankaracarya's own mouth confirms this, satyapi bhadapagame, natha! tavaham na mamakiyastvam, samudro hi tarangah, kvacan samudro na tarangah. Sankaracarya himself says that whenever he remarks that there is no difference between God and the world, he is simply promoting the all-encompassing nature of the Lord. [In other words, when Sankaracarya says that the world and God are one, He means that everything flows from the Lord and exists in Him, and is therefore nondifferent from Him.] Sankaracarya says to Lord Vishnu: "You are the Supreme Lord. Everything emanates from You. I have also emanated from You. You certainly did not emanate from me. The waves flow forth from the ocean; the ocean does not flow forth from the waves. This whole world flows forth from You, O Lord; You are the Lord and master of the universe. You protect and maintain both material and spiritual worlds. From You they have taken birth, and by You they are maintained. One who doesn't worship You is fit to be abandoned." [Sarvabhauma continued] These are the words of Sankaracarya, and this is his intent. What will it benefit a fool who can't get this understanding into his head? (C.Bhag. Antya 3.48-53)

 

The Cause of the Jiva's Ignorance

 

10.28

dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate

tayoranyah pippalam svadvattya-nasnan-nanyo a'bhicakasiti

 

          The Supreme Lord is the friend of the living being, and is so kind upon him that He always accompanies the soul. In the same way that two birds occupy the same branch of a tree, the Lord sits in the heart of every living being ready to bestow auspiciousness upon the soul. In this way the Lord acts as the in-dwelling witness, even while the soul pursues the fruits of karma and experiences happiness and distress (Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.6,7)

 

10.29

samane vrkse puruso nimagno'nisaya socati muhyamanah

justham yada pasyatyanyamisam asya mahimanamiti vitasokah

 

          Although the two birds are in the same tree, the enjoying bird is full of anxiety and morose; but if somehow he turns to his friend, the Lord, and knows His glories, at once he is freed from all anxiety. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.7)

 

In Ignorance, the Soul Identifies With the

Gross and Subtle Body and Suffers Repeated Birth and Death

 

10.30

avidyayamastare varttamanah,

svayam dhirah panditammanyamanah

damdramayamanah pariyanti mudha,

andhenaiva niyamana yathandhah

 

          Illusioned by ignorance (and thus identifying the gross and subtle bodies as the self), bewildered souls think themselves steady and wise. Baffled by their own conceit they set themselves up as scholars and thus lead other ignorant souls further into darkness. In this way, those blinded by ignorance lead similarly blind men into the darkness of oblivion. (Katha Upanisad 1.2.5)

 

10.31

krishna bhuli' sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha

ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha

kabhu svarge uthaya, kabhu narake dubaya

dandya-jane raja yena nadite cubaya

 

          Forgetting Krishna, the living entity has been attracted by the external energy from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy gives him all kinds of misery. As a result, sometimes he is raised to heaven, and sometimes he is drowned in hell, just as a criminal is raised and again lowered into a pond on a dunking stool as punishment. (Cc. Madhya 20.117-118)

 

Attaining Krishna's Lotus Feet is

Liberation From all Material Suffering

 

10.32

jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanih

ksinaih klesair-janma-mrtyu-prahanih

tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam dehabhede

visvesvaryam kevala aptakamah

 

          By understanding the truth of the Supreme Lord, one can slip the bonds of material life and get free from the miseries of repeated birth and death. Liberated from the gross and subtle material bodies, as an associate of the Supreme Lord in His transcendental abode, he attains an eternal divine form and realizes his heart's desires. (Svetasvatara Upanisad 1.11)

 

10.33

sadhu-sastra-krpaya yadi krsnonmukha haya

sei jiva nistare, maya tahare chadaya

 

          If the conditioned soul becomes Krishna conscious by the mercy of saintly persons, who voluntarily preach scriptural injunctions and help him to become Krishna conscious, the conditioned soul is freed from the clutches of maya. (Cc. Madhya 20.120)

 

The Siddhanta of Visisthadvaitavada

Consciousness and Matter are Like the

Gross and Subtle Body of the Lord

 

10.34

yah sarvesu bhutesu tisthan sarvebhyo bhutebhyo' ntaro yam

sarvani bhutani na viduryasya sarvani bhutani sariram

yah sarvani bhutanyantaro yamayatyesa ta atmantaryamvamrta

 

          He dwells in all beings, and yet is different from them and unknown to them. All beings are His creation. He rules over them as the inner self. He is the soul of all souls. Just as the body is ruled by the soul, so all souls and all bodies are ruled by Him, the Soul of all souls. (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 3.7.15)

 

 The Siddhanta of Dvaitadvaita-vada on the Subject of the Jiva

 

10.35

jnana-svarupas ca hareradhinam sarira-yoga-viyoga-yogyam

anum hi jivam pratideha-bhinnam jnatrtvavantam yadanantam ahuh

 

          The soul is both knower and known, unlimited in number, atomic, and an eternal servant of Krishna. Because of his atomic size he is sometimes enveloped by maya in the form of a material body. Sometimes he is disembodied. In any case, there are innumerable jivas appearing in countless material bodies. (Nimbarkacarya, Dasa-sloka)

 

The Siddhanta of Suddhadvaita-vada

(Vishnusvami as represented by Shridhara Svami)

 

10.36

hladinya samvidaslistah sac-cid-ananda isvarah

svavidya-samvrto jivah samklesa-nikarakarah

 

          The nature of the Supreme Lord is sat-cit-ananda: He is the ultimate embodiment of eternity, knowledge, and bliss, and is richly endowed with the hladini and samvit saktis. The jivas of this world, however, are covered by ignorance, which is the cause of their suffering the threefold miseries. (Shridhara Svami on Shrimad Bhagavatam 1.7.5-6)

 

10.37

vastuno'mso jivo vastunah saktirmaya

vastunah karyam jagac-ca tat sarvam vastveva

 

          The Supreme Lord alone is the substance of all reality; a particle of His substance is the jiva; the energy of that substance is maya and the effect of that substance is this material world. Therefore, everything having emanated from that supreme substance, all things may be said to be "nondifferent" from it. (Bhavartha-dipika 1.1.2)

 

A Liberated Soul Attains a Perfect Spiritual Body

in the Service of Krishna

 

10.38

mukta api lilaya vigraham krtva bhagavantam bhajante

 

          Liberated souls have divine forms with which they worship the Supreme Lord by taking part in His transcendental pastimes. (Cited by Shridhara Svami while commenting on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.21)

 

 Suddhadvaita-vada on the Distinct Position

of the Eternally Liberated Souls

 

10.39

parsada-tanu-nama-karmarabdham nityatvam suddhatvam ca

          The eternal associates of the Lord are free from karma. They are eternally pure, transcendental, and free from all material qualities. (Bhavartha-dipika 1.6.21)

 

One who Equates the Jiva with the Supreme Lord is an Atheist

 

10.40

aparimita dhruvas tanu-bhrto yadi sarva-gatas

tarhi na sasyateti niyamo dhruva netaratha

ajani ca yan-mayam tad avimucya niyantr bhavet

samam anujanatam yad amatam mata-dustataya

 

          If the countless living entities were all-prevading and possessed forms that never changed, You could not possible be their absolute ruler, O immutable One. But since they are Your localized expansions and their forms are subject to change, You do control them. Indeed, that which supplies the ingredients for the generation of something is necessarily its controller because a product never exists apart from its ingredient cause. It is simply illusion for someone to think that he knows the Supreme Lord, who is equally present in each of His expansions, since whatever knowledge one gains by material means must be imperfect. (Bhag. 10.87.30)

 

10.41

yei mudha kahe, jiva isvara haya 'sama'

seita 'pasandi' haya, dande tare yama

 

          Any fool who says that the Supreme Lord and the jiva are the same is an infidel, an offender, and an atheist. He is punished by the Lord of death, Yamaraja. (Cc. Madhya 18.115)

 

Thus ends the Tenth Jewel of the Gaudiya Kanthahara entitled Jiva-tattva