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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Taittiriya Upanishad > Part One On Siksha or Pronunciation

Part One

On Siksha or Pronunciation

Chapter I - Invocation

Harih Om May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu, of wide strides, be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee, O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. Thee indeed I shall proclaim as the visible Brahman. Thee indeed, O Vayu, I shall proclaim as the right. Thee indeed I shall proclaim as the true. May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

Chapter II - Lesson on Pronunciation

Om. We will expound siksha, or the science of pronunciation. It deals with sound, pitch, quantity, force, modulation and combination. Thus is explained the lesson on pronunciation.

Chapter III - Meditation on the Combinations

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May glory come on both of us together! May the light of Brahman shine alike through both of us! Now we will explain the Upanishad on the Samhita (combinations) under five heads: with regards to the worlds, the heavenly lights, knowledge, progeny and the atman (body). People call these the great Samhitas. First, with regard to the worlds: The earth is the first form, heaven is the last from, the akasa is the union and the air is the medium. Thus with regard to the worlds.

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Next, with regard to the heavenly lights: Fire is the first form, the sun is the second form, water is the union and lightning is the medium. Thus with regard to the heavenly lights.

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Next, with regard to knowledge: The teacher is the first form, the pupil is the second form, knowledge is the union and the recitation is the medium. Thus with regard to knowledge.

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Next, with regard to progeny: The mother is the first form, the father is the second form, the progeny is the union and procreation is the medium. Thus with regard to the progeny.

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Next, with regard to atman: The lower jaw is the first form, the upper jaw is the second form, the speech is the union and the tongue is the medium. Thus with regard to the atman.

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There are the great Samhitas. He who meditates on these Samhitas, as here explained, becomes united with progeny, cattle, the light of Brahman, food and the heavenly world.

Chapter IV - Prayer for Wisdom and Fortune

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May He who is the bull of the Vedic hymns, who assumes all forms, who has sprung from the immortal hymns of the Vedas-may that that Indra cheer me with wisdom. O God, may I be the possessor of immortality!

May my body be competent; may my tongue be exceedingly sweet; may I hear abundantly with my ears. Thou art the sheath of Brahman, concealed by intelligence. Guard for me what I have learnt.

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Om. Next bring me, without delay, fortune accompanied by wool and cattle-fortune which always provides me with clothes and cattle, food and drink. Increase them when they have been acquired and preserve them long when increased. Svaha!

May brahmacharins come to me variously! Svaha!

May brahmacharins come to me!. Svaha!

May brahmacharins practise self-control! Svaha!

May brahmacharins enjoy peace! Svaha!

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May I become famous among men! Svaha!

May I become richer than the rich! Svaha!

O gracious Lord, may I enter into Thee! Svaha!

May Thou, O gracious Lord, enter into me! Svaha!

O Lord, I am cleansing my sins in that Self of Thine, which is like a river of a thousand branches. Svaha!

O Preserver, as waters flow downward, as the months erge in the year, so may brahmacharins come to me from all directions! Svaha!

Thou art a refuge. To me do Thou shine forth. Accept me unto Thyself completely.

Chapter V - Four Mystical Utterances

Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah-these are, verily, the three utterances. Besides these there is a forth, called Mahwah, which became known to the son of Mahachamasa. That is Brahman, that is the Self. The other gods are its limbs.

Bhuh is, verily, this world; Bhuvah, the mid-region; Suvah, the world yonder; Mahah, the sun. Through the sun, indeed, do all the worlds become great.

Bhuh is, verily, fire; Bhuvah, the air; Suvah, the sun; Mahah, the moon. By the moon, indeed, do all the heavenly lights become great.

Bhuh is, verily, the Rik-verses; Bhuvah, the Saman; Suvah, the Yajus; Mahah, Brahman. By Brahman, indeed, do all the Vedas become great.

Bhuh is, verily, the prana, Bhuvah, the apana; Suvah, the vyana; Mahah, food. By food, indeed, do all the breaths become great.

They, these four, become fourfold. Four and four are the vyahritis. He who knows these knows Brahman. All the gods bring offerings to him.

Chapter VI - Meditation on Saguna Brahman

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There is a space within the heart; in it lies the Person consisting of mind, immortal and luminous.

The Sushumna passes through the piece of flesh which hangs down like a nipple between the two palates and ends where the skull splits and the roots of hair lie apart. That Sushumna is the path for the realisation of Indra. The souls of the aspirants, passing through the Sushumna, rests in fire, represented by the vyahriti Bhuh; the rests in the air, represented by the vyahriti Bhuvah.

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He rests in the sun, represented by the vyahriti Suvah; he rests in Brahman, represented by the vyahriti Mahah.

He attains self-rule. He attains the lordship of the mind; he attains the lordship of speech; he attains the lordship of sight; he attains the lordship of hearing; he attains the lordship of intelligence. Furthermore, he becomes this-he becomes Brahman, whose body is space, whose nature is true, who delights in life and rejoices in the mid, who abounds in peace, who is immortal.

Thus do thou, O Prachinayogya, contemplate.

Chapter VII - Meditation on the Fivefold Nature and Individual

Earth, the mid-region, heaven, the quarters and the intermediate quarters. Agni (fire), Vayu (air), Aditya (sun), Chandrama (moon) and the Nakshatras (stars). Water, herbs, tree, space and the body. So much with reference to material objects.

Now with reference to the body: The prana, vyana, apana, udana and samana; the eye, the ear, the mind speech and touch; the skin, flesh, muscle, bone and marrow.

Having thus ordained, a rishi said: "Whatever exists is fivefold." Through the fivefold one becomes united with the fivefold material object.

Chapter VIII - Meditation on Om

On is Brahman. Om is all this. This syllable Om is used to indicate compliance. When they are told: "Om, recite," they recite. Uttering Om, they sing the Saman chants. With "Om, Som," they recite the prayers. Uttering Om, the adhvaryu priest gives the response. Uttering Om, the Brahma gives assent. Uttering Om, gives permission to offer oblations in the Agnihotra sacrifice. When a Vedic teacher wishes to obtain Brahman he utters Om; thus desiring Brahman, he verily obtains Brahman.

Chapter IX - Disciplines

The disciplines are rightness and also the learning and teaching; truth and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; austerity and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; self-control and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; tranquillity and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; the kindling of sacrificial fires and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; the performance of the Agnihotra sacrifice and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; hospitality to guests and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; the perfromance of social duties and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; procreation and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas; propagation of the race and also the learning and teaching of the Vedas.

Differing views on the subject: Truth alone, according to Satyvachas of the line of Rathitara, should be practised; austerity alone, according to Taponitya the son of Purusishti; according to Naka the son of Mudgalya, the learning and teaching of the Vedas alone, for that is austerity.

Chapter X - A Mantra for Daily Meditation

I am the mover of the tree of the universe. My fame rises high, like a mountain peak. My root is the Supremely Pure Brahman. I am the unstained essence of the Self, like the nectar of immortality that resides in the sun. I am the brightest treasure. I am the shinning wisdom. I am immortal and undecaying.

Thus did Trisanku proclaim after the attainment of the Knowledge of the Self of the Self.

Chapter XI - Exhortation to the Departing Student

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Having taught the Vedas, the teacher thus instructs the pupil:

Speak the truth. Practise dharma. Do not neglect the study of the Vedas. Having brought to the teacher the gift desired by him, enter the householder's life and see that the line of progeny is not cut off. Do not swerve from the truth. Do not swerve from dharma. Do not neglect personal welfare. Do not neglect prosperity. Do not neglect the study and teaching of the Vedas.

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Do not neglect your duties to the gods and the Manes. Treat your mother as God. Treat your father as God. Treat your teacher as God. Treat your guest as God. Whatever deeds are faultless, these are to be performed-not others. Whatever good works have been performed by us, those should be performed by you-not others.

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Those brahmins who are superior to us-you should comfort them by giving them seats.

Whatever is to be given should be given with faith, not without faith-according to one's plenty, with modesty, with fear, with sympathy.

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Now, if there arises in your mind any doubt concerning any act, or any doubt concerning conduct, you should conduct yourself in such matters as brahmins would conduct themselves-brahmins who are competent to judge, who of their own accord are devoted to good deed and are not urged to their performance by others, and who are not too severe, but are lovers of dharma.

Now, with regards to persons spoken against, you should conduct yourself in such a way as brahmins would conduct themselves-brahmins who are competent to judge, who of their own accord are devoted to good deeds and are not urged to their performance by others, and who are not too severe, but are lovers of dharma.

This is the rule. This is the teaching. This is the secret wisdom of the Vedas. This is the command of God.

This you should observe. This alone should be observed.

Chapter XII - The Peace Chant

May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu, of wide strides, be propitious unto us!

Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee, O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. Thee indeed I proclaimed as the visible Brahman. I proclaimed the right. I proclaimed the true.

That protected me. That protected the teacher. Ay, that protected me, that protected the teacher.

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!