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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Sri Svetasvatara Upanisad > Chapter 5

Chapter 5

 

 

Text 1

 

 

dve aksare brahma-pare tv anante

     vidyavidye nihite yatra gudhe

ksaras tv avidya hy amrtam tu vidya

     vidyavidye isate yas tu so 'nyah

 

     dve-two; aksare-in the imperishable; brahma-pare-above the demigod Brahma; tu-also; anante-unlimited; vidya- knowledge; avidya-and ignorance; nihite-situated; yatra-where; gudhe-hidden; ksarah-the fluctuating material energy; tu-and; avidya-is ignorance; hi-certainly; amrtam-immortality; tu- also; vidya-is knowledge; vidya-knowledge; avidye-and ignorance; isate-controls; yah-He who; tu-but; sah-He; anyah-another.

 

 

     Both knowledge and ignorance rest in the limitless, eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead. Ignorance is death, but knowledge is immortality. He rules knowledge and ignorance although He is beyond them both.

 

 

Text 2

 

 

yo yonim yonim adhitisthaty eko

     visvani rupani yonis ca sarvah

rsim prasutam kapilam yas tam agre

     jnanair bibharti jayamanam ca pasyet

 

     yah-who; yonim yonim-in all species of life; adhitisthati-is situated (as the Supersoul); ekah-one without a second; visvani-all; rupani-forms; yonih-species; ca-also; sarvah- all; rsim-learned; prasutam-born; kapilam-Brahma; yah-who; tam-Him; agre-at the beginning of the creation; jnanaih-with knowledge; bibharti-maintains; jayamanam-being born; ca-also; pasyet-sees.

 

 

     He alone rules all species, forms, and universes. In the beginning He fathered the demigod Brahma with a glance and taught Him the truth.

 

 

Text 3

 

 

ekaikam jalam bahudha vikurvann

     asmin ksetre samharaty esa devah

bhuyah srstva patayas tathesah

     sarvadhipatyam kurute mahatma

 

     eka-ekakm-one after another; jalam-network; bahudha- variegated; vikurvan-creating; asmin-in this; ksetre-material world; samharati-withdraws; esah-He; devah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhuyah-again; srstva-creating; patayah-the controllers of the universe; tatha-in the same way; isah- the Supreme Controller; sarva-over everything; adhipatyam- sovereignty; kurute-manifests; maha-atma-the Supreme Person.

 

 

     Spreading His net everywhere, the Supreme Personality of Godhead retracts the material world. Then again The Supreme Personality of Godhead creates the demigods. The Supreme Personality of Godhead rules all.

 

 

Text 4

 

 

sarva disa urdhvam adhas ca tiryak

     prakasayan bhrajate yad v anadvan

evam sa devo bhagavan varenyo

     yoni-svabhavan adhitisthaty ekah

 

     sarvah-in all; disah-directions; urdhvam-above; adhah- below; ca-also; tiryak-on all sides; prakasayan-lighting; bhrajate-shines; yat-just as; u-certainly; anadvan-the sun; evam-in the same way; sah-He; devah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhagavan-full of all powers and opulences; varenyah- supremely worshippable; yoni-svabhavan-the entire universe; adhitisthati-creates and controls; ekah-one without a second.

 

 

     As the sun shines in all directions: above, below, and across, so the glorious Supreme Personality of Godhead rules all creatures.

 

 

Text 5

 

 

yac ca svabhavam pacati visva-yonih

     pacyams ca sarvan parinamayed yah

sarvam etad visvam adhitisthaty eko

     gunams ca sarvan viniyojayed yah

 

     yat-who; ca-also; svabhavam-the natures of the various material elements; pacati-develops; visva-of the universes; yonih-creator; pacyan-developed; ca-also; sarvan-all of them; parinamayet-transforms; yah-who; sarvam-all; etat-this; visvam-universe; adhitisthati-creates and controls; ekah-one without a second; gunan-the three modes of material nature; ca- also; sarvan-all; viniyojayer-controls; yah-who.

 

 

     He creates the worlds. He develops and transforms the creation. He alone rules all the world. He controls the modes of nature.

 

 

Text 6

 

 

tad veda-guhyopanisatsu gudham

     tad brahma vedate brahma-yonim

ye purva-deva rsayas ca tad vidus

     te tan-maya amrta vai babhuvuh

 

     tat-Him; veda-in the Vedas; guhya-the confidential parts; upanisatsu-in the Upanisads; gudham-hidden; tat-Him; brahma-the demigod Brahma; vedate-knows; brahma-of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, and of the Vedic literatures; yonim-the origin; ye-those who; purva-devah-Lord Siva and the other primal demigods; rsayah-the great sages; ca-also; tat- Him; viduh-know; te-they; tat-mayah-devoted to the Supreme Lord; amrtah-free from the cycle of birth and death; vai- certainly; babhuvuh-became.

 

 

     Knowing Him, who is the author of the Vedas, who is hidden in the Vedas and Upanisads, and whom the demigod Brahma also knows, the great demigods and sages became immortal.

 

 

Text 7

 

 

gunanvayo yah phala-karma-karta

     krtasya tasyaiva sa copabhokta

sa visva-rupas tri-gunas tri-vartma

     pranadhipah sancarati sva-karmabhih

 

     guna-anvayah-bewildered by the three modes of material nature; yah-who; phala-karma-karta-engaged in fruitive actions; krtasya-performed; tasya-of that; eva-certainly; sah-he; upabhokta-is the enjoyer; sah-he; visva-rupah-taking birth in various species of life; tri-gunah-impelled by the three modes of nature; tri-vartma-travelling on three paths (sin, piety, and knowledge); prana-of the Life breath; adhipah-the controller; sancarati-wanders; sva-karmabhih-impelled by the reactions of his fruitive actions.

 

 

     Bewildered by the modes of nature, the conditioned soul performs fruitive acts and then experiences their results. Bewildered by the modes, he accepts different forms, by his karma traveling here and there on the paths of sin, piety, and transcendental knowledge.

 

 

Text 8

 

 

angustha-matro ravi-tulya-rupah

     sankalpahankara-samanvito yah

buddher gunenatma-gunena caiva

     aragra-matro hy aparo 'pi drstah

 

     angustha-of the thumb; matrah-the size; ravi-with the sun; tulyah-equality; rupah-form; sankalpa-desire; ahankara- and false ego; samanvitah-endowed with; yah-who; buddheh-of the intelligence; gunena-by the quality; atma-of the material body; gunena-by the quality; ca-also; eva-certainly; ara-agra-a tiny point; matrah-the measurement; hi-certainly; aparah- different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; api-also; drstah-seen.

 

 

     The conditioned soul is small as a thumb, splendid as the sun, and filled with false-ego and material desire. Different from Him is the Supersoul, whose form is also very small, but who is filled with intelligence and spiritual knowledge.

 

 

Text 9

 

 

balagra-sata-bhagasya

     satadha kalpitasya ca

bhago jivah sa vijneya

     sa canantyaya kalpate

 

     bala-agra-the tip of a hair; sata-bhagasya-of one hundredth; sata-dha-into one hundred parts; kalpitasya- divided; ca-and; bhagah-minute portion; jivah-the living entity; sah-that; vijneyah-to be understood; sah-he; ca- and; anantyaya-for liberation; kalpate-is fit.

 

 

     If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. Although encased within the temporary material body, the tiny soul may one day qualify itself to become liberated and return to the eternal spiritual world.*

 

 

Text 10

 

 

naiva stri puman esa

     na caivayam napumsakah

yad yac chariram adatte

     tena tena sa raksyate

 

     na-not; eva-certainly; stri-woman; na-nor; puman-man; esah-he; na-nor; ca-also; eva-certainly; ayam-he; napumsakah-nueter; yat yat-whatever; sariram-body; adatte-he accepts; tena tena-by that body; sah raksyate-he is designated.

 

 

     The individual spirit soul is not female. It is not male. It is not neuter. These designations arise only from the various material bodies the soul accepts.

 

 

Text 11

 

 

sankalpana-sparsana-drsti-mohair

     grasambu-vrstya catma-vivrddhi-janma

karmanugany anukramena dehi

     sthanesu rupany abhisamprapadyate

 

     sankalpana-desire; sparsana-contact of the senses with the sense-objects; drsti-experiences the pleasant and unpleasant results; mohaih-by bewilderment; grasa-food; ambhu-by water; vrstya-by rain; ca-also; atma-of the body; vivrddhi- development; janma-birth; karma-anugani-according to his actions; anukramena-by travel; dehi-the embodied conditioned soul; sthanesu-in various positions within the material world; rupani-various forms; abhisamprapadyate-attains.

 

 

     With the illusions of lusty glances and touches, and with a rain of food and drink, the conditioned soul nourishes his next birth. According to his deeds he attains different bodies in different conditions of life.

 

 

Text 12

 

 

sthulani suksmani bahuni caiva

     rupani dehi sva-gunair vrnoti

kriya-gunair atma-gunais ca tesam

     samyoga-hetur aparo 'pi drstah

 

     sthulani-large; suksmani-and small; bahuni-many; ca- also; eva-certainly; rupani-forms; dehi-the embodied spirit soul; sva-gunaih-by his desires; vrnoti-accepts; kriya-gunaih- by the results of his actions; atma-gunaih-by his thoughts and conceptions of Life; ca-also; tesam-of them; samyoga-hetuh-the reasons; aparah-not the Supreme; api-even; drstah-is observed.

 

 

     According to his own merit the conditioned soul accepts many different bodies, both large and small. According to his deeds and character he is linked to different bodies. Thus it is seen he is different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Text 13

 

 

anady-anantam kalilasya madhye

     visvasya srastaram aneka-rupam

visvasyaikam parivestitaram

     jnatva devam mucyate sarva-pasaih

 

     anandi-without beginning; anantam-without end; kalilasya- of the material creation; madhye-in the midst; visvasya-of the universe; srastaram-the creator; aneka-in many; rupam-forms; visvasya-of the universe; ekam-one without a second; parivestitaram-all-prevading; jnatva-having understood; devam- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mucyate-one becomes liberated; sarva-pasaih-from all the bonds of material existance.

 

 

     By knowing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has no beginning and no end, who has many forms, who created the universe, and who is present everywhere in the universe, one becomes free of all bondage.

 

 

Text 14

 

 

bhava-grahyam anidakhyam

     bhavabhava-karam sivam

kala-sarga-karam devam

     ye vidus te jahus tanum

 

     bhava-by pure devotional service; grahyam-attainable; anida-akhyam-whose form is not material; bhava-of creation; abhava-and anihillation; karam-the cause; sivam-auspicious; kala-sarga-karam-the creator of the ingredients of the material manifestations; devam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ye- those who; viduh-understand; te-they; jahuh-give up; tanum- the material body.

 

 

     By knowing the auspicious Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is attained only by love, who is not material, who is the creator and destroyer of the worlds, and who is the creator of time, the individual souls become free from having to accept another material body.