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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Vedas > Purusa-sukta

Purusa-sukta

 

 

(from Pancaratra Pradipa, 2nd volume, pp.76-89 [ edited])

 

sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat |

sa bhumim visvato vrtvatyatisthad dasangulam || 1 ||

 

" The Supreme Lord's universal form has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, and a thousand feet, for He contains all living entities. Having pervaded the universe completely to give it existence, and being independent, He extended Himself beyond the universe by ten fingers. "

 

purusa evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam |

utamrtatvasyesano yad annenatirohati || 2 ||

 

" The universes - past, present, and future - are but manifestations of the Supreme Lord's purusa expansion. Though He is the Lord of immortality, ha has manifested Himself as the purusa in the universe so that the jivas may enjoy material fruits. "

 

etavan asya mahima ato jyayams ca purusah |

pado 'sya visva bhutani tri-padasyamrtam divi || 3 ||

 

" The past, present, and future universes are manifestations of the Lord's powers, but the Lord Himself is much greater. All the living beings of the universe are but one quater portion, and the eternal nature in the spiritual sky exists in three quarters portion. "

 

tri-pad urdhva udait purusah pado 'syehabhavat punah |

tato visvan vyakramat sasananasane abhi || 4 ||

 

" The three quarters portion of the Lord transcended the material portion. The Lord in the one quarter manifested the universe agani, as He had done repeatedly before. The Lord of the one quarter portion began the work of creation, by going all around, taking the form of all animate and inanimate objects. "

 

tasmad virad ajayata virajo adhi purusah |

sa jato atyaricyata pascad bhumim atho purah || 5 ||

 

" From the Lord, the universe was born, and in that universe was born the virat-purusa, the Supersoul of the universe. The the virat-purusa grew and produced the earth and the bodies of the jivas. "

 

yat purusena havisa deva yajnam atanvata |

vasanto 'syasid ajyam grisma idhmah sarad dhavih || 6 ||

 

" The devatas, the first beings manifested, performed a mental sacrifice to complete the creation. For this sacrifice they used the virat-purusa [the raw ingredients of the material world] as the offering. Spring was the ghee, summer the fuel-wood, and autumn the offering. "

 

saptasyasan paridhayas trih sapta samidhah krtah |

deva yad yajnam tanvana abadhnan purusam pasum || 7 ||

 

" In this sacrifice the blades of kusa grass strewn around the fire [for protection from raksasas] were seven [the seven Vedic poetic metres], and the fuel sticks were twenty-one [twelve months, five seasons, three worlds, and the sun]. The devatas who performed the mental sacrifice tied the virat-purusa  to offer Him as the sacrificial animals. "

 

tam yajnam barhisi prauksan purusam jatam agratah |

tena deva ayajanta sadhya rsayas ca ye || 8 ||

 

" The devatas, sadhyas, and rsis placed the virat-purusa , the first being of the universe, on kusa grass and sprinkled Him with water for purification. In this way they conducted the mental sacrifice using the virat-purusa. "

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-hutah sambhrtam prsad-ajyam |

pasums tams cakre vayavyan aranya gramyas ca ye || 9 ||

 

" From that sacrifice where everthing in the universe was sacrificed, yogurt and ghee - and indeed, all nourishing foods - were produced. It created the animals of the air, forest, and village. "

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-huta rcah samani jajnire |

chandamsi jajnire tasmad yajus tasmad ajayata || 10 ||

 

" From that ultimate sacrifice, or sarva-huta, were born the rk [hymns], sama [music], and yajus [prose] portions of the Vedas, along with the seven Vedic metres. "

 

tasmad asva ajayanta ye ke cobhayadatah |

gavo ha jajnire tasmat tasmaj jata ajavayah || 11 ||

 

" Horses were born from the sacrifice, along with animals with two sets of teeth, such as donkeys and mules. Cows were also born from the sacrifice, along with goats and sheep. "

 

yat purusam vyadadhuh katidha vyakalpayan |

mukham kim asya kau bahu kav uru pada ucyete || 12 ||

 

" In the mental sacrifice, when they divided up the virat-purusa, how many parts did they divide? What is stated about His face, arms, thighs, and feet? "

 

brahmano 'sya mukham asid bahu rajanyah krtah |

uru tad asya yad vaisyah padbhyam sudro ajayata || 13 ||

 

" The brahmanas arose from the face [of the virat-purusa], the ksatriyas from His two arms, the vaisyas from His thighs, and the sudras from His feet. "

 

candrama manaso jatas caksoh suryo ajayata |

mukhad indras cagnis ca pranad ajayata || 14 ||

 

" His mind gave rise to the moon; His two eyes, the sun; His breath, Vayu; and His mouth, Indra and Agni. "

 

nabhya asid antariksam sirsno dyauh samavartata |

padbhyam bhumir disah srotrat tatha lokan akalpayan || 15 ||

 

" From His navel arose the space between earth and heaven; from His head, the heavens; from His feet, the earth; and from His ears, the directions. In this way the worlds were created. "

 

vedaham etam purusam mahantam

aditya-varnam tamasas tu pare |

sarvani rupani vicintya dhiro

namani krtvabhivadan yad aste || 16 ||

 

" I know that great virat-purusa, as effulgent as the sun, who stands beyond the darkness of the material creation. Having given all the living entities their forms and names, He directs their affairs. "

 

dhata purastad yam udajahara

sakrah pravidvan pradisas catasrah |

tam evam vidvan amrta iha bhavati

nanyah pantha ayanaya vidyate || 17 ||

 

" Brahma explained his realization to Indra. Indra, who knows all the living entities in all four directions, explained it to all others. One who knows the nature of the virat-purusa becomes immortal even in his life on earth. There is no other path to reach the goal of immortality. "

 

yajnena yajnam ayajanta devas

tani dharmani prathamany asan |

te ha nakam mahimanah sacante

yatra purve sadhyah santi devah || 18 ||

 

" In this way the devatas conducted the mental sacrifice using the virat-purusa to manifest variety in the world. By that sacrifice both the physical laws of nature and the first spiritual codes of conduct arose. The great souls, by similar mental worship, attain the place of immortality where dwell the sadhyas and  devatas, the first worshipers. "

 

 

(from Rg Veda Samhita, Mandala 10, Sukta 90)

 

 

sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat |

sa bhumim visvato vrtvatyatisthad dasangulam || 1 ||

 

purusa evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam |

utamrtatvasyesano yad annenatirohati || 2 ||

 

etavan asya mahimato jyayams ca purusah |

pado 'sya visva bhutani tri-padasyamrtam divi || 3 ||

 

tri-pad urdhva udait purusah pado 'syehabhavat punah |

tato visvan vyakramat sasananasane abhi || 4 ||

 

tasmad virad ajayata virajo adhi purusah |

sa jato atyaricyata pascad bhumim atho purah || 5 ||

 

yat purusena havisa deva yajnam atanvata |

vasanto asyasid ajyam grisma idhmah sarad dhavih || 6 ||

 

tam yajnam barhisi prauksan purusam jatam agratah |

tena deva ayajanta sadhya rsayas ca ye || 7 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-hutah sambhrtam prsad-ajyam |

pasun tams cakre vayavyan a ranyan gramyas ca ye || 8 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-huta rcah samani jajnire |

chandamsi jajnire tasmad yajus tasmad ajayata || 9 ||

 

tasmad asva ajayanta ye ke cobhayadatah |

gavo ha jajnire tasmat tasmaj jata ajavayah || 10 ||

 

yat purusam vyadadhuh katidha vyakalpayan |

mukham kim asya kau bahu kav uru pada ucyete || 11 ||

 

brahmano 'sya mukham asid bahu rajanyah krtah |

uru tad asya yad vaisyah padbhyam sudro ajayata || 12 ||

 

candrama manaso jatas caksoh suryo ajayata |

mukhad indras cagnis ca pranad vayur ajayata || 13 ||

 

nabhya asid antariksam sirsno dyauh samavartata |

padbhyam bhumir disah srotrat tatha lokan akalpayan || 14 ||

 

saptasyasan paridhayas trih sapta samidhah krtah |

deva yad yajnam tanvana abadhnan purusam pasum || 15 ||

 

yajnena yajnam ayajanta devas

tani dharmani prathamany asan |

te ha nakam mahimanah sacanta

yatra purve sadhyah santi devah || 16 ||

 

 

(from Yajur Veda Samhita, Adhyaya 31)

 

sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat |

sa bhumim sarvata sprtvatyatisthad dasangulam || 1 ||

 

purusa evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam |

utamrtatvasyesano yad annenatirohati || 2 ||

 

etavan asya mahimato jyayams ca purusah |

pado 'sya visva bhutani tri-padasyamrtam divi || 3 ||

 

tri-pad urdhva udait purusah pado 'syehabhavat punah |

tato visvan vyakramat sasananasane abhi || 4 ||

 

tato vira d ajayata virajo adhi purusah |

sa jato atyaricyata pascad bhumim atho purah || 5 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-hutah sambhrtam prsad-ajyam |

pasums tams cakre vayavyan aranya gramyas ca ye || 6 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-huta rcah samani jajnire |

chandamsi jajnire tasmad yajus tasmad ajayata || 7 ||

 

tasmad asva ajayanta ye ke cobhayadatah |

gavo ha jajnire tasmat tasmaj jata ajavayah || 8 ||

 

tam yajnam barhisi prauksan purusam jatam agratah |

tena deva ayajanta sadhya rsayas ca ye || 9 ||

 

yat purusam vyadadhuh katidha vyakalpayan |

mukham kim asyasit kim bahu kim aru pada ucyeta || 10 ||

 

brahmano 'sya mukham asid bahu rajanyah krtah |

uru tad asya yad vaisyah padbhyam sudro ajayata || 11 ||

 

candrama manaso jatas caksoh suryo ajayata |

srotrad vayus ca pranas ca mukhad agnir nirajayata || 12 ||

 

nabhya asid antariksam sirsno dyauh samavartata |

padbhyam bhumir disah srotrat tatha lokan akalpayan || 15 ||

 

yat purusena havisa deva yajnam atanvata |

vasanto 'syasid ajyam grisma idhmah sarad dhavih || 14 ||

 

saptasyasan paridhayas trih sapta samidhah krtah |

deva yad yajnam tanvana abadhnan purusam pasum || 15 ||

 

yajnena yajnam ayajanta devas

tani dharmani prathamany asan |

te ha nakam mahimanah sacanta

yatra purve sadhyah santi devah || 16 ||

 

adbhyah sambhrtah prthivyai rasac ca

visva-karmanah samavartatagre |

tasya tvasta vidadhadrupam eti

tanmartyasya devatvam ajanam agre || 17 ||

 

vedaham etam purusam mahantam

aditya-varnam tamasah parastat |

tam eva viditvati mrtyum eti

nanyah  pantha vidyate 'yanaya || 18 ||

 

prajapatis carati garbhe antar-

ajayamano bahudha vi jayate |

tasya yonim pari pasyanti dhiras

tasmin ha tasthur bhuvanani visva || 19 ||

 

yo devebhya atapati yo devanam purohitah |

purvo yo devebhyo jato namo rucaya brahmaye || 20 ||

 

rucam brahmam janayanto deva agre tad abruvan |

yas tvaivam brahmano vidyat tasya deva asan vase || 21 ||

 

shris ca te laksmis ca patnyav aho-ratre parsve naksatrani rupam asvinau vyattam |

isnan nisanamum ma isana sarva-lokam ma isana || 22 ||

 

 

 

(from Sama Veda Samhita, ?)

 

 

(from Atharva Veda Samhita, Kanda 19, Sukta 6)

 

sahasra-bahuh purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat |

sa bhumim visvato vrtvatyatisthad dasangulam || 1 ||

 

tribhih padbhir dyam arohat padasyehabhavat punah |

tatha vyakramad visvan asanana sane anu || 2 ||

 

tavanto asya mahimanas tato jyayams ca purusah |

pado 'sya visva bhutani tri-padasyamrtam divi || 3 ||

 

purusa evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam |

utamrtatvasyesvaro yad anyenabhavat saha || 4 ||

 

yat purusam vyadadhuh katidha vyakalpayan |

mukham kim asya kim bahu kim uru pada ucyete || 5 ||

 

brahmano 'sya mukham asid bahu rajanyo 'bhavat |

madhyam tad asya yad vaisyah padbhyam sudro ajayata || 6 ||

 

candrama manaso jatas caksoh suryo ajayata |

mukhad indras cagnis ca pranad vayur ajayata || 7 ||

 

nabhya asid antariksam sirsno dyauh samavartata |

padbhyam bhumir disah srotrat tatha lokan akalpayan || 8 ||

 

virad agre samabhavad virajo adhi purusah |

sa jato atyaricyate pascad bhumim atho purah || 9 ||

 

yat purusena havisa deva yajnam atanvata |

vasanto asyasid ajyam grisma idhmah sarad dhavih || 10 ||

 

tam yajnam pravrsa prauksan purusam jatam agrasah |

tena deva ayajanta sadhya vasavas ca ye || 11 ||

 

tasmad asva ajayanta ye ca  ke cobhayadatah |

gavo ha jajnire tasmat tasmaj jata ajavayah || 12 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-huta rcah samani jajnire |

chando ha jajnire tasmad yajus tasmad ajayata || 13 ||

 

tasmad yajnat sarva-hutah sambhrtam prsad-ajyam |

pasums tams cakre vayavyan aranya gramyas ca ye || 8 ||

 

saptasyasan paridhayas trih sapta samidhah krtah |

deva yad yajnam tanvana abadhnan purusam pasum || 15 ||

 

murdhno devasya brhato amsavah sapta saptatih |

rajnah somasyajayanta jatasya purusad adhi || 16 ||