|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Vedas > Vedanta > The Bhagavad-Gita > Chapter 13 The Book of Religion by Separation of Matter|
(The Book of Religion by Separation of Matter and Spirit)
THE FIELD AND THE KNOWER OF THE FIELD
1. [What is] Nature? [What the] 'person'? [What] the 'field' and [what] the 'knower of the field'? This, Krishna, would I know. [What too] is knowledge? [What] that which should be known?
The Blessed Lord said:
2. The body is called the 'field' and he who knows it is the 'knower of the field', or so it has been said by those whio know it.
3. And know that I am the 'knower of the field' in every field; knowledge of [this] field and [this] knower of the field I deem to be [true] knowledge.
4. What that field is and what it is like, what are its changes and which derives from which, and who He is, [the knower of the fireld,] and what his powers, hear [now] from Me in brief.
5. In many ways has it been sung by seers, in varied hymns each in its separate way, in aphoristic verses concerning Brahman, well reasoned and conclusive.
6. Gross elements, the ego, intellect (buddhi), the Unmanifest, the eleven senses, and the five [sense objects] on which the senses thrive,
7. Desire, hate, pleasure, pain, sensus communis [the aggregate of or bringing together of the human senses], thought and constancy,--these, in briefest span, are called the field together with their changes.
8. To shun conceit and tricky ways, to wish none harm, to be long-suffering and upright, to reverence one's teacher, purity, steadfastness, self-restraint,
9. Detachment from the senses' objects and no sense of 'I' most certainly, insight into birth, death, old age, disease, and pain, and what constitutes their worthlessness,
10. To be detached and not cling to sons, wives, houses, and the like, a constant equal-mindedness whatever happens, pleasing or unpleasing,
11. Unswerving loyalty-and-love for Me with spiritual exercise on no other bent, to dwell apart in desert places, to take no pleasure in the company of men,
12. Constant attention to the wisdom that appertains to self, to see where knowledge of reality must lead, [all] this is 'knowledge',--or so it has been said. Ignorance is what is otherwise than this.
THE REAL OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE
13. [And now] I will tell you that which should be known: once a man knows it, he attains to immortality. The highest Brahman It is called,--beginningless,--It is not Being nor is It Not-Being.
14. Hands and feet It has on every side, on every side eyes, heads, mouths, and ears; in the world all things encompassing [changeless] it abides.
15. Devoid of all the senses, It yet sheds light on all their qualities, [from all] detached, and yet supporting all; free from Nature's constituents, It yet experiences them.
16. Within all beings, yet without them; unmoved, It yet moves indeed; so subtle is It you cannot comprehend It; far off It stands, and yet how near it is!
17. Undivided in beings It abides, seeming divided: this is That which should be known,--[the one] who sustains, devours, and generates [all] beings.
18. Light of lights, 'Beyond the Darkness' It is called: [true] knowledge, what should be known, accessible to knowledge, established in the heart of all.
19. And so in brief I have explained the 'field' and 'knowledge' and 'that which should be known'; the man who loves-and-worships Me, on knowing this, becomes fit to [share in] my own mode of being.
MATTER AND SPIRIT
20. 'Nature' and 'Person': know that these two are both beginningless: and know that change and quality arise from Nature.
21. Material Nature, they say, is [itself] the cause of cause, effect, and agency, while 'person' is said to be the cause in the experience of pleasure and pain.
22. For 'person' is lodged in material Nature, experiencing the 'constituents' that arise from it; because he attaches himself to these he comes to birth in good and evil wombs.
23. [And yet another One there is who,] surveying and approving, supports and [Himself] experiences [the constituents of Nature], the Mighty Lord: 'Highest Self' some call Him, the 'Highest Person' in this body.
24. Whoever knows 'person', material Nature, and its constituents to be such, in whatever state he be, he is not born again.
25. By meditation some themselves see Self in self (atamanam atmana), others by putting sound reason into practice (Samkhyena or Jnana yoga), yet others by the exercise of works (Karma yoga).
26. But some, not knowing thus, hear it from others and revere it; and even these, taking their stand on what they hear, overcome death indeed.
27. Whatever being comes to be, be it motionless or moving, [derives its being] from union of 'field' and 'knower of the field': this know.
GOD (THE CREATOR) IMMANENT IN HIS CREATURES
28. The same in all contingent beings, abiding [without change], the Highest Lord, when all things fall to ruin, [Himself] is not destroyed: who sees Him sees [indeed].
29. For seeing Him, the same, the Lord, established everywhere, he cannot of himself to [him]self do hurt, hence he treads the highest way.
30. Nature it is which in every way does-work-and-acts; no agent is the self: who sees it thus sees [indeed].
31. When once a man can see [all] the diversity of contingent beings as abiding in One [alone] and their radiation out of It, then to Brahman he attains.
32. Because this Highest Self knows no beginning, no constituents, it does not pass away: though abiding in [many] a body, it does not act nor is it defiled.
33. Just as the ether, roving everywhere, knows no defilement, so subtle [is its essence], so does [this] Self, though everywhere abiding embodied, know no defilement.
34. As the one sun lights up this whole universe, so does the 'owner of the field' illumine the whole 'field'.
35. Whoso with wisdom's eye discerns the difference between 'field' and 'knower of the field', and knows deliverence from material Nature to which [all] contingent beings are subject, goes to the further [shore].