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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Vedas > Hymns Of The Atharva-Veda > X. Cosmogonic And Theosophic Hymns.

X. Cosmogonic And Theosophic Hymns.


XII, 1. Hymn to goddess Earth.

1. Truth, greatness, universal order (rita), strength. consecration, creative fervour (tapas), spiritual exaltation (brahma), the sacrifice, support the earth. May this earth, the mistress of that which was and shall be, prepare for us a broad domain!

2. The earth that has heights, and slopes, and great plains, that supports the plants of manifold virtue, free from the pressure that comes from the midst of men, she shall spread out for us, and fit. herself for us!

3. The earth upon which the sea, and the rivers and the waters, upon which food and the tribes of men have arisen, upon which this breathing, moving life exists, shall afford us precedence in drinking!

4. The earth whose are the four regions of space, upon which food and the tribes of men have arisen, which supports the manifold breathing, moving thinas, shall afford us cattle and other possessions also!

5. The earth upon which of old the first men unfolded themselves, upon which the gods overcame the Asuras, shall procure for us (all) kinds of cattle, horses, and fowls, good fortune, and glory!

6. The earth that supports all, furnishes wealth, the foundation, the golden-breasted resting-place of all living creatures, she that supports Agni Vaisvanara (the fire), and mates with Indra, the bull, shall furnish us with property!

7. The broad -earth, which the sleepless gods ever attentively guard, shall milk for us precious honey, and, moreover, besprinkle us with glory!

8. That earth which formerly was water upon the ocean (of space), which the wise (seers) found out by their skilful devices; whose heart is in the highest heaven, immortal, surrounded by truth, shall bestow upon us brilliancy and strength, (and place us) in supreme sovereignty!

9. That earth upon which the attendant waters jointly flow by day and night unceasingly, shall pour out milk for us in rich streams, and, moreover, besprinkle us with glory!

10. The earth which the Asvins have measured, upon which Vishnu has stepped out, which Indra, the lord of might, has made friendly to himself; she, the mother, shall pour forth milk for me, the son!

11. Thy snowy mountain heights, and thy forests, O earth, shall be kind to us! The brown, the black, the red, the multi-coloured, the firm earth, that is protected by Indra, I have settled upon, not suppressed, not slain, not wounded.

12. Into thy rniddle set us, O earth, and into thy navel, into the nourishing strength that has grown tip from thy body; purify thyself for us! The earth is the mother, and I the son of the earth; Paro-anya is the father; he, too, shall save us!

13. The earth upon which they (the priests) inclose the altar (vedi), upon which they, devoted to all (holy) works, unfold the sacrifice, upon which are set up, in front of the sacrifice, the sacrificial posts, erect and brilliant, that earth shall prosper us, herself prospering!

14. Him that hates us, O earth, him that battles against us, him that is hostile towards us with his mind and his weapons, do thou subject to us, anticipating (our wish) by deed!

15. The mortals born of thee live on thee, thou supportest both bipeds and quadrupeds. Thine, O earth, are these five races of men, the mortals, upon whom the rising sun sheds undying light with his rays.

16. These creatures all together shall yield milk for us; do thou, O earth, give us the honey of speech!

17. Upon the firm, broad earth, the all-begetting mother of the plants, that is supported by (divine) law, upon her, propitious and kind, may we ever pass-our lives!

18. A great gathering-place thou, great (earth), hast become; great haste, commotion, and agitation are upon thee. Great Indra protects thee unceasingly. Do thou, O earth, cause us to brighten as if at the sight of gold: not any one shall hate us!

19. Agni (fire) is in the earth, in the plants, the waters hold Agni, Agni is in the stones; Agni is within men, Agnis (fires) are within cattle, within horses.

20. Agni glows from the sky, to Agni, the god, belongs the broad air. The mortals kindle Agni, the bearer of oblations, that loveth ghee.

21. The earth, clothed in Agni, with dark knees, shall make me brilliant and alert!

22. Upon the earth men give to the gods the sacrifice, the prepared oblation; upon the earth mortal men live pleasantly by food. May this earth give us breath and life, may she cause me to reach old age!

23. The fragrance, O earth, that has arisen upon thee, which the plants and the waters hold, which the Gandharvas and the Apsaras have partaken of, with that make me fragrant: not any one shall hate us!

24. That fragrance of thine which has entered into the lotus, that fragrance, O earth, which the immortals of yore gathered up at the marriage of Surya, with that make me fragrant: not any one shall hate us!

25. That fragrance of thine which is in men, the loveliness and charm that is in male and female, that which is in steeds and heroes, that which is in the wild animals with trunks (elephants), the lustre that is in the maiden, O earth, with that do thou blend us: not any one shall hate us!

26. Rock, stone, dust is this earth; this earth is supported, held together. To this golden-breasted earth I have rendered obeisance.

27. The earth, upon whom the forest-sprung trees ever stand firm, the all-nourishing, compact earth, do we invoke.

28. Rising or sitting, standing or walking, may we not stumble with our right or left foot upon the earth!

29. To the pure earth I speak, to the ground, the soil that has grown through the brahma (spiritual exaltation). Upon thee, that holdest nourishment, prosperity, food, and ghee, we would settle down, O earth!

30. Purified the waters shall flow for our bodies; what flows off from us that do we deposit upon him we dislike: with a purifier, O earth, do I purify myself!

31. Thy easterly regions, and thy northern, thy southerly (regions), O earth, and thy western, shall be kind to me as I walk (upon thee)! May I that have been placed into the world not fall down!

32. Do not drive us from the west, nor from the east; not from the north, and not from the south! Security be thou for us, O earth: waylayers shall not find us, hold far away (their) murderous weapon!

33. As long as I look out upon thee, O earth, with Surya (the sun) as my companion, so long shall my sight not fall, as year followeth upon year!

34. When, as I lie, I turn upon my right or left side, O earth; when stretched out we lie with our ribs upon thee pressing against (us), do not, O earth, that liest close to everything, there injure us!

35. What, O earth, I dig out of thee, quickly shall that grow again: may I not, O pure one, pierce thy vital spot, (and) not thy heart!

36. Thy summer, O earth, thy rainy season, thy autumn, winter, early spring, and spring; thy decreed yearly seasons, thy days and nights shall yield us milk

37. The pure earth that starts in fright away from the serpent, upon whom were the fires that are within the waters, she that delivers (to destruction) the blasphemous Dasyus, she that takes the side of Indra, not of Vritra, (that earth) adheres to Sakra (mighty Indra), the lusty bull.

38. Upon whom rests the sacrificial hut (sadas) and the (two) vehicles that hold the soma (havirdhane), in whom the sacrificial post is fixed, upon whom the Brahmanas praise (the gods) with riks and samans, knowing (also) the yagur-formulas; upon whom the serving-priests (ritvig) are employed so that Indra shall drink the soma;--

39. Upon whom the seers of yore, that created the beings, brought forth with their songs the cows, they the seven active (priests), by means of the satra-offerings, the sacrifices, and (their) creative fervour (tapas);--

40. May this earth point out to us the wealth that we-crave; may Bhaga (fortune) add his help, may Indra come here as (our) champion!

41. The earth upon whom the noisy mortals sing and dance, upon whom they fight, upon whom resounds the roaring drum, shall drive forth our enemies, shall make us free from rivals!

42. To the earth upon whom are food, and rice and barley, upon whom live these five races of men, to the earth, the wife of Parganya, that is fattened by rain, be reverence!

43. The earth upon whose ground the citadels constructed by the gods unfold themselves, every region of her that is the womb of all, Pragapati shall make pleasant for us!

44. The earth that holds treasures manifold in secret places, wealth, jewels, and gold shall she give to me; she that bestows wealth liberally, the kindly goddess, wealth shall she bestow upon us!

45. The earth that holds people of manifold varied speech, of different customs, according to their habitations, as a reliable milch-cow that does not kick, shall she milk for me a thousand streams of wealth!

46. The serpent, the scorpion with thirsty fangs, that hibernating torpidly lies upon thee; the worm, and whatever living thing, O earth, moves in the rainy season, shall, when it creeps, not creep upon us: with what is auspicious (on thee) be gracious to us!

47. Thy many paths upon which people go, thy tracks for chariots and wagons to advance, upon which both good and evil men proceed, this road, free from enemies, and free from thieves, may we gain: with what is auspicious (on thee) be gracious to us!

48. The earth holds the fool and holds the wise, endures that good and bad dwell (upon her); she keeps company with the boar, gives herself up to the wild hog.

49. Thy forest animals, the wild animals homed in the woods, the man-eating lions, and tigers that roam; the ula, the wolf, mishap, injury (rikshika), and demons (rakshas), O earth, drive away from us!

50. The Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Arayas and Kimidins; the Pisakas and all demons (rakshas), these, O earth, hold from us!

51. The earth upon whom the biped birds fly together, the flamingoes, eagles, birds of prey, and fowls; upon whom Matarisvan, the wind, hastens, raising the dust, and tossing the trees-as the wind blows forth and back the flame bursts after;--

52. The earth upon whom day and night jointly, black and bright, have been decreed, the broad earth covered and enveloped with rain, shall kindly place us into every pleasant abode!

53. Heaven, and earth, and air have here given me expanse; Agni, Surya, the waters, and all the gods together have given me wisdom.

54. Mighty am I, 'Superior' (uttara) by name, upon the earth, conquering am I, all-conquering, completely conquering every region.

55. At that time, O goddess, when, spreading., (prathamana) forth, named (prithivi 'broad') by the gods, thou didst extend to greatness, then prosperity did enter thee, (and) thou didst fashion the four regions.

56. In the villages and in the wilderness, in the assembly-halls that are upon the earth; in the gatherings, and in the meetings, may we hold forth agreeably to thee!

57. As dust a steed did she, as soon as she was born, scatter these people, that dwelt upon the earth, she the lovely one, the leader, the guardian of the world, that holds the trees and plants.

58. The words I speak, honied do I speak them: the things I see they furnish me with. Brilliant I am and alert: the others that rush (against me) do I beat down.

59. Gentle, fragrant, kindly, with the sweet drink (kilala) in her udder, rich in milk, the broad earth together with (her) milk shall give us courage!

60. She whom Visvakarman (the creator of all) did search out by means of oblations, when she had entered the surging (flood of the) atmosphere, she, the vessel destined to nourish, deposited in a secret place, became visible (to the gods) and the (heavenly) mothers.

61. Thou art the scatterer of men, the broadly expanding Aditi that yields milk according to wish. What is wanting in thee Pragapati, first-born of the divine order (rita), shall supply for thee

62. Thy laps, O earth, free from ailment! Free from disease, shall be produced for us! May we attentively, throuoh our long lives, be bearers of bali-offerings to thee!

63. O mother earth, kindly set me down upon a well-founded place! With (father) heaven cooperating, O thou wise one, do thou place me into happiness and prosperity!


XIII, 1. Prayer for sovereign power addressed to the god Rohita and his female Rohini.

1. Rise up, O steed, that art within the waters, enter this kingdom, rich in liberal gifts! Rohita (the red sun) who has begotten this all, shall keep thee well-supported for sovereignty!

2. The steed that is within the waters has risen up: ascend upon the clans that are sprung from thee! Furnishing soma, the waters, plants, and cows, cause thou four-footed and two-footed creatures to enter here!

3. Do ye, strong Maruts, children of Prisni (the cloud), allied with Indra, crush the enemies! Rohita shall hear you, that give abundant gifts, the thrice seven Maruts, who take delight in sweet (nourishment)!

4. Rohita has climbed the heights, he has ascended them, he, the embryo of women, (has ascended) the womb of births. Closely united with these women they found out the six broad (directions); spying out a road he has brought hither sovereignty.

5. Hither to thee Rohita has brought sovereignty; he has dispersed the enemies: freedom from danger has resulted for thee. To thee heaven and earth together with the revati and sakvari-stanzas shall yield gifts at will!

6. Rohita produced heaven and earth; there Parameshthin (the lord on high) extended the thread (of the sacrifice). There Aga Ekapada (the one-footed goat, the sun) did fix himself; he made firm the heavens and earth with his strength.

7. Rohita made firm heaven and earth, by him the (heavenly) light was established, by him the firmament. By him the atmosphere and the spaces were measured out, through him the gods obtained immortality.

8. Rohita did ponder the multiform (universe) while preparing (his) climbings and advances. Having ascended the heaven with great might, he shall anoint thy royalty with milk and ghee!

9. All thy climbings, advances, and all thy ascents with which thou, (Rohita, the sun), fillest the heavens and the atmosphere, having strengthened thyself with their brahma and payas (spiritual and physical essence) do thou keep awake (do thou watch over) among the people in the kingdom of the (earthly) Rohita (the king)!

10. The peoples that have originated from thy tapas (heat, or creative fervour), have followed here the calf, the gayatri. They shall enter thee with kindly spirit; the calf Rohita with its mother shall come on!

11. High on the firmament Rohita has stood, a youth, a sage, begettinu all forms. As Agni he shines with piercing light, in the third space he did assume lovely (forms).

12. A bull with a thousand horns, Gatavedas (fire), endowed with sacrifices of ghee, carrying soma upon his back, rich in heroes, he shall, when implored, not abandon me, nor may I abandon thee: abundance in cattle and abundance in heroes procure for me!

14. Rohita is the generator of the sacrifice, and its mouth; to Rohita I offer oblations with voice, ear, and mind. To Rohita the gods resort with glad mind: he shall cause me to rise through elevation derived from the assembly!

14. Rohita arranged a sacrifice for Visvakarman; from it these brilliant, qualities have come to me. Let me announce thy origin over the extent of the world!

15, Upon thee have ascended the brihati and the pankti (metres), upon thee the kakubh with splendour, O Gatavedas. Upon thee the vashat-call, whose syllables make an ushniha, has ascended, upon thee Rohita with his seed has ascended.

16. This one clothes himself in the womb of the earth, this one clothes himself in heaven, and in the atmosphere. This one at the station of the brown (sun) did attain unto the worlds of light.

17. O Vakaspati (lord of speech), the earth shall be pleasant to us, pleasant our dwelling, agrecable our couches! Right here life's breath shall be to our friend; thee, O Parameshthin, Agni shall envelop in life and lustre!

18. O Vakaspati, the five seasons that we have, which have come about as the creation of Visvakarman, rialit here (they and) life's breath shall be to our friend; thee, O Parameshthin, Rohita shall envelop in life and lustre!

19. O Vakaspati, good cheer and spirit, cattle in our stable, children in our wombs beget thou! Right here life's breath shall be to our friend; thee, O Parameshthin, I envelop in life and lustre.

20. God Savitar and Agni shall envelop thee, Mitra and Varuna surround thee with lustre! Treading down all powers of grudge come thou hither: thou hast made this kingdom rich in liberal gifts.

21. Thou, O Rohita, whom the brindled cow, harnessed at the side, carries, goest with brilliance, causing the waters to flow.

22. Devoted to Rohita is Rohini his mistress, with beautiful colour (complexion), great, and lustrous: through her may we conquer booty of every description, through her win every battle!

23. This seat, Rohini, belongs to Rohita; yonder is the path on which the brindled (female) goes! Her the Gandharvas and the Kasyapas lead forth, her the sages guard with diligence.

24. The radiant bay steeds of the sun, the immortal, ever draw the delightful chariot. Rohita, the drinker of ghee, the shining god, did enter the variegated heavens.

25. Rohita, the sharp-horned bull, who surpasses Agni and surpasses Surya, who props up the earth and the sky, out of him the gods frame the creations.

26. Rohita ascended the heaven from the great flood; Rohita has climbed all heights.

27. Create (the cow) that is rich in milk, drips with ghee: she is the milch-cowof the gods that does not refuse! Indra shall drink the Soma, there shall be secure possession; Agni shall sing praises: the enemies do thou drive out!

28. Agni kindled, spreads his flames, fortified by ghee, sprinkled with ghee. Victorious, all-conquering Agni shall slay them that are my rivals!

29. He shall slay them, shall burn the enemy that battles against us! With the flesh-devouring Agni do we burn our rivals.

30. Smite them down, O Indra, with the thunderbolt, with thy (strong) arm! Then have I overpowered my rivals with Agni's brilliant strengths.

31. O Agni, subject our rivals to us; confuse, O Brihaspati, the kinsman that is puffed up! O Indra and Agni, O Mitra and Varuna, subjected they shall be, unable to vent their wrath against us!

32. Do thou, god Surya (the sun), when thou risest, beat down my rivals, beat them down with a stone: they shall go to the nethermost darkness!

33. The calf of Virag, the bull of prayers, carrying the bright (soma) upon his back, has ascended the atmosphere. A song accompanied by ghee they sing to the calf; himself brahma (spiritual exaltation) they swell him with their brahma (prayer).

34. Ascend the heavens, ascend the earth sovereignty ascend thou, and possessions ascend thou! Offspring ascend thou, and immortality ascend thou, unite thy body with Rohita!

35. The gods that hold sovereignty, who go about the sun, with these allied, Rohita, kindly disposed, shall bestow sovereignty upon thee!

36. The sacrifices purified by prayer lead thee forth; the bay steeds that travel upon the road carry thee: thou shinest across the swelling ocean.

37. In Rohita who conquers wealth, conquers cattle, and conquers booty, heaven and earth are fixed. Of thee that hast a thousand and seven births, let me announce the origin over the extent of the world!

38. Glorious thou goest to the intermediate directions and the directions (of space), glorious (in the sight) of animals and the tribes of men, glorious in the lap of the earth, of Aditi: may I like Savitar be lovely!

39. Being yonder thou knowest (what takes place) here; being here thou beholdest these things. Here (men) behold the inspired sun that shines upon the sky.

40. A god thou praisest the gods, thou movest within the flood. They kindle (him), a universal fire; him the highest sages know.

41. Below the superior (region), above the inferior (region) here, the cow has arisen supporting (her) calf by the foot. Whither is she turned; to which half (of the universe), forsooth, has she aone away; where, forsooth, does she beget? Verily not in this herd!

42. One-footed, two-footed, four-footed is she; eight-footed, nine-footed became she, the thousand-syllabled (consisting of thousand elements) pankti (quinary stanza) of the universe: the oceans from her flow forth upon (the world).

43. Ascending the heaven, immortal, receive kindly my song! The sacrifices purified by prayer lead thee forth; the bay steeds that travel upon the road carry thee.

44. That do I know of thee, O immortal, where thy march is upon the sky, where thy habitation is in the highest heaven.

45. Surya (the sun) surveys the sky, Surya the earth, Surya the waters. Surya is the single eye of being: he has ascended the great heavens.

46. The broad (directions) where the fagots that fence in (the fire), the earth turned itself into a fire-altar. There Rohita laid on for himself these two fires, cold and heat.

47. Laying on cold and heat, using the mountains as sacrificial posts, the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) light, into which (the fires) rain (flowed) as ghee, carried out the sacrifice.

48. The fire of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) light is kindled by prayer. From it heat, from it cold, from it the sacrifice was produced.

49. The two fires swelling through prayer, increased through prayer, sacrificed into with prayer; the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) light, kindled through prayer, carried out the sacrifice.

50. One is deposited in truth, the other is kindled in the waters. The two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) light, kindled through prayer, carried out the sacrifice.

51. The fire which the wind brightens up, and that which Indra and Brahmanaspati (brighten up), the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) light, kindled through prayer, carried out the sacrifice.

52. Having fashioned the earth into an altar, having made the heavens (his) sacrificial reward, then having made heat into fire, Rohita created all that has breath through rain (serving) as ghee.

53. Rain fashioned itself into ghee, heat into fire, the earth into an altar. Then Agni by (his) songs fashioned the high mountains.

54. Having fashioned by means of songs the high (mountains), Rohita spake to the earth: In thee all shall be born, what is and what shall be.

55. The sacrifice first, (and then) what is and what shall be was born. From that this all was born, and whatever here appears, brought hither by the sage Rohita.

56. He who kicks a cow with his foot, and he who micturates towards the sun--of thee do I tear out the root; thou shalt henceforth not cast a shadow!

57. Thou that passest across me, casting thy shadow against me, between me and the fire--of thee do I tear out the root; thou shalt henceforth not cast a shadow!

58. He, O god Surya, that to-day passes between thee and me, upon him our evil dream, our foulness, and our misfortunes do we wipe off.

59. May we not miss our way, may we not, O Indra, miss the sacrifice of him that presses the soma; may.not the powers of grudge intercept us!

60. The (guiding) thread stretched out among the gods, that accomplishes the sacrifice, that, by pouring oblations, may we attain!


XI, 5. Glorification of the sun, or the primeval principle, as a Brahman disciple.

1. The Brahmakarin (Brahmanical disciple) moves inciting both hemispheres of the world; in him the gods are harmonised. He holds the heavens and the earth, he fills the teacher with creative fervour (tapas).

2. The fathers, the divine folk, and all the gods severally follow the Brahmakarin; the Gandharvas did go after him, six thousand three hundred and thirty-three. He fills all the gods with creative fervour.

3. When the teacher receives the Brahmakarin as a disciple, he places him as a foetus inside (of his body). He carries him for three nights in his belly: when he is born the gods gather about to see him.

4. This earth is (his first) piece of firewood, the heaven the second, and the atmosphere also he fills with (the third) piece of firewood. The Brahmakarin. fills the worlds with his firewood, his girdle, his asceticism, and his creative fervour.

5. Prior to the brahma (spiritual exaltation) the Brahmakarin was born; clothed in heat, by creative fervour he arose. From him sprung the brahmanam (Brahmanic life) and the highest brahma, and all the gods together with immortality (amrita).

6. The Brahmakarin advances, kindled by the firewood, clothed in the skin of the black antelope, consecrated, with long beard. Within the day he passes from the eastern to the northern sea; gathering together the worlds he repeatedly shapes them.

7. The Brahmakarin, begetting the brahma, the waters, the world, Pragapati Parameshthin (he that stands in the hiahest place), and Virag, having become an embryo in the womb of immortality, having forsooth, become Indra, pierced the Asuras.

8. The teacher fashioned these two hern spheres of the world, the broad and the deep, earth and heaven. These the Brahmakarin guards with his creative fervour (tapas): in him the gods are harmonised.

9. This broad earth and the heaven the Brahmakarin first brought hither as alms. Having made these into two sticks of firewood he reveres them upon them all beings have been founded.

10. One is on the hither side, the other on the farther side of the back of the heavens; secretly are deposited the two receptacles of the brahmanam (Brahmanic life). These the Brahmakarin protects by his tapas (creative fervour); understandingly he performs that brahma (spiritual exaltation) solely.

11. One on the hither side, the other away from the earth, do the two Agnis come together between these two hemispheres (of the world). To them adhere the rays firmly; the Brahmakarin by his tapas (creative fervour) enters into the (rays).

12. Shouting forth, thundering, red, white he carries a great penis along the earth. The Brahmakarin sprinkles seed upon the back of the earth; through it the four directions live.

13. Into fire, the sun, the moon, Matarisvan (wind), and the waters, the Brahmakarin places the firewood; the lights from these severally go into the clouds, from them come sacrificial butter, the purusha (primeval man), rain, and water.

14. Death is the teacher, (and) Varuna, Soma, the plants, milk; the clouds were the warriors: by these this light has been brought hither.

15. Varuna, having become the teacher, at home prepares the ghee solely. Whatever he desired from Pragapati, that the Brahmakarin furnished, as Mitra (a friend) from his own Atman (spirit, or person).

16. The Brahmakarin is the teacher, the Brahmakarin Pragapati. Pragapati rules (shines forth, vi ragati); Virag (heavenly power, or light) became Indra, the ruler.

17. Through holy disciplehood. (brahmakaryam), through tapas (creative fervour), the king protects his kingdom. The teacher by (his own) brahmakaryam (holy life) seeks (finds) the Brahmakarin.

18. Through holy disciplehood the maiden obtains a young husband, through holy disciplehood the steer, the horse seeks to obtain fodder.

19. Through holy disciplehood, through creative fervour, the gods drove away death. Indrajorsooth, by his holy disciplehood brought the light to the gods.

20. The plants, that which was and shall be, day and night, the tree, the year along with the seasons, have sprung from the Brahmakarin.

21. The earthly and the heavenly animals, the wild and the domestic, the wingless and the winged (animals), have sprung from the Brahmakarin.

22. All the creatures of Pragapati (the creator) severally carry breath in their souls. All these the brahma, which has been brought hither in the Brahmakarin, protects.

23. This, that was set into motion by the gods, that is insurmountable, that moves shining, from it has sprung the brahmanam (Brahmanical life), the highest brahma, and all the gods, together with immortality (amrita).

24, 25. The Brahmakarin carries the shining brahma: into this all the gods are woven. Producing in-breathing and out-breathing, as well as through-breathing; speech, mind, heart, brahma, and wisdom, do thou furnish us with sight, hearing, glory, food, semen, blood, and belly!

26. These things the Brahmakarin fashioned upon the back of the (heavenly) water. He stood in the sea kindled with tapas (creative fervour). He, when he has bathed, shines vigorously upon the earth, brown and ruddy.


XI, 4. Prana, life or breath, personified as the supreme spirit.

1. Reverence to Prana, to whom all this (universe) is subject, who has become the lord of the all, on whom the all is supported!

2. Reverence, O Prana, to thy roaring (wind), reverence, O Prana, to thy thunder, reverence, O Prana, to thy lightning, reverence, O Prana, to thy rain!

When Prana calls aloud to the plants with his thunder, they are fecundated, they conceive, and then are produced abundant (plants).

4. When the season has arrived, and Prana calls aloud to the plants, then everything rejoices, whatsoever is upon the earth.

5. When Prana has watered the great earth with rain, then the beasts rejoice; (they think): 'strength, forsooth, we shall now obtain.'

6. When they had been watered by Prana, the plants spake in concert: 'thou hast, forsooth, prolonged our life, thou hast made us all fragrant.'

7. Reverence be, O Prana, to thee coming, reverence to thee going; 'reverence to thee standing, and reverence, too, to thee sitting!

8. Reverence be to thee, O Prana, when thou breatbest in (primate), reverence when thou breathest out! Reverence be to thee when thou art turned away, reverence to thee when thou art turned hither: to thee, entire, reverence be here!

9. Of thy dear form, O Prana, of thy very dear form, of the healing power that is thine, give unto us, that we may live!

10. Prana clothes the creatures, as a father his dear son. Prana, truly, is the lord of all, of all that breathes, and does not breathe.

11. Prana is death, Prana is fever. The gods worship Prana. Prana shall place the truth-speaker in the highest world

12. Prana is Virag (power, lustre), Prana is Deshtri (the divinity that guides): all worship Prana. Prana verily is sun and moon. They call Prana Pragapati.

13. Rice and barley are in-breathing and outbreathing. Prana is called a steer. In-breathing forsooth, is founded upon barley; rice is called out-breathing.

14. Man breathes out and breathes in when within the womb. When thou, O Prana, quickenest him, then is he born again.

15. They call Prana Matarisvan (the wind); Prana, forsooth, is called Vata (the wind). The past and the future, the all, verily is supported upon Prana.

16. The holy (atharvana) plants, the magic (angirasa) plants, the divine plants, and those produced by men, spring forth, when thou, O Prana, quickenest them.

17, When Prana has watered the great earth with rain, then the plants spring forth, and also every sort of herb.

18. Whoever, O Prana, knows this regarding thee, and (knows) on what thou art supported, to him all shall offer tribute in yonder highest world.

19. As all these creatures, O Prana, offer thee tribute, so they shall offer tribute (in yonder world) to him who hears thee, O far-famed one!

20. He moves as an embryo within the gods; having arrived, and being in existence, he is born again. Having arisen he enters with his mights the present and the future, as a father (goes to) his son.

21. When as a swan he rises from the water he does not withdraw his one foot. If in truth he were to withdraw it, there would be neither to-day, nor to-morrow, no night and no day, never would the dawn appear.

22. With eight wheels, and one felloe he moves, containing a thousand sounds (elements), upward in the east, downward in the west. With (his) half he produced the whole world: what is the visible sign of his (other) half?

23. He who rules over this (all) derived from every source, and over everything that movesreverence be to thee, O Prana, that wieldest a swift bow against others (the enemies)!

24. May Prana, who rules over this (all) derived from every source, and over everything that moves, (may he) unwearied, strong through the brahma, adhere to me!

25. Erect he watches in those that sleep, nor does lie lie down across. No one has heard of his sleeping in those that sleep.

26. O Prana, be not turned away from me, thou shalt not be other than myself! As the embryo of the waters (fire), thee, O Prana, do bind to me, that I may live.


IX, 2. Prayer to Kama (love), personified as a primordial power.

1. To the bull that slays the enemy, to Kama, do I render tribute with ghee, oblation, and (sacrificial) melted butter. Do thou, since thou hast been extolled, hurl down my enemies by thy great might!

2. The evil dream which is offensive to my mind and eye, which harasses and does not please me, that (dream) do I let loose upon my enemy. Having praised Kama may I prevail!

3,. Evil dreams, O Kama, and misfortune, O Kama, childlessness, ill-health, and trouble, do thou, a strong lord, let loose upon him that designs evil against us!

4. Drive them away, O Kama, thrust them away, O Kama; may they that are my enemies fall into trouble! When they have been driven into the nethermost darkness, do thou, O Agni, burn up their d welling- places!

5. That milch-cow, O Kama, whom the sages call Vak Virag (ruling, or resplendent speech), is said to be thy daughter; by her drive away my enemies; breath, cattle, and life shall give them a wide birth!

6. With the strength of Kama, Indra, king Varuna, and Vishnu, with the impelling force (savena) of Savitar, with the priestly power of Agni, do I drive forth the enemies, as a skilled steersman a boat.

7. My sturdy guardian, strong Kama, shall procure for me full freedom from enmity! May the gods collectively be my refuge, may all the gods respond to this, my invocation!

8. Taking pleasure in this (sacrificial) melted butter, and ghee do ye, (O gods), of whom Kama is the highest, be joyful in this place, procuring for me full freedom from enmity!

9. O Indra and Agni, and Kama, having formed an alliance, do ye hurl down my enemies; when they have fallen into the nethermost darkness, do thou, O Agni, burn up after them their dwelling places!

10. Slay thou, O Kama, those that are my enemies, hurl them down into blind darkness. Devoid of vigour, Without sap let them all be; they shall not live a single day!

11. Kama has slain those that are my enemies, a broad space has he furnished me to thrive in. May the four directions of space bow down to me, and the six broad (regions) carry ghee to me!

12. They (the enemies) shall float down like a boat cut loose from its moorings! There is no returning again for those who have been struck by our missiles.

13. Agni is a defence, Indra a defence, Soma a defence. May the gods, who by their defence ward off (the enemy), ward him off!

14. With his men reduced, driven out, the hated (enemy) shall go, shunned by his own friends! And down upon the earth do the lightnings alight; may the strong god crush your enemies!

15. This mighty lightning supports both moveable and immoveable things, as well as all thunders. May the rising sun by his resources and his majesty hurl down my enemies, lie the mighty one!

16. With that triple-armoured powerful covering of thine, O Kama, with the charm that has been made into an Invulnerate armour spread (over thee), with that do thou drive away those who are my enemies; may breath, cattle, and life give them a wide berth!

17. With the weapon with which the god drove forth the Asuras, with which Indra led the Dasyus to the nethermost darkness, with that do thou, O Kama, drive forth far away from this world those who are my enemies!

18. As the gods drove forth the Asuras, as Indra. forced the demons into the nethermost darkness, thus do thou, O Kama, drive forth far away from this world those who are my enemies!

19. Kama was born at first; him neither the gods, nor the Fathers, nor men have equalled. To these art thou superior, and ever great; to thee, O Kama, do I verily offer reverence.

20. As great as are the heavens and earth in extent, as far as the waters have swept, as far as fire; to these art thou superior, &c.

21. Great as are the directions (of space) and the intermediate direction on either side, great as are the regions and the vistas of the sky; to these art thou superior, &c.

22. As many bees, bats, kururu-worms, as many vaghas and tree-serpents as there are; to these art thou superior, &c.

23. Superior art thou to all that winks (lives), superior to all that stands still (is not alive), superior to the ocean art thou, O Kama, Manyu! To these art thou superior, &c.

24. Not, surely, does the wind equal Kama, not the fire, not the sun, and not the moon. To these art thou superior, &c.

25. With those auspicious and gracious forms of thine, O Kama, through which what thou wilst becometh reaL with these do thou enter into us, and elsewhere send the evil thoughts!


XIX, 53. Prayer to Kala (time), personified as a primordial power.

1. Time, the steed, runs with seven reins (rays), thousand-eyed, ageless, rich in seed. The seers, thinking holy thoughts, mount him, all the beings (worlds) are his wheels.

2. With seven wheels does this Time ride, seven naves has he, immortality is his axle. He carries hither all these beings (worlds). Time, the first god, now hastens onward.

3. A full jar has been placed upon Time; him, verily, we see existing in many forms. He carries away all these beings (worlds); they call him Time in the highest heaven.

4. He surely did bring hither all the beings (worlds), he surely did encompass all the beings (worlds). Being their father, he became their son; there is, verily, no other force, higher than he.

5. Time begot yonder heaven, Time also (begot) these earths. That which was, and that which shall be, urged forth by Time, spreads out.

6. Time created the earth, in Time the sun burns. In Time are all beings, in Time the eye looks abroad.

7. In Time mind is fixed, in Time breath (is fixed), in Time names (are fixed); when Time has arrived all these creatures rejoice.

8. In Time tapas (creative fervour) is fixed; in Time the highest (being is fixed); in Time brahma (spiritual exaltation) is fixed; Time is the lord of everything, he was the father of Pragapati.

9. By him this (universe) was urged forth, by him it was begotten, and upon him this (universe) was founded. Time, truly, having become the brahma (spiritual exaltation), supports Parameshthin (the highest lord).

10. Time created the creatures (pragah), and Time in the beginning (created) the lord of creatures (Pragapati); the self-existing Kasyapa and the tapas (creative fervour) from Time were born.


XIX, 54. Prayer to Kala (time), personified as a primordial power.

1. From Time the waters did arise, from Time the brahma (spiritual exaltation), the tapas (creative fervour), the regions (of space did arise). Through Time the sun rises, in Time he goes down again.

2. Through Time the wind blows, through Time (exists) the great earth; the great sky is fixed in Time. In Time the son (Pragapati) begot of yore that which was, and that which shall be.

3. From Time the Riks arose, the Yagus was born from Time; Time put forth the sacrifice, the imperishable share of the gods.

4. Upon Time the Gandharvas and Apsarases are founded, upon Time the worlds (are founded), in Time this Angiras and Atharvan rule over the heavens.

5. Having conquered this world and the highest world, and the holy (pure) worlds (and) their holy divisions; having