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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Verses > Gaudiya Kanthahara > Bhagavad-rasa-tattva

Bhagavad-rasa-tattva

 

Krishna, the Ocean of Transcendental Mellows,

 Appears Differently to Devotees

 

9.1

mallanam asanir nrnam nara-varah strinam smaro murtiman

gopanam sva-jano'satam ksiti-bhujam sasta sva-pitroh sisuh

mrtyur bhoja-pater virad avidusam tattvam param yoginam

vrsninam para-devateti vidito rangam gatah sagrajah

 

          "O king, the reservoir of all rasas, the fountainhead of all divine mellows, Shri Krishna, was seen in different ways by those who are acquainted with Him in different relationships. When Krishna entered the arena of Kamsa, accompanied by His elder brother, Balarama, He was seen according to the respective mentality of every spectator; He appeared like a thunderbolt to the heroic athletes; the people in general saw him as a superhuman being; the ladies saw Him as the god of Love; the cowherders, with a mood of friendship, saw Him as their own kinsman. Wicked monarchs saw Him as a strict ruler and dispenser of justice. His parents saw Him as a child. Kamsa saw Him as death personified. The worldly minded saw Him as the universal form; the santa-rasa yogis saw Him the indwelling Supersoul, the Supreme Principle; and the Vrsnis saw Him as the Supreme Deity. (Bhag. 10.43.17)

 

Note: Bhaktivinoda Thakura remarks that this verse gives a clue as to the different rasas in which devotees of different points of view relate to the Lord. Bhaktivinoda says that in this verse, the yogis are seen to be representative of santa-rasa, the Vrsnis of dasya-rasa, while the cowherd boys represent sakhya-rasa mixed with hasya-rasa (the sub-mellow of comedy). The cowherd men, headed by Nanda Maharaja, exemplify vatsalya-rasa and karuna-rasa (the sub-mellow of compassion). The ladies exhibit madhurya-rasa. The wrestlers exhibit virya-rasa, while the people in general are examples of adbhuta-rasa (the sub-mellow of wonder.) The kings exhibit raudra-rasa (the sub-mellow of anger) and the Bhojas, headed by Kamsa exemplify bhayanaka-rasa (the sub-mellow of fear). The worldly-minded, who view the Lord as the Universal Form relate to Him in vibhatsa-rasa (the sub-mellow of ghastliness). In this way, Krishna is the supreme object of the five principle and seven secondary rasas. For this reason He is known as akhila-rasamrta-murti, or the embodiment of all transcendental mellows.

 

 The Absolute Truth is the Personification of Divine Mellows

 

9.2

raso vai sah rasam hyevayam labdhanandi bhavati

ko hyevanyat kah pranyat yadesa akasa anando na syat esa hyevanandayati

 

          Lord Krishna is the embodiment of all-ecstatic bliss; He is the reservoir of all pleasure. Having derived ecstasy from Him, the individual souls become blissful. For, who indeed, could breathe, who could be alive if this blissful Lord were not present within the hearts of all souls. He alone bestows ecstasy. (Taittiriya Upanisad 2.7)

 

The Five Principle Rasas

 

9.3

santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, madhura-rasa nama

krishna-bhakti-rasa-madhye e panca pradhana

 

          The chief transcendental mellows experienced with the Supreme Personality of Godhead are five santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya-rasa. (Cc. Madhya 19.185)

 

The Seven Secondary Rasas

 

9.4

hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bibhatsa, bhaya

panca-vidha-bhakte gauna sapta-rasa haya

 

          In addition to the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disgust, and fear. (Cc. Madhya 19.187)

 

9.5

sarvam khalu idam brahma taj-jalaniti santa upasita

 

          Everything is Brahman. That is everything that exists has emanated from Brahman, the Supreme Absolute Truth. Nothing can exist that is unrelated to Him. From Him everything emanates, by Him everything is maintained, into Him everything is dissolved. Therefore, one who is santa, or peaceful, who has intuitive wisdom, should worship Him through devotional service. [One who worships the Lord in this way, free from any trace of material hankering, is said to be a devotee in santa-rasa.] (Chandogya Upanisad. 3.14.1)

 

 Shrimad Bhagavatam on Santa-rasa

 

9.6

vata-vasana ya rsayah sramana urdhva-manthinah

brahmakhyam dhama te yanti santah sannyasino 'malah

 

          Sages who subsist on air, those who exert themselves in penance, those who observe strict celibacy for life, those who are peaceful, and those who are sannyasis, attain to the spiritual abode known as Brahman. (Bhag. 11.6.47)

 

Being Fixed in Krishna is a Quality of Santa-rasa

 

9.7

samo man-nisthata buddher dama indriya-samyamah

titiksa duhkha-sammarso jihvopastha-jayo dhrtih

 

          The word sama, or santa-rasa, indicates that one is attached to the lotus feet of Krishna. His mind is fixed in constantly meditating on the Lord. Dama means controlling the senses and not being deviated from the Lord's service; titiksa means to tolerate unhappiness; dhrti means complete control of the tongue and the genitals. (Bhag. 11.19.36)

 

 The Essential Feature of Santa-rasa

 

9.8

svarga, moksa krishna-bhakta 'naraka' kari' mane

krishna-nistha, trsna-tyaga santera 'dui' gune

santera svabhava krsne mamata-gandha-hina

'param-brahma'-'paramatma'-jnana pravina

 

          When a devotee is on the platform of santa-rasa, he desires neither elevation to the heavenly planets nor liberation. These are the results of karma and jnana, and the devotee considers them no better than hell. A person on the santa platform manifests the two transcendental qualities of detachment from all material desire and full attachment to Krishna. It is the nature of santa-rasa that not even the smallest intimacy exists. Rather, knowledge of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma is prominent. (Cc. Madhya 19.215,218)

 

Dasya-rasa = Santa-rasa + Service

 

9.9

kevala 'svarupa-jnana' haya santa-rase

'purnaisvarya-prabhu-jnana' adhika haya dasye

isvara-jnana, sambhrama-gaurava pracura

'seva' kari' krsne sukha dena nirantara

santera guna dasye ache, adhika 'sevana'

ataeva dasya-rasera ei 'dui' guna

 

          In santa-rasa one only realizes his constitutional position, but when one is raised to dasya-rasa, he better understands the full opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In dasya-rasa, knowledge of the Supreme Person is revealed with awe and veneration. By rendering service to Krishna, the devotee in dasya-rasa gives constant happiness to the Lord. The qualities of santa-rasa are also present in dasya-rasa, but in dasya-rasa service is added. Thus dasya-rasa has the qualities of santa-rasa and dasya-rasa. (Cc. Madhya 19.219-221)

 

Shrimad Bhagavatam on Dasya-rasa

 

9.10

ittham satam brahma-sukhanubhutya

dasyam gatanam para-daivatena

mayashritanam nara-darakena

sakam vijahruh krta-punya-punjah

 

          Those engaged in self-realization, appreciating the Brahman effulgence of the Lord, and those engaged as servants of the Supreme Lord, accepting Him as master, as well as those who are under the clutches of maya, thinking the Lord an ordinary person, cannot understand that certain exalted persons after accumulating heaps of pious activities are now playing with the Lord in friendship as cowherd boys. (Bhag. 10.12.11)

 

Note: Ramananda Raya cited this verse to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as an example of the superiority of sakhya-rasa over dasya-rasa.

 

Shrimad Bhagavatam on the Glories of Dasya-rasa

 

9.11

tvayopabhukta-srag-gandha-vaso-'laokara-carcitah

ucchista-bhojino dasas tava mayam jayema hi

 

          Simply by decorating ourselves with the garlands, fragrant oils, clothes, and ornaments that You have already enjoyed, and by eating the remnants of Your meals, we, Your servants will indeed conquer Your illusory energy. (Bhag. 11.6.46)

 

The Glories of Being a Servant of Krishna

 

 9.12

alpa kari' na maniha dasa hena nama

alpa bhagye dasa nahi karena bhagavan

agre haya mukti, tabe sarva-vandha-nasa

tabe se haite pare shri krsnera dasa

 

          [Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said] Those who are devoid of a service attitude and don't wish to call themselves "Krishna-dasa," have little good fortune. The Lord will never accept them as His servants. Let those who would be liberated from material bondage accept the service of Krishna.

 (Cb. Madhya 17.103-104)

The Srutis on Sakhya-rasa

 

9.13

dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate

tayoranyah pippalam svadvattoyanasnannanyo 'bhicakasiti

 

          The Supreme Lord is the friend of the living being. He is so kind to him that He always accompanies the living being. In the same way that two birds occupy the same branch of a tree, the Lord sits in the heart of every living being ready to bestow auspiciousness upon the soul. In this way the Lord acts as the indwelling witness, even while the soul pursues the fruits of karma happiness and distress (Svetasvatara Upanisad 4.6)

 

In Sakhya-rasa There may be Quarrels

in Which the Lord is Defeated by the Jiva

 

9.14

uvaha krsno bhagavan shridamanam parajitah

vrsabham bhadrasenas tu pralambo rohini-sutam

 

          Being defeated, Krishna bore His friend Shridama upon His back; and Vrsabha and Pralambha took Balarama; the powerful son of Rohini, upon their back. (Bhag. 10.18.24)

 

Sakhya-rasa = Santa-rasa + Dasya-rasa + Feelings of Kinship,

Friendship, and Intimacy

 

9.15

santera guna, dasyera sevana sakhye dui haya

dasyera 'sambhrama-gaurava'-seva, sakhye 'visvasa'-maya

kandhe cade, kandhe cadaya, kare krida-rana

krsne seve, krsne karaya apana-sevana!

visrambha-pradhana sakhya gaurava-sambhrama-hina

ataeva sakhya-rasera 'tina' guna cihna

'mamata' adhika, krsne atma-sama jnana

ataeva sakhya-rasera vasa bhagavan

 

          The qualities of santa-rasa and the service attitude of daysa-rasa are both present in sakhya-rasa. In fraternity, the qualities of dasya-rasa are mixed with the confidence of fraternity instead of awe and veneration. In sakhya-rasa, the devotee sometimes offers the Lord service and sometimes makes Krishna serve him in exchange. In their mock-fighting, the cowherd boys would sometimes climb on Krishna's shoulders, and sometimes they would make Krishna climb on their shoulders. Since the platform of fraternity is dominated by confidential service, awe and veneration are absent. Therefore, sakhya-rasa is characterized by three qualities. In sakhya-rasa, the Lord is obliged to the devotees who are intimate with Him and think themselves equal to Him. (Cc. Madhya 19.222-224)

 

Vatsalya-rasa = Santa + Dasya + Sakhya + the Feeling of Nurturing

 

9.16

vatsalye santera guna, dasyera sevana

sei sei sevanera ihar nama 'palana'

sakhyera guna 'asaokoca', 'agaurava' sara

mamatadhikye tadana-bhartsana-vyavahara

apanare 'palaka' jnana, krsne 'palya'-jnana

'cari' gune vatsalya rasa amrta-samana

 

          In vatsalya-rasa, the qualities of santa-rasa, dasya-rasa, and sakhya-rasa are transformed into a form of service called nurturing. The essence of fraternal love is intimacy devoid of the formality and veneration found in dasya-rasa. Due to a greater sense of intimacy, the devotee functioning in paternal love chastises and rebukes the Lord in an ordinary way. In paternal love the devotee considers himself the Lord's maintainer and protector. Thus the Lord is the object of protection, like a son, and therefore this mellow has the qualities of santa-rasa, dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, and vatsalya-rasa. This is more transcendental nectar. (Cc. Madhya 19.226-228)

 

Madhuyra-rasa = Santa + Dasya + Sakhya + Vatsalya + the Desire for Offering one's

Body in Service to Shri Krishna

 

9.17

madhura-rase krishna-nistha, seva atisaya

sakhyera asaokoca, lalana-mamatadhikya haya

kanta-bhave nijanga diya karena sevana

ataeva madhura-rasera haya 'panca' guna

akasadi guna yena para para bhute

eka-dui-tina-cari krame panca prthivite

ei-mata madhure saba bhava-samahara

ataeva asvadadhikye kare camatkara

 

          In conjugal love, attachment for Krishna, rendering service to Him, the relaxed feelings of fraternity and the feelings of maintenance all increase in intimacy. In conjugal love, the devotee offers his body in the service of the Lord. Thus on this platform all five transcendental qualities are present. All the material qualities one after another in the material elements, beginning with ether, by gradual evolution, first one quality develops, then two develop, then three and four, until all five qualities are found in earth. Similarly, in conjugal love, all the feelings of the devotees are amalgamated. The intensified taste is certainly wonderful. (Cc. Madhya 19.231-234)

 

Sthayi-bhava, Together With Different Kinds of Affection

are Transformed Into Rasa.

In Other Words, Rati is the Root Cause of Rasa.

 

9.18

premadika sthayi-bhava samagri-milane

krishna-bhakti rasa-rupe paya pariname

vibhava, anubhava, sattvika, vyabhicari

sthayi-bhava 'rasa' haya ei cari mili'

 

          When the permanent ecstasies are mixed with different kinds of rati, devotion in ecstasy is transformed and becomes transcen-dental mellows. The permanent ecstasy becomes a more and more tasteful rasa through the mixture of special ecstasy, subordinate ecstasy, natural ecstasy, and transitory ecstasy. (Cc. Madhya 23.47-48)

 

The Cause of Rasa

 

9.19

dvividha 'vibhava', alambana, uddipana

vamsi-svaradi 'uddipana, krishnadi 'alambana'

 

          There are two kinds of particular ecstasies (vibhava). One is called the support (alambana), and the other is called the awakening (uddipana). The vibration of Krishna's flute is an example of the awakening, and Lord Krishna Himself is an example of the support. (Cc. Madhya 23.50)

 

Two Kinds of Alambana

 

9.20

krishnas ca krishna-bhaktas ca buddhairalambana matah

ratyader-visayatvena tathadharataya'pi ca

 

          According to the learned scholars, Lord Krishna and His devotees are alambana-vibhava. Lord Krishna is the object of love and the devotee is the reservoir of the love. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Daksina-vibhaga 1.16.)

 

Krishna is the Best of all Objects of Worship

 

9.21

siddhanta-tas-tva-bhedo'pi krishna shrisa-svarupayoh

rasenot-krsyate krishna-rupamesa rasasthitih

 

          Although the Lord of Laksmi (Narayana) and Krishna are essentially one and the same, the super excellence of Krishna's position lies in His being the object of the highest prema-rasa, because the very nature of rasa shows the most supreme excellence of the form of Krishna in whom alone all twelve rasas find their highest expression. (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Purva-vibhaga 2.59)

 

Shrimati Radharani is the Best of all Asrayas

 

9.22

anayaradhito nunam bhagavan harir isvarah

yan no vihaya govindah prito yam anayad rahah

 

          [The Vraja-gopis said] O my friend! Leaving us aside Krishna has gone off to a secluded place with a particular gopi. She must truly be expert in worshiping (anayaradhito) Him, for He was so pleased with Her service that He has left us all behind. (Bhag. 10.30.28)

 

NOTE: The hidden meaning of this verse is that Shri Radha, who is indicated here by the word "aradhita" is the topmost maidservant and devotee of Shri Krishna, being the very crown jewel of devotion.

 

9.23

kamsarirapi samsara-vasana baddha-srokhalam

radhamadhaya hrdaye tatyaja vraja-sundarih

 

          Lord Krishna, the enemy of Kamsa, left aside the other gopis during the rasa dance and took Shrimati Radharaoi to His heart, for She helps the Lord in realizing the essence of His desires. (Gita Govinda 3.1)

 

Subdivisions of Rasa

 

9.24

'anubhava' smita, nrtya, gitadi udbhasvara

stambhadi 'sattvika' anubhavera bhitara

 

          The subordinate ecstasies are smiling, dancing, and singing; as well as different manifestations in the body. The natural ecstasies, such as being stunned, are considered among the subordinate ecstasies (anubhava). (Cc. Madhya 23.51)

 

9.25

nirveda-harsadi tetrisa 'vyabhicari'

saba mili' 'rasa' haya camatkarakari

 

          There are other ingredients, beginning with complete despondency and jubilation. Altogether there are thirty-three varieties and when these combine the mellow becomes very wonderful. (Cc. Madhya 23.52)

 

Thus ends the Ninth Jewel of the Gaudiya Kanthahara entitled, Bhagavad-rasa-tattva